The Illustrated History

 Of  Free Masonry.

 

THIS WORK CONTAINS

 

An Authentic History of the Institution from its Origin to the Present Time. Traced from the Secret Societies of Antiquity to King Solomon's Temple at Jerusalem, thence through the Roman Colleges of Builders, Travelling Bands of Masons, and the Guilds to Free Masonry.

 

Embellished with over 100 fine engravings, 73 of which are full-page plates.

 

By MOSES W. REDDING,

 

AUTHOR OF RUINS AND RELICS OF THE HOLY CITY - MASONIC ANTIQUITIES OF THE ORIENT UNVEILED,

SCARLET BOOK OF FREE MASONRY - STANDARD AHIMAN REZON, AND COMPENDIUM

OF MASONIC LAW AND JURISPRUDENCE, ETC., ETC.

 

NEW YORK

 

REDDING & CO.

 

212 BROADWAY.

 

1908.


 

 

PREFACE AND INTRODUCTION.

 

ALL historians, the scope of whose works extends back of the age they live in, are dependent upon those who have gone before them for data; and as authorities, from prejudice, may pervert the information in their possession, it devolves on the faithful historian to critically examine the data, he uses; or, in other words, he should constitute himself a tribunal, and summon every accessible witness, and from their testimony endeavor to find the facts.    In this investigation he should exercise great discrimination in judging of both the competency and motives of witnesses.

 

In the preparation of this work, recourse has been had, not only to all the principal Masonic histories, old and new, but to much contemporaneous general history. And not the least among the difficulties to be overcome in the preparation of a work of this hind are the discrepancies between writers of different nationalitie,4, caused by the strife to give their respective countries priority as to the origin of the Order.

 

The German writer conclusively shows (to himself) that the order originated in his country, and that the symbols are of Norse origin. While the Englishman, with a few strokes of his pen, demolishes the German's structure, and demonstrates that Guild Masonry originated in Britain. The greatest contention is found between English and German writers.

 

Where national pride is great, nothing is more certain than that the writers of each nation will claim priority and superiority as to the antiquity and value of its important institutions; therefore, we find on the question of the origin of Free Masonry, a great diversity of views on important points between such writers. As a sample of this, see the following from R. Freeke Gould, in The History of Free Masonry, vol i., p. 108:

 

4         

 

PREFACE AND INTRODUCTION.

 

Early Masonic writers have merely compared their institutions with those of the English Free Masons (Vogel, Krause, Kloss, Heldmann, etc.), and the first of this class to attempt to unravel their early history is Fallow, in his ` Mysterien der Freimaurer.'

 

" In many points this author is untrustworthy, as he has sacrificed every other consideration to his grand aim of proving that our present system of Free Masonry is directly attributable to the German stone-masons. In hardly any one case of importance is his testimony strengthened by a reference to any authority, and many of his statements are, to say the least, so startling, that without such reference they must be charily used. Winzer has walked in his footsteps with even greater hardihood of assertion; and Findel, Steinbredner, and Fort have more or less placidly followed their lead without any attempt at verification."

 

Another peculiarity of a portion of Masonic history is the spirit of exaggeration and adulation manifested, as it has been the practice of a certain class of writers to reach out in every direction for material to call Free Masons and Free Masonry. Therefore, meetings of mechanics, held for purposes in no way relating to Free Masonry, have been called Lodges of Free Masons, larger meetings Grand Lodges, and the presiding officers, W. Master and Grand Master.      Sprigs of nobility have been in great demand by these historians, as they have constantly been made to pose as Grand Masters-noble patrons, etc.-giving the world the impression that Free Masonry was such a beggarly institution as to be highly honored by such association.* This flunkeyism will be a missing factor in this work, as the essential elements, the principles of the old institution, are as much al)ove all considerations of that kind as truth is above fiction, and no more needs such bolstering than does the sun to maintain its course in the firmament.

