Note: This material was scanned into text files for the sole purpose of
convenient electronic research. This material is NOT intended as a
reproduction of the original volumes. However close the material is to
becoming a reproduced work, it should ONLY be regarded as a textual
Whatever copyrights might possibly exist, this
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Scanned at Phoenixmasonry by Ralph W. Omholt, PM in June 2007.
General History of the
Order of the Eastern Star
BY WILLIS D. ENGLE
A GENERAL HISTORY
ORDER OF THE EASTERN
REV. WILLIS D. ENGLE
Past Grand Patron of Indiana, and first Right
Worthy Grand Secretary
of the General Grand Chapter of the Order
Willis D. Engle, Publisher
This History of the Order of the Eastern Star
By the author to his co‑laborers in the early
days of the Order, whose
eyes have seen the crowning of their labors;
and to the memory
of those faithful ones among them who have
to the larger life, and entered upon rest nobly
the first to enter an unexplored field, and attempt to map out before the
understanding of one's readers its various characteristics; to delve below the
soil and thus endeavor to discover the hidden sources from which has sprung
that which appears upon the surface; and thus to add to the store of
knowledge, is no easy task, and requires patient, persevering labor. Although
the writer of this book has been an active worker in the Order of the Eastern
Star for twenty‑eight years, and during all that time has been a diligent
gatherer of material and facts concerning it, and has, by the favor of his
fellow‑members been placed in positions of trust and responsibility, which
have given him rare opportunities to learn much of the workings of the order,
yet he had no idea, when he undertook the production of this history, how
great the task would prove, for he has undertaken to be doubly sure of the
facts stated and has spent days in running down some particular item that,
perhaps, when secured, would not add a dozen lines to the work. That it is
perfect, and that every essential fact that it is possible to ascertain in
regard to the order is contained in it, he would not pretend to say; but he
does say that he has made an honest effort in that direction flow far he has
succeeded perhaps time only can demonstrate. Although there have been brief
historical sketches of the order written, they have been produced generally
for a purpose other than a simple development of the truth, and
writer knows of none, however brief, that has not contained more or less
inaccurate statements, even as his may be found to do, but none have been
knowingly made, and he has tried to present every fact in an unbiased manner.
That his book will meet with favorable criticism, he hopes; that it will also
receive some unfavorable comment, he expects. If he succeeds in adding
something to the common stock of knowledge and understanding, and in rescuing
some facts from being lost, and is privileged to be an instrument in adding a
little to the glory and luster of the order, he will be satisfied. In the
history it will be found that while he has made no direct quotations from the
present authorized ritual, with one or two minor exceptions, he has quoted,
sometimes quite copiously, from rituals that are now obsolete, but in doing so
he has carefully avoided incorporating therein anything that might throw any
light upon what is the real secret work of the order, and in this respect he
believes his work will be found to compare favorably with the Masonic
encyclopedias. He has endeavored, at the same time, to convey to the
enlightened reader as full knowledge of the subject in hand as was possible
with these limitations. Many months of continuous labor have been bestowed
upon it, and as he indites these words as his task is drawing to a close, it
is with the desire that his readers will consider how hard it is for one to
write unbiasedly of his own times, and of events in which lie has been an
active participant, so that if the fiat person singular is sometimes
singularly prominent, it is simply because a full recital of essential facts
rendered it necessary, as he, has no desire to use both ends of the trumpet of
fame. He would be singularly remiss if he did not express his deep sense of
obligation to the many brothers and
sisters who have given him material assistance in se‑curing information that
has helped to make the work both valuable and interesting; and he would also
give expression to his sense of obligation to those more numerous sisters and
brothers who have so generously confided in his ability to create a work
worthy of their encouragement, and have manifested that confidence by
subscribing in advance of its production, and thus rendered its publication
possible. He trusts that none of them will be disappointed in its perusal, and
that they will by kindly words, en‑courage, others to purchase it, that he may
receive at least some return for his months of labor. He will be grateful,
also, to any one who may be able to add any facts concerning the order that
will be of interest, that can be used in a second edition of the work. He will
always be glad to know of any copies of old rituals that can be purchased, and
he will also be pleased to supply to his fellow Eastern Star bibliomaniacs
copies of any rituals of which he may have duplicates.
will be noticed that in this work the Eastern Star degrees are sometimes
spoken of in the singular, and sometimes in the plural. This will be
understood when it is stated that when the secrets were given by communication
the singular number was used in the early days, but when given in
constellations or Chapters, they were spoken of in the plural, and I have
followed this custom.
WILLIS D. ENGLE.
Indianapolis, Ind., February 9, 1901.
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Chapter 176, Washington.
History of the Eastern Star,"
e'er its wandering children are;
to those who hailed its birth
toilsome struggle 'mid the dearth
cheering words, or sunny ways;
tell to those of later days
great the triumph it has met
they forget - lest they forget.
gladly forth, and may thy pages
Suffice to keep for future ages
record of the care and strength
nursed and fostered, till at length
Order of the Eastern Star
known and loved the world afar.
naught set down in malice vile,
unkind facts wear friendship's smile,
though our order had its battle,
grown above war's din and rattle,
charity's broad mantle red
cast about those days, instead.
those who labored, loved, and - fought,
guerdon was not dearly bought,
our great order moves to‑day
Untrammelled in its upward way.
those who helped with heart and hand
make this true; that knightly band;
women brave; we ask the fame
often grudged each early name.
easy task for woman lone
stand as target; many a stone
hurled 'gainst such whose word and deed
in our order's hour of need.
They're now forgotten, yet that hour
birth to all its present power.
in these days of proud progress,
not those of storm and stress,
Encourage the same zeal and truth
marked our order in its youth,
let the future years reveal
same desire for its best weal;
shall its record grow and blaze
the refulgence of its rays,
earth, illumined, near and far
Reflects the light of Bethlehem's star!
ADDIE C. STRONG ENGLE.
EMBRACING A FULL ACCOUNT OF ALL RITUALS
PRINTED FOR THE USE OF THE ORDER SINCE.
INCEPTION, WITH A SYSTEMATIC
PRESENTATION AND COMPARISON OF ITS
SYMBOLIC AND EMBLEMATIC TEACHINGS;
HISTORY OF ITS GOVERNING BODIES,
TOGETHER \WITH ITS LAWS AND CUSTOMS.
CONTAINING, ALSO, FULL NOTICES OF ALL
DEGREES AND OTHER CEREMONIES
PUBLISHED FOR THE USE OF THE ORDER,
OTHER PERTINENT PUBLICATIONS.
ORIGIN OF THE ORDER.
organization would hardly be entitled to the designation Masonic whose origin
was not shrouded in mystery, and in this respect the Order of the Eastern Star
is the peer of any of the branches of Masonry. We know that androgynous
Masonry (so named from two Greek words signifying "man" and "woman,") was
established in France in 1730, under the name of Adoptive Masonry, and that
its Lodges were called adoptive Lodges. These flourished and gained steadily
in both numbers and influence until, in 1774 the Grand Orient of France
established the Rite of Adoption, and set forth rules and regulations for its
government. Among other requirements was one that each Lodge should be placed
under the charge and held under the sanction and warrant of some regularly
constituted Masonic Lodge, whose master, or his deputy should be the presiding
officer, assisted by a woman president or mistress. We are unable to learn
whether the ritual used from 1730 was continued in use, or a new one adopted.
It is probable that the earlier ritual at least furnished the basis for the
later work, which consisted of four degrees, viz.: The first, or apprentice
degree was introductory in its character, in which the candidate was pre‑pared
to appreciate the emblematic lessons inculcated in the degrees that were to
second, or companion degree represented emblematically, in its ceremony of
THE ORIGIN OF THE ORDER.
temptation in Eden, and, in the lecture, or catechism (of which there was one
to each degree), the candidate was reminded of the unhappy results of woman's
first sin, culminating in the universal deluge.
third, or mistress degree was based upon the legend of the building of Babel's
tower, the confusion of tongues, and the dispersion of the human race. This
was made to symbolize a badly regulated Lodge, in which disorder and confusion
reigned, while the ladder of Jacob was introduced to represent the various
virtues which a Mason should possess, and the concord and obedience that
should exist in a well regulated Lodge.
fourth, or perfect mistress degree was founded upon the passage of the
children of Israel through the wilderness, which was made to symbolize the
passage of men and women through this to another and better world, and the
officers represented Moses, Aaron, and other characters in that history.
is no evidence, so far as, known, that the French rite ever obtained in this
country. A French edition of its ritual, under the title: "La Vraire
Maconnerie D'Adoption," (144 pp.) was printed in Philadelphia in 1768; a
Spanish translation was printed in Havana in 1822, and, about 1874, Albert
Pike published an English translation of it, revised and amplified, but
efforts to establish Lodges proved entire failures, the ritual being
altogether too lengthy and sombrous to command success.
side degrees to be conferred upon women in an informal manner, in the form of
lectures, seemed to be in demand, and the demand was supplied. Under the title
of "Ladies' Masonry," William Leigh, Past Grand Master of Alabama, in 1851 set
forth the degree of the "Holy Virgin," and the de‑
ORIGIN OF THE ORDER.
of the "Heroine of Jericho." In 1866, under the title of the "Ladies' Friend,"
G. W. Brown, of Michigan, published the "Eastern Star," "Mason's Daughter,"
"Kindred Degree," "Good Samaritan," and "Heroines of Jericho." Other degrees
bore the titles of "Ark and Dove." "Maids of Jerusalem," "Sweet Brier,"
"Daughter of Zion," "Daughters of Zelophadad," "Daughters of Bethlehem,"
"Cross and Crown," and "Lady of the Cross." Of the origin of these degrees
little is known. The Heroines of Jericho is said to be the oldest of them all,
and to have been the production of David Vinton, of Rhode Island. While these
other degrees are somewhat analogous to the Eastern Star, it is not the design
of the writer to attempt to set forth their various peculiarities, but to
confine his history to the Eastern Star.
confidence could be placed in certain statements of Rob Morris, whose labors
in bringing the order into prominence exceed those of any other person, we
could easily ascertain the truth as to its origin. But these statements are
made without corroborative proof, and have been contradicted by the brother
himself. In A Monument of Gratitude (1884), brother Morris said:
writers have fallen into the error of placing the introduction of the Eastern
Star as far back as 1775, and this they gather from my work, "Lights and
Shadows of FreeMasonry," published in 1852. What I intended to say in that
book was, that the French officers introduced adoptive Masonry into the
colonies in 1775, but nothing like the degree called the Eastern Star, which
is strictly my own origination. By the aid of my papers, and the memory of
Mrs. Morris, I recall even the trivial occurrences connected with the work,
how I hesitated for a theme, how I dallied over a name, how I wrought face to
face with the clock that I might keep may drama within due limits of time,
etc. The name was first settled upon,
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THE ORIGIN OF THE ORDER.
Eastern Star. Next the number of points, five, to correspond with the emblem
on the masters' carpet. This is the pentagon, "the signet of King Solomon,"
and eminently proper to adoptive Masonry.”
brother Morris did say in "Lights and Shadows," was in part as follows:
five androgynous degrees, combined under the above title (The Eastern Star
Degrees), are supposed to have been introduced into this country by the French
officers who assisted our government during the struggle for
liberty. The titles, Jephthah's Daughter, Ruth, Esther, Martha, and Electa,
sufficiently denote the histories comprehended in the degrees.
* The following extracts from the published ritual, translated into English,
are in point: "The Sisterhood of the Eastern Star is manifest, to the world by
its adoring virtues - five. Honor in bright loneliness is the sanctity and
moral guarantee of all the obligations of the Eastern Star. This is read by
the enlightened in the cabalistic motto of the order. Upon that foundation
(honor) stands the following pillars: - to be true; to be aiding; to be
counseling; to be loving; to be secret; to be the servant of Jesus Christ.
Sweet in its fragrance is the memory of the worthy dead. It comes up from the
recollection of happy hours passed in their companionship; it comes down in
faith's joyful anticipations of reunion in the home of the Savior. The members
of the Eastern Star will follow to the grave's brink the forms of those who
have preceded them to a world of glory. * * *
following verses are offered by the writer as an humble testimonial of
gratitude to those who kindly instructed him in the mysteries of these
Whether this can be explained as meaning what brother Morris said he intended
to say I leave to my readers to judge. It will be noted that he makes an
extract, translated into English, from a ritual, which was, presumably from
his previous statement,
ORIGIN OF THE ORDER.
French language, and it is certain that the quotation is not embodied in any
ritual now known to exist, except that in the Thesauros there appears to be a
reference to, and amplification of a portion of it.
open letter, dated Lagrange, Ky., October 2, 1877, brother Morris said:
justified in speaking on this subject. I wrote every word of the original
lectures, and composed the songs. For twenty‑eight years I have been
communicating it as my own origination. I am the founder of the system, and no
one can show any proofs of its existence prior to 1849.”
yet brother Morris, in the Voice of Masonry, May, 1862, said:
first regular course of lectures was given in November, 1850, at Colliersville,
Tennessee. * *
Colliersville, likewise, I conferred the degrees of the Eastern Star and Good
Samaritan. Both of these I had received some years before, the latter by
brother Stevens, the same who presided at my passing and raising. The
restrictions under which the Eastern Star was communicated to me were "that it
should only be given to master Masons, their wives, widows, sisters and
daughters, and only when five or more ladies of the classes named were
present;" these rules I have always adhered to.”
first ritual published under the auspices of brother Morris, The Mosaic Book,
1855, it is stated:
selecting some androgynous degree, extensively known, ancient in date, and
ample in scope, for the basis of this rite, the choice falls, without
controversy, upon the Eastern Star. For this is a degree, familiar to
thousands of the most enlightened York Masons and their female relatives;
established in this country at least before 1778; and one which popularly
bears the palm in point of doctrine and elegance over all others. Its scope,
by the addition of a ceremonial and a few links in the chain of recognition,
was broad enough to constitute a graceful and consistent system,
THE ORIGIN OF THE ORDER.
worthy, it is believed, of the best intellect of either sex.”
Macoy Manual, 1866, it is stated that
Order of the Eastern Star was established in this country during the year
this statement is repeated in Adoptive Rite, 1868, but in the Macoy Ritual,
1876, it is changed to read:
"during the year 1850."
Adoptive Rite appears the following note:
O., Anno Ordinis - Year of the Order. To find this date subtract 1778 from the
present year." In "The Adopted Mason, the organ of the American Adoptive
Rite," (August, 1855,) of which brother Morris was M. E. Grand Luminary, it is
seek to effect our purpose by adapting an ancient system to a modern use. The
degree upon which the American Adoptive Rite is built is very ancient, more so
by far than any other, save the York Rite, and one that carries on its very
face indubitable marks of antiquity. It exhibits all the furrows of age. Its
voice, solemn and impressive, comes up like the deep tones of the veteran,
who, from the treasures of four score, enriches the lap of youth.”
Adopted Mason of January, 1856, it is stated:
Heroine of Jericho, which is so strangely made a standard of adoption, is in
itself the offspring of the present century, and one of the youngest of the
androgynous degrees; while the five degrees of the Eastern Star, the basis of
the American Adoptive Rite, exhibit internal evidences of great age, and they
were always considered the property of master masons, their wives, sisters and
fact is that brother Morris received the Eastern Star degree at the hands of
Giles M. Hillyer, of Vicksburg, Mississippi, about 1849.
recognizing the abilities and labors of
ORIGIN OF THE ORDER.
brother Morris in the various branches of Masonry and more particularly in the
Eastern Star, and his many noble qualities, it must be acknowledged that, as
to the history of the order his evidence is too conflicting to be accepted as
conclusive, and we must turn to other sources of information, although they
may prove equally unsatisfactory.
could accept it for what, it at first appears to be, "The Thesauros of the
Ancient and Honorable Order of the Eastern Star as collected and arranged by
the committee, and adopted by the Supreme Council in convocation, assembled
May, 1793," an octavo pamphlet of eighteen pages, the property of brother
Alonzo J. Burton, Past Grand Lecturer of New York, and the author of the
Floral Work, which purports to have been "Printed for the use of the fourth
division U. S. By order of the G. L. 1850," we would have conclusive evidence
of the existence of the order in this country in the eighteenth century. The
writer regrets that he has been unable to obtain a sight of this pamphlet,
although he has offered to make the trip from Indianapolis to New York for the
purpose of doing so, as, having seen it, he would be enabled to give
affirmative testimony. A reprint, no matter how carefully made, does not
enable even an expert to judge of its age or authenticity. The style of type;
quality and finish of the paper; the manner of binding; the arrangement of
matter on the pages; the spelling of words; and many other things would
reveal, to one experienced in that line, many points that another, not up in
such matters, might overlook. However, brother Burton has kindly furnished him
a carefully edited reprint of it. Of it, he says: "I copied the work myself,
not omitting a single word, nor even a punctuation mark." It purports to be
the fifth edition of the work, the first
THE, ORIGIN OF THE ORDER.
printed in 1793, the third in 1819, the fourth in 1845, and the fifth in 1817.
This pamphlet was purchased at a sale by Barker, 63 Bleeker street, New York,
November 15, 1896, and the writer freely admits that he knows of no motive
that would induce its publication for the purpose of deception merely, and
there are some internal evidences that would indicate that it may be will be
noted that on the Constellation and on the Book of Instructions, gloves, and
collar are mentioned as proper regalia to be worn by each lady.
point of the star in the seal and signet referred to also contains a five
pointed star to which no reference is made in any other ritual, while in the
Thesauros the stars are each referred to as representing something, and each
of the five classes of regalia has a significance. In the signet the name in
the first point is given as Jephthah's laughter, as in the Thesauros, although
in all the Morris rituals it is given as Adah. These variations between the
seal and signet and his rituals would seem to indicate that brother Morris, in
revising the authentic, e. g.: It seal of the Supreme Morris signet (vide
illustration, facing title), there are emblems between the points of the star,
but these emblems are not in any way referred to in any other ritual of the
order extant, except that in 1861, the apron,
ORIGIN OF THE ORDER.
ritual omitted some of the emblematical teachings, but did not omit the
emblems from the seal and signet.
other hand there are several things that would throw doubt upon the
authenticity of the Thesauros, e. g.: In it, extracts from the prefaces to the
first and third editions are inserted in the fifth. The first is dated Boston,
Mass., May 17, 1793, and is signed by John Mayhew, L. R. C. Jones, and Robert
Lennox, and attested by James S. Morton, S. C., as "Unanimously adopted by the
Supreme Council in session, at Boston, May 18, 1793." A thorough examination
of the Boston newspapers of the time fails to disclose any reference to such a
meeting; the city directory of the city of Boston of that year does not show
any of the persons whose names are given; and the records of the Grand Lodge
of Massachusetts do not contain any of the names among the list of members of
the Lodges in that jurisdiction.
legal money in the United States in 1793 was the present decimal system, but
the "money of accounts" was in a transition state, the papers of the day
giving quotations sometimes in decimal, and sometimes in sterling, money. In
the Thesauros it is provided "The membership fee shall not exceed ten nor be
less than two shillings sterling." Is it supposable that a national body,
meeting at a time when, to say the least, sterling money was passing into
disuse, would have established the fee in that money, rather than in the
decimal, which was the legal money, and which its members must have known,
would come into exclusive use very soon? In the Thesauros it is also stated:
Districts according to the distribution of 1845 was as follows: District 1,
New England and New York; District 2, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Dela‑
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Chapter 176, Washington.
THE ORIGIN OF THE ORDER.
Maryland, Virginia; District 3, Ohio, Iowa, Michigan, Illinois, Kentucky,
Mississippi; District 4, Tennessee, Arkansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Alabama,
Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina. The several Territories to accompany
the States to which they are contiguous.
Whatever excuse there may have been for such a provision in 1793, it could
certainly not have existed when the fifth edition was endorsed in 1847, "for
the use of the fourth division U. S." in a large proportion of which territory
sterling money had never been used.
preface to the fifth edition is dated New York, Dec. 12, 1847, and is signed
"H. H. Sandifer, Secretary." December 12, 1847 was Sunday, and neither the
city directories of New York from 1840 to 1850, nor the records of the Grand
Lodge of New York for the same period display the name of H. H. Sandifer. The
genealogical records in the libraries of Indianapolis and Chicago have been
searched, but, although members of the Jones, Lennox, Morton, and other
families named, have been discovered, no trace has been found of those whose
names appear. The city directories of the forty principal cities in the
country have been searched, but in only two of them, Indianapolis and Denver,
does the name of Sandifer appear, and investigation has discovered that they
are either colored people or Carolinians, with no knowledge of an Eastern
branch of the family.
the orthography of such words as honor, honorable, Savior, and labor, in the
reprint they are all spelled without a "u". I regret that inquiry of brother
Burton upon this point has elicited no information other than that the reprint
is an accurate reproduction of the original, for, if the "u" is omitted it
would be strong evidence that the pamphlet was not printed as early as it
purports to have been.
ORIGIN OF THE ORDER.
adoption of the Thesauros in 1793 is attested by James S. Dorton, S. C., while
the regulations provided for no such officer, the chief being Grand Luminary,
and the letters S. C. are specifically interpreted therein as standing for
According to the Thesauros the Supreme Council consisted of "a great
luminary and four deputy luminaries," while the committee that reported the
Thesauros was composed of three members, who reported to themselves and
two others! The title page says "Copyright secured," without giving date of
same, or stating by whom copyrighted, although the law of congress required
that both should be given, and the universal form found in all copyrighted
books before the revision of the law, about 1870, was "Entered according to
the act of Congress, in the district court for the ____ district of ____ , by
____, 18___." I am assured by Thorvald Solberg, Register of Copyrights: "The
record of copyrights in the district of Massachusetts for 1793 does not
contain any entry of Thesauros of the ancient honorable Order of the Eastern
Star," and that "The indices of the copyright records of the Southern district
of New York do not show any entry of the book either in 1847 or 1850." All the
facts obtainable that would throw any light upon the Thesauros have been set
forth, and the reader will have to judge for himself as to what weight is to
be given to it. Authentic or not, it is an interesting document, and in this
history it will be further referred to.
reviewing all the facts it must be concluded that brother Morris did not
originate the ritual of the order, but that, receiving the degrees by
communication, as above stated, and taking the ritual as used before he took
up the occupation of a Masonic lecturer,
THE ORIGIN OF THE ORDER.
embellished and adorned it, and started the order toward systematic
organization. Certainly, as it at present exists in this country, brother
Morris was the master builder.
Baring Gould has written a very interesting volume on the myths of the middle
ages, but the myths of Masonry are still awaiting the touch of a master hand.
The paper, "The Eastern Star," in its issue for December, 1900, had a
communication signed "A Sister," wherein it was stated:
of the Eastern Star, the English name given to adoptive Masonry in England and
this country, was introduced into this country in 1780. George Washington and
Lafayette constituted the first Chapter. The ritual was, however, so dramatic,
and required such gorgeous robes, that it gradually lost its hold upon the
people until our late brother, Robert Morris, revised the ritual,
reinstituting the order, bringing it to a point of perfection unknown in the
the writer could hardly credit the statement that Washington and Lafayette had
found time and opportunity, in 1780, even if they had the disposition, to
introduce the English rite of adoption, he could not let such a positive
statement go without investigation, in consequence of which the publication of
his history had been delayed a month. Through the courtesy of sister Ransford,
the editor of The Eastern Star, he was furnished the address of "A Sister,"
who kindly responded to his inquiries, and referred him to a "Dictionary of
Masonic Lore," in the Masonic library at Colorado Springs, Colorado, for
confirmation of her assertions; but investigation failed to discover a Masonic
library in that city, or any one there who had knowledge of such a book; nor
could any trace of it be found by inquiry of the most noted Masonic librarians
in the country. His inquiries of the brother
ORIGIN OF THE ORDER.
loaned the sister the publication brought the information that it was loaned
to an unknown party, and could not be found, and it has not been thought best
to delay the publication of this history for further chasing of this Iguis
fatuus. Should it prove anything more substantial, the writer will be glad and
Lafayette, the bearer of information of the most momentous character to
Washington, from France, arrived at Washington's headquarters, May 10, 1780,
and remained four days, going from thence to Philadelphia, to communicate with
congress, returning to Morristown, May 31, where he remained until July 22.
During this time, we are told that the Continental army was in a most
terrible; condition, and suffering every privation, going often five or six
days without bread, and two or three days without either bread or meat,
Washington saying that the men had eaten every kind of horse feed except hay.
August 7, Lafayette returned to the army, and occupied himself in organizing
and equipping a battalion of light infantry with which he led the advance
guard of the army. September 6, he participated in a council of general
officers, and on the 18th went with Washington to Hartford for a conference of
war; on the 25th, the knowledge of Arnold's treason burst upon them, and on
the 29th Lafayette sat as a member of the court martial that condemned Andre.
He was busy with military plans and operations until the army went into winter
quarters in November, when he obtained leave of absence, went to Philadelphia,
and remained away the balance of the year. During all this time Washington was
carrying a burden of responsibility such as few men have ever borne, and was
sleeplessly vigilant in his efforts to continue Clinton cooped up in New York.
Can we believe that in the
THE ORIGIN OF THE ORDER.
weeks when Lafayette was with the army these two men organized an Eastern Star
Chapter "with gorgeous robes," when the army was going half‑clad in rags? The
investigation thus far made only confirms me in the assertion made when
penning the first paragraph of this Chapter, months ago, that the Eastern Star
is the peer of any Masonic organization in the mystery surrounding its origin.
SUPREME COUNCIL No. 1.
ACCORDING to the Thesauros, the entire government of the order was vested in
the Supreme Council, which consisted of five persons "holding their stations
during good behavior." It was to meet "quintennially at such times and places
as may be previously designated." Through its deputy luminary it granted
authority to confer the degrees, and provided that five or more worthy sisters
might petition for a charter in the manner following:
D. L. of District:
undersigned members of the Ancient and Honorable Order of the Eastern Star,
have seen the rays five, and are enlightened by the glory thereof. They have
advocated the claims of the Order in public and in private; yielded their
first fruits to charity, according to the commandment; and now that they may
gain increased ability for the good work of the Order, do offer this petition,
that a charter may be is‑sued, enabling them to unite their rays into a
Constellation, to be entitled the_____ Constellation, No.
of _____ . They promise obedience to the Constitutional requirements of the
Order and to frame their By‑Laws in accordance with the Ancient Constitution.
The following officers to hold their stations until others are elected
according to the Constitution and By‑Laws, to‑wit : S. P.; V. P.; R. B.; R.
O.; R. W.
at ____ the ____ day ____ A. D.
Vouched for by N. R., A. D. L.
was further provided that upon the receipt of the above petition "a charter
will be issued under the great seal of the Supreme Council, countersigned by
the deputy luminary in the form and style following, to‑wit:
is sorrow for the righteous, and gladness for the upright in heart."
to whom these presents shall come, the Supreme Council of the Ancient and
Honorable Order of the Eastern Star sendeth light, peace and love. Know ye,
that on the petition of the worthy Sisters A, B, C, D, &c., resident at F, and
on the avouching of Brother G. H., acting D. L. of _____ District, who
guarantees the illumination and the worthiness of the petitioners, the S. C.
has granted and by these presents doth grant to the sisters aforesaid this
Charter, authorizing them to form a Constellation of the Eastern Star at or
near the town of F, to be opened by any A. D. L., duly authorized and to be
governed by the following officers until others are regularly elected, to‑wit:
S. P.; V. P.; P. B.; It. O.; R. W.; R. G.; R. R.; T.; S. And we further ordain
and declare that this Constellation shall be known and held as _____
Constellation No. ___ of the State of _____ Hereby authorizing the Sisters
aforesaid, in the capacity of a Constellation, to elect members; enact By‑Laws
subordinate to the Ancient Constitution of the Order; to suspend or expel
unworthy members; and do such other acts and things as tend to the good of
Order and the interests of the religion of Christ. They to be obedient to
rule; attached, the one to the other; pure in heart and life; faithful to Him
whose Star in the East they have beheld; and hospitable to all who love the
truth; and so conducting, this Charter to them and their successors is
at the seat of light and authority, to‑wit: the ___ day of A. D.
_____ D. L.
District U. S.
1855, Rob Morris inaugurated a Supreme Constellation, claiming that "no such
attempt upon a national basis has heretofore been made in America." The Mosaic
Book stated that
Supreme Constellation was, at the organization of the rite, a self‑assumed
body, and will so continue during a period sufficiently protracted to test the
merits of the American Adoptive rite, and afford experience as a basis of its
improvement. The constitution and edicts of this body constitute the supreme
law of the order, both to individual members and to constellations; and its
acts will establish precedents for the parliamentary usages, &c., of the
this body Rob Morris was Most Enlightened Grand Luminary; Joel M. Spiller,
Delphi, Indiana, Right Enlightened Deputy Grand Luminary and Grand Lecturer,
Jonathan R. Neill, New York, Very Enlightened Grand Treasurer; John AV.
Leonard, New York, Very Enlightened Grand Secretary; and Very Enlightened
Deputy Grand Luminaries were appointed as follows:
Jersey, and pro tem for New England - James B. Taylor, Newark.
York - Thomas C. Edwards, Elmira.
Indiana - Joel M. Spiller, Delphi.
L. D. Farmer, Muscatine.
Kentucky - John Scott, Flemingsburg.
Georgia - M. B. Franklin, Atlanta.
Missouri - M. J. F. Leonard, at large.
Eminent Deputy Grand Luminaries were also named:
Illinois, Fourth district - Harmon G. Reynolds, Knoxville.
Kentucky - James G. Gorsuch, Portland; W. C. Munger, Covington.
form of petition for a charter, to be signed by at least five master Masons,
was as follows:
M. E. Grand Luminary of the Supreme Constellation of the American Adoptive
Rite: We, the undersigned, affiliated master Masons, members in good standing
of the Lodge whose title is affixed to our names, being desirous of
associating ourselves with a constellation of the American Adoptive Rite, do
pray your Most Eminent body to grant us a charter for that purpose, under the
title of _____ Constellation No. _____ to be holden at _____. We pledge our
Masonic faith, if the prayer of our petition is granted, to submit to the
requirements of the Supreme Constellation in all things relative to this rite;
and should the constellation herein prayed for fail to be organized, or at any
time hereafter be dissolved, we will return the charter and hue books to the
V. E. Grand Secretary.
charter, which, together with five hue books, cost ten dollars, was
lithographed in colors in the highest style of the art then known, by Sarony &
Co., of New York, and is herein reproduced in facsimile. The significance of
the emblems in the border will be found explained under the head: "The Mosaic
body of it reads as follows:
have seen His Star in the East and are come to worship."
name and by the authority of the Supreme Constellation of the American
to whom these presents may come and especially to our well beloved and
enlightened Stellae and Protectors everywhere.
Whereas a petition has been presented to our M. E. Grand Luminary of the
American Adoptive Rite by ____ affiliated Master Masons and Members in good
standing in their respective Lodges residing at or near the town of ____ ,
praying that they may be authorized to
organize and work as a Constellation of the American Adoptive Rite, under the
title of _____ Constellation No. ____ and it appearing for the interest of
Adoptive Masonry that their petition should be granted now
Ye that We the Supreme Constellation of the American Adoptive Rite invested
with full power and authority over all Stellæ and Protectors and the Supreme
Court of Appeal in all cases relative to adoption, do hereby authorize and
empower our well beloved and enlightened Pillars _____ Heleon; _____
Philomath; _____ Verger; _____ Herald; and _____ Warder; to open and hold a
Constellation by the name of _____ Constellation No. _____ the said
Constellation to be holden at _____ or within five miles of the same. And we
do likewise authorize our said Pillars to associate with them in the work and
discipline of Adoption in said Constellation the following Correspondents
to‑wit: _____ Luna _____ Flora _____ Hebe _____ Thetis and _____ Areme. And
we do further authorize and empower our said Pillars to confer the five
degrees of the American Adoptive Rite, according to the ceremonial and
lectures approved by the Supreme Constellation, upon all worthy applicants
possessing the constitutional qualifications for the same. And we do further
authorize and empower our said Pillars, and their legal successors in office,
to hear all and singular matters and things relative to the American Adoptive
Rite, within the jurisdiction of said Constellation.
lastly we do further authorize, empower, and direct our said well beloved and
enlightened Pillars, to elect and reject applicants at their discretion; to
elect and instruct their successors in office subject to our approval and
confirmation; and to perform all matters and things pertaining to and provided
in the American Adoptive Rite.
Provided always that the above named Pillars and their successors: do pay and
cause to be paid, due respect and obedience to the M. F. Supreme ConsteI‑
of the American Adoptive Rite, and to the by‑laws, rules, regulations and
edicts, thereof, otherwise this Charter to be of no force or virtue.
Given under the hands of our Grand
Officers and the seal of our Supreme
Constellation at the City of _____ this
_____ day of _____ Anne Domini 18__
_____ Grand Luminary
_____ Grand Secretary
constellation was composed of five or more of each sex, but no more than
twenty‑five of each sex, in addition to the Pillars and Correspondents, could
be members of the same constellation at the same time, but two or more
constellations could be connected with the same Lodge. Vigorous work was done
in disposing of charters, so that by December 25, 1855, seventy‑five had been
granted, as follows:
Alabama - Venus No. 11, New Market.
Arkansas - livening Star No. 16, Morristown.
California - Morning Star No. 44, Grass Valley; Orion No. 57, Mariposa.
Connecticut - Morning Star No. 48, Fair Haven.
Florida - Electa No. 11, Tallahassee; Flora No. 21, Uchee Anna.
Georgia - Virgo No. 4, Woodstock; Magnolia No. 5, Hillsboro; Rose No. 39,
Whitesville; Electa No. 58, Cedartown.
Indiana - White Rose No. 3, Crown Point; Jessamine No. 8, Moore's Hill;
Cassiopeia No. 28, Cam‑bridge City; North Salem No. 36, North Salem; New
Albany No. 160, New Albany; Newman No. 161, Milton.
Illinois - Griggsville No. 10, Griggsville; Orion No. 15, Sycamore; Flora No.
18, Pecatonica; Pittsfield No. 56, Pittsfield; Friendship No. 65, Knoxville;
Rose of Sharon No. 67, Tipton.
Electa Morris No. 66, Muscatine; Violet No. 68, Iowa City.
Kentucky - Purity No. 1, Lodge; Vesta No. 7, Burlington; Covington No. 60,
Louisiana - Cassiopeia No. 32, Lisbon.
- Moriah No. 19, Denmark; Corona No. 22, Waterville.
Michigan - Buchanan No. 20, Buchanan; Western Star No. 61, Litchfield.
Missouri - Flora No. 13, New Madrid; Hesperus No. 17, Charlestown; Lyra No.
24, Arcadia; Morning Star No. 25, Caledonia; Cassiopeia No. 26, Potosi;
Eastern Star No. 30, Frederickstown; Evening Star No. 31, Franklin; Western
Star No. 33, Pauldingville; Prudence No. 34, Marthasville; Pleiades No. 37,
Mexico; Mary Washington No. 38, Florida; Martha No. 40, Madison; Robert Bums
No. 42, Fulton; Astrea No. 43, Fayette; Rob Morris No. 45, Spring Hill; Esther
No. 46, Pattonburg; Ruth No. 47, Gallatin; Nannie No. 49, Windsor City; Mary
Anna No. 50, Roanoke; Mary Washington No. 52, Haynesville; Martha Washington
No. 54, Richmond; Rose No. 59, Clinton; Louisa No. 162, Dekalb; Lucinda No.
164, Ridgeley; Hobe No. 167, Rochester; Lafayette No. 168, Palmyra; Hannah No.
Mississippi - Concordia No. 6, Tallaloosa; Ripley No. 41, Ripley; Hebron No.
York - Orion No. 9, Evans; Purity No. 27, Spencer; Speedsville No. 29,
Carolina - Hookerton No. 63, Hookerton.
Pennsylvania - Towanda No. 166, Towanda.
- Lavacia No. 23, Hallettsville; Lily No. 35, Sabine Pass; Pleiades No. 51,
Texana; Mount Horeb No. 165, Gabriel Mills.
Vermont - Irene No. 53, Swanton Falls.
Wisconsin - Lake Mills No. 171, Lake Mills.
time in 1857, James B. Taylor succeeded to the office of V. E. Grand
Secretary; and, in all, nearly three hundred constellations were organized,
the records of which are not at hand, but they included in addition to those
named above: Mendias No. 1, Wyandotte, Kansas, July 28, 1856; Alpha No. 1, New
London, Connecticut, chartered January 15, 1857, organized March 9; Acacia,
Clifton, Tennessee; Decatur, Indiana, 1866; Stevenson, Alabama.
SUPREME COUNCIL No. 2.
claimed by the members of the Supreme Constellation that brother Morris
pledged himself to desist conferring the Eastern Star degree, except in
constellations, but that within two weeks after making this pledge he issued a
circular, which he sent over the country, offering to forward to any master
Mason in good standing, the necessary information to enable him to confer the
degree, upon his remitting to him a fee of three dollars, and that the Supreme
Constellation, on discovering what it deemed to be a lack of good faith on the
part of the M. E. Grand Luminary, repudiated him, and attempted a
reorganization under the name of Supreme Council of the Ancient Rite of
Adoptive Masonry for North America, and adopted rituals adapted from an
European system, in which there were two branches, consisting of
constellations and temples of enlightenment. In justice to brother Morris it
should be mentioned that the Mosaic Book, which was the ritual of the Supreme
Constellation, specifically stated that "the inherent right which master
Masons possessed, to communicate the degree remains forever unchanged, nor
does the Supreme Constellation presume to interfere with it." Of the Supreme
Council, James B. Taylor be‑
Grand Secretary. If the Supreme Constellation was a self‑perpetuating body,
the Supreme Council was more. Not only was it self‑perpetuating, but its
membership was unknown to any but the chosen few, and all communication with
it had to be through the Grand Secretary, who would not even disclose the
number and location of its subordinate bodies. Although it attempted to
maintain an existence as late as 1876, it is not believed that it really had
any substantial being.
EASTERN STAR FAMILIES.
the disruption of the Supreme Constellation the records and seal remained in
the hands of the former V. E. Grand Secretary, but the supply of very
elaborately lithographed charters was in the possession of brother Morris,
who, in 1860, set about organizing families of the Eastern Star, issuing to
them charters of the old form, the reason for which he gave as follows:
use of the old form of charter is continued although the association governed
by the Supreme Constellation has ceased to exist. This is done to show that
the two systems of "constellations" and "families" are identical in spirit,
the latter having taken the place of the former. It serves further to show
that the thousands of ladies who were introduced to the advantage of adoptive
Masonry under the former system retain their privileges under the latter.
family, under this charter, Helion was Patron; Philomath, Conductor; Verger,
Treasurer; Herald, Recorder; Warder, Watchman; Luna, Patroness; Flora,
Conductress. Under this system, if it can be called a system, the charter was
signed by Rob Morris as M. E. Grand Luminary, and, concerning the signature of
the V. E. Grand Secretary it was stated:
Recorder of the family is authorized to sign
name as Grand Secretary at the bottom of the charter, adding "p. t." (pro
tempore) to his signature.
was required that the names of all ladies and gentlemen receiving the degree
in the family * * must be entered on the records by the Recorder, and
certified lists promptly forwarded to the Grand Patron.
the above it will be seen that there was really no organization; that the only
head was brother Morris; and that there was little or no cohesiveness to the
order. Something over one hundred families were organized between 1860 and
1867, but no complete record of them has been preserved, if one was ever made.
of only the following: Rose of Sharon No. 4, "held at T. B. Dunigan's House,"
Annapolis, Indiana, organized January 15, 1861; Plymouth, No. 41, Plymouth,
Indiana, organized June 25, 1864; Friendship No. 103, Brooklyn, New York,
organized January 25, 1866; Sunbeam No. 83, Mt. Vernon, Indiana, organized
April 19, 1866; Miriam No. 111, Chicago, Illinois, organized October 6, 1866;
Orion No. 102, Rensselaer, Indiana, organized February 27, 1867; and families
of Davenport, Iowa, and Hazleton, Indiana, the numbers and dates of
organization of which are unknown. The numbers, it will be seen, are no guide
as to order of organization.
SUPREME GRAND CHAPTER.
1868, brother Morris resolved to devote the balance of his life to Masonic
explorations in the holy land, and, as was claimed by Robert Macoy of New
York, turned over to him the prerogatives he had assumed in the order.
Previous to this, in 1866, brother Macoy had arranged a Manual of the Order of
the Eastern Star, which was published by the Masonic Publishing and
Manufacturing Company, and was
in this he styled himself "National Grand Secretary." Brother Macoy attempted
to keep up the semblance of a supreme body, calling the same a Supreme Grand
Chapter, of which he styled himself, in the Adoptive Rite, copyrighted and
published by the Masonic Publishing and Manufacturing Company of New York, in
which he was a partner, the "Grand Secretary." This title he retained in
published rituals emanating from that company up to 1876, when he assumed the
title of "Supreme Grand Patron." Petitions for charters, as prescribed in
Adoptive Rite, were addressed to the M. E. Grand Patron of the Supreme Grand
Chapter of the Adoptive Rite of the Order of the Eastern Star, and the
charters issued were in the following form:
ORDER OF THE EASTERN STAR.
have seen His Star in the East and are come to worship Him."
to whom these presents may come Greeting:
Name and by the Authority of the Supreme Grand Chapter of the Adoptive Rite,
known by the distinctive title of the Order of the Eastern Star. Whereas, a
petition has been presented to us by Sisters _____ who having received, in a
legal manner, all the degrees of the Order, and being the ____ of master
Masons in good standing in their respective Lodges, praying for a Warrant
authorizing them to establish a Chapter of the Order of the Eastern Star,
under the title of ____ Chapter No. ____ to be held in County of ____ State
of ____ and it appearing for the interest of the Adoptive Rite that their
petition should be granted; Know ye, that we, the M. E. Grand Patron and Grand
Secretary, by authority of the Constitution of the Supreme Grand Chapter, do
hereby grant the prayer of said petitioners, and that the organization may be
complete, do appoint brother ____ a master Mason, Worthy Patron; sister ____
Matron, and sister ____ Associate Matron of said Chapter.
do further authorize and empower our said Patron and sisters to confer the
five degrees of the Adoptive Rite, according to the ceremonial and lectures
approved by the Supreme Grand Chapter, upon all worthy applicants possessing
the constitutional qualifications for the same. And we do further authorize
and empower our said sisters, and their legal successors, to do and perform
all and singular matters and things relative to the Adoptive Rite within the
jurisdiction of said Chapter. And they are further authorized to elect and
reject applicants at their discretion; by and with the consent and assistance
of a majority of the members: of the said Chapter present upon such occasions,
duly summoned, to elect and install the officers of the said Chapter, as
vacancies may happen, in manner and form as is or may be prescribed by the
constitution of the Supreme Grand Chapter.
under our hands and the seal of the Supreme Grand Chapter, this ____ day of
_____ in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and ____.
[Research Comment: Note the “1778” date in the seal]
charters were issued for some seven hundred Chapters, located in part as
Colorado 2 New
Connecticut 12 New
Dakotah 2 New
District of Columbia 1 North
Massachusetts 5 Virginia
Washington Territ'y 1
foreign market was also cultivated, as will appear from the following:
1868, Bro. Andres Cassard, with authenticated powers as Deputy Grand Patron
for the South American countries, made an extended tour through Ratiana, Cuba,
New Grenada, Venezuela, Chili, Uruguay, Brazil, portions of Mexico, and other
parts of South America, where he successfully established many Chapters. * *
Through the active exertions of Bro. Henry J. Shields, Deputy Grand Patron
for England, Ireland and Scotland, three Chapters have been organized.
Robert Macoy's Report on Correspondence, Grand Chapter of New York, 1876.
8th of March last (1877), Bro. Andres Cassard appointed, with our concurrence,
Pr. David E. Dudley , a Deputy Grand Patron, with ample authority to confer
the degrees upon worthy and qualified persons, and establish Chapters in
Egypt, China, Japan, Philippine Islands, Singapore, Calcutta, Bombay, and
several of the chief towns on the island of Java.
Robert Macoy's Correspondence Report, Grand Chapter of New York, 1877.
Macoy's Standard it is asserted:
than fifty Chapters were organized by brother Andres Cassard, Associate Grand
Patron, in Cuba, Mexico, Central and South America, in 1871.
Edward O. Jenkins was Grand Patron of New York (1871), as well as before and
that time, he signed charters in blank, as M. E. Grand Patron, which were
countersigned by brother Macoy as Grand Secretary, and he disposed of them,
sometimes through his agents, who were styled Deputy Grand Patrons, and whom
he appointed for different States, and supplied with blank charters, rituals,
and other supplies, and who, in some instances, traveled constantly, and did a
flourishing business. At other times he sold them directly to petitioners, at
from ten to thirty dollars each. The charters signed by brother Jenkins were,
sold as late as 1873. Not desiring to do injustice to any one, even by
implication, I quote from a letter of brother Jenkins: All business matters
were attended to by the Grand Secretary, Robert Macoy. I never received one
penny in any shape or form for charters, or anything else, nor desired to.
Subsequently, as early as 1876, and as late as 1880, the charters were signed
by brother Macoy as M. E. Grand Patron, and Rob Morris as Grand Secretary, but
on most of them the name of Rob Morris was in the disguised handwriting of
1879 and 1880 the Grand Chapter of New York issued three charters, on the
blank forms of the Supreme Grand Chapter, to Alpha Chapter No. 1, located at
Baltimore, Maryland, Arcadia Chapter No. 3, Bowling Green, Kentucky, and Alpha
Chapter. No. 1, located at Laramie, Wyoming, which are believed to be the only
instances in which a State Grand Chapter has issued a charter for the
organization of a Chapter outside its territorial jurisdiction, with the
exception of Mississippi, which chartered a Chapter in Florida, 1876, previous
to the organization of the General Grand Chapter, and California, which has
chartered Chapters in Nevada, the General Grand Chapter having turned the
three Chapters chartered by it in that State over to the care of the Grand
Chapter of California. This was three years subsequent to the organization of
the General Grand Chapter, which has jurisdiction over all territory not
within the immediate jurisdiction of some Grand Chapter. These charters were
filled up in the handwriting of brother Macoy.
According to brother Macoy the constitution of the Supreme Grand Chapter was
never printed, and the only indication we have that such a document existed is
found in the proceedings of the Grand Chapter of Indiana at its meeting for
organization, in which appear some "Extracts from the constitution of the
Supreme Grand Chapter, United States, Order of the Eastern Star." It will be
noticed that this publication was in 1874, a year after the alleged
organization of the Supreme Council No. 3, in provisional form, and the
extracts were undoubtedly furnished to brother Leach, who was the deputy of
brother Macoy, and who was chosen the first Grand Patron of Indiana, by
brother Macoy himself. The efforts made by the officers of Grand Chapters to
obtain copies of the entire document met with failure; and it is evident that
the existence of the Supreme Grand Chapter was purely imaginary, the whole
work, authority, and emoluments being done and enjoyed by brother Macoy. These
extracts were as follows:
give cosmopolitan extension and practical uniformity to that branch of the
adoptive rite which is embodied under time title of the Eastern Star; to
redeem it from the hands of empirics and irresponsible persons; and that its
scriptural and traditional landmarks may be rendered more attractive and
better understood; the Chapter Order of the Eastern Star is hereby established
under the following constitution:
Article I. - Primary Source of Government.
Section 1. The primary source of government of
Chapter Order of the Eastern Star rests in the Supreme Grand Chapter of the
United States, whose times and place of meeting are regulated at the Grand
2. The meetings of the Supreme Grand Chapter shall occur triennially, on the
first Monday in September, at such place as may be designated at a previous
meeting. At such meeting all the affairs of the adoptive rite shall be
regulated, its rituals revised whenever experience renders it expedient, its
officers elected and installed, and measures taken suitable to the dignity and
importance of the order, for its dissemination into all parts of the country.
Article II. - State Grand Chapters.
5. In each State jurisdiction, when not less than five Chapters are regularly
at work, a Grand Chapter may be organized by the concurrence of the
representatives of five such Chapters of the order.
* * * * * * * * *
10. The rituals to be used under authority of the Supreme Grand Chapter shall
be those now in use, prepared under the supervision of the Supreme Grand
Secretary, and no changes, additions or emandations shall be made, except by
the direct authority of the Supreme Grand Chapter, in regular convention
CHARTERS, RITUALS, ETC.
11. Charters shall be issued, rituals distributed, and the general direction
of the order exercised during the recess of the assemblages of the Supreme
Grand Chapter, by order of the M. E. Grand Patron, through the Grand
time of the publication of these extracts brother Macoy was acting as chairman
of a committee of the Grand Chapter of New York to revise the ritual, in
violation of the tenth section. Evidently he did not deem it of any force.
SUPREME COUNCIL No. 3.
14, 1873, there was a meeting in New York for the purpose of forming the
Council of Royal and Select Masters, at which there were in attendance several
brethren interested in the Eastern Star, and, at a conference held by them,
preliminary steps were taken looking to the organization of a Supreme Grand
Council of the order for the World, and a provisional organization was had,
with Robert Macoy as Supreme Grand Patron; Frances E. Johnson, of New York,
Supreme Grand Matron; Andres Cassard, Associate Supreme Grand Patron; John I.
Power, of Mississippi, Deputy Supreme Grand Patron; Laura L. Burton, of
Mississippi, Deputy Supreme Grand Matron; W. A. Frail, of Missouri, Supreme
Treasurer; Rob Morris, Supreme Recorder; P. M. Savery, of Mississippi, Supreme
Inspector. Other officers included E. E. Edminston, of Tennessee, and Julian
K. Larke, of New York. Concerning this provisional organization brother Savery
said, in 1875:
committee on constitution and regulations were to report at an adjourned
meeting to be held in New York in September, in 1873. * * As the committee
failed to report, the provisional Grand Council was, at New Orleans, December,
1871 (the time and place at which the organization was to have been
completed), pronounced dead.
Brother Power, Grand Patron of Mississippi, March 13, 1875, said: I have the
honor to be Deputy Supreme Patron for all this continent, and as I see no
prospect of ever having a meeting of the Supreme Council * * I consider
myself functus officio. Indeed the matter of dissolving the Supreme Grand
Council was discussed and agreed upon in New Orleans in December last by
several whose names figure in the organization of 1873.
no attempt was made to give brother Macoy even the semblance of authority,
until after the question of organizing a legitimate governing body for the
was raised, is evident from the fact that, in an article emanating from him in
1878 it is stated: The appointment of Supreme Patron was conferred at a
convention of delegates from several states, held in the city of New York,
June 14, 1873, by unanimous election, letters patent, and subsequent
"subsequent installation," as appears by the same article, was not because he
had been elected at a convention of delegates," but by authority of a letter
from Rob Morris, dated Lagrange, Kentucky, April 29, 1575, addressed to Prof.
Andres Cassard, New York, authorizing him to install "Very Illustrious Robert
Macoy as my successor in the position of Supreme Patron of the World, Adoptive
Rite," which it was claimed was done May 3, 1575, nine months after the
beginning of the movement to organize a legitimate governing body.
this period, the laws and jurisprudence of the order were in a chaotic
condition. 'here was no written law, outside the little contained in the
ritual then in use, and this lack had given rise to various modes of action on
the same subject. It was almost the universal rule that "males" should pay at
least double the fees and dues that "females" did. Notwithstanding this, there
was, with many, a disposition to deprive them of any rights in a Chapter. A
considerable number of sisters insisted that they shout not vote, either on
petitions, or for officers, and the exercise of what he deemed his right to
the ballot by the writer, in December, 1873, created some discussion, and when
the Grand Chapter of Indiana was organized, in May, 1874, sixteen so‑called
landmarks were incorporated into its constitution, fifteen of which were
reproduced, with slight verbal changes, from the ritual then in use (Adoptive
Rite), while a sixteenth was added, as follows:
Masons, when admitted to membership,
have all the rights and privileges of the Chapter when convened, except that
of balloting for candidates, for membership, and voting for officers.
was adopted by a vote of twenty‑three to five. This was the fuse that started
the fire that resulted in the total destruction of the Supreme Grand Chapter
and brother Macoy's control of the order. Through the Masonic Advocate and
other journals I made direct assault upon the alleged landmark. In another
section of the constitution it was required that "Every member present must
vote" on petitions. The, inconsistency of the two provisions was pointed out.
With no laws accessible I obtained the addresses of those active in the work
in other States and opened correspondence with some twenty of them, asking if
they knew of any landmark or law depriving the brethren of the right to vote
on any subject, and answers from Massachusetts to Oregon, from New Hampshire
to Alabama, were that no such law was known.
GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER.
first definite proposition to strike at the root of the matter, and put
everything upon a reasonable basis by forming a legitimate supreme body, was
made by me in the New York Courier of August 30, 1874, as follows:
things, it seems to me, are needed immediately: first, a Supreme Grand Chapter
composed of representatives from the several Grand Chapters; second, revision
and general boiling down and finishing up of the ritual, which is now
defective both in style and language. Let us all buckle on our armor, and
enter in earnest on the work of improving and extending the order, and a very
few years will place it in a very enviable position. But as long as it is made
merchandise of by any one, to gain a livelihood, and persons are put in
positions of honor and trust, not because they are qualified for them, but
simply because they are not able to make a living otherwise, they will, like
Othello, soon find their occupation
it will drag out a miserable existence for a time, and finally fall to the
ground of its own weight.
Beginning in October, 1874, the writer contributed regularly to the Masonic
Advocate of Indianapolis, communications relative to the order, and, filled
with the zeal and fire of youth, he wrote some very pointed articles relative
to its needs and management. It was a time when the future of the order could
be made or marred very easily, and although the judgment of his matures years
cannot fully approve the strong language employed in clothing his thoughts, he
recognizes the fact that had he not pursued the course lie did the subsequent
history of the order might have been far different from the brilliant record
of the last quarter of a century.
contributions were not appreciated by all, among those by whom they were not,
was the Grand Patron of Indiana, who, in his address to the Grand Chapter in
been suggested that the ritual should be revised for the reason that it is a
botch and disconnected and ungrammatical. It is a little singular that all the
intelligent men who love received and worked the ritual have failed to make
the discovery, and it has been left to Indiana in the seventy‑fifth year of
the nineteenth century to furnish the man who though "Young and of small
experience," young and of small experience makes the remarkable
discovery, and suggests the remedy.
meeting in 1875 the Grand Chapter of Indiana, its members being ignorant of
the true status of the Supreme Grand Chapter, adopted the following:
that this Grand Chapter will not declare her independence of the Supreme Grand
Chapter, but we hereby empower the Worthy Grand Patron, so soon as fraternal
relations have been established with four or more State Grand Chapters, to
join with them in a request to the officers of the Supreme Grand Chapter to
convene the same immediately and perfect its organization, and on failure or
neglect to do so, to call a general convention for the good of the order, to
form a General Grand Chapter of the Eastern Star.
organization, October 13, 1875, the Grand Chapter of Missouri adopted this
resolution verbatim, but no action was taken under it by either Grand body.
The Grand Patron of Missouri wrote me concerning it: I cannot, and with
present purpose, will not join in any such request, thereby recognizing the
existence of what does not exist. * * The thing called a S. G. C. is a myth.
writer of this history, from 1874 to 1876 carried on an extensive
correspondence with sisters and brothers prominent in the work of the order in
the several States, agitating the question of organizing a legitimate supreme
body. P. M. Savery, Grand Lecturer of Mississippi, under date of June 26,
1875, said: Dear Brother Engle: Yours of 24th to hand and its contents noted.
There has never been a Supreme Grand Chapter or Council of the Order of
Adoptive Rite, or of the Eastern Star, de facto. * * The Grand Chapter of
Mississippi will meet at Tupelo on 14th of July next. I do not desire to bring
up the subject (of forming a representative Supreme Grand Chapter) before
them, but presume brother
Power, Grand Patron, will do so, if you request it - which you write you have
Power, Grand Patron, in a letter dated July 7, 1875, said:
Brother Engle: Your favors of the 9th and 24th ult. duly received. have been
absent, hence delay in answering. * * * Our Eastern Star Grand Chapter meets
on the 14th inst. It is my purpose to recommend action looking to the
formation of a Supreme Grand Chapter - a legitimate Grand body - that shall
meet triennially, or as may be agreed upon. Your letter on the subject is most
harmony with these letters, the recommendation was made by the Grand Patron,
and the matter being referred to a special committee of which brother Savery
was chairman, the Grand Chapter adopted the following:
WHEREAS, we deem uniformity of ritual and lectures essential to the present
and f Lure prosperity of the order; therefore, we respectfully recommend that
a committee, consisting of seven members of this Grand Chapter, of which
committee the Grand Patron and Grand Matron shall be members, shall be
appointed to confer with like committees that may hereafter be appointed by
other Grand Chapters of the order in the United States, or elsewhere, whose
duty it shall be to take under advisement., and present, if practicable, some
feasible and judicious plan for the organization of a Supreme Grand Chapter;
which said supreme body shall, when organized and recognized by two‑thirds of
the Grand Chapters in the United States, have absolute and supreme control
over the ritual and lectures of the Adoptive Rite. We also recommend that said
committee shall be the accredited delegates from this Grand jurisdiction to a
convention of the order wheresoever and whensoever convened, and they shall
have all power and authority to do any and all acts necessary and lawful to be
done in the premises; and they shall report their doings to this Grand Chapter
at each annual Grand convocation.
correspondence with John M. Mayhew, Grand Patron of New Jersey, commenced in
February, 1875, and in his fourth letter, dated August 21, following, he said:
I look forward with considerable anxiety to the time when a supreme body shall
be organized, under whose authority alone a ritual and other ceremonies and
form of documents of the order shall be published, and from whom alone all
such documents shall be procured. * * I am in hopes of receiving
communications from Mississippi and Indiana on the subject before our Grand
Chapter meets on October 13th.
his next letter, August 29th, he said:
Brother Engle: * * Your letter conveys some glad information, viz.: That the
subject of a Supreme Grand Chapter is to come before the Grand Chapter of
California in October. I shall also embody the subject in my address to our
Grand Chapter. I am, however, in hopes that I shall receive something official
from Mississippi in season. Can you assist me in the matter by writing them?
Subsequent letters discussed details of plans, and, in accordance with his
letters, he presented the matter to the Grand Chapter at its meeting, October
13, 1875, and the following was adopted: Resolved, that five delegates be
selected to represent this Grand Chapter at any meeting or convention that may
he called for the purpose of organizing a Supreme Grand Chapter of the Order
of the Eastern Star.
correspondence with George J. Hobe, Grand Patron of California, began in
February, 1875, and in his ninth letter, dated August 18, 1875, he wrote: I am
in receipt of yours of the 10th and 12th of July, as also the August number of
the Masonic Advocate, for which many thanks. I see by the Advocate that
Mississippi has taken the initiatory step
toward forming the so‑called Supreme Grand Chapter of the United States. If
we should receive a communication from them before the session of our Grand
Chapter, October 18th, it will, of course, come up in its regular order; if
not, I think I shall bring it before them myself.
he did, and at its meeting at Vallejo, October 19, 1875, the following was
that the Grand Chapter constitute a committee of seven, of which the Worthy
Grand Patron and Worthy Grand Matron shall be members, to confer with like
committees that may hereafter be appointed by the other Grand Chapters of the
order of the United States. It shall be their duty to take under advisement,
and present, if practicable, some feasible and judicious plan for the
organization of a Supreme Grand Chapter, which supreme body shall, when
organized and recognized by two‑thirds of the Grand Chapters of the order in
the United States, have absolute and supreme control over the ritual and
lectures of the order.
that said committee be the accredited delegates from this Grand jurisdiction
to a convention of the order wheresoever and whenever convened, have power to
do any and all acts necessary and lawful to be done in the premises, and
report their doings to this Grand Chapter at each annual communication.
that the Grand Patron be requested to submit, or cause to be submitted, the
action of this Grand Chapter to each and all sister Grand Chapters in the
United States, and respectfully solicit their zealous cooperation.
meeting of the Grand Chapter of Indiana, in April, 1876, the Grand Patron
said, in his address: Several of the State Grand Chapters have passed similar
resolutions to the one adopted by our Grand Chapter upon the subject of a
Supreme Grand Chapter. As no definite action, however, has been taken upon
this subject, I would recommend the. repeal of the aforesaid resolution, and
that you, by suitable
action, fix a time, select a place, declare who shall be entitled to seats in
the proposed Supreme Grand Chapter, and invite all other State Grand Chapters
to unite with you in the work. The first Wednesday in November, and
Indianapolis, would be a suitable time and place, in my judgment.
pursuance of this recommendation the following was adopted:
WHEREAS, uniformity of work, modes of recognition, and regulations governing
eligibility to member‑ship are not only desirable, but absolutely necessary to
the permanent growth and prosperity of our order, now so rapidly increasing in
numbers, and advancing in the estimation of the Masonic fraternity; and
WHEREAS, several Grand Chapters recognizing this necessity, have appointed
committees to represent and act for theme in a convention to. be thereafter
called to organize such a body, but have failed to take ally steps which will
lead to the calling of such a convention, and this Grand Chapter, realizing
the importance of speedy and definite action which will lead to so desirable
an end; therefore, be it Resolved, that all Grand Chapters of the order be
invited and requested to appoint seven delegates of which the Grand Patron and
Grand Matron shall be, ex‑officio, two, with full power to do any and all acts
necessary to be (lone in the premises, for and in behalf of their respective
Grand Chapters, to meet in convention, for the purpose of organizing a Supreme
Chapter, at Indianapolis, at 10 o'clock on Wednesday, the 8th day of November
that the Grand Patron appoint a committee of three brothers and two sisters to
act in conjunction with the Grand Patron and Grand Matron, as delegates from
this Grand Chapter to such convention.
that the said delegates be appointed the committee of this Grand Chapter to
submit a copy of the foregoing preambles and resolutions to all sister Grand
Chapters, and request their prompt and zealous cooperation.
that said committee be instructed to make all preliminary arrangements
necessary for the accommodation of said convention.
that the necessary expenses of the said committee, not to exceed one hundred
dollars, be paid out of the Grand treasury: provided, no part thereof shall be
expended for mileage.
Grand Chapter of Nebraska, on June 19, 1876, elected delegates to the
convention, with full power to act for it.
meeting in Chicago, October 4, 1876, the Grand Chapter of Illinois accepted
the invitation of the Grand Chapter of Indiana and elected four delegates to
Grand Chapter of Missouri, at its meeting in St. Louis, October 9, 1876,
resolved to accept the invitation, and appointed seven delegates to represent
Jersey supplemented her former action, on October 11, 1876, by accepting the
invitation, and elected seven delegates to represent the Grand Chapter.
October 17, 1876, the Grand Chapter of California took additional action, as
that this Grand body cordially accepts the invitation of the Grand Chapter of
Indiana to send seven delegates to a Supreme Grand Chapter to be holden in the
city of Indianapolis in November next.
that the delegates present at such Grand council cast the votes of absentees.
original date fixed for the assembling of the convention was very near the
date of the presidential election, it was concluded to postpone it one week,
and notice to that effect was issued by the delegates from Indiana. On
November 15th the convention met and on the following day completed the
General Grand Chapter. The Grand Chapters then in existence were those of New
Jersey, New York, Mississippi, California, Vermont, Indiana, Connecticut,
Nebraska, Illinois, Missouri, Kansas and Arkansas; five of which were
represented, and two others were committed to the movement.
position of Rob Morris relative to this matter is indicated by the following
extracts from a letter dated Nevada, California, June 26, 1876:
Brother Engle: * * I am free to say that I think your plans are entirely
practical, and that by judicious and prudent establishment of correct
principle, a Supreme Chapter of the world may be formed at your November
meeting, which will command universal respect. Your personal exertions to this
end are, in all respects, meritorious, and will se‑cure to you the permanent
honor and respect you have so well earned. I have accepted the general
invitation to be present as "Father of the Order," and shall be glad to
correspond with you fully and confidentially upon all questions that lie at
the root of this subject. Under no circumstances will I permit my name to be
used for any office in the supreme organization. I have read most of your
articles in the Advocate, and generally can endorse your views.
answer to this I called brother Morris's attention to the fact that while all
members of the order would be heartily welcomed at the convention, it was to
be composed of delegates from Grand Chapters only, and on July 15, 1876, he
wrote: I will, ere long, advance my opinions upon the subjects named. At
present can only say your opinions coincide with mine.
then made inquiries as to the cost of organizing Chapters, his idea being to
organize enough Chapters in Kentucky to establish a Grand Chapter. On July
22d, following, he wrote: I will aid you all I can. I can get up four or five
subordinate Chapters very readily, but would not like to pay fees for
charters. If your Grand Patron could see his way clear to reduce the terms,
and so have the eclat of introducing the Chapter system into this State, it
might be mutually advantageous.
design of brother Morris to organize the order in Kentucky was not pushed to
success, and he did not attend the convention as proposed, and, evidently
forgetful of our correspondence, he wrote, in an open letter dated Lagrange,
Kentucky, October 2, 1877: When the project of a General Grand Chapter
originated I was not consulted, and although the organizing meeting was held
within four hours' travel of this place, I was not invited, but learned that,
not having joined any Chapter in the Eastern Star, I was not entitled to
this I responded in the Masonic Advocate for November following: Whatever
omission was made that should not have been was probably owing to an oversight
on the part of the committee which made the original call. Certainly it was
not in the province of any individual to extend the call beyond the original
limits. Certainly no member of the order would have been excluded, and, in
fact, the convention passed an order "that all members of the order be
entitled to seats and to speak in the convention." In 1880 the Most Worthy
Grand Patron said, in his address to the General Grand Chapter: I have
informally invited to be present upon this occasion, one whom the order will
ever remember as the founder of the Order of the Eastern Star - brother Robert
Morris, LL. D., of Lagrange, Ky. Our brother is not a Chapter member, nor is
he in the ordinary sense a member of the order; but as its founder he alone
may occupy the exceptional position of membership in the order universal. I am
assured by the brother that the has watched with deep interest the progress of
the order through the several stages
growth, and regards the organization and success of the General Grand Chapter
as evidence of the Eastern Star's ultimate complete triumph. He bids us
Godspeed, and assures me that he will be only too glad to aid us in any way in
his power. Such being the case, I am sure that time, will only increase the
honor with which a grateful order will remember its founder.
Brother Morris was at that meeting elected an honorary member of the body, and
his natal day, August 31st, was made the festal day of the order. In an
address acknowledging these honors, he said: I am satisfied with what has been
done by the officers of this body in the last three years, and that the basis
on which the order now rests is a permanent one. Second - I have always felt
the warmest friendship for brother Macoy, and friendship is a thing not to be
broken for slight cause. This friendship has existed for thirty years, and it
would take a great deal to break it. I disapprove the course he has taken, and
have labored unavailingly to restrain him. I would never suffer a hard word to
sever true friendship, which is of inestimable value, but would bear many
things from friends. Others have borne with my faults, and I will bear with
theirs. Brother Macoy's course I have disapproved from the first, although I
do not think he was properly treated at first; yet, that does not justify him
in they course he has since pursued. '' * * If any Grand Chapter has any idea
of withdrawing from your body, as Grand commanderies did from the General
Grand Encampment, I would say to them, don't do it; I beg of you. Wait fifteen
or twenty years and let the General Grand Chapter have a chance to demonstrate
the good that I am sure is in it, and which will result in such a Grand
success that the Masonic fraternity will accept it as a helpmeet for it, and
be surprised that it did not take it up sooner; for, properly worked out, it
will form a Grand attachment to free Masonry. This I felt years ago, and I
trust the day will come when every Lodge will have in connection with it a
Chapter of this order. The more there are the cheaper they can be run, and the
more good can they accomplish. I am sorry today that I have not given my own
personal attention for thirty years to this matter, and it is with sincere
regret that I realize it is too late for me to do the good in it that I could
have accomplished if I had begun years ago, but I am glad to know that younger
men and women have taken hold of the work with a zeal and wisdom which will
assure success; and I say to you: Preserve the order in unity; frown down all
secession; keep the Grand Chapters in rank, for in union there is strength.
Brother Morris was in attendance at the meeting of the general body in St.
Louis, in 1886, and was loyal to the interests of it up to the time of his
death, July 31, 1888.
position assumed by brother Macoy was one of most bitter opposition to the
movement, the motive of which may not be far to seek when it is remembered
that from the sale of charters at from ten to thirty dollars each, from the
sale of rituals at from one to five dollars per copy, and from the sale of
jewels at fifty‑six dollars for a set of fourteen, similar to those that can
now be bought for sixteen dollars, he had enjoyed an income of several
thousand dollars a year. One of the principal causes of dissatisfaction was
the numerous changes made in the ritual. That in use in 1874 was revised and
materially altered in 1875, so that previous editions were useless when the
later was used, and, in 1876, he issued another differing still more from
previous ones; even the different editions of the syllabus gave radically
different directions as to the manner of giving the signs, so that it was
found that, if Chapters were to keep up with the order, annual expenditures
must be made for the purchase of new editions of the ritual. When Grand
Chapters which were using the 1875 ritual applied to the Masonic Publishing
Company for additional
of it, they were informed that it was out of print, and that copies of it
could not be purchased.
following is from the address of the Most Worthy Grand Patron in 1880:
after the publication of the ritual in November, 1878, each member of your
committee, and the printers, received a letter from a legal gentleman in New
York, saying that he had been retained by Mr. Robert Macoy to prosecute us
individually for forfeiture and damages, for violation of his copyright upon
the ritual published by him in 1876. The letter stated that, "Failing to hear
from you within ten days, I shall proceed against you in the United States
Court." * * * Our counsel's reply in our behalf was such that nothing further
has been heard from the threatened suit. Thwarted in his effort for your
injury in this direction, Mr. Macoy soon after published a work, containing
less than one‑half of our ritual, and falsely advertised it as an edition of
the ritual published by the General Grand Chapter, copies of which were for
sale at one‑half the price of the authorized work. * * *
opposition of brother Macoy was not only manifested in a legitimate way, but
assumed the shape of virulent personal attacks upon individuals and committees
of the General Grand Chapter. It is not deemed necessary to incorporate herein
the worst of these, as they would soil the pages too greatly.
of his expressions were in letters and postal cards sent to members of the
order, but I will present only a few extracts of the least obnoxious nature
from his printed articles. The following is from a postal card sent generally
to members of the order in January, 1879: The new ritual, sent forth by the
committee of the G. G. C. (Gen. Gulling Catchpenny), consisting of a blessed
tom lamb (Mary's pet, whose fleece was white as snow), and two others of equal
obscurity, being a thorough failure, except for mischief, is now appropri‑
known as The Lamb's Fry. This unskillful parody and unjust plagiarism on the
recognized standard ritual can be had, postage prepaid, at 10 to 50 cents a
copy, on application to the G. S. of the above body. Address D. W. Jengles,
once did brother Macoy approach to wit in his enamations in the matter, which
was in a two‑page circular issued in 1881, headed with the accompanying cut,
which he labeled "A starry caudal appendage." The following extracts are taken
from it: The hybrid concern known as the G. G. Circus, will pitch its tent,
erect the ring, and spread the saw dust for special exhibition, for a few days
only, at San Francisco, Cal., in August, 1883. The company will be fresh
and unique, consisting of aesthetics, acrobats, gymnasts, champion bareback
riders, strong minders, &c. Signor Funnieman, captain of the gang, who writes
ridiculous reports for G. C. of Mo., will handle the whip as ring master. Mr.