 

In reference to the origin of the Order, we find a great diversity of opinion as to the time and place, differing as to time over four thousand years, and as to place as many miles.

Several Masonic writers have placed the origin in the Garden of Eden, and designated the fig - leaf as the first Masonic apron. One far-seeing writer gives his imagination full scope, and 'looks beyond our little earth and

 

*See Mitchell, pp. 288-388.

 

PREFACE AND INTRODUCTION          5

 

declares his belief that Free Masonry existed among the earlier planets before the earth was in a condition for occupancy by man. But coming down out of aerial space, out of the realms of wild fancy, and carefully tracing up the stream of ancient history, we find that Egypt, instead of the mythical garden, Mars, or Saturn, is undoubtedly the source of the stream. For, viewed fiat by the light of tradition, later by history, as revealed on her imperishable monuments, it will be seen that the civilization of Egypt was far advanced before any other nation had emerged from barbarism; and that her mysteries, mythology, and symbolism were copied by all of the later societies of antiquity.

 

And when we consider that her wonderful attainments were due to her erudite prie4hood, we are led to the conclusion that minds capable of achieving such stupendous results were sufficiently far-reaching and comprehensive to perceive the divine truths of religion and morality, and fully adequate to the task of instituting their renowned mysteries and symbolism.

 

In dealing with a subject that antedates written history, we necessarily have to depend to a certain extent upon traditions, therefore it will be well to consider their nature and value compared with inscribed or written history. Tradition signifies to transmit knowledge, customs, and observations from father to son orally. In the ancient writings of the Hebrews it is stated that " the words of the Scribes are lovely above the words of the law; that the words of the law are all weighty; that the words of the elders are weightier than the words of the prophets."      By which is meant that the traditions delivered to them by the Scribes and Elders, in the Mishna and Tal. mud, are considered to be of more value than the. Holy Scriptures.    Without the aid of tradition, said the Rabbins, we should not have been able to know which was the first month of the year, or which the seventh day of the week. It is related of a Caraite that lie tauntingly interrogated Hillil, the greatest of the Rabbins, as to what evidence traditions rested on. The sage, pausing a moment, asked the skeptic to repeat the three first letters of the alphabet. This done, the Rabbin asked, "How do you know how to pronounce these letters in this way, and no other? "    " I learned them from my father," was the reply. " And your son shall learn them from you," rejoined Hillil; (4 and this is tradition."

 

 

PREFACE AND INTRODUCTION

 

Previous to the advent of literature, and a knowledge of the art of writing or transmitting history by engraved characters on monuments and tablets, it was necessarily done orally; consequently, if history was divested of all traditional authority, it would leave us but a meagre account of the earlier affairs of the human race.

 

It was the positive and earnest faith of the ancients in the spiritual-in Deity-that led them to blend religion with the affairs of life. Therefore the Mysteries were instituted for the instruction of man in all that could conduce to his physical and moral welfare.

While the Egyptians were advancing toward a higher civilization, they passed through several stages of culture in the arts and sciences, and their religious system kept pace with their intellectual advancement.

 

The results of their system are to be seen is the remain-, of Egyptian art among the ruins of structures throughout Egypt. The ruins of Memphis and Thebes alone exhibit astonishing attainments in architecture and sculpture.

 

The Egyptian system was the admiration of philosophers and scholars, and attracted the wisest and best men from all nations; who in turn dissem. inated the knowledge of the Egyptians throughout the world. Greece and Rome received ideas in art, science, philosophy, and religion from Egypt, and Hebrew Christianity owes to the Egyptians much of its knowledge of the attributes of Deity.

 

The Greek Philosophers, Magi of Persia, and Jewish Patriarchs all learned from the Egyptian priests their doctrines, mysteries, arts, and sciences. In short, many of the philosophers and rulers who made antiquity illustrious were pupils of initiation.