Jengles, G. S., the nice young man, whom all the women want to marry, will
appear in his original character as clown. "Our Willis" will be on hand, as
heretofore, to collect the revenue and appropriate the funds. "Our noble
order," as some of the F. F. F. (Fair, Fat and Forty), fraternity proclaim it,
is passing, with notable rapidity, into "Our school for scandal," and will,
under the auspices of the circus managers, soon pass into the region of
* * * * * *
* * *
year 1876, a few persons, having in view their own pecuniary interests,
organized the concern known as G. G. C. (Grand Gossiping Circus) of the O. E.
S. They saw "millions in it." Having no ritual they plagiarized one already
made and claimed it as their own, and are now reveling in the fruits of their
* * * * * *
* * *
and Hoppers. - An item is going the rounds
press that the Chapter at Indianapolis has inaugurated a series of social hops
for the season. The order was not organized for the purpose of dispensing
hops, gratifying hoppers, or any sort of indecent gyratory and gymnastic
displays. For what base purpose is the order being used. Shame! It was this
and similar kinds of immoral exhibitions that brought upon the order in
Chicago and other places an opprobious title.
* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
If you wish to keep your title clear
For a mansion in the skies.
And of Boss Female Stars have no fear
Avoid Fast ones - and be wise.
columns of the New York Dispatch teemed with productions of brother Macoy's
pen, of which this is a sample: Three years ago a few nervous and
inconsiderate individuals met in a Western city and without lawful authority
conglomerated a body which they termed G. G. C., which, being translated into
good English, signifies General Grand Circus. This spurious organization is
now led and presided over by a very feeble Lamb, assisted by a few unknown
advocates of the concern admit that it possesses no authority, and is a
non-entity, therefore its qualities are so flat, stale and puerile that it
does not rise to the dignity of an ordinary fraud, and it should be treated
accordingly. The result is that either we should recognize this fraud as
having a claim upon our fealty, or that we should at once and unanimously
denounce it as what it really is - a fraud. If we love the order as it is, let
us stand by it and ever be its friends: if we do not, let us help to forward
the ideas of this fraudulent imitation.
Immediately after the issuance of the ritual authorized by the General Grand
Chapter brother Macoy issued extracts from it, containing the opening,
closing, and initiatory ceremonies, which lie not only
offered to sell, as he always had sold his rituals, to all that would buy,
whether Masons or not, but he sent copies of it gratuitously to leading
Masons, who were not members of the order, in all parts of the country. In
addition to these extracts he appended what he called "Critical and
Explanatory Notes," in which he ridiculed some of the changes made in the
ritual, and reiterated his claim to ownership of the same. If brother Macoy
had any legitimate grievance, it was in the infringement of his copyright, and
for that there was no basis. Concerning this, Thomas M. Lamb said in his
address to the General Grand Chapter in 1880:
Macoy's preposterous claims of ownership of the ritual work of our order
should be sustained, the Eastern Star would be thrown powerless into the hands
of one man. A copyright is of no value unless the party claiming its benefits
is wholly or substantially the author of the work copyrighted. The ritual and
its several revisions, published and copyrighted by Robert Macoy, are almost
entirely the work of other brains than his own. The revisions were mostly the
work of committees regularly appointed by the Grand Chapter of New York. The
latest revision by that body was made by a committee appointed in 1875. * *
* The ritual published by the General Grand Chapter has more original matter
than has appeared in all the rituals published by Mr. Macoy, and it is well
known that we had access to all the original sources used by him in the
compilation of the books he claims to own. * * * The various rituals
published, and all the facts known to us, were submitted to able counsel, and
it appeared, as the result of his examination, that Mr. Macoy's claim is as
void in law as in moral right.
will be seen by readers of this history, the first manual issued by brother
Macoy was in 1866, and it was not copyrighted, but, on issuing a subsequent
edition in 1867, that was copyrighted, but any one at
familiar with the copyright laws knows that, in order to have it protected, a
work must be copyrighted before it is issued; that it must bear the imprint of
copyright; and that the copyright only protects original matter never before
published. But brother Macoy did not own the copyright of any ritual issued
before 1876, so that he had no right to raise his voice in objection to the
action of t1: General Grand Chapter in publishing its ritual, so far as his
individual rights were concerned, for it contained nothing that was original
in the ritual of which he was the owner of the copyright. The Mosaic Book, the
Ladies' Friend, the Tatem Monitor, the Adoptive Rite, and other works,
containing in one form or another the work of the order, were the sources from
which brother Macoy and the General Grand Chapter alike drew the substance of
their rituals. After brother Macoy failed in his attempt to intimidate the
committee of the General Grand Chapter which had charge of the publication of
its ritual, he took refuge under the assertion that, "1. I am not fond of a
law‑suit, and the parties do not reside in the judicial district with me; 2.
They are pecuniarily worthless." To this response was made in "A review of the
critical and explanatory notes," by the writer, as follows: The strong arm of
the law, with all the force of the United States government will protect Mr.
Macoy in the possession of all the property to which he can prove a legal
title. Though he may insinuate publicly as he has already done privately, that
the reason for his not putting his threat of legal proceedings into execution
was on account of the financial irresponsibility of the members of the
committee, it lacks the elements of credibility, as, no matter how
irresponsible financially the members of the committee may be, if Mr. Macoy
has any title to the "property" he so generously claims, the courts will grant
a perpetual injunction prohibiting them from publishing the rit‑
the General Grand Chapter, and Mr. Macoy can live off of the profits from
future sales of the ritual as long as the life of the order can be maintained
under his dictatorship.
as late as 1892 brother Macoy kept up the claim of the existence of a
governing body, the title and authority of which he stated in Macoy's
Standard: The Supreme Chapter by the inherent authority of possession and
right of eminent domain, has exclusive authority to establish Chapters in
jurisdictions domestic and foreign, where no Grand Chapter of the rite exists;
to establish a uniform system of work and lectures; has jurisdiction over all
subjects of legislation, and appellate powers to hear and decide all questions
of law and equity that may be brought before it; and to do each and everything
appertaining to the good and perpetuity of the rite, in accordance with its
this body he claimed to be Supreme Patron. And yet in his critical and
explanatory notes he had said: I opposed the proposition of a General Grand
Chapter because I had seen for thirty years the uselessness of the two
national Masonic organizations, and the waste of immense sums of money
obtained substantially under they guise of charity, for their maintenance. * *
* I feared that such an organization in the Adoptive Rite would meddle with
the rights of State Grand Chapters, deprive them of their sovereignty,
independence, and absolute authority in their respective jurisdictions.
comparison of the very limited authority of the General Grand Chapter,
composed of the representatives of the various Grand Chapters, with that
claimed for the Supreme Chapter, which consisted solely of brother Macoy, will
demonstrate, at least, his lack of sincerity. It was further claimed that
could only be formed by "the sanction of the Supreme Chapter or the Supreme
Patron." This brief reference to the violent and bitter persecution which
those prominent in the movement for the upbuilding of the General Grand
Chapter, and the establishment of the order upon a substantial foundation
underwent, is set down in no spirit of malice. It only serves as an index to
point to the great mass of such material emanating from the same source, aimed
principally at the then Most Worthy Grand Patron, Thomas M. Lamb, and myself,
as Right Worthy Grand Secretary, but some of the bitterest shafts were
directed at sisters who were also Past Grand Matrons. I have an abundance of
such material, which was sent through the mails in utter violation of the
postal laws against the transmission of obscene matter, which I could not be
induced to put in type. In his milder moments he wrote of the members of the
General Grand Chapter as thieves, and its ritual as a bawdy one, and if he
ever alluded to either the General Grand Chapter or its active promoters, save
in terms of opprobrium, I am ignorant of it. Were it possible to set down the
history of the order, and to convey even a faint idea of the trials through
which it has passed to its present high estate without reference to this
disagreeable feature, it would have been passed by. Brother Macoy's mind was
naturally warped by personal interests, and his nature was such that he could
not view, unbiased, a subject in which he was so deeply concerned. The order
owes much to his efforts toward systematizing and arranging it, and if he
could have disabused his mind of the conviction that both the order and its
ritual were his personal property, and have welcomed the movement that was
designed to more thoroughly systematize and organize it, and induced the Grand
Chapter of New York, which was thoroughly under his influence, to accept the
invitation to participate in the convention which organized the General Grand
Chapter, and attended the same, as a representative of his Grand Chapter, he
would have been received with the highest honor, and might have handed down a
name unsullied by the mistakes of his later years. He has passed beyond the
reach of censure, or reproach, into a region, let us hope, where, with clear
vision he can see the unselfishness of the labors of those he opposed, and can
realize that the welfare of the order, which was really near his heart, was
also dear to them.
General Grand Chapter in 1895 adopted the following, reported by a committee
of which the writer was chairman: Robert Macoy, Past Grand Patron of New York,
although never connected with this body, but rather opposed to it, rendered
most valuable service to the order by his talent and great executive ability,
giving it the Chapter form of organization which has resulted in its present
highly prosperous condition. We gladly then cover what we deem his failings,
believing that be honestly held and battled for his views, with the broad
mantle of charity, and express the sense of loss we must feel as an order, and
inscribe his name upon the General Grand Chapter memorial scroll.
Masons who held positions of prominence had a very intolerant spirit toward
the order, which found expression in many ways; sometimes, as in Ohio, in
excluding Chapters from Lodge rooms, under all circumstances; and sometimes by
severe attacks in the columns of the Masonic press. Numerous as these were, we
will mention only one.
the most reputable of Masonic journals, the Philadelphia Keystone, in a
the address of Mattie A. Yost, Grand Matron of Missouri, had this to say: We
are pronouncedly opposed to "hair pin" Masonry. We do not think that a tyled
Lodge or Chapter is the place for males and females to congregate, and we know
that freeMasonry, in its institution, its inherent character, and its present
purpose, has no affiliating elements that render it homogenous with a female
secret society. Masonry was not made for all men, and certainly it was made
for no women.
shall it ever he that ancient craft Masonry will officially recognize "hair
pin" Masonry, and take it to its arms? Shade of King Solomon, forbid the
banns! * * * Let those individuals who created this order alone recognize and
take care of their illegitimate offspring.
Yost was denied the columns of this Masonic journal by its valiant editor, to
make reply to his ungentlemanly assault, but she found an equally reputable
Masonic journal, the Masonic Advocate, that gave her the opportunity to
castigate the gentleman in such a way that he had nothing more to say.
following is a complete list of rituals of the Eastern Star extant, arranged
alphabetically by the names by which, for the sake of brevity and convenience,
they are designated in this history.
Adoptive Rite. - Adoptive Rite. A Book of Instructions in the Organization,
Government, and Ceremonies of Chapters of the Order of the Eastern Star.
Arranged by Robert Macoy, Grand Secretary of the Supreme Grand Chapter. New
York, Masonic Publishing Company, 626 Broadway. 1868. Copyrighted, 1868, by
the Masonic Publishing and Manufacturing Company.
Adoptive Rite Revised. - Same as above. (1874.) Adoptive Rite Ritual. -
Adoptive Rite Ritual. A Book of Instruction in the Organization, Government
and Ceremonies of Chapters of the Order of the Eastern Star, arranged by
Robert Macoy, Past Grand Secretary of the Supreme Grand Chapter. Revised
Edition. New York: Macoy Publishing and Masonic Supply Co., 34 Park Row, N. Y.
1897. Copyrighted, 1868, by the Masonic Publishing and Manufacturing Company,
and in 1897, by J. G. Barker.
of Instructions. - F. A. T. A. L. Book of Instructions. 1861. No imprint. Not
California Ritual. - Ceremonies for opening the Chapter, Conducting Business,
the Form of Initiation, Closing the Chapter, and Installation of Officers, for
the use of Subordinate Chapters under the Jurisdiction of the Grand Chapter of
California, of the Order of the Eastern Star. Printed by Authority. (1873.)
California Revised. - Same as above. San Francisco. Spalding & Barto, Book and
Job Printers, 414 Clay street. 1877. Not copyrighted.
Critical and Explanatory Notes. - Ritual of the Order of the Eastern Star, as
"set forth and established" by the General Grand Chapter. With Critical and
Explanatory Notes. By Robert Macoy, 33d Degree, Past National Grand Secretary
and Past Grand Patron of New York, and Grand Patron of the Order. "Uniformity
of Ritual is Desirable." New York: Macoy, Publisher, 4 Barclay Street. 1878.
Copyrighted, 1878, by Robert Macoy.
Crombie's Ritual. - Ritual of the Order of the Eastern Star. Revised by
Brother John Cronibie, 33d Degree, 90th Degree, 96th Degree, Past Grand
Warden, Grand Lodge of Scotland; Past Provincial Superintendent of
Aberdeenshire; Past Provincial Grand Master for Aberdeenshire, &c., Royal
Order of Scotland; Sovereign Grand Master General for Scotland, Royal Masonic
Rite, &c., &c., &e. Aberdeen: Gibson & Thompson, 8 Gaelic Lane. 1889. Not
General Grand Chapter Ritual. - Ritual of the Order of the Eastern Star,
Published by Authority of the General Grand Chapter. Printed for the General
Grand Chapter. (1878.) Not copyrighted.
General Grand Chapter Revised. - Ritual of the Order of the Eastern Star.
Published by Authority of the General Grand Chapter. First Revised Edition.
Ladies' Friend. - The Ladies' Friend, Containing all the Lectures and Exoteric
Ceremonials, made use of in Conferring the Adoptive Degrees of Masonry,
Consisting of the Eastern Star, Mason's Daughter, Mildred Degree, Good
Samaritan, and Heroines of Jericho, by G. W. Brown, M. A. Ann Arbor. Press of
Dr. A. W. Chase, Main Street, 1866. Copyrighted by G. W. Brown, 1866.
Exposé. - Adoptive Masonry Illustrated. A full and complete Illustrated Ritual
of the five degrees of Female Masonry, comprising the degrees of Jehpthah's
Daughter, Ruth, Esther, Martha
Electa, and known as the Daughter's degree, Widow's degree, Wife's degree,
Sister's degree, and the Benevolent degree. By Thomas Lowe. Ezra A. Cook,
Publisher, 1881. Copyrighted by Ezra A. Cook, 1881.
Macoy's Manual. - Manual of the Order of the Eastern Star, containing the
Symbols, Scriptural Illustrations, Lectures, etc., adapted to the System of
Adoptive Masonry. Arranged by Robert Macoy, National Grand Secretary. "I have
seen His Star in the East and have come to Worship Him." Beautifully
Illustrated. New York, Masonic Publishing and Manufacturing Company, 430
Broome Street. Chicago, J. C. W. Bailey. 1866. Not copyrighted. Subsequent
Macoy's Ritual. Ritual of the Order of the Eastern Star. A Book of Instruction
for the Organization, Government and Ceremonies of Chapters of the Order in
every department, by Robert Macoy, Supreme Grand Patron, and Past Grand
Patron, Grand Chapter of New York. Illustrated. New York, Robert Macoy,
Publisher, 4 Barclay Street, 1876. Copyrighted by Robert Macoy, 1876.
Macoy's Standard. - The Rite of Adoption. The Standard Rituals of the Degrees
of the Eastern Star, the Queen of the South, and the Amaranth. To which is
added that of the Matron's Administrative Degree. A complete Book of
Instruction for the Organization, Government and Ceremonies of the Rite of
Adoption, in every Department. By Robert Macoy, 33d degree, Supreme Patron of
the Eastern Star, and Vicar‑General of the A. and A. Scottish Rite of
Adoption, Southern Jurisdiction. New York: Robert Macoy, Publisher, 1887.
Copyrighted by Robert Macoy, 1876, 1887. Later edition copyrighted by Robert
Michigan Ritual. - Without title. 1875. Not copy‑righted.
Morris's Manual. - Manual of the Eastern Star Degree+ as arranged by competent
authority. 1860. No imprint. Not copyrighted.
Mosaic. Book. - The Mosaic Book of the American Adoptive Rite, in three parts.
Part I. General Instructions. Part II. The Ritual. Part III. Constitution,
By‑Laws, etc. First Edition. Published under the authority of the Supreme
Constellation of the American Adoptive Rite. New York, John W. Leonard & Co.,
383 Broadway. 1855. Copyrighted by John W. Leonard, 1855.
Second. - The Mosaic Book of the American Adoptive Rite. In two parts. Part I.
General Instructions. Part. II. The Ritual. Second Edition. Published under
the Authority of the Supreme Constellation of the American Adoptive Rite. New
York: J. B. Taylor, V. E. Gr'd Sec'y, 335 Broadway. 1857. Not copyrighted.
York German. - Ritual des Ordens vom Ost Stern. Lehrbuch zur Leitung von
Kapiteln, geordnet and zusammengestellt von Robert Macoy, Gross‑Patron des
Gross‑Kapitels im Staate New York. L`nberseszt fuer den Gebrauch in Deutschen
Kapiteln fuer Concordia Kapitel von Simon Lambert. New‑York, Druck von "Der
Fuehrer." 1898. Not copyrighted.
York Ritual. - The Authorized Standard Ritual of the Order of the Eastern Star
in the State of New York. A system of forms and ceremonies, with necessary
instructions for Chapters. As revised by a committee at the annual session of
the Grand Chapter, held in June, 1897. New York: Published by the Grand
Chapter, 1900. Copyrighted by Robert Macoy, 1876, 1887, 1891; by Clara Clark,
1895; by Grand Chapter, Order of the Eastern Star, State of New York, 1896,
Rosary. - The Rosary of the Eastern Star, comprising the Lectures, Odes,
Emblems, Scriptural Readings, and General Directions appertaining to the
popular and elegant system of Adoptive Masonry, by Rob Morris, LL. D., Masonic
Writer. Chicago, John C. W. Bailey, Printer and Publisher, P. O. Box 1439,
1865. Copyrighted by Rob Morris, 1865.
Scotch Ritual. - Ritual of the Order of the Eastern Star. Aberdeen: Printed
by W. Milne Gibson, S Gaelic Lane. 1900. Not copyrighted. Same as Crombie's
ritual except title page.
Tatem's Monitor. - The Monitor of the Eastern Star, containing the Ritual of
Adoptive Masonry embraced in the Eastern Star Degree, consisting of the
Initiation, Degree Work, Ceremony for Opening, and Closing a Lodge,
Installation Services, etc., Together with forms and rules for the government
of Lodges, compiled and arranged by John H. Them, Adrian, Michigan. Holmes,
Cook & Bruner, Printers, Adrian, Mich. Copyrighted by J. IL Tatem. 1867.
Thesauros. - Thesauros of the Ancient and Honorable Order of the Eastern Star
as collected and arranged by the Committee and adopted by the Supreme Council
in Convocation, assembled May, 1793. Copyright Secured. Printed for the use of
the fourth Division, U. S. By order of the G. L. 1550.
following account of the various rituals published takes them in the order of
their publication, so that the reader can trace the development of the work of
the order, and note its various changes. It has been deemed best to give in
this Chapter only a general outline of them, reserving to a subsequent Chapter
the explanations of the various emblems, and grouping the different
explanations of each emblem or class of emblems together, so that the changes
may be more easily noted without critical study.
aware that criticism may be made that too copious extracts have been inserted
herein from rituals which are now obsolete, but it must be remembered that
Macoy's Manual and Adoptive Rite Ritual can be purchased in the open market by
any that will buy, and that only the initiated can know what changes have been
made, and wherein the former work is similar to that now in use. Those who
idea of the loose manner in which former rituals have been kept, or of their
complete accessibility by any one caring to read them, may criticise the
author for thus quoting from them, but, secure in his belief that he has
divulged no new facts he has chosen thus to present the evolution of the
ritual. The various efforts, largely unavailing, on the part of the various
Grand Chapters, to restrict the circulation of the ritual, emphasizes strongly
the necessity of that which was prayed for in the memorial of the Grand
Chapter of Texas to the General Grand Chapter in 1898, on which a committee
will report in 1901, viz: the publication of a manual to contain the lectures
and other non‑secret portions of the ritual for general sale, re‑serving the
secret work for communication in another way. In this history will be found
nothing that, even if it had been quoted from the present ritual, would not
properly find a place in such a manual. Reference is made in the Preface to
this subject, to which the reader's attention is called.
Chapter 1, the authenticity of this ritual is discussed. In the preface of
1819 it is said of the order: During the revolutionary war, and the last war
with England, it tended greatly to soften barbarous strife by bringing to the
aid of the wounded, the gentle charity of enlightened sisterhood.
the. ritual it was stated that "no officer of the Supreme Constellation
receives any fee or reward for services rendered in that capacity, nor can the
council itself establish any treasury or permanent fund whatever in connection
with the order." or was any officer of a constellation to be allowed any fee
or emolument for services. Meetings were to be held quarterly. The officers of
a constellation were
Principal; Vice Principal; five sisters of the rays, viz: Ray Blue, Ray
Orange, Ray White, Ray Green, and Ray Red; Treasurer, and Secretary.
charges accompanying the several degrees the candidate was thus addressed:
initiation. - May your obedience be as exemplary as that of Jephthah's
daughter. May your honor be in your hands a weapon of might to cut asunder all
unholy ties, and prove the sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God. May
your apron caution you to keep your garments unspotted from the world, and
your emblematical color, blue, advise; you constantly of that cerulean hue
which appears in the clear heavens, to win us upwards to those still higher
mansions, not made with hands, eternal in the heavens. So mote it be * *
passing. - May your attachment be like that of Ruth, both to the service and
the people of God. May your sheaf of wheat move you to produce an hundred fold
of the peaceable fruits of righteousness. May your glove warn you of those
thorns and asperities which will everywhere be found until "He that cometh
shall come." May your emblematical color, orange, continually suggest to your
mind amidst the Spring and Summer of life, that when its Autumn cometh on and
the Winter of death draweth nigh, your ripened sheaves shall be: acceptable,
and the Lord of the harvest giveth you an eternal rest among those pronounced
worthy, good and faithful servants. So mote it be * *
raising. - May the spotless purity of your hearts be like that of virtuous
Esther. May your golden crown entice your thoughts to that brilliant company
that encircles the throne of God. May your band serve to connect you in spirit
with the pure of all ages who have gone up to their kindred heaven; and your
emblematical color, white, awaken devout aspirations, that after death shall
have released you from the soiled raiments of the flesh, your souls washed
white in the blood of the Lamb, may you be presented for acceptance of your
Redeemer, without fault before the throne of God. So mote it be.
exalting. - A solemn union, while we contemplate the scene described by a
faithful John. An open sepulcher, and a triumphant God! Weeping to joy and
tears to smiles! The Redeemer, touched by human grief, and the dead, that died
in the Lord called again to life. And can a member of the Eastern Star ever
banish such thoughts from the heart? May your faith in God's promises be like
that of Martha, the sister of Lazarus, whom Jesus loved. May your opened
sepulcher admonish you of the end of life, and the resurrection of those that
follow the Conqueror through the valley of the shadow. May your brooch be as
the urim and thummim of the old dispensation whose mysterious lights called to
enquire the will of God, and your emblematical color, green, speak aloud to
him that said: "Whosoever liveth and believeth in me shall never die." Where
the spirit of the Lord is, there is liberty. Greenness springs never from the
barren sand, but warmed by the sunshine of his favor, and counseled by his
whisperings of love, you shall be planted as trees in the garden of the Lord,
and dwell in the house of the Lord forever.
mote. it be * *
perfecting. - The circle is complete. The colors five have met your eyes and
you have been enlightened by the glory thereof. The Star in the East is before
you in all its rays. Signals and symbols, traditions and ancient tokens have
yielded their treasures to your perseverance and I hail you members and
brothers, protectors of the Eastern Star, worthy and true. Let the labors
through which I have cheerfully led you, yield blessings of consolation in the
hour of need. As daughters, widows, wives, sisters and sister‑in‑laws, who
obey faithfully the precepts of this order, you will ever be under the
protection of one who will spread the mantle of his love around you when the
storm beats furiously. As brother protectors you will be a wall to these
defenseless ones and shed your blood, if need be, that no evil approach them.
So let your light shine before men, that they may see your good works, and
glorify your Father which is in heaven. You have seen His Star in the East!
Come ye then and worship him! May the
obedience of Jephthah's daughter, and the attachment of Ruth, and the purity
of Esther, and the faith of Martha, and the hospitality (truth) of Electa.
adorn the circle of your virtues, and stand forth, of all the brightest. May
your grasping hands warn you that in life we are but the stewards of a master
who has commissioned us to dispense His bounties without grudging. May your
collar with its array of symbols tell to the suffering and the needy, that you
are of those whose first fruits were an oblation to the Lord; and your
emblematical color, red, recall you to those drops of blood that fell to the
ground for your sake. In that blood, as the Alpha and Omega of the Eastern
Star, our labors gain their sanction, as Christian works.
those red drops falling as heavy rain from a pierced side of Messiah, may you
ever turn with perfect hope, and so may you live, sisters and brethren, that
your obedience, attachment, purity, faith, and hospitality (truth), may
survive your enduring monuments on earth, long after you shall have gone to
your glorified and eternal rest.
mote it be * *
portion of the lectures or secret work was given.
Mosaic Book the officers of a constellation were designated by symbols as
noted, the symbols being found also in the border of the charter (see
illustration), and were as follows: Brothers: Heleon the first and chief
Pillar; president of council; personator of Jephthah. - Lion. Philomath, the
second Pillar; lieutenant to Heleon; personator of Boaz. - Coiled snake.
Verger, the third Pillar; personator of Ahasuerus; Treasurer. - Raven.
Herald, the fourth Pillar; personator of St. John; Secretary. - Eagle.
Warder, the fifth Pillar; keeper of portals. - Dove. Sisters: - Luna, the
first or chief Correspondent; personator of Adah. - Violets.
the second Correspondent; personator of Ruth. - Sunflower.
the third Correspondent; personator of Esther. - Lilies.
the fourth Correspondent; personator of Martha. - Pine branch with cones.
the fifth Correspondent; personator of Electa. - Poses.
other emblems found in the border of the charter were used in the Mosaic Book
as follows: Five stars in a blue circle represented the constellation.
gavel represented the five Pillars.
heart, the five Correspondents.
perfect ashlar, the landmarks.
ring, the memorial, "the semi‑annual passport communicated by the V. F. Grand
Secretary to the subordinate constellation for traveling purposes only."
sun, the Luminaries, "the governing officers of the Supreme Constellation."
Pillars alone had power to appoint the Correspondents, elect candidates,
nominate their own successors, and appoint times and places of meetings.
Stated meetings were to be held weekly, semi‑monthly, monthly, bi‑monthly, or
quarterly as the bylaws should specify. Three Pillars were necessary for the
opening of a constellation, and five of each sex were essential for work.
Before opening, the membership board was purged by the Pillars and
Correspondents, and the names of any not entitled to attend were erased
therefrom. Then, only the Pillars and Correspondents being present:
addresses Warder: - Sir and Pillar. The constellation is about to be opened
for the purposes contemplated in this charter. Your duties will require you to
remain without, guarding with all diligence, the entrance to this place and
nor favor to influence you in admitting improper visitors. Will you perform
this trust in truth and vigilance ?
- What guarantee have I that, in my absence, the work of the constellation
will be performed agreeably to the constitution of the Supreme Constellation
and the usages of the American Adoptive Rite?
- The honor of a Mason.
- It is well, - I accept it - and, if you will furnish me with the means of
security, I will guard you in truth and vigilance while here assembled.
- Receive the key. - He presents him with the key of the room whereupon the
Warder retires to the anteroom, locks the door on the outside, and
thenceforth, until the close of the meeting, the security of the constellation
is under his sole and peculiar care.
- Ladies and Sirs. The hour of meeting has arrived. The precautionary measures
of security, both within and without, have been duly taken, and it is now my
will that the Christian star be formed for the purpose of improvement and
officers then assumed their stations, (See illustration of labyrinth, Chapter
IV,) and members were admitted two at a time. "When convenient they should be
one of each sex, the lady walking on the right." They then passed the
labyrinth. "The lady should take the left of the gentleman when they pass
Philomath. As each chair is passed (except 5), they make the initiation sign
and receive from its occupant the responsive sign. Arriving before Heleon,
each presents a Tessera to that officer, who examines it and, if found
correct, invites them to proper seats." After Scripture readings (Isa. lxiii,
1‑6; I Peter, ii, 21‑25,) and prayer, Philomath said: Let us attend to the
instructive lessons of our order. We have five degrees, named respectively,
Jephthah's Daughter, Ruth, Esther, Martha, and Electa. In these we contemplate
certain exalted virtues in their relationship to the history of our Lord Jesus
perfect exemplar of all virtues. In His eventful and blessed life we view Him
resigning his blessed life to fulfill His Father's oath that the soul that
sinneth shall die; forsaking his princely mansion in heaven to dwell in a
humble place on earth; offering Himself a victim to rescue His people from
impending and eternal death; relying, with unswerving faith, upon the promises
of God; and, finally, sacrificing all things, fame, power, friends, and life,
in testimony of the religion He came to establish. Was there ever love like
was followed by a rehearsal, by the Correspondents, of the signs, meaning of
emblems, etc., each followed by a response by Philomath, of which the
following is a specimen:
well. And when a sister in distress hails us with that sign, we will recall
the merits of Electa and of you, my sister, her representative; be reminded of
our covenant of adoption, and, responding with the pass of this degree, afford
her prompt relief. Brothers, shall it be so? All reply, Even so.
closing ceremony was very brief, but embraced the prayer, "Holy and merciful
time of initiation, the Herald thus addressed the candidate in the anteroom:
objects for which we are banded together, are to comfort, protect and aid each
other through the labyrinth of human life, and make its hardships light by
means of cheerful companionship, and social pleasures. * * We are tongue tied
against slandering any member of this order; and bound with chains and fetters
against doing one of them any manner of wrong. You will in like manner be
placed under restraint. We are all of us, in faith, Christians; and it is a
large part of the business of this society to rehearse the life and doctrines
of Christ, and endeavor to imitate and practice upon his example. In this
faith and in these works you, too, will be expected to participate.
This material originally scanned by Ralph Omholt, Kirkland
Chapter 176, Washington.
her entrance, Thetis, acting as Conductress came forward, took the candidate
by both hands, and thus addressed her:
Welcome, my dear friend, to our constellation. The recommendations you bring
us have convinced us that you are a proper subject for the light of adoptive
Masonry. We trust the lessons that we shall teach you here, will both please
and instruct you. Human life is a labyrinth through which we wander, too
often, alas! blindly and in ignorance. It is good for us to have a friendly
form by our side who has trod this way before us, and a friendly hand that can
guide us with infallible certainty and safety through its most intricate
mazes. Such a companion may be found in Jesus Christ; who lived as we are
living, (lied as we must die, and went before us to heaven to prepare a place
for us. Permit me, however, on the present occasion to act as your guide
through a labyrinth, which otherwise you could not pass, and to lead you to
the presence of our enlightened chief officer. But receive first of all this
copy of the divine guide of life.
small bible was then presented to the candidate and the labyrinth passed, a
halt being made before each officer, when a dialogue took place of which this
will give an idea: Herald - What bringest thou?
- I know not.
- You know not?
- But I have a hope.
- What hopest thou, then?
- It is well. Pass, Affection.
several "hopes" were Amiability, Charity, Constancy, Delicacy, Discretion, and
Arriving at her station Thetis said:
is the seat that I have vacated for a tune, that I may assist your wandering
steps through our labyrinth. We are taught in the lessons of adoptive
Masonry to resign at times, our comforts and ease, that by so doing, we can
benefit our fellow‑creatures. Be seated. Soon may you be enlightened, my dear
friend, to fill this or some other station in our order. Whenever wearied on
the journey of human life, may you always find, as now you do, a friend who
has a place and a heart to refresh you. Rise now, and let us be going.
Arriving at Heleon, he repeated the covenant of adoption, which consisted of
five ties, covering 1, secrecy; 2, obedience to laws; 3, advice, sympathy, and
aid; 4, avoiding unkindness; 5, to model life upon example of Jesus Christ. It
being assented to, he said: It is well. We readily accept the pledge you make
us. We share with you in this covenant and do now accept you into our band.
Herald, make record that sister ____ , the ____ of brother ____ , an
affiliated master Mason, is now initiated into the American Adoptive Rite.
an intermission, the signs were repeated, and Heleon further addressed the
sister, we hail with true pleasure your coming amongst us. The work of
adoptive Masonry is amply sufficient for us all, and we shall rejoice to find
you excelling in your zeal that of the most devoted members of our society. We
are laboring to increase our own happiness and to promote that of others. Our
experience and the wisdom we gain from the scriptures alike teach us that this
world is a harsh, unfriendly scene, poorly adapted to impart felicity; and
that it is chiefly by combining the efforts of the good and true, in the work
of morality and religion, that happiness is to be acquired and extended. The
greater our ability to do good, the more pleasure we shall enjoy. We meet in
private, that we may arrange our plans for the good work in which we are
engaged, without interruption from those who can riot understand or sympathize
with in. In our meetings, we strive to learn our duty as beings who possess an
immortal part, and
we return home it is our care to perform them. We cultivate a spirit of
harmony that the enemy of souls may acquire no advantage over us. And as a
large portion of our work as adopted Masons lies in acquiring the doctrines
and temper of Jesus Christ, whom truly to know is everlasting life, we often
unite to address the heavenly throne and to plead with God that the very
spirit of faith and wisdom may descend upon us and make our meeting place a
place like heaven. In such a prayer let us now with cheerful faith combine.
followed the prayer, "Source of all Wisdom."
stellæ and protectors might pass through the initiatory ceremonies, but the
five degrees were only conferred upon stellæ, and in conferring them one of
the Correspondents represented the candidate. The degrees, with the exception
of that of Martha, were given in dramatic form, and, it will be seen, required
degree of Jephthah's daughter, the candidate being announced as in readiness,
the five Correspondents retired to receive her, when she was addressed:
My dear sister! you are about to represent Adah, the devoted woman, the
daughter of Jephthah, the Gileadtie, who resigned her life to fulfill the oath
of her father. Carefully observe whatever passes under your notice, my dear
sister, and let the impressive lessons of this degree sink deeply into your
covenant of adoption was rehearsed and assented to, after which the ladies
entered and remained by the door. Behind a curtain which divided the hall, a
sound as of trampling feet and music was heard.
Hosanna! they come they come! The prayer of my father has prevailed with God.
him the victory. Hosanna! they come! they come! Oh the raptures of this hour!
For this have I waited; for this my prayers have ascended day and night to
heaven. Hosanna! they come! they come! Soon I shall meet my father, no more to
be separated. Soon I shall crown him with this wreath of triumph and my nation
will hail him as their deliverer. Hosanna! they come! they come! On the brow
of yonder hill I already see their banners and the glitter of their spears. I
hear their music echoing from the mountain side. Oh God of Israel! thou alone
art God, and there is none other! The curtain is now drawn aside, and Heleon,
who represents Jephthah, enters with a sword in his hand, accompanied by the
- Once more I see my native village and the dwelling place of my child. Soon I
shall greet her, and, in the history of my exploits and the joys of victory,
forget all the dangers to which I have been exposed. Beloved Adah! how must
your gentle heart now bound with joy. But, here I pause to recall the solemn
vow I made when last I stood upon this spot. As I went forth, in the might of
Israel's God, to repel the hosts of Ammon, I swore with uplifted hand, when I
returned home in peace, whatsoever should come forth from the doors of my
house to meet me, it should be the Lord's and I would offer it up for a burnt
offering. Now I pause to learn what shall be the victim. The pet lamb of my
beloved Adah was wont to run and meet me when I returned from the mountain
chase. It were a harsh welcome to my daughter to slay her gentle favorite; yet
my oath is registered in heaven. I am becoming anxious. Trumpets, sound again!
that Adah may know of my approach and send out some messenger to meet me.
trampling of feet and music are renewed. The ladies who have remained near the
door now move slowly toward Heleon. As his eye falls upon them, he starts in
anguish, cries aloud: Alas! my daughter! and then, falling upon his knees,
buries his face in his hands. The ladies approach him, and
My father, why this distress?
- Alas! my daughter!
What has thy daughter done to distress thee?
- Thou hast brought me very low!
Father, father, what cruel words are these?
- Thou art one of them that trouble me; for I have opened my mouth to the
Lord, and I can not turn back.
arises, and after a short pause continues slowly and solemnly:
Daughter! beloved and only child! when I went forth at the head of the army of
Israel, I felt that in God alone could I hope for victory. Therefore I
consecrated myself in solemn prayer to Him. And I vowed a vow that should I
return victorious and in peace, whatsoever should come forth to meet me should
be the Lord's - a victim - a burnt offering! Oh my daughter! how little did I
anticipate this result! How much better had I perished by the sword of Ammon!
Alas, my daughter! my vow is registered in heaven. My soul is perjured. I
shall be miserable both in this world and in the next; for I can not, can not
take thy life.
My father, if thou hast opened thy mouth unto the Lord, do to me according to
that which hath proceeded out of thy mouth. Better that I should die, dear
father, than that thou lose thy soul. Yea, rather a thousand deaths. I will
die, and our people shall see that Adah was worthy to be the daughter of
Jephthah, the deliverer of his people.
takes the sword from her father's hand and examines the blade. Then, with a
pathetic impulse, she adds: But oh, my father, in this first hour of your
return, while the nation is exulting in your victory, it is hard to die,
today! I can not submit my neck to this sword today. Give me a little time to
contemplate this awful change and prepare for it. I ask for two months to fit
my mind for death. Let me go in the mountains in the company of these maidens,
for two months, and I will surely return.
- Go, my daughter, and the God of truth go with thee.
ladies return to the door, while Heleon
remains in Misplace. After a few minutes' separation, they return, Jephthah's
daughter being crowned with a wreath:
Father, I am come again, agreeably to my pledge. In the caves of the
mountains, in answer to my earnest prayers, I have found resignation and
peace. I am come, willingly, I trust, to fulfill your vow, and give myself a
victim. For this purpose, with this wreath that I prepared to celebrate your
victory, I am crowned. My father, do not afflict your heart too much at my
sacrifice. Be resigned to the will of God. And when you think of me, and
remember how willingly I suffered this, to save you from dishonor, do not
forget, in your anguish at my loss, the splendid triumph God granted you in
answer to your vow. Father - friends - life - farewell. A long, a last
folds her hands resignedly, and casts her eyes upward:
delay the fatal blow.
- My daughter! there is another world, where the errors of this life shall be
forgiven, and sorrow lost in universal joy. I will meet you there.
the veil over her face. All present cover their faces with their veils. She
instantly throws her veil back upon the floor, they imitating her, and speaks
with great resolution:
Nay, father, I did not consent to this. I can not permit my eyes to be
covered. I will die in the light.
again folds her arms, and looks upward. He picks up the veil, and, while again
casting it over her face, says:
- My daughter, I can not strike you while your eyes are fixed upon mine.
throws it off as before, but with more determination, and says:
Then I will turn them away from you; I will fix them upon yonder mountain
tops, where I found peace. But you shall not put me to death in the dark.
from him and folds her arms as before. He
regains the veil, and going behind her says, while he covers her face the
third time: Heleon - Do not disobey me thus, my daughter! It is necessary you
should consent to this.
throws it from her face, but retains the end of it in her hands, grasping it
with much force. Turning toward him, with a firm and steady look and voice,
I declare to you, my father, I will never consent to this. To die with my face
covered, like a criminal, would be a mark of perpetual infamy and disgrace - a
stain upon my memory. This multitude, who have come to witness my death, would
be persuaded that I am suffering the penalty of my own crime. I will not thus
be debased, and my name go down to the future dishonored. I die innocent. I
die not for myself, but for another, even for you. I die to maintain your
integrity - and if you will not suffer me to preserve my good name, upon your
head be the penalty, for I will not submit to death at all.
casts her eyes upward.
- Let it be so then. Have your desire. Here ends the ceremony. Heleon invites
the candidate to be seated.
an introduction similar to the preceding, and the repetition of the covenant
of adoption, Areme, who represents Naomi, addresses Flora, who represents
- My daughter, we have nothing left us now, but to trust in God. Our money is
expended; - our last morsel of food is consumed; - I have called at every
house where a friend or relative once resided, and have sought relief, but in
vain. My friends do not recognize my claim. My relatives are dead, or the few
who survive have forgotten me. All my humiliation has been in vain. The
Almighty bath dealt very bitterly with me. I pray you, then, my daughter, no
longer attempt to share my cheerless lot, but rather return to your own
princely home and friends, and be happy there. You have already sac‑
rificed too much for me. Go, dear Ruth, and leave me to my fate.
- Intreat me not to leave thee or to return from following after thee; for
whither thou goest I will go, and where thou Lodgest I will Lodge; thy people
shall be my people, and thy God my God; where thou diest will I (lie, and
there will I be buried; the Lord do so to me and more also, if aught but death
part thee and me! I will go, my mother, into the barley fields and glean. It
can not be, but that some liberal man among this people may yet take
compassion upon our distress, and afford me the means of maintaining you;
while I have the strength to toil for your subsistence, you shall not suffer
want. Give me your blessing then, my mother, and let me go.
- Nay, my daughter, I will go. Such hardships are not for you. Our long
journey from Moab has already exhausted your strength, and you could not
endure it. So delicately nurtured as you have been, the hot sun in the barley
fields would overpower you; I am more accustomed to toil, and I will go.
- The strength of a good resolution will support me. Give me your blessing and
let me go.
- The Lord recompense thy work, and a full reward be given thee of the Lord
God of Israel, under whose wings thou art come to trust.
ladies now move toward the curtain, which is thrown aside, and they behold a
representation of a barley field, in which workmen and gleaners are engaged.
Upon the floor appear sheaves and loose straw. The Pillars are observed to be
arranging the sheaves - one of them, the overseer, having a sickle in his
hand. Flora picks up a few bits of straw with apparent fatigue, and then
rising, speaks, as if to herself:
- I feel that Naomi spake truly. The sun glares upon my head like a sheet of
flame. The stubble scorches my feet like coals of fire. My heart begins to
sink within me. I feel that I must faint. I will return to Naomi. Oh, God of
Israel, for whom I have forsaken all things, witness my distress, and hear the
widow's cry! Give me help! Goes near the door and reclines against the wall as
exhausted. Philomath, who represents Boaz, and who has been thus far in the
background, out of view, now comes among the reapers with a basket in his
hand, and speaks to the overseer:
Philomath - It is well. The workmen have done a good task today. Call them
around me now, and let them partake of the refreshments I have provided, -
Observes Ruth; - But what - who - whose damsel is this?
- It is the Moabitish damsel who came back with Naomi, out of the country of
Moab - and she said to me, I pray you let me glean and gather after the
reapers, among the sheaves. So she came, and bath continued here, even from
the morning until now.
Philomath - She appears to be fatigued. She is quite exhausted.
- Sir, it is plain she has not been accustomed to hardships like these. I
observed early this morning, how painfully the stubble scorched her feet, and
with what difficulty she gathered up the gleanings. And as the sun came over
us, she has drooped more and more, ‑until, like a stricken lily, she bows her
head, and can do no more. Sir, observe her with those two handfuls of barley;
it is all she has gathered today.
Philomath - God has sent her to us that she may find relief. I will invite her
to partake of these refreshments.
advances towards her. As she observes him approaching, she raises her head,
and looking towards heaven, speaks as if to herself:
- It is the owner of the field. What should he want of me but to insult and
reproach me? O cruel people! shall I not find one friendly soul among you? He
takes me to be an intruder - peradventure a thief - and he will drive me from
the field. Oh, God of Israel, for whom I have forsaken all things, witness now
my distress, and hear the widow's cry! Give me help!
up her two handfuls of barley to show him that she is but a poor gleaner, and
towards heaven. Philomath comes before her and speaks: Philomath - Ruth, it
has been fully showed me all that thou hast done unto thy mother‑in‑law since
the death of thine husband, and how thou hast left thy father and thy mother,
and the land of thy nativity, and art come unto a people that thou knewest not
heretofore. The Lord recompense thy work, and a full reward be given thee of
the Lord God of Israel, under whose wings thou (lost trust. Come with me, and
partake of the refreshments which I have provided for my reapers.
all gather around the basket and partake, accosting one another with cheerful
words. After a minute or two Philomath addresses Herald:
Philomath - Let her glean, even among the sheaves, and reproach her not; and
let fall also some of the handfuls of purpose for her; and leave them, that
she may glean them and rebuke her not.
introduction and rehearsal of the covenant of adoption:
(who represents Esther) - All is now in readiness for the effort. I have done
all I could to prepare for this trial, and nothing remains but to make the
attempt. By prayer and fasting, for three days and nights I have endeavored to
secure the favor of God. For is it not for his dear sake that I am thus
imperiling all that I hold dear? In this cruel edict my life is not attempted;
nor should I personally suffer this dreadful penalty. But, oh my people! the
hunted exiles of Judah! doomed nation of God! to what a fate are you exposed?
How can I live and see you destroyed? Better that we all perish together, and
the faithfulness of death seal the friendship cemented in life. This is the
last day that remains for me to accomplish my purpose, and even now it is full
late. I will go in unto the king, which is not according to the law, and if I
perish, I perish. Maidens, robe me for the sacrifice. Give me a garb of purest
white, and the golden crown upon my head. Peradventure,
the king beholds me thus arrayed, he will be reminded of the solemn vow which,
in years gone by, he made me, and I shall accomplish my purpose.
attendants tie the white scarf over her left shoulder, so that it crosses her
breast to the right side, and place the crown upon her head.
Now, my maidens, let us move forward, and while we approach the gate of the
palace in which life or death awaits us, let your hearts, with mine, be
directed to that throne whence cometh all our help.
move slowly forward.
Be pleased, oh Lord, to deliver me: oh Lord make haste to help me. Withhold
not thou thy tender mercy from me, oh Lord; let thy loving kindness and thy
truth continually preserve me. Why art thou cast down oh my soul? and why art
thou disquieted within me? hope thou in God: for I will yet praise him who is
the help of my countenance and my God.
Marching two and two they approach the guards, who are seated in front of the
curtain. The guards rise, cross their swords before her, and:
Philomath - Back! you can not pass here! Back! I say. Do you not know that
this is the king's palace and that we are his guards?
Stand aside! I command you. I am your queen, and will enter! Guards, stand
Philomath - Madam, I recognize you, and respect you, both for your station and
your character. Your kindness and affability to all your subjects have
endeared your memory throughout the nation. I know that your word here is law.
Yet it is at your peril if you enter this place. Today is the Grand council of
the nation. With the king are assembled the princes and rulers of the land,
and his majesty will on this occasion, more than all others, he offended at
your intrusion. I pray you, royal madam, do not pass.
Stand aside, I have estimated the peril and I will undertake it. Let me pass!
- Royal madam! it is an inviolable law of the palace, that no person shall
enter unless summoned by the king, under penalty of death. I entreat
be warned before your blood stains those walls. If you enter, it is to certain
Let me pass, and no longer delay my enterprise. The responsibility be upon my
- Pass then, and may God protect you! The curtain is here drawn aside and
exhibits the Grand council. The king is seated; the other officers are
standing on his right and left; he wears a crown upon his head, and bears in
his right hand a scepter; as the ladies enter, he is speaking to those around
- As to this accursed nation, let their destruction be sharp and sure. See
that no lingering slaughter or protracted death makes their fate uncertain;
but in one day, yea, if it be possible, in one hour, let the sword reach them,
old and young, until not one be left. Then shall my kingdom ___
this instant his eye falls upon Hebe, and he abruptly pauses. He rises to his
feet, his countenance expressing the greatest surprise and anger.
- What means this intrusion? Guards, upon your lives be this act. Are my
strictest orders thus to be disregarded? Were it my mother, she should die.
Take her at once to the courtyard and put her to death.
guards rush upon her and seize her by each hand to lead her away. She
accompanies them a few paces, then snatches her hands from theirs, turns
towards the king, and * * * The king speaks quickly, and in a softened tone:
- Stop guards, release her. Return to your posts. Esther, my queen, approach
hither and receive my pardon.
advances to him Verger - What wilt thou, Queen Esther? and what is thy
request? it shall even be granted thee to the half of the kingdom.
degree is communicated without ceremonial; and to all the candidates
simultaneously. This was found necessary, as the principal male character in
the dialogue would necessarily have represented the Lord
Christ, whom to attempt thus to personate would be blasphemous.
this Heleon represented St. John, and Areme, Electa.
Herald, who is on the inner side of the veil, is heard as if reading from a
letter he has just received:
the new religion be crushed out of every nation where the Roman rule prevails;
that its votaries, one and all, be required to renounce it or be mercilessly
sacrificed; that the Roman soldiers - ah, cruel band - visit the dwelling of
every suspected Christian, and see that he acquit himself of the suspicion by
trampling upon the cross. Take notice, Most Worshipful Grand Master, and
govern yourself accordingly.
cruel Emperor! Ah, hapless people! Alas, the persecuted church of Christ, what
will avail you now? people of the living Savior, whither now will you flee? Is
there no rest but the grave for the friends of Jesus? And you, pious Electa,
true‑hearted sister of Christ, delight of all who love the Lord, what will be
your fate now? How will you sustain this dreadful trial? Many will deny in
these latter days of persecution, and purchase a miserable life by denying Him
who gave his life as a ransom for many. Will your name be added to that
traitorous band? I tremble to consider it. Yet, how many, who have been
devoted to him, in the day of ease and quiet, afterward, when affliction or
persecution ariseth for the Word's sake, are offended. I am oppressed with
anxiety concerning this woman. If Electa is found to shrink under this
calamity, who, then, will be faithful? Aged and infirm as I am, under the yoke
of five score years, I will arise and go to her dwelling, to satisfy my mind
that she is faithful. And that she may not easily recognize me until I have
communicated this message, I will disguise myself in the garb of a Roman
soldier, the bitterest enemy of the cross, and thus present myself at her
curtain is now drawn aside and exhibits Herald
with a sword. He walks slowly, as if with weariness and pain, towards the door
of entrance. Arrived there, he halts and soliloquizes:
task is more than I reckoned it. Had the distance been a little greater I
could not have accomplished it. Five score years have done their work too
faithfully for such journeys as these. I will apply for admission. - He
knocks. - Dusty and disguised as I am in this garb, Electa will surely be
unable to recognize me. I am quite exhausted.
leans upon the sword in his left hand, by the side of the door. The ladies
approach him. Areme, who represents Electa, observes him narrowly and halts.
soldier! A Roman soldier! The butchers of Christ, and the insatiable ravagers
of his flock - what does he here? Why has he chosen to call upon me? But my
duty is plain, whatever may be his motives, and I will dispense to him
Christian hospitality. I perceive he is very aged and infirm. He appears
overcome with heat and fatigue. I will hesitate no longer. Perhaps God has
sent him here for his sours good. - She goes to him and takes him kindly by
the hand. - My aged brother, in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ, welcome to
my dwelling. Let it be your home while you tarry here. Enter. The liberal hand
of Providence has endowed me richly with the means of hospitality. Enter, and,
as if sent by Him, partake freely of his benefits. - She leads him a little
way and seats him. - Let me refresh you with water. - She brings him water, of
which he drinks. - The day is hot, the roads are hard and dusty, your journey
has been too great for you. It was often so with our blessed Savior, who, in
his ministry, used to pass this way when I was but a child. Hungry and thirsty
and weary as you are, he has often realized in this very dwelling how hitter
is the lot of man. Now, my brother, you seem refreshed; the color mounts to
your cheek and light comes again to your eye. Does the name of Christ bring
such animation to your soul? ah, I have experienced its benefits. Cheer up,
then, cheer up, aged friend. There shall be nothing wanting for your comfort
here. The love of Christ con‑
straineth me, and whatever I have is your own. Speak, brother, and command me
what I shall do for You.
- I am hungry. Since the morning watch I have not broken bread. Yet a few
crusts will suffice me, and I will be thankful.
- No crusts from me. While Electa has an abounding Providence for her own
support, the wayfarer whom Christ may direct hither shall not have crusts. ‑
She presents him a dish covered with food. - Take of the best my house affords
and welcome. - After a few minutes she brings him a cup of wine. - Accept this
cup of the richest wine my house affords. May its generous flavor give you new
strength and prove, at least, the earnest of your welcome. ‑ After he has
drank she continues. - But what further token of hospitality can I offer you?
Speak, brother, and command me, what I shall do for you.
draws forth an empty purse and hands to her. - My purse is empty. My home far
away. I have but little strength to labor for money. Give me a few farthings
to enable me to reach the next village and I will be thankful.
- Nay, not a few farthings. - She fills the purse as if with gold. - But
rather let me furnish you the means for your entire journey. And when you
shall once again reach that distant home, may you find its loved ones all in
health and prepared to greet you. - She returns the purse. - But all your
wants are not yet supplied. Speak again, brother, and command me, what shall I
do for you?
- My raiment is old and worn. Yet I shall not much longer need a covering,
therefore, if your husband or servants have any cast‑off garments you would
bestow upon me, I would be thankful.
- Not so, my brother, I will deal more bountifully with you than you ask. -
She presents him with a bundle, as if filled with clothing. - Here is the best
in our wardrobe, and may they give you comfort and warmth until you reach your
distant home and friends. But is there not something further I can do for you?
Think: I should feel loth to know
any left me in distress while: I have the means for their relief.
- No, kind lady, nothing further. All that I was in want of has been supplied
me, and for your generous bounty believe me I am thankful. But now, that I am
refreshed and able to deliver my message, I will inform you what is my
business in this part of the country. The Emperor of Rome has been pleased to
issue an edict to the effect "that the new religion be crushed out from every
nation where the Roman rule prevails; that its votaries, one and all, be
required to renounce it or be mercilessly sacrificed; that the Roman soldiers
visit the dwelling of every suspected Christian, and see that he acquit
himself of the suspicion by trampling upon the cross." I have, therefore, come
to enquire of you,, as of one who is best acquainted throughout this region,
are there any Christians among your neighbors, and, if so, to demand their
names. - He looks her steadily in the face. She returns his look with a
surprised air, but makes no reply. After a brief pause he continues: - Madam,
there is something suspicious in your silence. Why should you hesitate to
reply? Are there any Christians in your family? Your manner would seem
to indicate it. Give me their names, or you will suffer the penalty as though
you were one in person. - He again pauses and looks in her face as before; but
she makes no reply. He rises and continues: - Madam, can it be that you are a
Christian? one so wealthy, so accomplished, so hospitable. Can it be possible
that you have subjected yourself to such a horrid doom? But no, there is a
means of escape; there is a method, easy and sure, by which this terrible
punishment may be avoided. Madam, you have been kind to me in my hour of
distress, and I will show you that I am grateful. - He draws from his pocket a
small black cross. - According to the terms of the law, whoever is suspected
of being a Christian, may acquit himself of the suspicion by trampling on the
cross. You will preserve your life, your property, and the lives of your
husband and children by casting this upon the floor and putting your foot upon
go forth and declare that you have submitted to the law and renounced the
Christian religion. Take it.
this time site has not ceased to look him sternly and indignantly in the face.
But now she takes the cross from his hand, her countenance changes to
tenderness, she presses the cross ardently to her lips and bosom; then she
speaks: - Sir, are you a demon in the form of humanity, that you strive to
imperil my soul with these allurements? and think you I am terrified with your
threats? why, what is there in all you have said to move me? have I not lived
fifteen years daily expecting, waiting, desiring this message, and shall it
shake me now? You ask me, too, if I am a Christian, and you profess to be
astonished to discover that I am a Christian; did I not meet you at my
threshold and welcome you in the name of Jesus Christ? Have I not fed you and
tended upon your wants for the sake of Jesus Christ? What was there in you or
me independent of my faith in the Crucified One, which should prompt me to
such actions? Cease, then your allurements, and spare me the further recital
of my perils. I am a Christian. This family, one and all, are Christians. One
and all we have long been prepared to render up all things for the sake of Him
who gave all things to us; go on then, and do your duty. Spare no part of it
for the remembrance of my hospitality, and God, for Christ's sake, will enable
me to do mine. - She places herself in the position * * *.
lays aside his sword and speaks kindly to her: - Electa, my sister, tried and
true, look upon me again. Do you not know me? I am John.
‑ John ! It is indeed! Oh sir, how could you try my feelings in this cruel
- That I might learn the strength of your religions character. I confess, my
dear sister, that I feared this alarming and most unexpected intelligence
might shake your faith, and I disguised myself in this manner to try you
unobserved; but all is clear now, your gold is altogether pure; you are the
fairest among ten thousand and altogether lovely. Electa, in a few days you
may expect this scene, which has tried you so, will he realized. The soldiers
will come, and the rest will follow. I see in store for you a ter‑
sacrifice and a cruel death. But you need no pity. Your reward is in heaven,
and soon shall I meet you there to rehearse the events which are now nigh at
hand. Electa, we will Masonically embalm your religious fortitude and your
triumphant death. As Grand Master of Masons I will institute a degree to be
entitled after your name, which shall perpetuate your history among us while
there is a woman's eve to weep or a man's heart to feel for the sorrows of
Accompanying the degrees were lectures much longer than those contained in the
present ritual, which were all given by Heleon. Jephthah was described as "a
pious man, a devoted father, and exemplary Mason;" Mahlon, "a devoted
freeMason," and in the same category came Boaz, Ahasuerus, and Lazarus; while
the husband of Electa was said to be the successor of St. John in the Grand
was substantially a reprint of the Mosaic Book, words being substituted for
symbols, and allusion to Part Three omitted, as were, also the Tuilleur, and
the illustrations of the manner of giving the signs.
was prepared solely for communicating the degrees, and opened with an
explanation of freeMasonry and its benefits to woman; the obligation
administered being one of secrecy only. The signet was explained, together
with the signs, followed by the lectures, which were adapted from those
contained in the Mosaic Book. Each was followed by an explanation of the
appropriate signs, emblems, and colors, which were fully described in the
manuscript accompanying it.
BOOK OF INSTRUCTIONS, 1861.
was to be used in connection with Morris's Manual, and provided for the
communicating of the
degrees in families, concerning which see Chapter II. The opening ode was:
O, that in this world of
Widow's tear and orphan's cry,
Hearts their term of trial
Would but melt in sympathy.
O, that we, each sister,
Traveling on the self-same
In our love for one another,
Would but love the love of
For that love would surely
Ne'er to crush a burdened
By the tender thoughts that
When we see a tear-drop start;
And the lonely, poor and
In their almost cheerless
By our liberal bounty
Would acknowledge the relief.
Here, then, met in social
Here before the Word divine,
While our life contains the
Let us in this covenant join—
Tears to dry, to comfort
Gentle words and smiles to
By the sick, and by the dying,
Patient, Godlike love to show.
Then, though we must part like
And the dead be joined among,
In the hearts of sisters,
We shall be remembered long.
Those that speak of us shall
As the dead to memory dear,
And the page of friendship
Worthy of a grateful tear.
was followed by Scripture reading, it being recommended that passages be
selected which refer to the histories of Jephthah's daughter, Ruth, Esther and
Martha; also the more pathetic passages from tie gospels, such as the raising
of the son of the widow of Nain, Christ's agony in the garden, Christ blessing
little children, the crucifixion, etc.
this work a social grip and family hail were used, but I have been unable to
find that any one now living has a knowledge as to what they were. The
membership board (see illustration), was filled up by writing on the under
side, about half way from the center to the circumference, thus: "Mary A.
Carneal," in plain round hand, taking great pains to spell each name
correctly. Directly over each lady's name, upon the upper side of the ray
write the name of the gentleman through whom she is adopted as a sister in
adopted Masonry, thus: "John A. Carneal." This being done, write in the broad
part of the ray near the center of the picture, the class of ladies to which
each lady belongs, viz.: "Wife, widow, sister, or daughter."
Patron and Patroness were the sole judges as to the candidates, both for the
Eastern Star degree and for membership in the family, although they were
compelled to recognize an objection from a member. The Eastern Star degree was
first communicated as per Morris's Manual. The conferring of the Family degree
commenced by the introduction of the candidate by the Conductress, as follows:
Enlightened Patron: It becomes my pleasant duty to introduce to you our sister
in adoptive Masonry, Mrs. A ___ B ____ . This lady has received the degree of
the Eastern Star, having first made an inviolable pledge of secrecy according
to our rules. She has heard with emotion the painful yet glorious history of
Jephtha's daughter; she has contemplated the noble self-devotion of Ruth and
Esther; she has witnessed the tears of the faithful Martha, and has paid the
tribute of her own generous sympathy to the martyrdom of the Christian Electa;
she desires now to make one of this family of the Eastern Star, where such
histories are studied and such virtues emulated, and she has entered amongst
us, determined to bear her part in this good work.
this the Patron responded in much the same style as Heleon addressed the
candidate in the Mosaic Book: "We hail with true pleasure," etc.
female member of the family was requested to select an emblem, and the
Recorder was required to keep a book in which the emblems were recorded.
ceremony of selection was as follows:
Esteemed sister, the language of flowers has been studied and applied in all
ages. The earth is vocal with the praises of God from the tongues of
unnumbered blossoms in vale and meadow, by the brookside and upon the
mountains; and these voices are heard and echoed in the hearts of all who in
every nation have learned to adore him. In our society the graces of
Jephthah's daughter, Ruth, Esther, Martha and Electa, are inculcated by means
of emblems selected from the fields of nature.
character of Jephthah's daughter is illustrated by the blue violet. This
beautiful modest flower, in its bashful timidity, conceals itself amidst
foliage from the face of the sun. Of the blue violet the poet has happily
thou art oft
the hue so soft
thine azure eye
unseen, unsought, in its leafy bower,
the heartless prefer some statelier flower,
they eagerly cull, and when faded fling
with rude hand, as a worthless thing.
such is thy fate; not thy beauty's gift
bids thee from thy bower he reft; -
thy half‑closing dewy and deep blue eye,
the charm that doth not with beauty die;
thy mild, soft fragrance makes thee so dear,
loveliest gem of the floral year!
was the character of the Israelitish maiden, Jephthah's daughter. Modest and
bashful, shrinking from the gaze of men, her life had been passed in the
retirement of her father's dwelling until the sublime occasion called her
forth which is so beautifully
explained in our tradition. The blue violet therefore is sacred to the memory
of Jephthah's daughter.
character of Ruth is illustrated by the sunflower. This broad and stately
blossom, which steadily faces the sun from his oriental to his occidental
course, is an emblem of lofty and pure thoughts.
poet expresses it:
will I imitate the sun;
cloth permit the base contagious clouds
smother up his beauty from the world,
when he please again to be himself,
wanted, he may be more wondered at
breaking through the foul and ugly mists
vapors that seem to strangle him.
was the character of the Moabitish damsel, who came "from Moab's hills to
Bethlehem's gates." In her days of prosperity her wealth and rank had but
gilded the bright purity of her soul; and in her poverty and desertion, when
toiling, a poor gleaner in the fields of Boaz, the unalloyed graces of Ruth
shone out with the halo of lofty and pure thoughts. The sunflower, therefore,
is sacred to the memory of Ruth.
character of Esther is illustrated by the white lily. All nations agree in
making this flower the emblem of purity, and its beauty and delicacy have ever
been the theme of admiration from the time of Solomon to the present day. Even
the divine Savior points to it with admiration, saying, "Behold the lilies of
the field; I say unto you that Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like
one of these." The poet has happily declared:
white lilies having birth
their native genial earth:
in sweet and queenly grace,
the maiden's form and face.
was the character of Esther, the matchless queen of Persia, fairest among the
women of the land, pre‑eminent in intellectual gifts, the pride of the
down‑trodden people of God, exposed to all the temptations of pride, rank and
a corrupt court, she still
retained that purity of character which had elevated her at the first, and
when the time of trial came, her heroism and self‑devotion gained the favor of
the king and saved her people from destruction. The white lily, therefore, is
sacred to the memory of Esther.
character of Martha is illustrated by the pine sprig. This, in Masonry,
reminds us of the immortality of the soul and the resurrection of the, body,
the two sublimest lessons the mind of man can con‑template. The history of
Martha, as given in our traditions, is that of a young woman whose faith in
Christ enabled her to resist the despondency that death had thrown around her,
and to believe that her brother would rise again under the Almighty voice. Her
faith was duly rewarded and her heart was made happy in the reunion. The pine
sprig, therefore, is sacred to the memory of Martha.
character of Electa is illustrated by the red rose. In producing the rose,
nature appears to have exhausted herself by her prodigality in attempting to
create so fine a specimen of freshness, of beauty in form, of exquisite
perfume, of brilliance of color and of grace. The rose adorns the whole earth
as the commonest of flowers. It is the emblem of all ages, the interpreter of
all our sentiments, it illustrates alike our happiness and our sorrows. Its
lessons are sung by the poet when he says:
not alone in the flush of morn,
cowslip‑bell or the blossom‑thorn,
noon's high hour or twilight hush,
shadowy stream of the floweret's blush,
aught that beautiful nature gives,
the delicate spirit of beauty lives.
no, it lives and breathes and lies
home more pure than the morning skies;
innocent heart it loves to dwell,
it comes with a sigh or a tear to tell,
visions that flow from the fount of love,
mingle with all that is pure above.
was the character of Electa, combining all the meek domestic virtues with the
highest and noblest heroism that is recorded in the books of history. In
pursuit of what she deemed her Christian duty, she cheerfully surrendered all
things, sealing the covenant she had made with her heart's blood. The red
rose, therefore, is sacred to the memory of Electa.
then, my esteemed sister, which of these emblems, the blue violet, the
sunflower, the white lily, the pine sprig, or the red rose you will adopt as
choice seemed to be deemed a weighty one, as the lady was allowed three months
in which to make her selection. This ceremony does not seem to have any points
of union with the rest of the work and was rather meaningless.
additional ceremony of the family see the heading, Banquets.
was a revised form for communicating the degrees, a pledge of secrecy only
being required. The welcoming ode was as follows:
welcome and a greeting now,
gentle friends and sisters true,
the place where Mason's bow,
pay their homage due;
checkered floor, 'neath starry sky,
Welcome sweet friends of Masonry.
who finds a father here;
brother's strong and trusty hand;
who mourns the lost and dear,
cherished in our band;
who husband's love doth own,
Greeting and welcome, every one.
Welcome the light our emblems shed;
Welcome the hope yon volume gives
Welcome the love our covenants spread,
wages each receives;
when is past life's toilsome week,
Welcome the home that Masons seek.
several lectures as in the manual were revised and somewhat shortened, and the
subjects of the degrees were given as "The Tradition of the Veil;"
Tradition of the Barley Field;" "The Tradition of the Crown, Robe and Sceptre;"
"The Tradition of the Uplift Hands," and "The Tradition of the Martyr's
Cross." Each degree had a Christian application which was fully explained. The
evening was closed with the following valedictory:
night! the spirits of the blest and good
these dear halls go with you and abide:
hours of sorrow, hours of solitude,
when the hosts of melancholy brood
cloud your minds, may angel spirits glide
the white throne and give you great delight
Dear friends, good night'
night, good night! and joy be with you all!
sickness never blight, nor poverty:
slander's breath your spirits ne'er appall,
untoward accident befall,
all things prosperous and joyful be:
morning suns rise on you fresh and bright -
Dear friends, good night!
night! in dreams, may faithful Martha come
tell of her Beloved, high in heaven:
Ruth, the gleaner, from the harvest home,
Adah, maid immortal, from her tomb,
and true Electa, spirits bright,
And say, Good night!
night! and when the shadows of the grave
in around you - when the parting breath
heavily, and unto Him who gave
yield the spirit, be He strong to save
our Guide and Savior unto death:
may dear friends and heavenly hopes unite,
To say, Good night!
was almost an exact reprint of the Morris Manual, the secret work being given
by initial letters, each of which was numbered, and a Vocabulary which
accompanied it, being referred to by letter and number, indicated the word.
was compiled largely from the Mosaic and Morris Manual, much new matter, in
the shape of opening, closing, and installation ceremonies being formulated;
and, in this was first inaugurated the manner of communicating the cabalistic
word and motto substantially as at present. Much of the work, both original
and reprint, was given by initial letters only, without any other key as to
what it was. The vacant chairs, as in the Mosaic Book, were retained, and also
the dialogue as there introduced, although in an abbreviated form. In this was
first included the instruction that a Mason seeing one of the signs given,
should write his name on a card, or slip of paper, together with the pass
belonging to the sign given.
officers were styled Worthy President (Matron), Vice President (Patron), First
Patron (Adah), Second Patron (Ruth), etc., Secretary, Treasurer, Conductor,
Guard, and Sentinel. In 1872 the ritual was amended so that all of the five
signs were used in the opening and closing ceremonies of the Lodge.
was for the communicating of the degrees under a pledge of secrecy only, and
was illustrated with a rather too suggestive picture for each degree, and the
motto: "‑We have seen his Star," etc., was changed to the first person
singular. A grip was introduced for the first time. Concerning the origin of
this grip the Masonic department of a New York weekly newspaper in 1877, gave
the following: After diligent inquiry we learn that the grip was invented by
accident at a meeting held in Concord, New Hampshire, when brother W. S. Wolf,
now of New York city, was conferring the degree as a lecture, in 1862, prior
to which time there had been no grip. A lady, whose husband was a Mason, "rose
in meetin'," and said aloud, "Brother Wolf, you have
forgotten to give us the grip." It was a dilemma, but brother Wolf was equal
to the emergency, and gave the grip which is now so generally used; a council
of Eastern Star lecturers having adopted it in 1863.