Therefore to Egypt, the land of speaking monoliths, the first great teacher of matters terrestrial and celestial, Masons have always looked with great interest as being the cradle of their initiation rites and ceremonies, and symbolism.         On this point the best Masonic authorities agree.

 

The popular belief is, that the earlier ages of antiquity were buried in ignorance. But the history of the past, inscribed upon the monuments and tablets of the East, is confirmatory of the fact that art, if not science, exist e(l in as great perfection during the continuance of the Egyptian, Assyrian, and Babylonian monarchies as at any period since.

 

PREFACE AND INTRODUCTION.          7

 

For the sculptor may, in the exhumed figures of Thebes, Babylon, and Nineveh, behold the finest productions of the chisel, executed many centuries before Phidias or Canova were born.  Deep under the mounds of ruins in the royal palace at Nineveh paintings have been found whose colors are bright after an interment of four thousand years; and though not rivalling the works of Raphael or Angelo, yet they exhibit great artistic skill.

The origin of language and the art of alphabetical writing may be studie(l in Assyrian and Egyptian inscriptions made long before Moses received the God-inscribed Tables of Law on the summit of Sinai.            From the astronomical tables of Egypt and Babylon the astronomer may read important observations on the heavenly bodies, made five hundred years before Galileo gave to the world the system of planetary revolution.

 

The ancient tables of Nineveh and Babylon, inscribed a thousand years before the Old Testament was written, furnish the theologian with historical narratives illustrating and confirming the Bible history and prophecy. From the mythological inscriptions and hieroglyphic symbols he may also learn the doctrine of the Divine existence and of the soul's immortality.

 

ORIGIN.

 

To reach the origin of Free Masonry two lines of investigation are open to us, either of which leads to a satisfactory conclusion. First, the institution in its present form is mainly the outgrowth of the ancient Secret Soci eties, and of ancient Operative Masonry, both of which originated in Egypt. The important features of the initiation ceremonies and many of the symbols of Free Masonry are nearly identical. with those of the ancient Societies, and plainly traceable back to Greece and Egypt. In showing the connection between ancient and modern practices it is immaterial which way we proceed, whether from the head of the stream toward its mouth, or trace it from its mouth.to its source. But believing that it will render the subject more intelligible, I shall take the former course, and commence with the origin of the initiation ceremonies, as practiced in the secret societies of the earliestknown civilization, and follow by a sketch of the origin of architecture and

 

8                    PREFACE AND INTRODUCTION.

9                     

its progress under the Roman Colleges, and their successors the Guilds Guildic or Operative Masonry, to Free Masonry.

 

On the subject of the origin of the Order we have three classes of writers The first, having the courage of its convictions, places the origin in Egypt and Greece; the second assigns it to the Roman Colleges and the Guilds; while the thiNI, and last class-the Uriah Heap family, beg to name 1717 as the date, and London as the place of the origin of the Institution. Therefore the Masonic student who is travelling East in search of light, and finds himself in Egypt, can take the train there, at the commencement of the great Masonic Route.            Others, according to where they find themselves, can step on the train at the way stations-the Temple of Eleusis, Greece; King Solomon's Temple, Jerusalem; the Colleges of Builders, Rome; at some of the stations of the Guild,, or meet the train on its arrival at its terminus in London.

As life is too short to complacently contemplate, much less read, masses of dry historical details, I have, so far as is compatible with an intelligent understanding of the subject, systematized and condensed this work, and have thus been able to present a large amount of information in a moderate compass.

 

THE AUTHOR.

 

 

 

CONTENTS

 

CHAPTER I                                                                                                   PAGE

 

ANCIENT SECRET SOCIETIES AND MYSTERIES;      19

 

The Secret Societies of Egypt, Greece, Syria, and Rome.-Origin of Initiation.-Thrilling Scenes through which the Candidate passed in the Ancient Mysteries.-The Ritual, and Judgment of the Dead.-Description of a Temple Devoted to the Mysteries.-The Wonderful Labyrinth.

 

CHAPTER II.