This material originally scanned by Ralph Omholt,
Kirkland Chapter 176, Washington.
was the first ritual providing for the Chapter form of organization. Jewels
were prescribed for the officers, that for the Patron being a duplicate of the
Matron's. Provision was also first made for a floor star. Sisters only were to
be initiated; brothers, if elected, being only required to pledge their honor
as master Masons, in open Chapter, to conform to the rules and regulations of
the order. Concerning the initiation of brethren, provided for in the General
Grand Chapter ritual, brother Macoy subsequently said, in Critical and
ceremonies originally "set forth" in the Eastern Star Order were intended for
ladies only. The attempted innovation of requiring gentlemen to pass through
these ceremonies will have the effect of illustrating that there is "but a
step from the sublime to the ridiculous." We hope no Chapter will enforce the
suggestion of the committee, and no gentleman will allow himself to be the
subject of mirth by being so used. The ceremony might be appropriate for the
committee, but not proper for a gentleman.
declaring the Chapter open, the Matron said:
name of the departed heroines whose virtues we emulate; in the name of our
great sisterhood, knit together in bonds of charity and sincere friendship;
and in the name of our heavenly Master, who has declared that He "Loved' a
cheerful giver," I declare _____ Chapter No. ___ , of the Eastern Star, open
and in due order for the dispatch of business.
covenant of adoption, which was printed in full, contained but four ties: 1.
Secrecy; 2. Obedience to law; 3. Advice, sympathy and aid; 4. Avoid-
acts of injustice and unkindness. The point; lectures bore the same
characteristics as those of the Manuals, the candidate being seated in the
point chairs during their delivery. Some infelicitous expressions marred this
work, e. g.: the Conductress stated that "first impressions made upon a
candidate are permanent * * and it depends greatly upon the manner of
conducting her * * to make those impressions lasting," and this is found in
all the Macoy rituals and the New York ritual.
for installation, for a Chapter of sorrow and funeral services were also
included, most of which were performed by the Patron. These were undoubtedly
original with brother Macoy.
Chapter of sorrow was a most harrowing service; the room, altar, and official
stations were to be draped in black; on the altar was an urn covered with a
black pall fringed with silver, or white silk, on which were painted or
embroidered the names of the departed; at each point of the star was a lighted
white wax candle; a floral star was also introduced, from which the various
colored flowers were withdrawn by the proper officers, and deposited in the
urn of 'remembrance. Much of the language of the Macoy funeral service; was
incorporated into it, and like that, it was entirely under the direction of
the Patron, the Matron's part consisting of six lines; while in the funeral
service she had no part whatever.
was an arrangement of the work for the use of the order in Scotland and was
made up from the Morris Manual, and Adoptive Rite, and was not well adapted to
the work in an organized body, as it included much of the address of the
Patron that was contained in the Manual, which was written solely for the
communicating of the degree in lecture form.
was it adapted to the communicating of the degree, as the other portions of
the work were arranged to be rendered by the star officers. The only original
matter worthy of note was the lecture of Martha, which followed more nearly
and completely the scripture account. We make the following excerpts:
family, composed of Martha and Mary, with their brother Lazarus, seemed to
have possessed all things needful for a happy life. Bound up in the love of
each other, and blessed with the friendship of Him whom to know is everlasting
life, the little group were distinguished from their neighbors by a name that
proved how thoroughly their hearts were occupied with divine things. They were
"the beloved of the Master, the happy household of Bethany." * * Amazing
faith! heroic spirit of confidence in her friend! though her brother had been
four days in the embrace of death, and the subject of its corrupting
influences - though the weight of watchfulness and sorrow rested heavily upon
her spirit as she knelt, her hands wildly raised to heaven - there was a
spirit of prophecy in her words which gave them a. value altogether their own.
this Adoptive Rite was closely followed, there being introduced a five‑sided
altar, the sides of glass in colors, the proper emblems being painted on them,
which were illuminated by a lamp or candle placed inside the altar; around
which was a five‑sided cushion in the five colors; in the East was an
illuminated five‑pointed star. In this was first introduced the square and
compass as the Patron's official emblem. Provision was made for collars of the
five colors to be worn by eight officers; the star officers were to wear
sashes and aprons of the appropriate colors, while all other sisters were to
wear five‑sided white aprons, each side measuring twelve inches, with a bib,
the point of which was to reach the center of the apron; these
trimmed around the edges with the five colors. The complete Chapter was made,
for the first time, to require fourteen officers, and the Patron was mentioned
first. Many other additions and verbal changes were made in the initiation
ceremony, to make it more complete, and the candidate for the first time was
caused to kneel at the altar and to repeat they vow of adoption. A special
form was provided for the initiation of gentlemen, which included the vow of
adoption, and the explanation of the signs, passes, grip, and cabalistic
motto, but did not include any lectures. Some additions were made to the
initiation ceremony, but the lectures were as in Adoptive Rite, the candidate,
however, not being seated. An installation ceremony, differing somewhat from
Adoptive Rite, completed the volume.
ADOPTIVE RITE REVISED.
this brother Macoy availed himself largely of the matter embraced in the
California ritual, e. g.: the number of officers for a complete Chapter was
made fourteen, but the Patron was mentioned last. Provision was made, for the
first time, for the officers to march in before the opening, and responses
from the star officers were incorporated in the opening ceremony, in Adoptive
Rite the meaning of the point emblems being incorporated in the Matron's work.
Otherwise the book was unchanged.
this the jewel of the Patron was made the square and compasses, as in
California, and many of the minor additions and verbal changes in that ritual,
including the ceremony for initiating gentlemen, were incorporated. It was
provided that the Conductress was to ascertain if all sisters present were
members of the order, and The Patron will assure himself that the gentlemen
present are entitled to seats in the Chapter. * * If
should be any master Masons present who have not been obligated, that ceremony
should be performed immediately after the Chapter shall be declared open.
golden chain was introduced, and for the first time in a Macoy ritual, the
initiation ceremony was concluded by a lecture by the Patron, in which the
signs, passes, etc., were explained. This was the work of B. T. Burnham, Grand
Lecturer of New York, and was published in pamphlet form by the Grand Chapter
of New York, in 1875, without being copyrighted. Forms were also provided for
constituting Chapters and dedicating halls, and it also contained a revised
burial service, which was largely performed by the Patron; although the Matron
was given a small part.
committee was appointed by the General Grand Chapter, in 1870, to prepare a
ritual, of which Jeremiah F. Whitcher, of California, was a member. A
committee of the Grand Chapter of Massachusetts, of which Thomas M. Lamb,
afterward Most Worthy Grand Patron, was chairman, presented for the
consideration of the committee, a new set of lectures, and the committee of
the Grand Chapter of California, which prepared this ritual, availed itself of
many of the suggestions of the Massachusetts committee. The special form for
the initiation of gentlemen was dropped. With these exceptions the ritual was
much like the first California ritual.
was a revision of the Tatem Monitor, in which much of the secret work,
especially in the opening ceremonies, was represented by asterisks, while the
point lectures were an exact reproduction of those in the Tatem Monitor. It
was printed by the Grand
for the use of its subordinates, the original work being out of print.
GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER.
ritual was prepared by a committee appointed in 1876, consisting of John M.
Mayhew, of New Jersey; Willis D. Engle, of Indiana; Thomas C. Heady, of
Missouri; Jeremiah E. Whitcher, of California; Elizabeth Butler, of Illinois;
Mary A. Comstock, of Indiana; and Mattie A. Yost, of Missouri; which submitted
its report in 1878, when it was amended, adopted, and placed in the hands of a
committee consisting of brothers Lamb, Mayhew and Engle, for arrangement and
printing, and the proclamation of the Most Worthy Grand Patron, authorizing
its use, was issued November 16, 1878, the second anniversary of the
organization of the General Grand Chapter, and it was immediately accepted by
all the Grand Chapters except New York and Vermont. By it the Patron was made
the second officer of a Chapter, and provision was made for a Chaplain, if
desired. Jewels were prey gibed for the officers, and it was provided:
Collars, and other regalia in addition, may be worn by Chapters that desire
them the General Grand Chapter only prescribing the minimum. All the members
of the order shall, during Chapter session, wear upon the left breast a
five‑pointed star, three inches across, and having the five colors of the
however, never attained general acceptance in practice.
alarm as now in use was herein first introduced, as were also the Grand
honors, and the giving of the signs and the responses in the opening ceremony,
similar to the Mosaic Book. A new opening prayer was inserted, and a closing
prayer, for which no provision had been made in the preceding Chapter rituals,
adapted from the Mosaic Book. The use of scripture recitations (luring the
weaving of the labyrinth was authorized, and the Patron's address was greatly
changed, and entirely new lectures were furnished for Ruth, Esther, and Electa,
while Martha's was materially lengthened, and greatly beautified. The Patron's
lecture, including the explanation of the floral emblems, was entirely recast,
and forms for installation of officers and Grand officers, the latter entirely
new, and a new funeral ceremony completed the volume.
CRITICAL AND EXPLANATORY NOTES.
was a publication made by brother Macoy, and embraced portions of the General
Grand Chapter ritual, with the brother's comments and criticisms thereon. In
it was reiterated the claims that brother Morris was the originator of the
order, and the transfer of his assumed authority to brother Macoy; and it was
stated that "when the Chapters had sufficiently increased in each State, Grand
Chapters were formed, first in New York, then in other States;" that he had
"openly and candidly" opposed the organization of the General Grand Chapter
"because I dreaded that the spirit of innovation would destroy all that to
which so much labor had been devoted to build up;" that the General Grand
Chapter ritual was "tautological and farcical, monotonous and puerile. It may
possibly be used by a few, and by reason of its innovations, will produce
confusion and discord in the order."
work, which was written by a man who claims that
received these "Adoptive Degrees" from their inventor and "Grand Patron," Rob
Morris himself, the public may rest assured I here give them correctly.
Certain it is that I give them not only as
received them, but as, under a commission from the "Grand Patron," Morris, I
conferred them upon several hundred men and women in different parts of the
State of Michigan. For the sketch of the origin and character of the order and
the analysis of the different degrees the public are indebted to the publisher
instead of the author.
one perusing the aforesaid sketch and analysis will not be surprised that even
a man who claimed to be thus violating his most solemn pledge of secrecy,
desired to escape the responsibility for such diatribe. With a
sanctimoniousness characteristic of all such self‑accusing perjurers, he says:
this little volume may be blessed of God in opening the eyes of many to the
real character, not only of this order, but of freeMasonry and kindred orders
is the prayer of the author.
it is remembered that at the time of the publication of this book the work of
the order, correctly given, with the exception of the secret work, could be
had at any bookseller's by purchasing Macoy's Manual, it is evident that the
object of its publication was either to make mono y; to mislead those who had
no knowledge of the real character and work of the order; or simply to carry
the vile misrepresentations of the order, and of Masonry. We will give some
extracts from the sketch and analysis; those of a milder nature only, and will
also reproduce some of the illustrations of the manner of giving the signs,
which will certainly be amusing if not profitable to members of the order.
They are inserted here so that should a person ask admission to a Chapter, and
give the signs after this manner, the source from which they attained their
knowledge might be known.
careful investigation of the subject must convince every candid person that
secret societies play a very important part in the devil's economy.
certainly is not that I have any personal quarrel with any of the managers of
the order or that I seek pecuniary profit or notoriety thereby, but that the
Christian women of America may see for themselves what a sham and cheat is
provided to close the mouths of the female relatives of freeMasons from
protesting against an order which is a standing insult to every true woman, in
that it not only classes all women with minors, madmen and fools, but would
repeal the law of God which pronounces husband and wife one, by swearing the
husband to perpetually conceal from his wife matters concerning his relations
with five hundred thousand other men, to each of whom he may confide what he
dare not mention to his wife.
first degree is evidently a shrewd, yet desperate attempt to justify Masonic
oaths, even when such oaths lead to murder. The second aims to prove that
freeMasonry inculcates piety, though Masonic authors sneer at the Decalogue as
narrow and declare that the Masonic moral law is the law of nature only. The
object of the third degree is somewhat similar to that of the first degree,
and though professedly a tribute to true friendship is plainly designed to
teach that freeMasons are justified in aiding and defending each other in both
right and wrong conduct. What the object of the fourth degree is, unless it be
by wholesale lying to deceive the uninformed as to the charac-
the order, seems difficult to imagine. The fifth degree is a lame attempt to
convey the impression that freeMasonry teaches "patience and submission under
wrongs" and that freeMasons are a noble band of martyrs for the truth; and
further, that benevolence is a prime characteristic of the order.
call attention to the fact that all master Masons in good standing in the
Masonic order, however immoral their character, may demand admission to the
lightning changes of costumes between the first and second positions in the
widow's and wife's signs must have been of a sleight of hand nature and we are
certain that the correctness, with which the sins are delineated is only
exceeded by the artistic execution of the engravings. The decided change in
Esther's countenance will also fix attention.
GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER REVISED.
was substantially a reprint of the original General Grand Chapter ritual,
although it contained many minor changes. It was provided that any Chapter
could have a Marshal and an Organist if it so desired. The greatest change was
in the lecture of Electa, which was entirely recast, and somewhat shortened.
Another change was in the rearranging and shortening of the Patron's lecture.
this, following the arrangement of the General Grand Chapter ritual, the
Patron was made the
officer of the Chapter, and other regulations were adopted from the same
source. The opening, closing and initiation ceremonies were an exact reprint
of the Macoy ritual. One of the purposes of this publication was to engraft
upon the order the "higher degrees" of the Amaranth and Queen of the South,
but so far as the latter is concerned it was a complete failure. I do not know
that it has been used by any one. These remarks are not applicable to our
colored friends, who delight in its royal titles. As the ritual was sold in
the open market, they largely availed themselves of it. The book closed with
an historical sketch from the pen of W. J. Duncan, now a Past Grand Patron of
New York, which contains many facts of a valuable nature, but he could not but
let his friendship for brother Macoy bias him so that some things are only
partially stated, as e. g.: "The order was introduced into * * * Michigan,
at Rockland, March, 1870 (during 1867, '68, and '69 there was a system called
`Lodges of adoptive Masonry');" the reader being left to infer that that
system had died out, and that there was no Grand Chapter in that State, as, in
every other instance, he gave the date of the organization of the Grand
Chapter. Rob Morris's writings in 1877 are copiously quoted as in opposition
to the General Grand Chapter, and the impression conveyed that he was
unalterably opposed to it, the fact that lie gave it his endorsement during
the last eight years of his life, being entirely ignored.
is a revision of the Macoy ritual, containing opening, closing, and initiation
ceremonies for both women and master Masons. To it are also appended the
floral work as composed by brother Burton, and a form for organizing Chapters.
The following changes are noted: The Associate Matron is provided with
gavel, but no use is specified for it; the point lectures are slightly
changed, and in some places abbreviated; the duties and badge of the Patron
are introduced into the opening ceremony, and are given by that officer; the
prayer in the opening is changed, and a form for prayer in closing is supplied
where, in the Macoy ritual, provision was made for an extemporaneous prayer;
the question: "Do you believe in the existence of a Supreme Being?" is
introduced into the work; and certain portions of the secret work which were
in the Macoy ritual, are omitted.
was a translation of the New York ritual into German for the use of Concordia
Chapter, New York city.
ADOPTIVE RITE RITUAL.
1896 the Grand Chapter of New York purchased from the heirs of Robert Macoy
his copyright of the Macoy Standard, but as brother Macoy was never the owner
of the copyright of any previous ritual, Adoptive Rite having been copyrighted
by the Masonic Publishing and Manufacturing Company, the owners of that
copyright did not pass to the Grand Chapter, but is now claimed by J. G.
Barker, as the successor to that company, and this ritual, which includes not
only the Eastern Star, but also the Queen of the South, Matron's
Administrative degree, forms for installation of officers and Grand officers,
constituting and inaugurating Chapters, dedicating halls, Chapter of sorrow,
and funeral service, is upon the market, for sale to whomsoever will buy. This
ritual is a combination of Adoptive Rite revised and Macoy's Ritual, such
alterations as were introduced into the work by brother Macoy before he sold
his interest in the Masonic Publishing and Manufacturing Company in 1875 being
included in it, as is also the form of the initiation of master Masons.
OBJECTS, LANDMARKS, ETC.
OBJECTS OF THE ORDER.
THESAUROS set forth the objects of the order as follows: The objects of this
organization are to relieve the distressed, cultivate the social virtues;
guard the good fame and character of the membership; and promote the interests
of the Christian religion.
associate in one common band, the worthy wives, widows, daughters, and sisters
of freeMasons, so as to make their adoptive privileges available for all
purposes contemplated in Masonry;
secure to them the advantages of their adoptive claims in a moral, social, and
charitable point of view; and
gain from them the performance of corresponding duties. The benefits of this
rite are mainly for the female sex. For them this temple has been reared,
these walls set up. They are its glory and crown. For a wider diffusion of the
Masonic scheme of teaching morality and religion by significant emblems; for
inclining the influence of females toward the York rite; for increasing social
enjoyment by the Masonic tie, for ameliorating the condition of widows and
orphans; and for affording increased facilities in relieving distressed
travelers, the American Adoptive Rite has been framed. To secure successful
results it is necessary that its votaries should apply its rules in a rigid
sense; maintain its landmarks valiantly; affiliate into its bonds only those
calculated, by temperament and principle, to understand and appreciate it, and
work out patiently and untiringly its Grand designs.
OBJECTS, LANDMARKS, ETC.
Adoptive Rite added:
wives, mothers, widows, sisters and daughters of Masons cannot, from the
immutable laws of the order, be permitted to share in the Grand mysteries of
freeMasonry; but there is no reason why there should not be a society for
them, which may not merely en‑able them to make themselves known to Masons,
and so to obtain assistance and protection, but by means of which, acting in
concert through the tie of association and united obligation, they may
co‑operate in the great labors of Masonry, by assisting in, and, in some
respects directing, the charities, and toiling in the cause of human progress.
address to the General Grand Chapter in 1880, Thomas M. Lamb, Most Worthy
Grand Patron, said:
Masonry does for the Masonic brother, the Eastern Star shall do for the
Mason's wife, daughter, widow, mother and sister. They also shall become
companions in the pilgrimage of life, and walk with the brother by the light
of the blending rays of their own and the brother's order. Together they shall
enter the temples of the Eastern Star, and consecrating themselves to a pure
and useful life, become bound in the bonds of charity and loving kindness. The
brother, kneeling at such an altar, will feel stronger the obligation resting
upon him to walk uprightly, worthy of such companionship. The light that
emanates from our central star, shall lead them to virtues that blossom into
true manhood and woman‑hood. Electa shall teach them loyalty to the truth, and
though suffering the wrongs of persecution in its behalf, to despair not of
its final triumph - the eternal years of God are hers. They shall learn
fidelity to convictions of right from Adah, who in the morning of life
surrendered to the grave the brightest of earthly hopes, that she might prove
faithful to her convictions of right, and preserve her father's honor. The
constancy of the humble gleaner Ruth shall teach them that there is loveliness
among the lowly, and
OBJECTS, LANDMARKS, ETC.
in every station of life we should be faithful to the demands of honor and
justice. They shall learn of that burning love for kindred and friends, that
led Esther to risk the loss of crown and life, that she might give life and
joy to a despised and captive race. When sore bereavement shall cast them into
the valley of sorrow, they shall see Martha beside the grave of her brother,
inspired with trustful faith and hope of immortal life. The broken column
shall be entwined with evergreen, an emblem that leads the sorrowing heart
through the shadow of the tomb to the open portals of eternal day, where faith
is lost in sight, and hope crowned with celestial fruition.
later writer has said: Its purposes are to enlarge the acquaintance, increase
the friendships, and cultivate sociability among the brotherhood and their
families. The brotherhood have many and frequent opportunities of sociability
at the meetings of the Lodge, Chapter, council and commandery, from which
their families are excluded. The Eastern Star supplies this long felt want to
those who should of right share with the brotherhood its labors and its
enjoyments. It is a worthy helpmeet, and has proved a most helpful auxiliary
to the venerable order of freeMasonry. Its purposes are high and ennobling,
and its lessons teach the purest morality and a consistent Christianity. While
it seeks to encourage and cultivate the social element among its members, it
aims to practice that charity which suffereth long and is kind. From the time
of its conception, it has not only been a social institution, but one of
charity and benevolence as well. All along, its past has been marked by deeds
of charity, and kindness, and mutual goodwill to man, giving aid to the
unfortunate, advice to the troubled, and sympathy to the sorrowing. With these
noble deeds, making the pathway of many a life brighter and purer, the cause
of the Eastern Star has ever been onward and upward, rising higher and still
higher toward the zenith of perfection, whence its beneficent rays will
permeate every Masonic home in the land.
OBJECTS, LANDMARKS, ETC.
Mosaic Book they were nine in number:
Star of Christ, or Eastern Star, is the basis of the five degrees of the
American Adoptive Rite.
This rite contains nothing in its ceremonies and lectures of any other rite.
Its lessons are eminently scriptural and Christian.
Its obligations are based on the honor of the female sex; and framed upon the
principle that what‑ever benefits are due by the Masonic fraternity to the
wives, widows, daughters, and sisters of Masons, corresponding benefits are
due from them to the Masonic fraternity.
control of the rite lies in a central head, styled the Supreme Constellation.
The Supreme Constellation delegates its authority to form subordinate
constellations respectively, to five affiliated master Masons of the York
Rite, associated together for that purpose, and responsible to the Supreme
An intimate periodical relationship is maintained between each subordinate
constellation and the central b sad.
The ceremonial and lectures of this rite are communicated by the joint
instrumentality of both sexes.
The entire ritual of this rite, both esoteric and exoteric, is reduced to
writing and intrusted, under due precautions, to the heads of constellations.
Adoptive Rite increased the number to fifteen, embracing, practically I, III,
IV, V, and VI of the above, substituting Supreme Grand Chapter for Supreme
Constellation, and adding
belief in the existence of a Supreme Being, who will, sooner or later, punish
the willful violation of a solemn pledge.
modes of recognition, which are the peculiar secrets of the rite, cannot,
without destroying the foundation of the system, be changed.
OBJECTS, LANDMARKS, ETC.
That a covenant of secrecy voluntarily assumed is perpetual; from the force of
such obligation there is no possibility of release.
That the ballot for candidates for membership must be unanimous, and is to be
kept inviolably secret.
right of every Chapter to be the judge of who shall be admitted to its
membership, and to select its own officers; but in no case can the ceremonies
of they order be conferred unless a master Mason in good standing in the
Masonic fraternity presides.
Every sister is amenable to the laws and regulations of the order, and may be
tried for offenses, though she may permanently or temporarily reside within
the jurisdiction of another Chapter.
The right of every sister to appeal from the decision of her associates in
Chapter convened, to the Supreme Grand Chapter, or to the M. E. Grand Patron.
The prerogative of the M. E. Grand Patron to preside over every assembly of
the rite wherever he may visit, and to grant charters for the formation of new
That every Chapter has the right to dispense the light of the adoptive rite
and to administer its own private affairs.
Every Chapter should elect and install its officers annually.
The right of every sister to visit and sit in every regular Chapter, except
when such visitor is likely to disturb the harmony or interrupt the progress
of the Chapter she proposes to visit.
were the same in Macoy's ritual except that the word "Supreme," and the
letters "M. E." were omitted from 7, 11, and 12, and the words "and to grant
dispensations for the formation of new Chapters within the territorial
jurisdiction," were added to 12. Although there were two or three incidental
allusions to a Supreme Grand Chapter and a Supreme Grand Patron, in this
ritual, this change in the landmarks was a practical abandonment of the
OBJECTS, LANDMARKS, ETC.
existence of such a body, and, as this ritual was first issued in 1876, just
at the time when the movement for the organization of the General Grand
Chapter was taking definite shape, and brother Macoy was preparing to attack
it on the ground of the uselessness of such bodies, the reason of the change
is apparent. Failing in his purposes, when he issued Macoy's Standard, in
1887, he, inserted the words "Supreme Council," and "Supreme Patron, or
executive officer," in 7, and changed 11 and 12 to correspond.
General Grand Chapter reduced the number to twelve, embracing practically all
of Macoy's except those referring to the control of the rite, and 12, 13, and
14, and changing the word "sister," to "member." This latter change was also
embodied in the New York ritual, and "Matron" was substituted for "Patron" in
Thesauros provided that "at least one annual, public procession of this body
shall occur, that the light of the order may prove a city upon a hill, not to
be hid." The universal practice in the order in later days has been to forbid
public displays, outside of funerals, Chapters of sorrow, and public
installations, thus being in harmony with the spirit and practice of Masonry.
In most jurisdictions any display beyond those mentioned, is prohibited.
AUTHORITY TO CONFER DEGREES.
Thesauros provided that the degrees could only be conferred by the officers of
the Supreme Council, or their authorized deputies. The Deputy Luminaries were
authorized to appoint "as many Assistant Deputy Luminaries as the good of the
order may require," each of whom was empowered "to receive petitions, decide
upon merits, and confer the five degrees in the
OBJECTS, LANDMARKS, ETC.
original mode wherever within the State of _____ his journeyings may bring
him," and they were to serve until the next convocation of the Supreme
Council, which was to meet quintennially. "The Supreme Council at
Philadelphia, 1845, directs each Deputy Luminary to offer an Assistant
Deputyship to each Master and Past Master of a Lodge throughout his division."
Under the Morris regime every master Mason who, had the right to receive the
degree, had an equal right to communicate it, provided there were not less
than five ladies present, together with as many gentlemen as might be
convenient. Master Masons could not communicate the degree to one another,
save in the presence of five ladies.
the present system the degrees can only be conferred in regularly organized
Chapters, save that, in most jurisdictions, the Grand Patron, or his deputy,
duly authorized so to do, has power to communicate them at sight upon
petitioners for the organization of a Chapter in a town or city where no
Chapter exists, but, in one or two jurisdictions, the Grand Matron is clothed
with this power.
present time all affiliated master Masons, their wives, widows, mothers,
sisters, and daughters, over eighteen years of age, are eligible to
membership, and in many jurisdictions, including that of the General Grand
Chapter, the term daughters is interpreted to include legally adopted
daughters; but during the development of the order, other regulations have
Thesauros, dimitted master Masons, and the wives, widows, sisters, daughters,
and the sisters of the wives of such, were admitted of "fifteen years of
OBJECTS, LANDMARKS, ETC.
and upwards, of matured intellect and good understanding." In constellations,
applicants for membership were required to be affiliated master Masons, or the
relatives of such, and were to be recommended by five members, and "a
unanimous vote (save two) shall be required to elect. They must also be of
sound mind, and capable of acquiring a knowledge of the rite." Under the
Morris regime (1860‑1868), all master Masons, whether affiliated or not, and
the wives, widows, sisters, and daughters of such were admitted, "provided the
unmarried ladies were eighteen years of age or upward," but step‑sisters,
step‑daughters, and divorced widows, were specifically excluded. It was
further provided that Daughters and sisters who have married persons not
Masons can receive the degree at the discretion of the lecturer; but, in
general it is advised that they should not.
same rule was laid down in the Macoy Manual, without the exceptions. Under the
Tatem Monitor only affiliated master Masons, and their wives, widows,
daughters, and sisters were eligible. The first recognition of the mothers of
master Masons was in Adoptive Rite, and since that, the present rule has
states of New York and New Jersey it has always been the practice to admit all
master Masons to the meetings of Chapters, as visitors, upon their assuming an
obligation of secrecy, but this is not believed to have been done in any other
Thesauros declared: The Order of the Eastern Star is impregnable to the
profane, the vicious, and the skeptics of Christian faith. The Order of the
Eastern Star is a Christian association of females in aid of ancient
OBJECTS, LANDMARKS, ETC.
will be observed that this order, like the encampment order of Masonry, is a
Christian system; and that none can consistently become its members, whether
male or female, save those who at least believe in Jesus Christ.
Eastern Star degree is not adapted to the Jewish brethren or their female
relatives, though they may receive it if they choose. If any offer to attend
they ought to be informed that it is purely Christian.
According to Adoptive Rite and Macoy's rituals, including the Standard, and
Adoptive Rite Ritual, "A belief in the existence of a supreme being, who will,
sooner or later, punish the willful violation of a solemn pledge," was one of
the landmarks. By the General Grand Chapter and New York rituals the candidate
was required to declare a belief in the existence of a Supreme Being. All
other rituals are silent as to religious belief.
Mosaic Book provided:
Whatever physical deformities or deficiencies, that would render a person
incapable of giving and responding to any of the means of recognition, are a
bar to initiation.
other ritual alludes to physical qualifications, that matter being usually
dealt with by decisions of the several Grand Chapters, which are generally in
accord with the above, although the blind, and the deaf and dumb have been
initiated in some jurisdictions. For particulars of these decisions reference
should be made to the index.
Thesauros sisters were called members, and brothers protectors; in the Mosaic
Book, sisters were stellæ, and brothers protectors. Under the family regime
they were called simply sisters and brothers,
OBJECTS, LANDMARKS, ETC.
this custom has prevailed ever since, although, by decisions in some
jurisdictions, the use of the terms have been confined to the precincts of the
FORFEITURE OF MEMBERSHIP.
Thesauros membership was forfeited by great dereliction of duty, violation of
the obligation, or transgression of the laws of the land, and the excinded
member should be held as such until full reformation is evident.
Mosaic Book a protector forfeited his membership:
absence, from the sessions of the constellation for twelve consecutive months
(except on account of protracted journeying, or ill‑health,);
demitting from the Masonic Lodge in which he is affiliated;
suspension or expulsion from said Lodge;
suspension or expulsion from the constellation.
membership of a stella is forfeited 1, by absence from the sessions of the
constellation for twelve consecutive months (except on account of protracted
journeying, or ill‑health,); 2, by suspension or expulsion from the
constellation; 3, by the dimital, suspension or expulsion of the individual
through whom she was adopted, upon her original petition, provided that, if
she can prove adoption through another master Mason, affiliated, and in good
standing, the Pillars of a constellation are at liberty to substitute his name
on the membership board for the one originally entered there.
Book of Instructions provision was made for the forfeiture of membership only
after "a fair trial, conducted on a patient and equitable basis," except that
master Mason, a member of the family, suspended or expelled by his Lodge,
shall receive the same penalty from the family, without trial; nor can he be
reinstated in the family until he has been reinstated by his Lodge, or the
OBJECTS, LANDMARKS, ETC.
Adoptive Rite and Adoptive Rite Ritual a brother's membership was forfeited
"by suspension, expulsion, or dismission from the Masonic Lodge of which he
was a member; or from the Chapter;" while the membership of a sister was
forfeited: 1, by absence from the sessions of the Chapter for two years; 2, by
suspension, expulsion, or dismission from the Chapter; 3, by the suspension,
expulsion, or dismission of the brother through whom she was adopted upon her
original petition; provided that, if she can prove adoption through another
master ma‑son, affiliated, and in good standing, the members of the Chapter
are at liberty to substitute his name on the original petition.
Macoy's ritual and Macoy's Standard the same rule obtained, except that the
third specification in regard to a sister was omitted, and this is the rule
that now universally exists, although the exempting of a sister from
dependence upon the good standing of the brother through whom she obtained
membership was strenuously opposed by brother Morris. In 1877 he said: In my
judgment nothing so effectually destroys the very aim and purpose of the order
as the legislation adopted in some of the Grand Chapters, which changes the
relationship of woman to the order. It has been decided in California, New
York, and possibly else‑where, that if a master Mason is ever expelled from
Masonry this will not affect the standing of his wife, daughter, or sister in
the order. What object can a Chapter have in retaining ladies in membership
whose husbands are expelled? Will a modest lady come to the Chapter at all
under such circumstances? Are they not exposed at every meeting to he wounded
by the lectures, and remarks made upon the subject of immorality and
unworthiness? Can a master Mason conscientiously sit in a Chapter with ladies
whose husbands and fathers he has helped to expel for gross crimes? What
principle in the Eastern Star is un‑
OBJECTS, LANDMARKS, ETC.
changeable if this one is not, which enters into the very origin and
philosophy of the order I do not wonder so many intelligent master Masons look
with suspicion upon the operations of Grand Chapters of the Eastern Star,
when, by a single vote, they can thus remove the foundation stone of the whole
and experience seem to have vindicated the views that brother Morris deemed so
dangerous to the very existence of the order.
the present system no penalty attaches to absence from Chapter meetings in any
jurisdiction, except that in Wisconsin an officer forfeits office by
unnecessary absence from four consecutive meetings.
General Grand Chapter ritual provided:
Membership can only be forfeited by dismission, suspension, or expulsion from
a Chapter, excepting that the suspension or expulsion of a brother from a
Masonic Lodge for any other cause than nonpayment of dues, deprives him of all
the rights of membership in the order until reinstated by the Masonic body.
most jurisdictions the laws do not make the exception in regard to nonpayment
of dues, while the Grand Chapter of California has decided that the suspension
of a brother from his Lodge for any cause does not affect his standing in the
ADDENDAS TO THE WORK.
Most Worthy Grand Patron in 1880 decided that
floral work, and other rhetorical exercises, are useful when the Chapter seeks
diversion, or means of culture, but they should in no case be introduced as a
part of the initiatory ceremony.
was supplemented, in 1889, by the adoption of the following:
that it is the sense of this General Grand Chapter that the rendition of what
is known as the floral work, or floral addenda is not prohibited, if the
candidate is fully instructed that it does not constitute any part of the
OBJECTS, LANDMARKS, ETC.
1879 the Grand Chapter of New York declared that So long as our ritual and
landmarks of our order are not interfered with, we shall hail with joy any
work that will add to the solemnity and interest of our ceremonies.
CHAPTER OF SORROW.
address to the General Grand Chapter in 1889, the Most Worthy Grand Patron
your attention to a recently published memorial service, entitled Chapter of
Sorrow of the Order of the Eastern Star, composed and arranged by sister Addie
C. S. Engle. As indicated by its name, it is intended as a service,
"supplemental to the prescribed funeral ceremonies, in commemoration of those
who, year by year, are taken by the stern reaper, death," and is designed for
use in the Chapter room. It is a very beautiful form of service, and is worthy
of being used in every Chapter, when it is desired to do honor to the memory
of our deceased members. I most heartily commend it to you, and recommend its
use in every Chapter of the order.
committee on revision of ritual reported as follows, and it was adopted:
have reviewed the memorial service, Chapter of sorrow of the Order of the
Eastern Star, as arranged by Mrs. Addie C. S. Engles. We do most heartily
indorse it as being all we could desire, both in beauty and expression, and
take pleasure in recommending its use to the order.
particulars as to these, and other similar ceremonies, see Chapter V.
DEGREES, EMBLEMS, ETC.
rituals the first four degrees are uniformly called Daughter's; Widow's;
Wife's; and Sister's. The fifth is called in Thesauros, the Mason's Wife's
Sister's; and in subsequent rituals, until Adoptive Rite, in which they are
not named, the Christian. In Macoy's Ritual, and subsequent ones, it is called
the Mother's. In Thesauros they are further called Initiatory; Passing;
Raising; Exalting; and Perfecting.
NAMES OF HEROINES.
names of the five heroines are the same in all rituals except Thesauros, in
which Jephthah's daughter is the only designation for the first.
colors are the same in all rituals except Thesauros, in which the second is
given as orange. In the esoteric work presumably accompanying Thesauros, which
is not known now to exist, those things which the various colors represented,
and the different emblems, were explained.
Mosaic Book the colors were thus explained:
which is the hue of distant mountains under Judah's fair sky, reminds me of
they two months' stay made by Adah in the mountains, while fortifying her mind
against the terrors of a violent death.
Yellow, which is the hue of the barley fields on the plains of Judah, reminds
me that, in that place of harvest, all her prayers were answered, her faith
re‑warded, and her trust in God vindicated.
which is the hue of the silken robes of Esther, reminds men that, in the
spotless purity of Christ alone I can expect to find favor at the throne of
DEGREES, EMBLEMS, ETC.
which is the hue of Spring, and covers every grave as with a mantle, reminds
me that as Lazarus came forth at the breath of the Lord Jesus Christ, so shall
I, in the spring time of the resurrection, be summoned from my grave by the
same commanding voice.
which is the hue of blood and wine, reminds me to dispense with my temporal
means to the poor, even as the Redeemer gave his heart's best blood to save me
from eternal death.
alludes to the blue appearance of the mountains in whose caves she abode for
two months while preparing for death.
alludes to the color of the ripened barley in the harvest fields of Boaz.
alludes to her silken apparel as a queen.
alludes to the resurrection of Lazarus.
alludes to her liberal and boundless hospitality.
alludes to the mountains of Gilead, among which was her romantic home in
Mizpeh. Seen under the clear sky of Palestine, the ranges and peaks of the
mountains are intensely blue, and this suggests the application to Jephthah's
alludes to the golden late of the barley fields in which Ruth was gleaning
when she met with favor at the hands of Boaz.
alludes to the royal robe of whitest silk worn by Esther when she entered the
audience chamber to make known to the king her petition.
alludes to the resurrection of her brother Lazarus from the sepulcher where he
had lain four days dead.
an emblem of fervency in the exercise of the moral virtues, and alludes to the
admirable generosity of Electa displayed particularly toward the poor and
persecuted of her faith.
alludes to the cerulean hue of the mountains in whose solitude Jephthah's
daughter passed two months while preparing herself for death.
DEGREES, EMBLEMS, ETC.
alludes to the ripened grain that composed the barley sheaves of Boaz among
which Ruth was gleaning.
alludes to the silken robes of Esther, emblematic of the spotless purity of
alludes to the resurrection of Lazarus, and by direct inference, that final
and Grander resurrection at the last day. Never does freeMason cast the
evergreen sprig into the open grave of his brother but the coming event is
thus beautifully foreshadowed.
symbolizes fervency, and alludes to the noble generosity of Electa displayed
toward the poor and persecuted of her faith.
Adoptive Rite and Macoy's Ritual:
which we symbolize (sic) by the azure and hazy atmosphere that enveloped the
mountains of Judea, in whose caves and solitude Jephthah's daughter dwelt,
with her companions, two months while preparing for death. It also symbolized
fidelity, and should teach us to be faithful to all our obligations.
Yellow, which symbolizes the ripened grain in the field of Boaz, in which Ruth
was an humble gleaner.
alludes to the white silken robes in which Esther was dressed when she
appeared before the Ling in the court of Persia. It is emblematic of the
spotless purity of her character, and teaches us to be ever mindful of our
rectitude of conduct in the affairs of life so as to be above the tongue of
emblematical of the immutable nature of truth and its victory. The evergreen
is the symbol of our faith in the immortality of the soul, and the realization
of an everlasting happiness beyond the grave.
symbolizes fervency, and alludes to the noble generosity of Electa displayed
toward the poor and persecuted of her faith.
opening ceremonies other explanations were given, some of which seem somewhat
strained and inconsistent: The blue ray represents the clearness of the sky,
DEGREES; EMBLEMS, ETC.
all clouds have vanished, and symbolizes chastity, loyalty, fidelity, and a
yellow ray symbolizes constancy, purity (!), and the lustre of great
white ray symbolizes light, purity, and joy.
green ray, the purity and freshness of which are emblems of delight, and the
beauty of nature, and symbolizes hope and immortality.
red ray, symbolically representing ardor and zeal, which should actuate all
who are engaged in the holy cause of benevolence.
is the color to which popular usage has assigned the representation of that
which is true and faithful. When the blue ray is made to fall for some time on
the needle it acquires polarity and points time to its mysterious attraction
in the chambers of the north. It teaches us to be true and faithful to all our
obligations as members of the Eastern Star.
or gold, one of the primitive colors, and reflecting the most light, after
white, is used to signify something pleasing or valuable, as a "heart of
gold," or "the golden chain of friendship." To us it is symbolical of the
ripened grain in the field of Boaz, in which Ruth was an humble gleaner.
is the color which has ever been regarded as an emblem of purity and
innocence. It is the result of a union and reaction of all the primary rays of
light, hence it is metaphorically used to signify a collection and reflection
of those graces and virtues which adorn and dignify the character. To us it is
emblematical of the spotless purity of the character of Esther.
is the most widely diffused of all the tints which adorn the material world,
and is the symbol of memory and eternity. The evergreen which lifts it‑self
over the grave of some loved one, seems to respond to our sighs with an
instructive language: "He is not dead, but sleepeth - thy brother shall rise
again." To us it is a symbol of the immortality of the soul.
DEGREES, EMBLEMS, ETC.
one of the primary colors, is the one by which fervency and love has ever been
represented. In the prismatic spectrum the red ray is the most calorific, and
the least refragable of all. It teaches us that our covenant of love should be
ardent, and never turn from its purpose, and is symbolical of the fervency of
Electa in her noble generosity toward the poor and persecuted of her race.
point. The sword only, is given in the Thesauros, Mosaic Book, Ladies' Friend,
and Tatem, while in Morris's Manual the veil is added, but without any
explanation. In all other rituals the sword and veil.
point. The sheaf is all except Rosary, in which "two barley parcels" were
point. "The crown" only, in Thesauros, Ladies' Friend, and Ta tem. In Rosary,
"the crown, robe and sceptre." In Morris's Manual, the crown and scepter are
specified, but the crown only explained. All others, "the crown and scepter."
point. In Thesauros, "the open sepulchre;" Mosaic Book, "pillar rent;" Rosary,
"shattered shaft and green sprig." All others, "broken column."
point. Thesauros, "grasped hands;" Mosaic Book, "clasped hands;" Morris's
Manual, Ladies' Friend and Tatem, "joined hands;" Rosary, "clasped hands, cup
and cross;" Macoy's Manual, "cup and clasped hands," but cup only explained.
All others, the "cup."
DEGREES, EMBLEMS, ETC.
sword which in the hands of her own father, became the instrument of her
sheaf, which in the field of Boaz became the means of preserving her life, and
exhibiting the benevolence of a faithful bother.
crown which, denoting royalty, is the measure of that vast sacrifice so
cheerfully made by Esther for the preservation of her people.
pillar rent, which denotes the sudden death of Lazarus.
joined hands, which, denoting ardent hospitality, teaches that, though the
Christian saint could not render to God the benefits received from Him, she
neglected no opportunity to dispense charity to His people.
sword alludes to that by which she was slain.
sheaf alludes to the sheaves of barley amongst which she was gleaning.
crown alludes to her royal state as a queen.
broken column alludes to the death of Lazarus.
joined hands allude to the rich generosity of her character.
sword reminds us of the instrument of her death.
sheaf reminds us of the liberality of Boaz, who, from his sheaves, commanded
that portions be taken and cast in Ruth's way, that she might gather an
crown reminds us of the queenly state of Esther, and of the manner in which
she hailed the notice of the king.
broken column is an emblem of the death of a young man in the vigor of life.
cup reminds us of the ardent hospitality of Electa, excited by the view of
poverty and distress.
DEGREES, EMBLEMS, ETC.
sword in the hands of the father was the daughter slain. The veil alludes to
the firmness with which Adah adhered to her determination to die in the light,
suffering no stain to rest upon her memory after death.
sheaf is an emblem of plenty, which, from its distinct and minute parts,
teaches us that by patient industry, gleaning here a little and there a
little, we may accumulate a competency to support us when the infirmities of
age unfit us for the fatigues of labor.
crown and scepter united is an emblem of royalty and power. It reminds us of
the dignity of the king and the meek submission of the queenly petitioner.
broken column is an expressive emblem of the uncertainty of human existence,
and the outward evidence of the decease of a young man cut down in the vigor
cup reminds us of the generous hospitality of Electa excited by the view of
poverty and distress.
opening ceremonies of Adoptive Rite and Macoy's Ritual, two of these
explanations were varied: The sword and veil, emblematic of the heroic
con‑duct of Jephthah's daughter.
cup is the emblem of the bitter draught, of which we are constantly partaking
through life; but, however distasteful, will, in the end, overflow with
blessings, rich, abounding and eternal.
opening ceremonies there were different lessons:
sword and veil we are reminded of the filial piety of the heroic daughter of
Jephthah; by the sheaf, that to please God is worthy of our greatest
sacrifices; by the crown and scepter, that true friendship refuses no pain or
cross for the object of its affection; by the broken column, that times of the
deepest sorrow and loneliness are often enlightened by the brightest graces of
God; by the cup, that the cup
DEGREES, EMBLEMS, ETC.
our heavenly Father gives us to drink, though bitter and distasteful, will, in
the end, prove to overflow with blessings, rich, abounding and eternal.
will be noticed that the Macoy rituals had a superabundance of symbolic
Adoptive Rite, Macoy, California and New York rituals the candidate was made
to wear a thin white veil over her face, which was removed by the Conductress
after the obligation. The writer was initiated thus veiled, but in the New
York ritual only women candidates were to be thus veiled. In the latter
ritual, which is the only one that gives any explanation of this ceremony, the
candidate is thus addressed: In removing the veil from your eyes, my sister,
we bring you into the full light of the beauty of our Chapter room. In the
ancient ceremonies of initiation the veil was used as a symbol to teach the
candidate that as he advanced in knowledge, he was enlightened by the spirit
of education. That he was led from the darkness of ignorance into the
marvelous light of truth, and we desire that the glory of the bright Eastern
Star shall be clearly seen by you with no veil to dim its lustre.
veil used by Adah is variously designated: Mosaic Book, "heavy black;"
California Ritual, "blue;'" in all others except the General Grand Chapter
Ritual, "a thick mourning veil." In General Grand Chapter Ritual, "a veil."
Grand Chapter of Vermont, in 1896, decided that a black veil should be used,
while the Grand Chapter of Maine, in 1897, decided on blue, which is the color
usually employed, although, with the above exceptions, there has been no
legislation on the subject. It would seem that, considering the harmonies,
black would be preferable to blue.
DEGREES, EMBLEMS, ETC.
first mention of them was in Morris's Manual, where they were specified, as
also in Rosary : "1. Violet; 2. Sunflower (heliotropes)," - helianthus was
probably meant - "3. White lily; 4. Sprig of Pine; 5. Red rose." With this
agrees Macoy's Manual, save 4 is "a pine leaf."
Chapter of sorrow in Adoptive Rite the blue flower was said to teach the
lesson of undying love; the yellow, unending possession; the white, heart
purity; the green, undeviating sincerity; and the red, unfading beauty.
funeral service in the same, the blue flower was to symbolize universal
friendship; the yellow, disinterested kindness; white, truth and innocence;
the green, immortality; and the red, fervency.
Macoy's Ritual had no explanation of the floral emblems.
General Grand Chapter Ritual they were: "1.Violet; 2. Yellow jasmine; 3. White
lily; 4. Fern; 5. Red rose."
Rosary explanations were that the flowers were severally selected on account
of their colors, but brother Morris had evidently associated the thought of
these flowers with the several points before he incorporated them in the
Rosary, as in 1855, he had written in a poem entitled "The Flowers of the
Gleaned from plain and hill and valley,
Grouped in mystic tie,
Maidens read me, - gladness, sadness,
Ev'ry tongue have I; -
Violet, sunleaf, lily white,
Pine eternal, - rose, delight.
Violet. Its retired, shrinking nature is emblematical of Jephthah's daughter,
the devoted maid of Mispeh.
DEGREES, EMBLEMS, ETC.
Sunflower. Emblematical of the ripened grain gleaned by Ruth, the pious widow
lily. Emblematical of the white robes of Esther, the noble hearted queen of
leaf. Emblematical of Martha, the faithful sister of Bethany.
rose. Emblematical of the unbounded charity and hospitality practiced by
EMBLEMS IN CENTER OF STAR.
emblems are explained in Mosaic Book, Morris's Manual, Rosary, Ladies' Friend
and General Grand Chapter Ritual, but are not mentioned in Thesauros, Tatem,
or either of Macoy's. In the first four mentioned the explanations were
elaborate, and connected each with one of the mottoes found in the border of
the signet, of which the following brief summary embraces the salient points:
all allude to Christ, Who is the light and key to the Eastern Star, and Who is
the Word of God; the Lily of the Valley; The Sun of Righteousness; the Lamb of
God; and the Lion of the Tribe of Judah. Brother Morris put their objects in
poetic phrase as follows:
that form of innocence,
that Bud of Peace,
that Word unbroken, spoken
Son of Grace,
Judah's Terror, - emblems five,
we Him, and reading, live!
labyrinth as in Mosaic Book, together with the stations of the officers and
members, is represented in the accompanying illustration. It will be noticed
that the single point of the star is up, or toward the east. In adapting the
Mosaic Book for use in Lodges of adoptive Masonry Tatem dispensed with the
Pillars, who occupied the outer points of the star (1, 2, 3, 4,
DEGREES, EMBLEMS, ETC.
5), and left the sisters, who formed the inner angles of the star in the same
stations, thus changing the position of the star, so that, practically, two
points were toward the east. Some discussion has been had
the origin and propriety of the latter position, as mythological teaching is
that the star with one point up is an emblem of good, while with two points up
it is an emblem of evil. Brother Morris was, per‑
DEGREES. EMBLEMS, ETC.
not lacking in mythological lore when he penned the directions for forming the
star with one point toward the east, but it will be easily seen that by the
later development, in doing away with the outer points, the mythological
significance of the star was altered without design, and probably by persons
that were ignorant of the fact, and that it stood for the goat of Mendes.
this particular, as in many others, brother Morris was not consistent, as in
the tessera he placed the star with two points up. The changes in the work
made by Tatem left the stations in order the reverse of the present usage. In
the Tatem labyrinth the candidate entered at the southwest door, passed north
in front of the Vice President's station in the west, was seated in the chair
of the Conductor in the north, then passed the stations of the five patrons (Adah,
Ruth, Esther, Martha, and Electa), from east to west, then south and east,
then was seated in the banner chair southeast of Electa, and then east and
north to the President's chair, from which place she was instructed and
Adoptive Rite was the first to delineate the star with two points toward the
east. In that and Macoy's Ritual the candidate, after entrance, was stationed
in the west, facing east, in which position the covenant of adoption was
assumed; she then made a circuit around the altar to the first point; then to
the second point by passing to the left of the altar; then round the altar to
the third point, and so to the fourth and fifth points; then directly to the
General Grand Chapter Ritual was the first that provided a labyrinth of any
particular significance, weaving out, as it does, a complete double star.
DEGREES, EMBLEMS, ETC.
Mosaic Book had this lecture:
pathway of human life meanders like this labyrinth, and the most prudent
pilgrim upon the journey fails to accomplish the plans with which he set out.
He may go swiftly and prosperously forward a little ways, but suddenly his
course is checked by obstacles he does not understand, and powers that he can
not overcome. Again he attempts to move in the right line, to some new goal of
his desires; again all for awhile may seem to conspire to accomplish his ends,
when, unexpectedly as before, his way is stopped - and so all through his
life, he drives from point to point, baffled and astonished at every turn,
until wearied and disgusted with repeated disappointments and failures, and
craving something that is not subject to change and disaster, he stands, at
last, before the Great Light of all, and is accosted by the judge of quick and
cabalistic word is referred to in all rituals, and appears on all signets, as
well as upon the seal of the Supreme Constellation. See illustration, Chapter
have seen His Star in the East and are come to worship Him," is on all signets
Morris signet (see frontispiece), had the additional mottoes: "The Bright and
Morning Star;" "The Rose of Sharon, and the Lily of the Valley;" "The Star out
of Jacob;" "The Sun of Righteousness;" "The Word;" "The Lamb of God;" "The
Prince of Peace;" "The Lion of the Tribe of Judah;" and "The Day Star."
OTHER SIGNET EMBLEMS.
Thesauros designated the regalia for the several degrees as follows: 1. apron;
2. glove; 3. band; 4. brooch; 5. collar; and the virtues: 1. obedience; 2.
attachment; 3. purity; 4. faith; 5. truth; were each represented by a
five‑pointed star on each point of the larger star, all of which are found on
the Morris signet, and the seal of the Supreme Constellation.
DEGREES, EMBLEMS, ETC.
various signets that have been used by the order are reproduced in facsimile,
in reduced size. The Morris Signet was used under the family organization and
was inserted in the Rosary. The Macoy Signet was used by Chapters working
under the Supreme Grand Chapter. The Engle Signet was designed by the author
in 1879 and is used by all Chapters working under the General Grand Chapter.
Mosaic Book, the banner exhibiting "the head of the lion" was set up at one
point of the star. (See diagram of labyrinth.) This was also used in the
Addenda published by the Grand Chapter of Connecticut.
Mosaic Book said:
tessera is a metallic object in the form of a five‑pointed star, the points
being so disposed that one is directed downwards, in the front of which
appears the lion, the symbol of this order, - on the back the name of the
stella (or protector) who presents it, and the name and number of which she
(or he) is or was last a member. The theory of the American Adoptive Rite is
that every stella and protector is provided with a tessera, to answer as a
visible token of membership, in traveling, and to present to Warder at the
door of the constellation, as a testimonial of qualification. In such cases,
however, as the loss of the tessera, or its being absent, or the party not
having provided herself (or himself) with one, Warder will provide in its
stead a slip of card, or paper containing the name, locality, &c., of the
party, and this may be exhibited to Heleon on entering, as a substitute. No
person, member or visitor, can, under any circumstances, enter a constellation
without exhibiting the tessera or its substitute to Warder and Heleon.
Mosaic Book provided that "Votes in a constellation may best be taken by
raised hands; this is
DEGREES, EMBLEMS, ETC.
the ballot is not required." The General Grand Chapter adopted the same method
for the government of itself only, in 1878.
POSITIONS OF STAR OFFICERS.
Mosaic Book the Pillars and Correspondents sat facing the bible. In California
the star officers faced the east. In General Grand Chapter Revised the chairs
were to be placed facing the east, or inclined toward the altar. The other
rituals did not specify how these officers should face.
Thesauros, at her initiation, the candidate was admonished:
first lesson taught you in this order was obedience to the word of God. He has
bade us remember the poor and afflicted. You should exhibit your faith by your
works, and I now request you to select some object of charity, and bestow upon
it at your first opportunity such an amount as your heart and means dictate.
This will be reckoned the first fruits of your obedience, according to the
word of God. "As for the oblation of the first fruits, you shall offer them
unto the Lord."
Mosaic Book, after having received the initiatory degree
preparation of the candidate, save a willing and obedient spirit, is demanded
for this (Jephthah's Daughter), or subsequent degrees. But, as a means of
ascertaining the feelings which prompt the applicant to advance, it is
recommended that she be solicited to devote a sum, small or great, according
to her ability and disposition, to the widow's fund of the constellation, as
the first fruits of her adoption. Moneys so received must be set apart in
strict accordance with the wishes of the donor.
Mosaic Book and Adoptive Rite, at the time of initiation, some one was
required to be responsible for the good faith of the candidate.
DEGREES, EMBLEMS, ETC.
Mosaic Book provided that at an examination of a visitor a declaration should
be made which answered the purpose of a test oath, and the examination
consisted of thirty‑five questions, covering colors, signs, and all the
emblems and their allusions.
Book of Instructions, the directions as to dating documents of the order were
as follows: "1861, 97th day; implied, April 17, 1861; 1863, 310th day; October
11, 1863;" etc.
Adoptive Rite, the year A. D., was supplemented by "A. O. - Anno ordinis, -
year of the order. To find this date subtract 1778 from the present year."
Mosaic Book contained an ode appropriate to each degree, the production of
brother Morris: "Father! father, the joyful minstrel sang;" "From Moab's
hills;" "Queen of Persia's broad domain;" "Low in the dust;" and, "Her gentle
hand." In the second edition "The Dirge of the freeMason's daughter;" and
"Love and light," were added. The first five were also in Morris's Manual.
family bylaws contained the five first above mentioned, and three others,
my daughter, why these tears?
this so sad appears?
wilt thou of thy sorrowing friend?
Believest thou this grief will end?
one another and thou'lt prove
all these tears an angel's love.
Macoy's Manual introduced, "Here around the altar meeting," to the tune of
"Just before the battle, mother;" and his subsequent publications contained
substantially the same odes, with the addition of several familiar hymns.
DEGREES, EMBLEMS, ETC.
the General Grand Chapter ritual was first published, at the request of the
chairman of the committee on publication, Addie C. S. Bario (Engle), Past
Grand Matron of Connecticut, wrote three odes, which were published in the
collection issued by that body under the name of "Odes with music," viz.:
"With earnest hearts and willing hands;" "Of Thee, Supreme Grand Power above;"
and "Called from labor to repose." In 1882 Lorraine J. Pitkin, and Jennie E.
Mathews, now Past Most Worthy Grand Matrons, issued a collection of odes
entitled "Gems of Song for Eastern Star Chapters;" and in 1899, Carrie F.
Bradford, Past Matron, of Indianapolis, published, under the title of "The
Musical Star," a collection of odes, and a complete arrangement of musical
marches, etc., for the entire ceremonies of the Chapter.
Mosaic Book provided for "a memorial, communicated semi‑annually by the
Supreme Constellation to Heleon, and by him to all Pillars and Correspondents,
and such stellæ and protectors as may contemplate traveling."
Book of Instructions:
Patron, immediately after his installation, selects one of the twenty‑five
words engraved around the border of the membership board, according to his own
judgment, and communicates it to the members. This remains as the peculiar
countersign of the family for twelve months.
California ritual an annual password was taken up at the opening of the
practice now prevails in at least half a dozen jurisdictions of taking up a
password at the opening of both Grand and subordinate Chapters, but there is
no authority in the ritual for such a custom, and the
DEGREES, EMBLEMS, ETC.
General Grand Chapter in 1895, decided that a password was not necessary.
Formerly, in Connecticut, and possibly in other states, it was the practice
for the Matron to announce, before the opening of the Chapter: We will open
with the pass of Adah; - or one other of the five points, and the pass
designated was taken up by the Conductress and Associate Conductress; and the
Grand Chapter of Michigan, at its meeting in 1900, passed a resolution
allowing this to be done, as does also the Grand Chapter of Wisconsin.
tuilleur which was printed in the Mosaic Book gave specific directions as to
the manner of giving all the secret work, and the signs were illustrated by
artistic engravings of each movement, which agree substantially with those
prescribed in Morris's Manual, the Macoy syllabus, and with those now in use
save that the fourth sign was given kneeling; and the third movement of the
third sign was as here illustrated.
directions for a responsive sign were:
the right hand upon the center of the breast, then move it slowly upward and
forward to the full length of the arm. This was said to point out the source
from whence adoptive Masonry receives its illumination.
passes remain unchanged from the beginning. The words "ten" and "and," were
dropped from the motto by the General Grand Chapter.
Mosaic Book the bible was to be opened at Isaiah lxiii.
Thesauros prescribed white and green as "the mourning colors of the order from
DEGREES, EMBLEMS, ETC.
Masons' sisters were given the precedence in a funeral procession, followed in
order by daughters; widows; wives; and sister‑in‑laws; "brought up in the rear
by the brother protectors."
Mosaic Book recommended that "Every meeting, whether stated or called, should
be concluded, when practicable, with a social repast."
Book of Instructions a ceremony was provided for the opening of a banquet,
behind tyled doors, beginning with an invocation:
of every earthly pleasure,
Bounteous Author of all good,
mercy's largest measure,
this meeting and this food.
Grateful hearts will then adore Thee,
Grateful lives Thy mercy own,
in heaven we stand before Thee,
we worship by Thy throne.
each of five officers held up a pasteboard letter, about an inch in height,
representing the cabalistic word, and alternately repeated a word of the
five other officers and members (not visitors), commencing with the Recorder
and going around on his left, hold up the stars (biscuits baked very hard and
dry, cut in the form of a five‑pointed star, about the size of a silver
dollar), and as each breaks off one point, he or she repeats the explanation
Recorder - Remember the birth of Christ! Remember the life of Christ! Remember
the death of Christ! Remember the resurrection of Christ! Remember the
ascension of Christ!
all present, officers, members, and visitors, hold up their bouquets (of
flowers of the five colors) and repeat the following invocations, the Patron
leading the way, and the rest responding in unison:
off a blue flower and repeat:
Blessed are the poor in spirit; for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.
followed four other beatitudes in a similar manner. Toward the close of the
banquet five regular
DEGREES, EMBLEMS, ETC.
were given, with another ceremonial breaking and eating of a star biscuit.
They were of a stereo‑typed character of which the following will serve as a
specimen: Lasting honor to her - and whosoever resembles her who cheerfully
resigned her life to vindicate the honor of her father.
Thesauros declared "The Order of the Eastern Star embraces five degrees and no
more, nor can further degrees ever be legally accumulated upon it." Macoy's
Standard: The rite of adoption was never designed to be wholly embodied within
the limits of one degree, but like that great institution into whose fraternal
organization it was intended to be adopted, it should teach its lessons step
by step, each advancing ceremony to be higher, and more instructive in
principle and design.
Grand Chapter of New York adopted the Worthy Matron's degree in 1873, the
Floral Work in 1882 and the Sisterhood degree in 1895.
1877 the Grand Chapter of Mississippi authorized its subordinates to confer
the Mason's Daughter; Heroine of Jericho; Queen of the South; and Cross and
General Grand Chapter in 1595 approved the action of the Most Worthy Grand
Matron in refusing to recognize any so‑called higher degrees; and in 1898 it
that there are no degrees connected in any way or manner with our order other
than those provided for and taught in the ritual.
that any member willfully representing to any one that there are side degrees,
higher degrees, or any degrees other than those taught and provided for by our
ritual, shall be guilty of conduct unbecoming a member of the order, and, upon
conviction thereof, shall be suspended or expelled from the order.
MINOR RITUALS, CEREMONIES, ETC.
have been issued in limited numbers works containing arrangements of
ceremonies to he used in lieu of portions of the work, or as additions
thereto, the oldest being two issued by the Grand Chapter of Connecticut,
viz.: "Short Specimen Dramas, founded on Scripture subjects." This embraced
the four degrees of the Mosaic Book, revised, which Chapters were allowed to
use in plate of the regular ritual, and they are still so used, occasionally,
by at least one Chapter in Connecticut.
"Addenda." This supplied many things that were needful to round out the work
under Adoptive Rite.. It was largely adapted from the Mosaic Book, and
included explanations of the colors, emblems, etc.
"Monitor of the Exemplified Work," was printed by Minneapolis Chapter No. 9,
Minneapolis, Minnesota, the use of which was made the groundwork for the
beginning of what was popularly known as the Minnesota muddle. It was an
attempt to inject into the degrees, as in the General Grand Chapter ritual,
certain dramatic effects, substituting for portions of the lectures, dramatic
action. It was much briefer than the Mosaic Book, and lacked the Grandeur that
that contained. There was nothing in common between the two, and it is evident
that the authors of the latter work had never seen the former.
Chapter of Sorrow, by Addie C. S. Engle. This service, written in 1888, and
approved by the General
RITUALS, CEREMONIES. ETC.
Chapter, has found wide acceptance with the order, and has been officially
adopted by many Grand Chapters, both for their own use and that of their
subordinates. It embraces opening and closing ceremonies with parts for all
the officers, and provides for the forming of a floral star surrounded by a
wreath, which, with other emblems, are deposited upon a memorial shrine. There
are also original hymns, and the dedication is to, Rob Morris, who passed
beyond this life a few months before it was written, in these lines:
harp which late so sweetly rang
stringless now and still;
master wakes its chords no more
Obedient to his will.
shall wake again that lyre
sing our order's weal?
follow in his steps, and to
vows be ever leal?
cause he loved he honored well,
light he followed far;
Death's gloomy vale was all illumed
Bethlehem's holy Star.
chant with joy redemption's song
voice to him be given,
song of Moses and the Lamb,
melody of heaven.
designed for public use, and is calculated to make the very best impression
CHAPTER OF SORROW.
1886, Charles. C. Dike, Past Grand Patron of Massachusetts, published an
edition of the Macoy Chapter of sorrow, with very slight changes, the
principal one being the giving of certain portions of the ceremony that in the
Macoy were performed by the Patron, to the Matron.
RITUALS, CEREMONIES, ETC.
1876, Golden Gate Chapter No. 1, of San Francisco, published a funeral
ceremony, which was an adaptation of that contained in Adoptive Rite.
Provision was made for the rendering of the first portion of it in the Chapter
room, instead of at the grave; all of it was rendered by the Matron instead of
the Patron; and the star parts were entirely left out, the floral star being
deposited in the grave with these words: This floral emblem of the Eastern
Star, framed from Nature's loveliest materials, is emblematical of that pure
life to which our sister has been called, and reminds us that as these
children of an hour will drop and fade away, so we too shall soot follow those
who have gone before its. I now deposit this emblem of our order in the grave
of our departed sister. Mere may she sleep in peace, where the murmurs of the
winds and trees will chant their eternal requiem, and the fairest flowers
affection's hand can plant will cover her grave with perpetual bloom.
QUEEN OF THE SOUTH.
was an adaptation by brother Macoy of a degree arranged by brother Morris,
probably from some form in which he had received it orally, and it is one of
the crudest productions that was ever published as a degree from the pens of
these brethren. Al‑though it was incorporated in some editions of Macoy's
rituals, it never was rendered with any regularity, that I can learn of, in
any Chapter. In fact I do not know that it was ever worked more than once or
twice. It enlisted all the fourteen officers of a Chapter, and was rendered in
the royal palace of King Solomon, on mount Zion who is seated upon his great
throne of ivory, overlaid with pure gold, surrounded with his officers and
courtiers, and the kings of foreign nations, ambassadors, philosophers, and
others who had come to gather wisdom from his lips.
RITUALS, CEREMONIES, ETC.
purpose of the degree was well set forth in an address to the court: In this
beautiful allegory we have considered the objections urged against the
admission of ladies into the knowledge of Masonic principles. Those objections
advanced by king Solomon were so easily answered and refuted by the queen of
the South, that it was impossible even for the wisest of men to maintain them.
argument referred to was carried on between King Solomon and the officers of
the Chapter as proxies for the candidate, who represented the queen of Sheba.
CROSS AND CROWN.
Brother Macoy's original plan, which he worked out, on paper, in 1875, was to
make the Queen of the South the second, and the Cross and Crown the third
degree in the Adoptive Rite, but the latter was no more suited to enlist the
interest of intelligent persons than was the former, and if anything it was
cruder and more lacking in unity. It was to be worked by Chapter officers in a
body called a court, the point officers forming a cross instead of a star. The
degree consisted of the brief mention of five American women who had been
foreign missionaries; the presentation of five objections to Masonry on
be‑half of the women, and their refutation by the Patron; the mention of four
great crosses in human life: ingratitude, poverty, sickness and death, which
may culminate in the crown of life; and the application of five religions
graces: piety, friendship, resignation, truth and constancy. The ritual was
illustrated with banners for the five divisions of the degree which covered
the baptism, temptation, agony, crucifixion and ascension of the Savior. It
would require a wise ritualist to take this abundance of incongruous material
and work it all into one harmonious degree. It is no wonder that the attempt
was a failure.
RITUALS, CEREMONIES, ETC.
MATRON'S ADMINISTRATIVE DECREE.
was a production of brother Macoy, and was to be conferred upon Matrons before
their installation, or as soon thereafter as possible in an administrative
council, made up of Past Matrons and Past Patrons, and was founded upon the
scripture narrative of Deborah and Barak, and was intended "to explain and
dignify the powers, duties, and responsibilities of the presiding officer of a
warranted Chapter." The object was to show "what strong faith in a single
woman may do for a whole nation."
STAR AND CROSS, OR PREPARATORY WORK.
was by S. Clark, Past Patron of Radiant Chapter No. 35, of New York, who
dedicated it to John J. Sproull, Past Grand Secretary of New York, and was
published in 1876. It consisted solely of scripture recitations, and marches.
To it was appended a lesson of purity, with a suitable introduction. Its
purpose was stated in the preface.
the restoration of the adoptive rite under the names of the Eastern Star the
figure of the Savior. was presented in the symbol of the Star of Bethlehem,
but the teachings of the Great Master were omitted. It resembled the clay
image ere immortal breath had quickened it. This little work which is added,
are the words and teachings of him of whom the star is the symbol, and is
calculated and intended to prepare the mind of the initiate for a proper
reception of the ritual. * * * It not only, by due solemnity, prepares the
mind for a proper reception of the main work, but is also calculated to
impress it with the beauty and truth of the sacred scriptures, by planting the
germ which will only require culture to ultimate in purity of life, by leading
the votary the true path to heaven and a blessed immortality."
was intended by brother Macoy as the third and highest degree in his revised
system of adoptive
RITUALS, CEREMONIES, ETC.