IMAGES, FIGURES, SYMBOLS, .  61

 

Origin of Masonic Symbols, Astronomical and Mechanical.-Their Original Signification.

 

CHAPTER III.

ARCHITECTURE, MASONRY,     89

 

Origin of the Builders' Art in Egypt.-Origin of the Pyramids, and Obelisk.-Their Original Purpose.-Remarkable Revelations from tile Interior of the Pyramids.The Magnificent Temple at Karnak.-Its Ruins.-Ancient Egyptian Houses. Course of Architecture from Egypt.-Origin of the Different Styles. -Greek, Roman, Byzantine, Romanesque, Saracenic, etc.-Progress of Architecture under the Colleges of Builders and the Guilds.-Guildic Masonry.

 

CHAPTER IV. KING SOLOMON'S TEMPLE,       150

The Building of this Remarkable Edifice.-Preparing the Timber in the Forests of Lebanon.-Cutting the Stone in the Great Subterranean Quarry.-Secret Meetings of the Master Workmen.-Completion and Dedication of the Temple.-Its Destruc tion and Commencement of the Captivity.-Ancient Tyre, Home of the Two Hirams.

 

CHAPTER V.   THE COLLEGES OF BUILDERS,   182

Their Lodges, Officers, and Practices closely Analogous to those of Free Masons.They Carry on most of the Architecture, Engineering, and Masonry of their Time. -Build Splendid Public Edifices, Bridges, and Military Works.-From Rome, the Colleges Accompany the Roman Armies into Gaul, Germany, and Britain, where they Disseminate their Arts and Ethics.-Singular Remains of their Structures in those Countries.

10

CONTENTS:

 

CHAPTER VI. GERMANY AND VICINITY, PAGE 199

 

The Romans Invade Germany, but Meet with a Stubborn Resistance, which Gave the Colleges of Builders Plenty of Occupation in Building Bridges, Forts, and Entrenched Camps.-B.C. 10 they cut a Canal through, between the Rhine and Issel, which Opened a Passage to the Zuider Zee.-Fighting Step by Step, the Romans so far Established Themselves ill A.D. 100 that not only Markets, but Towns lead Sprung Up in Various Places, and by 225, Manufactories, Temples, and Theatres were becoming Numerous.-Salzburg, Rtitisbon, Augsburg, Strasburg, Basle, Baden, Cologne, and other Noted Cities were Founded.-All under the Supervision of the Colleges of Builders, whose Arts and Creed were so well Appreciated by the more Intelligent Natives, that they Eagerly Sought Initiation into this Roman Society, and thus its Arts and Creeds were Perpetuated Here under the Name of Guilds.

 

CHAPTER VII.  THE COLLEGES IN GAUL, FRANCE,   212

 

With the Roman Armies of Invasion they Enter Gaul.-Construct the Military Works and Bridges.-Build Vessels, Villages, Edifices, etc. -U1tiulately Known as Compagnons.-Guilds, with Practices and Traditions very Similar to Ancient Masonry.

 

CHAPTER VIII. ADVENT OF THE COLLEGES IN BRITAIN, .    262

 

They enter the Country with Caesar's Army of Invasion, 55 R.C.-The Natives Make a Determined Resistance.-Bloody B Lttles are Fought. -Fate of the Brave Caractacus, and of Queen Boadicea and her Beautiful Daughters.-Military Camps are Con structed at Different Places.-Under the Supervision of the Colleges, Towns grow up Around or Near these Camps.-Cities are Founded, notably London, Exeter, Dover, Chester.-After an Occupation of the Country for over Four Hundred Years the Romans leave it, but Everywhere leave the Strong Impress of Civilization, principally through the Operations of the Colleges.-Many Members of the Latter Remain and Continue their Organizations, which were Subsequently Known as Guilds, and Lastly as Free Masons:-Remarkable Remains of Roman Structures in Many Places. -1717, Free Masonry as it had Existed for Centuries, is now Freed from its Operative Domination, and its Doors are Thrown Open to Good and True Men, without Regard to Occupation or Religion.-Singular Ancient Masonic Documents.