Masonry, and the "Court" consisted of the same number of officers as a
Chapter, but they were given more exalted titles. The Matron and Patron were
"Royal," while all the others had "Honored" prefixed to their titles. After
assuming the obligation, the candidate was caused to partake of salt and bread
with the officers, "'To share bread and salt with another is to exchange
confidence and pledge hospitality." "By this act we, in behalf of this
Chapter, seal and make perpetual our mutual bond of friendship." The lessons
at the points were Truth, Faith, Wisdom, and Charity. One of the most
beautiful passages was at the fourth point, Charity: There is a beautiful
thought conveyed in the legend, that on the shores of the Adriatic sea the
wives of the fishermen, whose husbands have gone far off upon the deep, are in
the habit, at eventide, of going down to the sea‑shore and singing the first
verse of a favorite hymn. After they have sung it, they listen till they hear,
borne by the winds across the desert sea, the second verse, sung by their
husbands as they are tossed by the gale upon the waves, thus rendering
happiness to all. Perhaps, if we listen, we too may hear, in the desert world,
some whisper borne from afar, to remind us that there is a heavenly home; and
when we sing a hymn upon earth, it may be we shall hear its echo breaking in
sweet melody upon the sands of time, cheering the hearts of those who,
perchance, are pilgrims and strangers, looking for a city that hath sure
foundations. (When possible to do so, a choir of ladies and gentlemen will
sing two verses of a familiar hymn; the ladies, being in a distant part of the
Chapter room, will sing the first verse, and the gentlemen, in an adjoining
room, with the door ajar, will sing the second verse.) The candidate arriving
in the East the Royal Matron said
ceremony by which Knighthood is conferred is called the accolade. Conforming
to this custom,
RITUALS, CEREMONIES, ETC.
the authority vested in me, I receive you (places a sword on the left and
right shoulders, and on the head of the candidate), and confer upon you the
dignity of a Lady of the Royal and Exalted degree of the Amaranth; and as the
Amaranthine flower is typical of undying friendship and eternal truth, so with
this right Band accept our pledge of an abiding trust, and 'a cordial
reception into our fellowship.
Conducted to the West she was crowned with a wreath: This is no diadem of
gold; no cinture of pearls; no regal tiara; no frame‑work of gems, velvet
lined, like that which so often presses upon the aching brows of royalty. That
is a badge of power; frequently empty, unsubstantial, and delusive. But our
crown and our act of coronation have a higher and a nobler meaning. We crown
you as being eminent for virtue, zeal, and well‑doing; showing charity to the
destitute, and faithful in every walk of life. May all your footsteps fall
upon flowers. May all your good intentions he fraught with success. May your
last days be your best. We crown you in the hope of immortality. There is no
death to the pure and loving. May your admission to the land celestial and
everlasting be sure, and your entrance full of delight. And as the years rill
along and bring about the great consummation for which we all hopefully wait,
may your ransomed spirit he crowned with the never‑ceasing favor of Almighty
candidate was then made to bear the banner of the order which embraced the
Eastern Star within which was a circle bearing the letters H. E. B. A. S.
while in the center was an Amaranthine wreath.
was the work of brother Alonzo J. Burton, of New York, in which the candidate
is presented with appropriate flowers by each of the point officers, and
RITUALS, CEREMONIES, ETC.
Associate Conductress. A full programme of vocal music usually accompanies it,
as well as the rendering of the floral march, in which figures and letters are
formed by the officers participating. This work has been officially adopted
and published by the Grand Chapter of New York, and the work as arranged by
John N. Bunnell, Past Grand Patron of New Jersey, has been adopted by some
other Grand Chapters, and is widely used; few of those who have enjoyed
witnessing it probably know who its modest author is.
includes some of the secret work, and should only be given in private, but
several jurisdictions allow its public use, the secret parts being, of course,
omitted. Ten officers participate in its rendering.
was the invention of brother Alonzo J. Burton, and was adopted by the Grand
Chapter of New York, but we believe was never printed. It was intended to
follow the degrees of the Eastern Star, and the officers were entitled Honored
Matron, Associate, Deaconness, Preceptress, Treasurer, Secretary, Warder,
Sentinel, Faith, Hope and Charity. The life of Mary, the mother of Jesus,
formed the foundation of the degree, although the ladder of Jacob was brought
in to support the lessons of faith, hope and charity. The lessons of the
degree were beautiful, as witness the following:
Through the darkness of doubt and gloom we advance toward the light and truth;
through the clouds and shadows of the night of death we pass into the realms
of immortality. The afflictions and calamities of life which are its darkness,
and the gloom which broods over the precincts of the grave, not the light of
health and the enjoyment of prosperity, chasten us and fit us for eternal
RITUALS, CEREMONIES, ETC.
birth of the Savior is rehearsed, but there is a confounding of the Shepherds
with the Wise Men which is so common and so strange In many ways the degree is
of superior merit, and is worthy of wider use than it has attained, as an
addenda to the work.
is by Addie C. S. Engle, and was written for, and first rendered by the Past
Grand Matrons of Michigan before that body in 1890. It is not, as many infer
from its title, a musical production, although music, both vocal and
instrumental, can be very profitably introduced into it, but it is an attempt
to give the star of our Chapter a voice as well by types and symbols, by
emblems and flowers, as by words. Its object is briefly summarized in its
inception of the Order of the Eastern Star some imagery was used in its
ritualistic work which has not been retained in the present initiatory
ceremony. Those who remember the well‑loved symbolism, and regret its
omission, will welcome this attempt to preserve some of it from oblivion, and
the author cheerfully acknowledges her indebtedness to the old Mosaic work; to
the ritual of Adoptive Masonry as formerly used in Michigan; to the
Connecticut addenda, and to the first ritual of the General Grand Chapter,
whose explanation of the resemblance between the language of the emblematic
flowers and the heroines they represent, had been too carefully made to be
entirely lost. The balance is original with her who, being earnestly engaged
in the work when these various figures were used, has treasured them in her
heart through many changes, and with a simple arrangement of her own, now
offers them for the enjoyment of others.
RITUALS, CEREMONIES, ETC.
work is usually accompanied by the vocal star march, in which various letters
and figures are formed, the voice of the star closing with these words:
now, dear friends, as we part here to‑night,
wish that the bright Vocal Star
cheer you through life with its radiance bright;
pierce every gloom from afar.
Star in the East with its lesson fraught ray,
taken at once for our guide;
lighten each lab'rinth we meet on life's way,
comfort, whatever betide;
five radiant beams earth's dim pathway shall gild,
blue shall combine with its gold,
red and its green with rich treasures be filled,
teaching the same gospel old;
when their rich lessons, our spirits shall con,
then learn this truth (strangely odd);
all of the colors our souls must put on,
make up the white light of God!
then our wishes for happiness blest,
"forth in the world," we all go;
knowing what trials," but leaving the rest
Him who "upholds" as we go.
grant that we meet, where our Star shall await,
earth robe and staff are laid down,
pass through the entrance of that pearly gate,
cross is exchanged for the crown.
is a ceremony for the reception of Grand officers, and other distinguished
visitors, by Acidic C. S. Engle, and enlists sixteen officers. It includes the
formation of marches, of the star, cross, and square, and brings out the
teachings of the jewels of the order. After the presentation of flowers for
the guests the mystic chain is formed, and the ceremony closes with :
members of the mystic tie,
as beneath the All‑seeing Eye.
true the vows we've uttered here,
prove we hold them sacred, dear.
jeweled links should each proclaim
truth in deed as well as name.
RITUALS, CEREMONIES, ETC.
from our earthly life‑work fair,
outside world can vision there
the love, relief and truth
we now hold as highest ruth.
when our links, quick broken, fall
each one hears the angel‑call,
far scattered tie be lost,
out the Grand celestial host,
our fraternal chain of love
brighter glow in realms above.
grant we form this severed chain
meet these broken links again
the golden sunrise land
Love divine shall clasp the band.
by Ella A. Bigelow, of Massachusetts, is largely in verse and musical, and
requires five officers and seven pilgrims, the latter entering, clothed in
black and presenting offerings to the Matron, who crowns each, and
communicates to her a password. It can be rendered publicly.
is a poetical production with parts for the various officers, by Julia C.
Tenney, of Orange, Massachusetts, and is a very pleasing ceremony, reiterating
in new form the lessons of the order.
proper title of this is "A ceremonial for observance at the resting places of
our beloved dead," by Julia C. Tenney. The title gives a good idea of its
purpose. Provision is made for forming several evolutions, and the text
breathes the poetic spirit of the author, as
cone not in sable garb, we bear no cypress wreaths to place above the sleeping
dust beneath us; but the fresh, fragrant flowers of love and trust we scatter
here: and unto the freed ones who now walk in wider fields, gathering richer
bloom, and who may, even now, be listening unto us, with tender voice we cry,
RITUALS. CEREMONIES, ETC.
is an addenda by Julia C. Tenney, principally in verse, and into it are woven
several marches, and considerable music, both vocal and instrumental. The
formation of a floral, star‑crowned cross is impressively done. The following
will give an idea of the style:
bind them in chaplets snowy,
their crimson petals strew
the hearts who fondly loved us
days of long ago.
often a tender memory
born of their rare perfume,
sweet‑voiced mother whispers,
pathway to illume.
there, by the dear old cottage,
the porch above the door,
gathered the old‑time beauties,
days that are no more!
there, in the dusky twilight,
the night dropped softly down,
told us the old, old story,
Star - the Cross - the Crown!
MAGIC LANTERN MONITOR.
was an arrangement by Kimball Sedgwiek, of Sunbury, Ohio, by which the lantern
slides illustrating the work of the order, were explained by a beautiful
lecture made up largely of excerpts from the poems of brother Morris, sister
Engle, Susanna C. Russell, and selected hymns. In the publication of his work
brother Sedgwick included the portraits of many of the leading members of the
order in the country, and particularly in his own state.
CONSTITUTING AND OTHER CEREMONIES.
of the Grand Chapters have at different times set forth forms for instituting
and constituting Chapters, and some of them ceremonies for opening and closing
Grand Chapter, but they are drawn upon par‑
RITUALS, CEREMONIES, ETC.
lines, and do not demand separate or special mention.
was a review of the critical and explanatory votes of Robert Macoy, of the
ritual of the Order of the Eastern Star as published by authority of the
General Grand Chapter, by Willis D. Engle, and was published in 1879, soon
after the publication of "Critical and Explanatory Notes," and contained all
of said notes, with a specific answer to each of them. It was intended to set
before the members of the order its true status at that time, and was
gratuitously circulated by the General Grand Chapter. It was a book of forty
pages. All the essential facts are covered by this history, and yet the little
book must ever prove of interest to Eastern Star antiquarians as presenting
nearer view of the matters in controversy than it would have been advisable to
MONUMENT OF GRATITUDE,
illustratrious sisters and brothers, officers and past officers, of all
Eastern Star Chapters; to Grand and past Grand officers of all governing
bodies of the rite; finally, to all members of the Order of the Eastern Star,
and all who respect long and faithful service, this appeal for a thank
offering to Robert Morris, founder and Patriarch of the Eastern Star order, is
lovingly and hopefully presented by the committee."
was the title of a thirty‑two page pamphlet issued by brother Morris in 1884,
the object of which was to raise a fund, in shares of five dollars each, to be
permanently invested in interest‑paying securities for the sole benefit of
brother Morris and his wife.
elegant, engraved certificate, and an elegant medal in bronze, were to be
presented to each shareholder. The money was to be sent to the Grand Pa‑
MINOR RITUALS, CEREMONIES, ETC.
having jurisdiction, or direct to brother Morris, and a full list of
contributors, with the amounts, etc., was to be published, and a copy sent to
each subscriber, but it is believed that this effort was not successful, and
that neither the certificates nor medals were ever issued. In the pamphlet was
contained a seven‑page history of the origin of the order, by brother Morris,
which embraced many erroneous statements, a few of which have already been
noticed. Some which have not been were the statements that the Mosaic Book was
prepared in 1856; and the Morris Manual in 1859, while the correct dates were
1855 and 1860 respectively.
RE MINNESOTA MATTER ‑ SPECIAL REPORT.
1886 the Most Worthy Grand Patron made a special report to the General Grand
Chapter on matters connected with the order in Minnesota, which was published
before the meeting of that body, that its members might have a full statement
of the case in type, but the body did not deem it advisable that it should he
incorporated in the proceedings. The Most Worthy Grand Matron had not been in
accord with the Most Worthy Grand Patron in his actions in the premises, and
presented her views in her address, but after the body had passed upon them,
the following request was granted:
W. Grand Matron requests the privilege of eliminating from her address such
portions as refer to the personal differences between herself and the M. W.
Grand Patron in relation to the Minnesota case, as she has no desire, neither
does she deem it proper, that such matters should be brought to the attention
of the outside world, yet she felt it to be justice to herself that she he
permitted to call the attention of this Grand body to the facts alluded to in
that portion of her address.
RITUALS, CEREMONIES, ETC.
address of the Most Worthy Grand Matron had not been previously printed, it
was lost to the order, but copies of the special report of the Most Worthy
Grand Patron are preserved as valuable mementoes.
FACTS CONCERNING O. E. S. MATTERS IN MINNESOTA.
was a pamphlet of twenty‑nine pages set forth by Grand Chapter No. 2, March
25, 1890, and intended to show the ease as seen from its standpoint, and
contained much information not embraced in the printed proceedings of either
was a document of eighteen pages issued by the principal officers of Grand
Chapter No. 1, July 15, 1890, in response to the document named above, and was
incorporated in the proceedings of the body for that year.
NAMES OF CHAPTERS.
"Monument of Gratitude," brother Morris had quite an extended article on the
names given to Chapters, which he classified. Any one giving attention to the
subject will be struck with the contrast that exists between the nomenclature
of the order and that of the Masonic. The divided the names of the Chapters as
they then existed, into classes, as follows: 1, Heroines of the order and
other ladies; 2, Solar, stellar and celestial terms; 3, Terms from field,
forest and garden; 4, Names of sacred and memorial localities; 5, Names of
gems and objects of ornament; 6, Names derived from freeMasonry; 7,
Miscellaneous. The best rule, under ordinary circumstances, is to name the
Chapter after its location, thus identifying it at once and avoiding
confusion. Thus Minnesota has Jasper Chapter at Rush City, and Taylor Chapter
at Jasper; Oregon, Elgin at Myrtle Point, and Blue
RITUALS, CEREMONIES, ETC.
Mountain at Elgin; Washington, Fern at Tacoma, and Ivy at Fern Hill; Indiana,
Clinton at Frankfort, and Jerusalem at Clinton; Liberty at Sylvania, and
Violet at Liberty; Illinois, Victoria at Patoka, and Vera at Victoria;
Virginia at Ashmore, and Ada Robinson at Virginia; Eureka at Louisville, and
Doric at Eureka; Normal at DeNalb, and Felicity at Normal. Some good
opportunities it would seem have been missed: e. g., the Chapter at Morris,
Minnesota, is named Corinthian; that at Hope, North Dakota, is named Fidelity;
that at Eldorado, Kansas, Andrina, and at St. Johns, Henry Rohr. The Chapter
at Lakeview, Arkansas, is called Carden's Bottom; that at Morris, Illinois, is
Laurel. Some felicitous departures are: Celestial City, at Pekin, Illinois;
Merry Meeting, at Fairfield, Maine; and Happy Home, at Holdenville, Indian
Territory. Vermont is the only jurisdiction, we believe, in which none of the
Chapters is named after the place in which it is located.
have been a number of exclusively Eastern Star monthlies published in
different parts of the country, but we believe only three survive. Most of the
Masonic journals devote space to the news and interests of the order. The
oldest exclusively Eastern Star journal is The Eastern Star, now in its
thirteenth year, published by Nettie Ransford, Past Most Worthy Grand Matron,
at Indianapolis, at one dollar per year. The next is The Signet, now in its
eighth volume, published by Inez Jamison Bender, at Decatur, Illinois, at
fifty cents per annum; and the third Mizpah, in its seventh volume, published
by Ella A. Bigelow, at Marlborough, Massachusetts, at one dollar per year.
They are each monthlies of sixteen pages, and should command larger support
than they receive. Nothing more tends to promote inter‑
RITUALS, CEREMONIES, ETC.
the order than the regular perusal of such periodicals, as they tend to keep
the members in touch with the order generally, and to give them a better idea
of its growth and work.
Brother Morris, "the poet Laureate of FreeMasonry," wielded a graceful pen,
and his poems in connection with the Eastern Star were valuable additions to
its literature, and were, perhaps, the most numerous of any writer. The widest
used poem is that of H. T. Stanton, "In Mason's hall," as it was also among
the first, after the productions of brother Morris. Addie C. S. Engle, has
written some twenty poems in the interest of the order, while Hattie E.
Parmelee, of Iowa, has written one for each point of the star, and one
entitled, "Our Altar." Other writers who have made valuable contributions in
this line, include Bessie R. Hastings, Past Grand Matron of Ohio, L. Timmerman
of Michigan, Susannah C. Russell of Indiana, Clarissa B. Curtiss, Past Grand
Matron of Connecticut, Charles McCutcheon, Past Grand Secretary of Washington,
Mary L. Paine, Past Grand Matron of Vermont, Giles P. Brown of Michigan, and
J. E. H. Boardman. Many of these poems are familiar to the members of the
order, as they are frequently used to promote the interest of the Chapter
meetings, under the head of "The good of the order."
CONTAINING A CONCISE BUT COPIOUS HISTORY OF
GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER, AND OF ALL
GRAND CHAPTERS, FROM THEIR ORGANIZATION
THE CLOSE OF TILE NINETEENTH CENTURY.
GRAND CHAPTER HISTORIES.
part is first presented a list of the various Grand bodies of the order in the
order of their organization; which is followed, first by a history of the
General Grand Chapter, and then by histories of the different Grand Chapters
in alphabetical order. In these sketches the aim has been to give the
essential facts, and to record such things of note as are of general interest,
or out of the ordinary. In most of them, under the general head of decisions,
are noted, in brief form, the actions had on various legal points. These
actions may have been in the form of decisions of the presiding officer,
approved by the Grand Chapter; by resolution of a Grand Chapter; or by a law
adopted by it. There is a general trend toward uniformity; the jurisprudence
of the order is fast crystallizing, and the General Grand Chapter has done
much toward securing uniformity in this direction, as it has secured absolute
uniformity, so far as the same can be hoped for, in the ritualistic work. It
is not possible, if indeed it were desirable, that the work should be rendered
in absolutely the same manner in every Chapter. Some Chapters have greater
means and ability than others, and will employ them toward the embellishing of
the ritualistic work, and will find material profit in the use of robes,
marches, and addendas, that other Chapters, of more limited opportunities, can
not employ. In that branch of the Catholic Church in which the writer has the
privilege to minister, the motto of the undivided church has practical
illustration: "In essentials, unity; in nonessentials, liberty; in
GRAND CHAPTER HISTORIES.
things charity;" and the order can find no better lines on which to regulate
its rendition of ritualistic work. Whatever will add to the impressiveness of
the work, without involving a departure from the forms laid down in the
established ritual, should be hailed with pleasure by all who love the order,
but nothing should find acceptance that is a departure in a serious way from
the wording and spirit of the ritual. We do not believe that our ritual has
attained that degree of perfection that it can not be improved, but frequent
changes should be avoided, and should not find place until they have been
seriously and maturely considered, and, indeed they must be under the law of
the General Grand Chapter governing the subject. The ritual today is exactly
as adopted in 1889; some alterations have been approved by the General Grand
Chapter, but none of them have had final action in that body, so that those
Grand officers who have announced to their Grand Chapters that it has been
changed in any particular have labored under a wrong impression.
the decisions and actions of the General Grand Chapter, on subjects other than
the ritual, are binding only on the subordinate Chapters under its immediate
jurisdiction, they have had their influence upon most of the Grand Chapters,
as e. g. the adoption of a test oath by it in 1895 has been generally
followed, although but two or three Grand Chapters used one before that time;
the ruling that the brother on an investigating committee must report before a
petition can be balloted upon, has been generally followed, as has also the
acceptance of the raised right hand as a voting sign.
the eligibility of step‑daughters to the degrees the General Grand Chapter and
most of the Grand Chapters have decided against it, although Counecti‑
Massachusetts, Montana, and Texas admit them. The general practice is to admit
half‑sisters and adopted daughters, although New Jersey, New York, and some
other Grand Chapters do not. Iowa admits a deaf and dumb person, and Illinois
and Wisconsin admit the blind. The General Grand Chapter and several Grand
Chapters draw the line on one‑armed persons, while Illinois and some others
admit them. Nebraska admits an adopted mother, and Massachusetts an adopted
sister. Michigan admits the daughter of a dimitted Mason, if he belongs to the
Royal Arch Chapter and commandery. In the early days, married women were
admitted under eighteen years of age, such decisions being made in Illinois,
Kansas, and Texas in the later eighties, and in Indiana in 1895 and New York
in 1896. In Mississippi it was decided that such an one was eligible "provided
her husband is willing, and is not unfriendly to Masonry," and a lady lacking
a few months of sixteen but "about grown," was admitted by dispensation.
Though not a law, the practice is almost universal for the sisters to remove
their hats and wraps during meetings of the Chapters.
taking up of a password is practiced some five or six jurisdictions. The
question of the age at which children should be excluded from the Chapter has
been ruled on many times, the rulings varying from the exclusion of them at
any age, up to three years. The general law of a quorum is seven members,
including one of the three principal officers, although in some jurisdictions
the total is as low as four, and in others a Past Matron or Past Patron can
act in the absence of the three principal officers, as in Minnesota and
many jurisdictions auxiliary societies, being organizations composed of
sisters of the order, whose
GRAND CHAPTER HISTORIES.
objects are, generally, to add to the social features, and by entertainments,
sewing, and other means to procure funds for charitable and other needs,
flourish. They are sometimes called by the name of the Chapter, e. g. "Queen
Esther Auxiliary," and sometimes by other names, as "Areme Society," "Electa
Social," or "Emera Club." They have often proved of great assistance in the
field of work they have chosen, but like every effort toward the
accomplishment of any object worth attaining, care and common sense are
necessary in their formation and government, so, that there may be no conflict
or jealousies engendered by them.
recent years there has grown up in many Chapters the practice of advancement
in office, beginning with the Associate Conductress, and following up the line
to Worthy Matron. In the earlier days of the order this did not obtain, and it
would now seem that the order would be better served if it was abandoned,
where it is the practice. It is very often the case that a sister may have the
ability to fill the office, say, of Conductress, with honor to herself, and
to. the benefit of the Chapter, who may be entirely lacking in those qualities
that are needful for an efficient Matron. If this practice were not in vogue
the members would feel at liberty to act solely as the best interests of the
Chapter seemed to require, and to select from any of the officers, or from the
floor, the particular sister that is best fitted to discharge the duties of
Matron or Associate Matron. It is not wise to spoil a good Conductress to make
a poor Matron.
would have pleased the author to have presented the portraits of the many
distinguished sisters and brothers that have by their zeal and labors, made
names for themselves in the order, but their number is legion, and if he had
undertaken to incorporate them
This material originally scanned by Ralph Omholt, Kirkland
Chapter 176, Washington.
herein it would have swelled the book and the cost of its production far
beyond what could have been afforded at the modest price at which he has
undertaken to sell it, and he did not see how he could venture to make
distinctions without running the serious risk of a charge of favoritism, so
that he concluded to insert only those of the three eminent brethren, Morris,
Macoy, and Lamb, who have passed from this life, together with the portrait of
sister Pendleton, by many years, the oldest surviving Grand Matron, and that
of the author.
following is a list of the Grand Chapters in the order of their seniority:
Michigan, as Grand Lodge of Adoptive Masonry, October 30, 1867.
Jersey, July 18, 1870.
York, November 3, 1870.
Mississippi, December 15, 1870. Ceased in 1877.
California, May 9, 1873.
Vermont, November 12, 1873.
Indiana, May 6, 1871.
Connecticut, August 11, 1874.
Nebraska, June 22, 1875.
Illinois, October 6, 1875.
Missouri, October 13, 1575.
Arkansas, October 2, 1876.
Kansas, October 18, 1876.
General Grand Chapter, November 16, 1876.
Massachusetts, December 11, 1876.
Minnesota, June 28, 1878.
July 30, 1878.
Ontario, May 3, 1882. Ceased in 1883.
May 5, 1884.
Minnesota No. 2, May 12, 1884. Merged, 1894.
Washington, June 11. 1888.
Dakota, July 11, 1889.
GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER.
Territory, July 11, 1889.
July 24, 1589.
Oregon, October 3, 1889.
Montana, September 25, 1890.
Wisconsin, February 19, 1891.
Hampshire, May 12, 1891.
Colorado, June 7, 1892.
August 24, 1892.
Dakota, June 14, 1894.
Pennsylvania, November 22, 1894.
Island, August 22, 1895.
District of Columbia, April 30, 1896.
Wyoming, September 14, 1895.
Maryland, December 23, 1898.
Louisiana, October 4, 1900.
Tennessee, October 18, 1900.
Arizona, November 15, 1900.
GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER.
preliminary steps leading to the organization of this body have been fully
given in Chapter II. The convention for its organization was held in the
Masonic temple, Indianapolis, Indiana, November 15, 1376, when the Grand
Chapters of California, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, and New Jersey were
represented. James S. Nutt, Grand Patron of Indiana called the convention to
order, and John M. Mayhew, of New Jersey, the senior Grand Patron present, was
chosen President, and John II. Parson, of Missouri, Secretary. A committee of
one from each jurisdiction, of which Willis P. Engle, of Indiana, was
chairman, reported a form of constitution, which was adopted, and the General
Grand Chapter organized. A committee to prepare a ritual was appointed, and
the Most Worthy Grand Patron was authorized to issue dispensations to all
subordinate Chapters holding charters purporting to emanate from a Supreme
GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER.
upon their surrendering the same, without expense. The meeting closed with a
public installation of officers. The Most Worthy Grand Patron was made the
executive head, and the powers and authority of the body were thus prescribed:
Section 1. The General Grand Chapter shall possess no other power than is
expressly delegated to it. It can exercise no doubtful authority or power, by
implication merely. All Eastern Star authority not hereby granted to it, is
reserved to the Grand Chapters, subordinate Chapters, and their members
2. It shall have and maintain jurisdiction over all Chapters established by
itself in any section of any country where there is no Grand Chapter
established, and have disciplinary power over such Chapters until a Grand
Chapter shall be legally organized and recognized by this General Grand
Chapter, and no longer.
3. It shall have power to decide all questions of Eastern Star law, usage and
custom which may arise between any two or more Grand Chapters, or in any
subordinate Chapter under its own immediate jurisdiction; and all that may be
referred to it for its decision by any Grand Chapter, and its decision so made
shall be regarded as the supreme tribunal of the Eastern Star in the last
4. It shall be the judge of the qualifications of its own members.
5. It shall adopt and prescribe a uniform ritual of work, and formula for
installation of its own officers, as well as the officers of Grand and
6. All amendments, alterations or additions to the ritual that shall be
promulgated by this General Grand Chapter, must be submitted in writing at a
stated meeting, when, if approved by a majority of the members present, shall
lie over until the next stated meeting, when, if adopted by a two‑thirds vote,
shall become a part of the same.
GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER.
2. The General Grand Chapter may levy such contributions as in its judgment
shall be required, which shall always be uniform in proportion to membership,
and which shall not exceed five cents per annum for each paying member.
has ever been levied by the General Grand Chapter upon any Grand Chapters,
except that the five Grand Chapters, which were represented at its
organization were requested to advance to it two and one‑half cents for each
member of its subordinates, the same to be applied on their dues, which they
cheerfully did, the same aggregating $148.43.
second meeting, held in Chicago, Illinois, May 8‑10, 1878, seven Grand
Chapters were represented, and Past Grand Matrons of Connecticut and New York
were present as visitors. Five Chapters had been organized, and five Macoy
Chapters had exchanged their charters.
third meeting was also held in Chicago, August 20‑21, 1880, eleven Grand
Chapters were represented, and visitors were present from fourteen states. Rob
Morris, who was present was made an honorary member, and his birthday, August
31, was made the festal day of the order. Eleven Chapters had been organized,
and one Macoy charter and two issued by the Grand Chapter of New York to
Chapters in Maryland and Wyoming, exchanged. Fourteen Chapters had been
released to form two Grand Chapters.
fourth meeting, was held in San Francisco,
GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER.
17‑23, 1883, when twelve Grand Chapters were represented. Twenty‑seven
Chapters had been organized, and two Macoy charters exchanged. Five Chapters
had been released to form a Grand Chapter. The withdrawal of the Grand Chapter
of New Jersey from the General Grand Chapter in October, 1880, and its return
in October, 1881, were reported. A committee was appointed on revision of
fifth meeting was held in St. Louis, Missouri, September 23-25, 1886, ten
Grand Chapters being represented. Twenty‑nine Chapters had been organized, and
one Macoy Chapter reorganized. Thirteen Chapters had been released to form a
Grand Chapter. The Most Worthy Grand Patron reported that he had, in behalf of
the General Grand Chapter, assumed jurisdiction over Mississippi, the Grand
Chapter of that state having ceased to exist; and that recognition had been
withdrawn from the Grand Chapter of Minnesota, on account of gross violations
of law, and that a new Grand Chapter bad been organized and recognized. This
was a matter that provoked much controversy, extending over ten years, and
occupied the attention of the General Grand Chapter at three of its meetings.
The salient points of it are epitomized as follows:
address of the Most Worthy Grand Patron, in 1886, was largely taken up with a
statement of the troubles and his action in the premises, which attempted the
abolition of the old Grand Chapter, and assumption of jurisdiction over the
order in that state, and the subsequent organization of another Grand Chapter.
The trouble doubtless had its origin in undue ambition for office and power,
but its first official manifestation was in a criticism by the Grand Patron,
in his address to the Grand Chapter in 1883, of the work as exemplified in
GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER.
which resulted in a declaration by the Grand Chapter that the work was not an
infraction of the ritual, which was the only action in the matter ever taken
by the Grand Chapter. The following year the matter was presented by the Grand
Matron, in her address, but before action was taken, and before the election
and other routine business had been disposed of, the Grand Chapter adjourned
sine die. Then came an edict from the Grand Matron, dated March 30, 1885,
suspending all the officers and members of Minneapolis Chapter from all the
rights and privileges of the order until the next meeting of the Grand
Chapter. The Grand Secretary being a member of No. 9, on April 7, the Grand
Matron issued a notice relieving her of the duties of that office, and
appointing another sister to fill the vacancy. Following this came a call for
a special meeting of the Grand Chapter, which was held May 13, and at which
all the acts of the Grand Matron were approved, and a new corps of officers
elected. At this stage, the Most Worthy Grand Patron issued his edict, and,
when the matter was presented to the General Grand Chapter, it took action as
that in his edict of withdrawal of recognition of the Grand Chapter of
Minnesota, the Most Worthy Grand Patron was justified by the exigencies of the
case, and this General Grand Chapter confirms his action.
that the Most Worthy Grand Patron he authorized to call a convention of all
the Chapters in Minnesota, claiming to work under the authority of both the
so‑called Grand Chapters of the state, and that he, in person or by deputy,
proceed to that convention and organize a new Grand Chapter, consisting of all
the Chapters willing to become members of this new Grand Chapter, and that no
other body but the one thus organized be recognized by this General Grand
newly elected Most Worthy Grand Patron is‑
GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER.
call as directed, but, before the time fixed for the meeting, he cancelled the
same, and subsequently issued an edict requiring all Chapters to recognize the
original Grand Chapter, and restoring recognition to the same as a constituent
part of the General Grand Chapter. At the meeting of the General Grand Chapter
in 1859, this action was confirmed, and all Chapters in the state were ordered
to make report and pay dues to said Grand Chapter under penalty of forfeiture
of all rights, and the Grand Chapter was ordered to receive such Chapters as
made reports and paid dues, into full membership, under penalty of a
withdrawal of recognition of the Grand Chapter. The Grand Chapter failing to
comply with the conditions, recognition was withdrawn, April 14, 1891, and at
the meeting of the General Grand Chapter in 1892, what was known as Grand
Chapter No. 2, was recognized as the "own and only" Grand Chapter of
Minnesota, and by the subsequent conservative action of the leading members of
the order in both divisions, a consolidation of all the bodies under one head,
and the recognition thereby of all Chapters and past Grand officers, was
effected May 10, 1894, since which time peace and harmony have prevailed.
those present at the St. Louis meeting was brother Morris, who read a poem as
[Composed for the triennial assembly of the General Grand Chapter, Order of
the Eastern Star, St. Louis, Mo., September, 1880, and fraternally inscribed
to Mrs. A. C. S. Engle, by Rob Morris, Poet Laureate.]
our world dear lost ones would descend
Ruth and Martha would in kindness bend.
Esther and Electa from the sky
sanctify our harmony and joy,
think while in these roseate bonds we meet,
happiness this morning were complete.
GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER.
hard is life, so anxious and unsure,
much there is to combat and endure,
need a greater than an earthly hope,
buoy our dull, despondent spirits up;
God, Thou fountain of all‑perfect love,
messengers of comfort from above.
shall this conclave of the Eastern Star,
like the gatherings where the angels are;
shall one purpose occupy each heart
give full consolation ere we part;
every evil thought shall fade away
naught remain but one perpetual day.
jewels of a Grand Chapter be the emblems within a star or a triangle, within a
pentagon; and that the jewels of the General Grand Chapter be the emblems
within a star or a triangle, within a circle.
adoption of the revised ritual, in 1889, the jewels of the General Grand
Chapter were made the jewels of a Grand Chapter within a circle.
sixth meeting was at Indianapolis, September 25‑27, 1889. Twelve Grand
Chapters were represented, including two delegations from Minnesota; and one
subordinate Chapter. Twenty‑eight Chapters had been organized, and
twenty‑seven had been released to organize four Grand Chapters. The Grand
Chapter of Ontario having become dormant, the General Grand Chapter assumed
jurisdiction over its territory, August 8, 1889. New Jersey was reported as
having again withdrawn from the General Grand Chapter, in which condition it
still remains. The death of Rob Morris having occurred July 31, 1888, and that
of William M. Hack, who had been Worthy Grand Sentinel from the organization
of the General Grand Chapter, August 9, 1887, suitable action was taken
relative thereto. The Most Worthy Grand Matron was made the executive head of
the body, the business of granting charters and organizing Chapters
GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER.
remaining in the hands of the Most Worthy Grand Patron. The committee on
revision of ritual reported, .and its report was adopted, giving the order the
ritual as it now is.
seventh meeting was held in Columbus, Ohio, September 15‑17, 1892, sixteen
Grand Chapters and two subordinate Chapters being represented. Fifty‑seven
Chapters had been organized, while fifty‑four Chapters under its jurisdiction
had been released to. organize six Grand Chapters.
eighth meeting was in Boston, Massachusetts, August 29‑30, 1895, when
twenty‑four Grand Chapters and nine subordinate Chapters were represented.