 

CHAPTER IX.

 

ANCIENT Y, IRK, ENGLAND,  375

 

This was the Chief Town of One of the Native Tribes when the Romans Landed in Britain. -It was Remodelled by the Colleges of Builders.-Several Roman Emperors Resided Here while Visiting the Island.-The First English Parliament was Held in this City.-King Edwin Resided near Here.-The City was also the Scene of the First General Assembly of Masons ever Held, and it has Held a Conspicuous Place in Masonic History since the Tenth Century.

 

CONTENTS.

 

CHAPTER X. SCOTLAND.-EARLY HISTORY,  395

 

Free Masonry Makes its Appearance in this Country in the Fourteenth Ceutnry.-Quaint and Highly Interesting Documents of the Old Lodges at Perth, Scoou, and Aberdeen.-Old Documents, in which the Novel Ideas of the Ancient Scotch Craftsmen are expressed in the Rich Dialect of that Period.-A Singular Ancient Masonic Seal.-Robert Burns Master of a Lodge.-A Masonic Relic Left by Him.

 

CHAPTER XI.  RAPID SPREAD OF FREE MASONRY, 422

 

Its Introduction into the Countries of Europe, Asia, and Africa.-Free Masonry in Egypt, Greece, Turkey, Persia, Bombay, Calcutta, Australia, China, Japan, etc.

 

CHAPTER XII  INTRODUCTION OF FREE MASONRY INTO NORTH AND SOUTH AvERICA AND ADJACENT ISLANDS, . 461

 

The First Lodges in the United States.-The First Lodges and Grand Lodges in all the Different States and Territories.-Primitive Proceedings in Early LodgesRemarkable Masonic and Social Career of a Prominent Mason.-He Builds a Castle and Marries a Beautiful Indian Girl.-Destruction of his Castle by the Indians.Establishment of a Lodge at Crown Point in the Stirring Days o£ the Revolution.A Mason B:>und to the Stake by the Indians to be Burnt, but is Saved by Making the Sign of Distress.-Ori-inal and. Highly Interesting Records of Various Old Lodges:-Washington's Headquarters at Morristown, N. J., in the Winters of 1777 and 1779.-A Lodge Opened there in which General Lafayette was Initiated.Establishment of Lodges and Gland Lodges in the Countries of Soutll America and the West India Islands.-Statistics of Free Masonry throughout the World.

 

CHAPTER XIII.  THE 'INIARRS OF THE ANCIENT BUILDERS,  563

 

Marks Used at the Building of King Solomon's Temple.-Marks Found at Tyre and Sidon.-Marks Found in the Crypts of Old Churches and Cathedrals in Various Parts of Europe.

 

CHAPTER XIV.  ROYAL ARCH MASONRY.-ITS ORIGIN, ETC., 571

 

Origin of the Royal Arch Decrees.-The Captivity.-The Vaults Discovered Under the Site of King Solomon's Temple.-Remains of the Citadel and Tomb of Cyrus, King of Persia, at Ecbatana.-Establishment of the First Royal Arch Chapters in the United States.

 

12

CONTENTS.

 

CHAPTER XV.  THE A. AND A. SCOTTISH RITE, 33', 592

 

Origin of this Rite.-Its Development and R-tpid Spread in the East and West.-Its Advent ill the West Indies and the United States.-Formation of the Different Bodies Representing the A. and A. Rite in this Country.-The Southern Jurisdiction.Northern Jurisdiction. -Cerneau bodies.

 

CHAPTER XVI.  THE KNIGHTS TEMPLARs.      619

 

Origin of this Ancient Order.-Tlie Knights of Chivalry.-Origin of the Crusades.Peter the Hermit and His Hosts Set Out for Jerusalem, but are Nearly Annihilated by the Turks in Asia Minor.-Subsequent Crusades.-Tile Knights Templars and Knights Hospitalers, their Desperate Valor, and Wonderful Career of over Two Hundred Years.-They Defeat file Mohammedans in many Bloody Battles, but were Finally Overwhelmed by Numbers and afterward Robbed and Suppressed by the Pope an(l Kill- of France.-De Molay and Two Hundred Knights Put to Death.Suppressed, but Still Undaunted, They Maintain Their Organization in Different Countries. -Ultimately they Unite with the Free Masons and Hospitalers and thus Give Rise to Modern Knight Ternplary-Establishment of the First Encampments in North America.-Grandeur of the Organization.

 

CHAPTER XVII. THE MYSTIC SHRINE.    675

 

Reported Origin and History of the New Organization.-Institution of Mecca Temple in New York.-Establishment of Other Temples.-Growth of the Order in America.-List of Temples.

 

 

CHAPTER XVIII.

 

MISCELLANEOUS MATTERS CONNECTED WITH THE HISTORY OF FREE MASONRY, 679

 

Unique Old Documents.-Tlie Grand Mystery of the Free Masons as Revealed by an Outsider in 1725. - Examination of Craftsmen in the Olden Time.-Dr. Plott's Account of the Free Masons.-The Four Crowned Martyrs.-Tomb of Adoniram at Saguntum.-Concerning King Canute, the Dane.-The Punishment of a Cowan in the Fifteenth Century.-Kitt's Cotti House, Its Symbolic Signification.-Bagdad, a Singular Old City Built by the Masonic Craftsmen.-Allallabacl, Masonic Marks on its Ancient Walls.-Satirical Lecture Given to a Young Craftsman in 1350.-Ancient Mexico, Its Mysteries.-Masonic Symbols Found on the Ruins of its Old Temples.-Ancient Peru, Its Hieroglyphics.-Masonry Among the Aborigines of North America.

 

ILLUSTRATIONS

 

            Masonic Temple, Chicago,  . frontispiece.

            CHAPTER I. 

            PAGE

            An Ancient Hall of Ceremonies,-Preparing for Initiation,  27

            Graphic Initiation Scene,      31

            The Third Degree,-Death and Resurrection,         35

            Karnak, its Splendid Ruins, 43

            The First Great Obelisk, .     47

            Judgment of the Dead,         53

            CHAPTER II. 

            Apron Worn by Egyptian Kings,      63

            The Ancient Ladder of Three Rounds,        66

            The Lion's Paw,         75

            Ancient Symbolism, Azoph,.            78

            CHAPTER III.

            Monuments and Pyramids, showing bow the Latter were Built,  91-93

            The Temple at Karnak, Its Magnificent Hypostyle Hall,     97

            Ancient Egyptian Houses,    99, 100

            The Rameseum, .      102

            Columns of the Different Orders of Architecture, . . 107

            A View in Pompeii, and the Mosque at Diarbeker,          .111-113

            Ruins of the Mashita Palace, .         . 114

            The Great Mosque at Constantinople, St. Sophia, .         116

            Interior of St. Sophia,            . 117

            St. Mark's Cathedral, Venice,          122

            The Sulemanie Mosque, .    . 123

            The Alhambra, .         127

            Beautiful Interiors of English Cathedrals,   . 130,131

            The Great Cathedrals, Cologne and Ratisbon,     134, 135

            Dwellings of the Different Ancient Peoples, .         . 139-143

            Old Irish Architecture,           144

14               ILLUSTRATIONS.

15                

CHAPTER IV.

 

Getting out the Cedar Timber in the Forest of Lebanon,

The Great Subterranean Quarry.-Cutting Stone for the Temple, Conveying the Timber in Floats to Joppa,

Ancient Joppa, Building the Temple, Destruction of the Temple.-Beginning of the Captivity, The Clay Grounds, .