Fifty‑eight Chapters had been organized, while eighteen had been released to
organize. two Grand Chapters. The Right Worthy Grand Secretary reported
shaving maintained a very successful Eastern Star corner at the World's. Fair,
which did much to bring the order to the attention of Masons and their
relatives. The Worthy Grand Conductress and Worthy Grand Associate Conductress
were made elective officers, they having theretofore been appointive.
ninth meeting was in Washington, District of Columbia, September 27‑30, 1895,
when twenty‑six Grand Chapters were represented, besides representatives of
the Grand Chapters of Connecticut, New Jersey, and New York, not members of
the body, and a committee was appointed to confer with them, and subsequently
it submitted a report opening up the way for their affiliation with the
General Grand Chapter. Sixty‑five Chapters had been organized, and eleven
Chapters released to form two Grand Chapters. A memorial was presented front
the. Grand Chapter of Texas asking for the publication of the esoteric work in
a separate volume, and that a monitor, containing the balance of the work, be
published and sold
GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER.
members generally, and a committee was appointed to report details for
carrying out the suggestion.
the only person that has been a member of the General Grand Chapter from its
organization who has attended all of its meetings, and having had an intimate
knowledge of its workings, I am, perhaps, as well able as one to speak of its
great success, from many points of view. Consisting, as the order did at the
time of its organization, of but thirteen Grand Chapters (two of which had
been organized the previous month), with a membership of possibly thirteen
thousand, in two hundred and seventy‑five Chapters, how great is the contrast
with its present flourishing condition, with its thirty‑six Grand bodies,
nearly thirty‑two hundred Chapters, and upwards of two hundred thousand
members; and increasing at the rate of two hundred and sixty Chapters, and
over twenty thousand members per annum. Truly, the General Grand Chapter has,
by the test of its fruits, proven the wisdom of its projectors, and has placed
the order en a basis of permanency, harmony, and prosperity that could not
otherwise have been attained. But any sketch would he incomplete that did not
mention the social reunions that its meetings afford, when sisters and
brothers from one end of the land to the other clasp the cordial hand of
friendship. The gatherings leave been made most pleasant by the hospitalities
that have been extended to its members by the Chapters here its meetings have
been held, whether they have been in the beautiful summer land of California,
under the eaves of Faneuil hall, or within the shadow of the nations capitol.
Financially the General Grand Chapter has been a success, never having levied
any tax upon the Grand Chapters other than the small contributions made by the
Grand Chapters that organized it, to pay its initial
GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER.
expenses. Tip to 1898, the date of the last printed report, the receipts had
been approximately: For charters, $4,977; dues, $8,050; merchandise, $37,200.
Total, $50,227. Disbursements, expenses, $27,512 merchandise, $17,200.
Balance, cash and credits, $5,500.
- A person who has lost an arm can not be received into our order. 1886.
rituals of the Queen of the South and Amaranth degree cannot be used in any
Chapter in a jurisdiction under the General Grand Chapter. 1895.
printed matter between the covers of the ritual shall be considered as law,
and binding upon all Grand Chapters. 1898.
prayers in the ritual are as much a part of the regular work as the lectures,
and they may not be changed in the opening or closing ceremonies, any more
than in the initiation or installation ceremonies. 1895.
G. Matron. - 1876, Elizabeth Butler, Illinois; 1878, Elmira Foley, Missouri;
1880, L. J. Pitkin, Illinois; 1883, Jennie E. Mathews, Iowa; 1886, Mary A.
Flint, California; 1889, Nettie Ransford, Indiana; 1892, Mary C. Snedden,
Kansas; 1895, Mary E. Partridge, California; 1898, Hattie E. Ewing,
G. Patron. 1876, John D. Vincil, Missouri; 1878, *Thos. M. Lamb,
Massachusetts; 1880, Willis Brown, Kansas; 1883, *R. C. Gaskill, California;
1886, J. S. Conover, Michigan; 1889, Benj. Lends, Missouri; 1892, Jas. R.
Donnell, Arkansas; 1895, H. H. Hinds, Michigan; 1898, N. A. Gearhart,
G. Secretary. - 1876‑1889, Willis D. Engle, Indiana; 1889‑1900, Lorraine J.
first Chapter chartered by the General Grand Chapter was Golden Rule, at
Prescott, February 6. 1882, and subsequently eleven other Chapters were
organized, there being eight live Chapters at the time of the organization of
the Grand Chapter, November 15, 1900, the convention held at Phoenix,
assembling in the reception room of the Commercial hotel, five Chapters being
represented. The members indulged in a banquet, in connection with the other
Masonic Grand bodies, in the evening, and completed the organization by the
installation of officers on the following day.
Matron, Annie L. Tilton; Grand Patron, George E. Kohler; Grand Secretary,
Lizzie D. Armstrong.
first Chapter in this state was Enola No. 1, organized at Mt. Vernon, in July,
1870. The Grand Chapter was organized October 2, 1876, the convention
assembling on the call of W. B. Massey; and held its first annual meeting at
Searcy, November 8, following, six Chapters being represented. As the
proceedings of this body for its earlier meetings have not been printed,
particulars that would be of interest and valuable, are not accessible, while
its earlier printed proceedings are lacking in statistics. At the second
meeting, in 1877, but four Chapters were represented; Past Matrons, Past
Patrons, and Past Associate Matrons, were made members of the: Grand Chapter
for one year after their term of office had expired; the Grand Matron was made
the executive head of the Grand Chapter; dues were fixed at 10 cents per
capita, but were raised to twenty cents in 1882, and to twenty‑five cents in
1886. "A scarf of five colors, three inches wide, with a rosette on.
shoulder, the breast, and at the crossing, to be worn from the right shoulder
to the left side," was adopted as the distinctive regalia of the order. At the
third meeting there were but four Chapters represented.
1879 a Grand Orator was elected whose duty it was to deliver an address at the
installation of the Grand officers at each annual communication, on the
objects of the order.
1880 allegiance was acknowledged to the General Grand Chapter, and its ritual
adopted; a committee was appointed to visit the Grand Lodge and lay the claims
of the order before it, and ask it to recognize the order; and an edict was
issued forbidding any member of the order conferring the degrees in any other
way than in the manner prescribed by the constitution.
1886 the state was divided into eighteen districts, and a Deputy Grand Matron
and a Deputy Grand Patron appointed for each, and in 1891, district schools of
instruction were inaugurated. The number of districts was reduced to ten, in
1889 a brother was suspended by the Grand Chapter for conferring the degrees
in an illegal manner.
1893, the Grand Chapter, by special invitation, attended the dedication of the
Masonic temple, in Little Rock.
1898 the use of the Grand Lodge hall was, by resolution of the Grand Lodge,
tendered to the Grand Chapter at such times as the Grand Lodge does not
have been two hundred and fifty‑six Chapters organized in this state,
ninety‑one of which made returns in 1900.
- The voting sign of the order is raising the right hand.
Matron. - 1876, Kiddy A. Neal; 1877, Ann F. Beavers; 1878, Kiddy A. Neal;
1879, Mary F. McCain; 1880, N. M. Maddox (Nelson); 1881‑1882, Leila B.
McBride; 1883‑1886, S. Alice Cox; 1887, Hettie E. Penn; 1885‑1890, Sallie E.
Reynolds (Conner); 1891‑1892, Ida M. Beloate; 1893‑1894, Mattie C. DeVaughan;
1895‑1896, Jennie B. Hopkins; 1897, Alma C. Strong; 1898, Frances M. Stark;
1899, Jane A. Dixon; 1900, Julia M. Gill.
Patron. - 1876, J. M. Mallett; 1877, N. K. Dobbins; 1875, Rev. G. A. Dannelly;
1879, ‑*W. B. Massey; 1880, N. J. Chance; 1881‑1885, Rev. G. A. Dannelly;
1886‑1887, *James Al. Harkey; 1888‑1889, J. R. Donnell; 1890, J. F. Hopkins;
1891, John G. Holland; 1892‑1893, Rev. E. L. Massey; 1894, J. F. Hopkins;
1895‑1896, *R. R. Lewis; 1897, George Thornburg; 1898, George W. DeVaughan;
1899, Dr. J. B. Ellis; 1900, M. T. Brisco.
Secretary. - 1876‑1880, B. B. Bradley; 1881‑1885, W. B. Massey; 1886‑1890, J.
C. Higgs; 1591‑1896, Hettie E. Penn; 1897‑1900, Jennie B. Hopkins.
degree of the Eastern Star was first conferred in this State, in San
Francisco, in April, 1860. The first Chapter organized was Golden Gate No. 1,
San Francisco, May 10, 1869. The Grand Chapter was organized in San Francisco,
April 9, 1873, by representatives of seven of the ten Chapters then organized
in the state. Of these ten Chapters, six still survive. A constitution was
adopted which did not provide for Grand officers at the points of the star,
but these were added in October, 1873. In addition to the three principal
officers, and Past Matrons and Past Patrons, each Chapter was given an
additional representative for each twenty‑five members, and one
each fraction of twenty‑five, more than seven‑teen, but the additional
representation was abolished in 1875. The Grand Patron was made the presiding
officer, and executive head of the Grand Chapter, and so continues, this being
the only Grand Chapter in which the Grand Patron is the executive. On this
subject, a committee in 1886 said: The labor of presiding over the
deliberations of the Grand Chapter for several days in succession is very
onerous, and can better be endured by a brother than a sister, as a general
proposition, admitting the qualification of each, mentally, are alike.
Notwithstanding the Grand Matron may preside in most, or even in all other
Grand jurisdictions. The Grand Chapter of California has not indulged very
largely in the practice of going to other jurisdictions to learn how to
conduct her own affairs.
meeting for organization a committee was appointed to prepare a ritual, which
was adopted and published.
(California Ritual.) In 1875 a committee was appointed "to revise the ritual,
and abbreviate the ceremonies of initiation so far as it can be done without
impairing the sense or value of the same, and that the responses for the
points found in the New York ritual (Adoptive Rite Revised) be adopted by
subordinate Chapters." This committee reported in 1877, the report being
adopted, and the ritual published. (California Revised.)
Grand Chapter was represented at the organization of the General Grand
Chapter, but in 1877 it was
that the Grand Chapter of California will not recognize any authority in the
General Grand Chapter until it puts forth the form of ritual that it may
adopt, and the Grand Chapter of California have time for the examination
thereof, and that the members of the General Grand Chapter who are members of
this Grand Chapter are not to feel themselves at liberty to pledge this Grand
Chapter in any respect.
it would be in order for our Grand Chapter to grant a dispensation for the
formation of a Chapter in any adjacent state, or territory where there is no
1878 "All resolutions, motions, and orders passed by this Grand Chapter
relating to the adoption of ritual, and the form thereof to be used in this
jurisdiction," were rescinded, and the General Grand Chapter ritual adopted.
1873 "a password system" was adopted, and continued in force until 1878.
1882 the state was divided into districts with a Deputy Grand Matron for each,
and this was continued until 1898. The printed proceedings for all these years
contain specific and interesting reports from the district deputies, giving
information in regard to the condition of each Chapter. In 1898 the operation
of the law was suspended for a year, and a system of schools of instruction
under the direction of the Grand Matron was substituted, and was so successful
that it was continued in 1899. Concerning them the Grand Patron said:
that the visits of our Worthy Grand Matron to the centers of population of
each district and the schools of instruction held there by her have been
Grand success, and that at no time in the history of our existence has the
interpretation of our work has been so uniform and so much unity of purpose
exhibited throughout the jurisdiction.
Grand Chapter of Sorrow was held in 1880, when Abbie E. Wood (Krebs) delivered
a memorial address; and in 1888 a like service was held by the Chapters of San
Francisco in memory of Rob Morris, the Grand Chapter attending the same, and
the program being included in the printed proceedings.
Grand Chapter most royally entertained the General Grand Chapter in 1883, at
an expense of $1,465.68.
request of some of the Chapters in Nevada working under charters from the
General Grand Chapter, they were transferred to the jurisdiction of
California, the population of Nevada being so sparse that there seemed no
probability of a Grand Chapter being organized in that State.
following was adopted in 1888:
that while we recognize the lamented Rob Morris as the author and founder of
the order, we recognize brother Robert Macoy as the master builder, who
systematized the work of the order, and through whose instrumentality the
order has assumed its present Grand proportions; and that we are proud to hail
brother Macoy as the Patriarch of the order, and hope that his useful life may
be spared many years to adorn and dignify the Order of the Eastern Star.
matter of other degrees the Grand Chapter Resolved, that it is the sense of
this Grand Chapter that it is not conducive to, the upbuilding of our order,
and opposed to the well established rules, regulations, and edicts of this
fraternity, that any of the so‑called side degrees not prescribed by the
ritual of our order, be conferred by our Chapters as such, at any time, or in
the Chapter room during the evenings of our meet‑
or under the auspices or countenance of our fraternity, but that it is the
sense of this Chapter that all entertainments of an exclusively social nature
be reserved for a time subsequent to the close of the Chapters, to the end
that maters of a fraternal nature be not rendered secondary to social
1898 the Grand Patron issued a warning to members of the order against
recognizing the Amaranth degree, as connected with the order, in which he
Macoy wrote the degree of the Queen of the South, and the Amaranth, and
conferred the same on many persons during his lifetime, but said Macoy was not
a member of an Eastern Star Chapter for several years before his death, nor
was he a member when he wrote this degree. * * The Macoy ritual can be
purchased by any one desiring it at any of the large book stores; and is used
exclusively by the colored Chapters, they working all the degrees as written
Grand Patron was in error; brother Macoy was, at the time of his death, a
member of Wyona Chapter No. 77, of Brooklyn, and the funeral ceremonies of the
order were conducted by that Chapter at his burial. The Queen of the South
was, like the Eastern Star, adapted by brother Morris from a form that had
been in use before his day, and, as with the Eastern Star, brother Macoy
revised the Morris form of conferring it, but his ritual was first published
in 1876, when he was certainly an active member of the order.
reporting upon this, the committee to which was referred that portion of the
Grand Patron's address said: The Court of the Amaranth may be, and no doubt
is, a good thing of itself, and worthy of countenance when permitted to stand
alone on its merits; and we see no harm in making a prerequisite to joining
the applicant be a member in good standing in the Order of the Eastern Star. *
* Any order of a social nature requires advertising and holstering up by
building on the foundation and strength of another order of known beauty and
merit, should be viewed with suspicion, and held at arm's length. Let it
flourish or decline upon its own merits alone, unaided by borrowing from, or
preying upon kindred orders, and then only, will it free itself from unkind
remarks or well deserved censure.
committee on Masonic home was appointed to cooperate with the Grand Lodge, and
the Grand Chapter pledged $500 toward the object. Owing to financial
depression, and the suspension of the bank in which some $1,100 of the fund
were deposited, the movement languished, but recently the home has been
acquired, and the interest of the order in it revived, about $2,500 being
contributed toward it, by the order in 1898, and in 1899 the committee
reported that a total of $6,388.45 had been received, and that no less than
$6,000 was added to the building fund by the efforts of members of the Eastern
Star, the amounts contributed through the Grand Chapter being toward the
furnishing of the building.
bills presented for the expenses of the trial of a Matron aggregating $886.95,
the Grand Chapter ordered that Hereafter, when the members of a Chapter desire
to prefer charges against the Worthy Patron or Worthy Matron, they shall
deposit with the Grand Patron or Grand Matron a sufficient sum to cover the
expenses of a trial, before the commission is appointed.
1899 a proposition to amend the constitution so as to make the Grand Matron
the executive head of the Grand Chapter, failing to receive five‑sixths of the
votes cast, was laid over for a year. By a unanimous vote the following
proviso was added to the section of
constitution relative to the membership of the Grand Chapter: There is hereby
created the title of Venerable Past Grand Patron, with all the rights and
privileges of membership, to be conferred upon our beloved brother William S.
Moses, of Golden Gate Chapter No. 1, in view of the fact that he was the first
Deputy Grand Patron, and as such organized the first Chapters in this state.
following memorial prepared by H. Augusta Hobe is of such general interest as
to justify its insertion here: Sister Maria Anderson was born February 3,
1821. She received the degrees of the order of the Eastern Star by
communication April 23, 1869. At that time she was the wife of brother James
Everard, an actor by profession. As an actress sister Everard had acquired an
education in early life which qualified her to become an efficient instructor
in the new order, and on account of her public experience she was considered
to be the better fitted than any other sister to make the enterprise a
success, and yet she had no easy task. "Separated by thousands of miles from
any other Chapter of the order, without the advice or assistance of any one
capable of instructing the members in the work or ceremonies of a Chapter;
surrounded by influences which, if not positively antagonistic, were
nevertheless injurious to the prosperity of the order, it required a hard
struggle against difficulties and opposition" to manipulate the crude material
into proper form; but sister Everard proved to be an able assistant to the
devoted little band of zealous workers, who had raised our standard colors on
this far off western shore, and their united labor of love reached its
fruition on the 23rd day of August, 1869, when the first Eastern Star Chapter
was opened in regular form for the transaction of legitimate business, with
sister Everard in the chair. Previous to this date fifty‑eight had received
the degree by communication. In less than four months afterward thirty‑five
members were regularly initiated.
December 27, 1869, sister Everard had the honor of being first elected and
installed Worthy Matron in this state. At the close of her year's service, in
December, 1870, she had received one hundred and twenty petitions, and
initiated one hundred and three members; ten others came into the Chapter
later on, making a record unsurpassed in the annals of the order in
California. When she retired from office she received the collar and jewel of
a Past Worthy Matron and also a handsome case of silver, but she cherished
most, as a precious memento of the past, the practical proof that she was
loved and honored by the members of her beloved Chapter, for when death
invaded her happy home in June, 1871, and she was left without kindred, alone
in her widowhood, the Chapter members were called together to show their
sympathy for her bereavement. The Worthy Patron escorted the sisters in a body
from their Chapter hall on Post Street to the Masonic temple, where seats had
been reserved for them, which was at that time a great innovation. At the
Masonic cemetery, when Mount Moriah Lodge No. 44, F. & A. M., had finished the
sad funeral rites for their Master, brother James Everard, they stepped aside,
and the sisters of the Order of the Eastern Star gathered around the weeping
widow with kind words of love and tenderness, and while quietly covering the
mound which contained the mortal remains of her loved one with their floral
offerings, "instilled hope into her heart until site looked beyond the river
and saw the glory of the farther shore." March 10, 1872, sister Everard was
duly installed Worthy Matron of Alameda Chapter No. 7, and from her saddened
home she continued to work for the interests of the order. Some time after she
married L. C. Andersen, a brother actor and an old‑time friend of her late
husband. April 7, 1873, when the delegates from the several Chapters in this
state met to organize a Grand Chapter, sister Anderson received her reward as
the pioneer sister worker in the order by being elected and installed the'
first Worthy Grand Matron of California. She occupied her seat of honor at the
first annual communication. The body then represented nine subordinate
membership of over five hundred, as a result of the nucleus formed by fourteen
members April 8, 1869.
Grand Secretary is paid annually $900, the Assistant Secretary $3300, and $250
is paid for office rent. The retiring, and oftentimes the incoming Grand
officers are presented tokens of regard and affection by their friends.
Grand Chapter in 1899 was attended by sixteen Grand officers, fifty‑one past
Grand officers, one hundred and eighty‑five representatives of Chapters, and
two hundred and fourteen Past Matrons and Past Patrons, a total of four
hundred and sixty‑six. The receipts, general fund, including balance were
$9,037.05, and the total balance of cash on hand was $3,939.95. Home fund,
receipts $2,635.55; balance $826.55.
- The floral work may be given in public. 1891.
neither business nor work of the order the floral work should not be given in
open Chapter. 1896.
brother's suspension or expulsion from his Lodge does not affect his
membership in a Chapter. 1875 and 1881.
Matron from another state affiliating with a Chapter of this state, is
entitled to her rank as past officer, and to membership in the Grand Chapter.
not in keeping with the dignity of this Grand Chapter to pass upon the merits
or demerits of any work or production, nor to approve or disapprove the same.
bylaw providing that "no applicant for charity shall be relieved out of the
funds of the Chapter except females, and orphan children in some way connected
with freeMasonry," is void, because it is in direct conflict with the
foundation principles of the order. 1898.
Chapter cannot appear in public processions, celebrations, festivities, or
fairs of any kind, without a
special dispensation from the Grand Matron, except to attend the funeral of a
member of the order. 1898.
Chapter shall determine who among the qualified sisters and brothers shall act
as installing officer. 1899.
Matron. -1871. Maria Anderson; 1873, Mary E. Gillespie; 1874, 1enrietta
Whitcher; 1875, Emily Rolfe: 1876, Ada A. Libber: 1577, *Annie E. Douglas;
1878, Fena W. Ford; 1879, Nellie N. Owens; 1880, S. Jennie Mann; 1881, Frances
E. Ryder; 1582‑1883, Mary A. Flint; 1884, Mary J. Young; 1885, A. E. Wood
(Krebs); 1886, Mary B. Moore; 1857, G. S. Freeman; 1888, Mary E. Partridge;
1889, Annie E. Briggs; 1890, Mary J. Parker; 1891, Mattie A. Farnum; 1892,
"Georgia A. Matfield; 1893, Emma Hapgood; 1894, Augusta D. Wilson; 1895,
Carrie A. Peaslee; 1896, Ella T. Hall; 1897, Eva M. Porter; 1898, Maria A.
Pierce; 1899, Fannie T. McCowen; 1900, hand E. Bowes.
Patron. - 1373‑1574, George J. Hobe; 1875, *J. E. Whitcher; 1876, Jerome
Spalding; 1877, *R. C. Gaskill: 1578, I. J. Rolfe; 1579, *Charles L. Thomas;
1s80, *Jerome Banks; 1881, Edward S. West; 1582, Rev. A. F. Hitchcock; 1883,
A. C. Hartley; 1884. F. W. G. Moebus; 1885, *E. W. Roberts; 1886, John N.
Young; 1887, John H. Gray; 1888, Thomas Flint; 1889, Jesse B. Fuller; 1890,
Fred L. Button; 1891, C. C. Bush; 1892, J. F. Boller; 1893, A. B. Lemmon;
1894, Thomas Flint, Jr.; 1895, Joseph B. Merritt; 1896, James R. Tapscott;
1897, Harrison D. Rowe; 1898, J. M. Lawrence, M. D.; 1899, George L. Darling;
1900, Ernest W. Conant.
Secretary. - 1873. *Henrietta Whitcher; 1874, Anna M. Elliott; 1875‑1881,
Abbie E. brood (Krebs); 1882‑1900, Kate J. Willats.
Chapters were chartered by brother Macoy, at Black Hawk and Silver Cliff,
about 1877, but neither of them survived. The first Chapter chartered by the
General Grand Chapter was Trinidad No. 1, at Trinidad, January 7, 1881. The
convention to organize the Grand Chapter was called by Romona No. 11, of
Colorado Springs, and met at Colorado Springs, June 6, 189, when ten of the
thirteen Chapters in the state were represented by thirty‑four representatives
and past officers. Instead of completing the work of organization in one day,
as most of such conventions have done, it continued in session three (lays,
but those who have visited Colorado Springs, and know of the sights that may
be seen there, need not be told the reason. The Chapter at Leadville presented
the Grand Chapter fifty dollars toward paying the expenses of organization;
Past Matrons and Past Patrons were made permanent members of the Grand
Chapter, and the Grand Matron its executive head; per capita dues were fixed
at twenty‑five cents per annum.
floral work was rendered before the Grand Chapter for the first time in 1893.
The printed secret work was recalled in 1895, audit was ordered that it be
communicated orally. The retiring Grand Matron in 1894 was presented a diamond
ring, and it was ordered that from thenceforward, the retiring Grand Matron
should be presented a Past Grand Matron's jewel by the Grand Chapter, at an
expense of twenty‑five dollars. The word "session"
adopted to designate the meetings of both Grand and subordinate Chapters.
1897, Union Lodge No. 7 extended greetings to the two Chapters in Denver, as
that these relatives of our Masonic brothers are deserving of the fraternal
regard, endorsement, and sympathy of this Lodge, and that the same is hereby
extended to them, with our good will and earnest desire for their welfare and
1900 the Grand Matron in her address said:
Whereas the order of the Eastern Star has become well established in Colorado,
and as one of they principal objects of the order is charity, I would suggest
that a special committee be appointed by the incoming Grand Matron, looking to
the formation of some plan whereby this Grand Chapter or the subordinate
Chapters in connection with the Masonic brotherhood, might accumulate a fund
for the organization of a Masonic home for indigent master Masons, their
widows, orphans, and Eastern Star members. And as our ritual teaches, "the
order exists for the purpose of giving practical effect to one of the
beneficent purposes of freeMasonry, which is to provide for the welfare of the
wives, daughters, and widows of master Masons," now let us show "that woman's
heart beats responsive to the same inspiration that prompts man to noble
deeds!" During the past year I have seen the need of a home or some temporary
shelter for those who were worthy and who had a right to look to us for
assistance, and it seems to me quite appropriate that this Grand Chapter
should at this time take some action in the matter.
recommendation was approved by the Grand Chapter, but proceedings do not show
the appointment of the committee.
total number of Chapters chartered in the state is forty‑eight, of which four
have surrendered their charters, while the forty‑four others are actively at
- The Worthy Patron of a Chapter must be an affiliated master Mason. 1894.
word ritual can only be construed to mean the opening, closing, initiation,
and funeral ceremonies. 1896.
floral work contains no secret work, but is in the nature of an entertainment.
member of a defunct Chapter can not visit a Chapter. 1899.
Matron. - 1892‑1893, Carrie Reef; 1894, Eva J. Aldrich; 1895, Mary N. Potter;
1896, Mary E. Peirce; 1897, Mary L. Carr; 1898, Lizzie B. Shreyer; 1899, Mary
Barry; 1900, Sarah E. Calvert.
Patron. - 1892‑1893, *Henry D. Hathaway; 1894, Calvin E. Reed; 1895, Jethro C.
Sanford; 1896, George D. Greenfield; 1897, D. R. Callaway; 1898, Newton D.
Owens; 1899, L. D. Crain; 1900, James B. Sherman.
Secretary. - 1892‑1900, Eliza S. Cohen.
first Chapter organized was Orient, Bridgeport, April 22, 1869. The convention
to organize the Grand Chapter was called by Chauncey M. Hatch, who had served
as deputy for brother Macoy, and who had been the active agent in the
organization of all the Chapters in the state, and met in New Haven, August
11, 1874, when eleven of the twelve Chapters were represented. The Grand
Patron was made the executive head of the Grand Chapter, but this was changed
in 1876, by placing the authority in the hands of the Grand Matron. Grand
Chapter dues were fixed at fifty cents for each member admitted during the
year, with no per capita dues, but in 1878 dues were levied of two and
one‑half cents per capita, which was increased in 1880 to five cents, and to
ten cents in 1899.
1878 Rob Morris's birthday was "set apart as
of recreation, and social greetings by the members of the order in this
state," and, commencing in 1886, an annual picnic of all the Chapters has been
held, usually at some convenient seaside resort.
1889 the Chapter of sorrow by Addie C. S. Engle was adopted, the committee
reporting that "after careful examination we found nothing we would wish
erased, and could think of nothing we could add to improve it." In 1897 the
Grand Matron made an appeal for the erection of a monument to the first Grand
Patron, Chauncey M. Hatch, in response to which the Chapters contributed
$238.10, and the monument was erected at a cost of $223.30, the balance being
turned into the Masonic home fund. The monument was unveiled with appropriate
ceremonies, under the direction of the Grand Matron, September 1, 1898.
1876 the Grand Chapter decided that "the present condition of our finances is
such that we should be unable to bear our proportion of the legitimate expense
attendant upon the formation of a supreme Grand Chapter," and there the matter
rested until 1897, when a committee was appointed to visit the General Grand
Chapter, in 1898, which made its report in 1899, recommending affiliation
therewith, but the matter was at that time indefinitely postponed, but was
taken up in 1900, and the recommendation of the committee concurred in.
matter of ritual, in October, 1874, "A committee on uniformity of work was
appointed to pre‑pare a system of work and ritual," which reported at a
special session, held February 1, 1875, the ritual as ordinarily practiced
(Adoptive Rite), with some additions taken from the ancient ritual (Mosaic),
which was adopted, and is known as the Connecticut Addenda. Excelsior Chapter,
of New Haven also
exemplified portions of the dramatized work (Mosaic), and it was ordered that
"Chapters in this jurisdiction are permitted to dramatize such portions of the
work as they may choose, provided the same be in accordance with the text and
ceremonies as exemplified at this time," and Short Specimen Dramas were
printed by the Grand Chapter for the use of Chapters desiring to avail
themselves of the permission.
address in 1876 the Grand Matron said: In the brief time that the Chapter at
Meriden has been in existence it has used three varieties of rituals, and I
have just seen a fourth, the revised work recently adopted by the Grand
Chapter of New York (Macoy's Ritual). * * * This Grand body adopted a ritual
- sending for more copies, we are informed they are not in print, thus forcing
us to adopt the new one for any new Chapters we may form.
1877 it was
that uniformity of ritual in the various jurisdictions is desirable, and we
will place no obstacle in the way of securing that end by the General Grand
1878 the General Grand Chapter ritual was adopted, and the Grand Chapter
recognized "the General Grand Chapter as a sister body, and will cooperate
with it in such matters as in our judgment will advance the interests of the
whole order." In 1890 it was Resolved], that the ritual of the General Grand
Chapter (General Grand Chapter Revised) be adopted as the ritual of this Grand
Masonic home matter the Grand Chapter in 1592 appropriated one hundred dollars
and received contributions amounting to twelve dollars for that purpose; and
in 1894 it appropriated two hundred dollars, while the subordinate Chapters
contributed $564.12, besides many gifts of articles, which went
complete furnishing of the assembly room in the home at Wallingford, and in
1896 a board of visitors composed of sisters was appointed.
Connecticut has performed two feats unexampled elsewhere in the order;
transacted all its business in a one day's meeting each year; and sustained
itself on a per capita tax of five cents or less, and a fifty‑cent tax on
initiations. Perhaps no Grand Chapter can show a better record for permanency
of Chapters. Of the fifty‑three organized in the state, including the Macoy
Chapters, forty‑six survived in 1900. How much of this is due to the fact that
almost from the beginning, the communicating the degrees "at sight" for the
purpose of organizing a Chapter, which has largely prevailed in other
jurisdictions, was discontinued, it would be impossible to say.
Matron. - 1871, *A. C. Thorpe; 1875‑1877, A. C. S. Bario (Engle); 1878‑1879,
Sarah A. Cullum; 1550, Eliza A. Landon; 1881, Lizzie S. Hotchkiss; 1882,
Marian R. Drake; 1883, C. E. Billings; 1884, H. C. Holaday; 1885, Julietta
Walker; 1886, Helen E. Battey; 1887, '`Carrie‑ B. Konold; 1888, Frances E.
Holroyd; 1889, Sarah U. Wright; 1890, Clarissa B. Curtiss; 1891, *Hannah S.
Harvey; 1892, Julia A. Granniss; 1.893, A. E. Leeds (Stebbins); 1894, Mary C.
A. Perkins; 1895, Annie C. L. Wolcott; 1896, Ida A. Fisk; 1897, Minnie E.
Willis; 1898, Clara M. Georgia; 1899, Ruth Huntoon; 1900, Harriet I. Burwell.
Patron. - 1874, C. M. Hatch; 1875, *W. H. Ford; 1876‑1877, Wm. W. Lee; 1878,
C. J. Buckbee; 1879, T. H. L. Tallcott; 1880, Charles H. Fowler; 1881,
*Chester Tilden; 1882, "John N. Ensign; 1883, George B. Whitney; 1884, Clark
Buckingham; 1885, James M. Dow; 1886, J. M. Page; 1887‑1889, Frank G. Bassett;
1890, Elizur B. Parsons; 1891, *Deceased.
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.
B. Pellett; 1892, Jay C. Holden; 1893, Dr. F. M. Ripley; 1894, Wm. M. Gage;
1895, Merle C. Cowles; 1896, Wm. B. Hall; 1897, S. G. Redshaw; 1898, Wm. H.
Pierpont; 1899, Edward M. Platt; 1900, Henry W. Atwood.
Secretary. - 1874‑1884, Kate L. Tuttle; 1885‑1892, *Frances R. Martin;
1893‑1894, Sarah U. Wright; 1895‑1900, Amelia E. Leeds (Stebbins).
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.
first Chapter chartered by the General Grand Chapter was Ruth No. 1, at
Brightwood, July 16, 1892. The call for the convention that organized the
Grand Chapter was issued by the Most Worthy Grand Patron, and it met in the
Scottish Rite Cathedral, Washington, April 30, 1896, and was presided over by
Elmira Foley, Past Most Worthy Grand Matron, this being the third Grand
Chapter which she has assisted in organizing. All the six Chapters were
represented. The constitution adopted provided for two stated sessions each
year, the annual session in January, and the second in June; Past Matrons and
Past Patrons were made permanent members of the Grand Chapter; the Grand
Matron was made the executive head; and all the Grand officers were made
elective by ballot. At a special session, held December 26, 1896, a committee
was appointed to prepare resolutions regarding Grand Chapters not working
under the General Grand Chapter, which reported at the annual session in 1897,
and resolutions were adopted reciting that the Grand Chapter of New York
persists in refusing to acknowledge allegiance to the General Grand Chapter,
and is endeavoring to extend its territory by granting charters in states
other than New York, and declaring it clandestine, and all members made in its
subordinates, clandestine. In September 1898, the Grand officers were
authorized to suspend
effect of these resolutions "so far as the same shall relate to the proper
reception and treatment of the representatives of the Grand Chapter of New
York who shall attend the General Grand Chapter in 1898," and, at the session
in June, 1899, all previous action in the matter was rescinded.
1896‑7 the Matrons of the Chapters held Monthly meetings to devise means for
aiding the destitute. A committee appointed to assist in the National Masonic
Fair, in 1897 succeeded in raising $1,435.96.
Matrons, Patrons, and past officers of the Chapters formed a Soldiers' and
Sailors' Relief Association, for the purpose of securing from each member ten
cents per month to be distributed through the Red Cross Society for the
benefit of sick and wounded United States soldiers and sailors in the
1898 the secret work was called in, and a form was also adopted for an annual
official visit by the Grand officers, and the inspection of the records and
work of each Chapter in the jurisdiction.
entertainment of the General Grand Chapter, in 1898, was most successfully
accomplished at a cost of $1,105.95. The Grand Chapter has a committee on
work, which reports as to the proper manner of rendering the work, even to the
minutest details, as,
as to which arm of the Marshal the different officers shall take at
1899, a committee was appointed to investigate the advisability and
practicability of establishing a home for aged and dependent Masons, their
widows and orphans, which reported favorably, and a permanent committee was
named, which reported in detail a plan for the establishment of the Masonic
and Eastern Star Home of the District of Columbia, levying
This material originally scanned by Ralph Omholt,
Kirkland Chapter 176, Washington.
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.
special per capita tax of twenty‑five cents per annum on all members, and
inviting the cooperation of the Grand Lodge.
1900 the charter of Adah Chapter No. 6, was arrested, the trouble arising from
the expulsion of a member, the Grand Chapter reversing the action of the
Chapter. A committee was appointed to inaugurate an Eastern Star fair. In his
address the Grand Patron said: Many of those who have been initiated during
the year are men high in Masonic circles, showing that the Eastern Star is
growing more popular with the great fraternity.
Grand Lecturer is an active officer, visiting all the Chapters four times each
year. The Grand Lecturer in 1897 and 1900 very appropriately bore the name of
M. E. Teachum. This Grand Chapter is a live and energetic body, and has made
more history than any other Grand Chapter of its age. The total receipts have
been $2,776.92; disbursements, $2,136.28; balance, $640.64.
- The custom of calling the Conductress and Associate Conductress to the West
previous to ascertaining if all present are members of the order, is
Officers of a Chapter are forbidden to assemble in any place other than the
regular meeting place, to re‑hearse work. 1898.