The Mohammedan Mosque of Omar on the Site of the Temple, . Tomb of Hiram, King of Tyre,

PAGE 152 153 159 160 166 167 172 173 177

 

CHAPTER V.

 

Remains of the Temple, Jupiter Stator, Rome,

The Appian V4 ay,    , Ancient Catacombs, Rome,          . Roman Bridge across the Danube,

186 187 191 203

 

CHAPTER VL

 

St. Goar, Trent, . Oberwesel,           , Hildesheim,

Cathedral at Worms, Mayence,

Salzburg,        . . Rostock,

Nuremberg,

A Travelling Band of Masons in the Twelfth Century,        , CHAPTER VII.

202 204 207 210 213 217 221 225 231 237

Mounted Gauls,         ,

Ruins at Nismes,.      ,

Ancient Roman Gateway,    ,

245 248 250

 

CHAPTER VIII.

 

Caractacus and His Wife before the Roman Emperor,    , Roman Squadron on the Coast of Britain,

Roman Prisoner Before a British Chief, .   , Travel in England in the Fourth Century, . , Remains of Ancient Chester,

 

265 '262 269 272 273

            ILLUSTRATIONS.          15

 

            Druid Altars, . , ,         PAGE

            277

            Last of the Druids, ,   281

            Canterbury Cathedral, ,        285

            The Tower of London, ,         289

            Chichester Cathedral, ,        293

            Au Old Street, London, ,       299

            St. Paul's,       321

            CHAPTER X.           

            Remains of Melrose Abbey, ,          398

            A Relic Left by Robert Burns, ,        408

            Holyrood Abbey, ,     414

            Singular Symbolic Seal of the Ancient Abbey of Arbroath, . ,      420

            CHAPTER XI,           

            Amsterdam, The Montalbans Tower, ,        425

            The Three Globes, Berlin, . ,            431

            Prison of the Inquisition, Barcelona, ,         445

            A Relic of East Indian Fanaticism and Torture, . , 453

            CHAPTER XII.          

            St. John's Hall, City of New York, 1760, ,   476

            Tontine Tavern, .        477

            The Old Masonic Hall, Broadway and Duane Streets, .   478

            Masonic Temple, Philadelphia, .     495

            Masonic Temple, Boston, :  503

            Freeman's Tavern, Morristown, N. J.-A Relic of the Revolution and of Free Masonry, 513

            Masonic Temple, Cincinnati, O., .   529

            An Old Trading Post and Lodge Room,     536

            Masonic Temple, Denver, .  539

            The Great Cathedral, Mexico,         547

            Mexican Types, ,       548

            CHAPTER XIII.         

            Marks of the Ancient Craftsmen,     565

            Ali Abraxas Stone, now in the British Museum, .   569

            CHAPTER XIV.        

            Tomb of Cyrus, King of Persia,       577

            Vaults Under the Temple,     581

            Remains of Ecbatana, the Persian Capitol in the Time of Cyrus, ,         585

            The Royal Arch of Heaven, .            589

 

I           16        ILLUSTRATIONS.

 

CHAPTER XVI.

 

Preaching the First Crusade,

The Four Leaders of the First Crusade, Malta,

PAGE 617 621 633

CHAPTER XVIII.

Bagdad, A.D. 762,    .           .           690

Fortress and City of Allahabad,       ,           691

E-~ptian Kings,         .           707

Chicken Itza, Yucatan,          714

House of Manco Capac, Peru, .      , 4        .           .           .           715

Saguntum, .    e          695

 

DIRECTIONS TO THE READER.

 

For greater convenience, and to present the testimony of authorities in a cumulative form, the notes, instead of being placed at the bottom of the pages, were carried 'to the end of each chapter, and are there indicated key numbers. Therefore, a star, or other mark in the text, is answered at the bottom of the page by the same mark, and by numbers corresponding to the numbers of notes as they will be found at the end of the chapter.

The following are among the authorities consulted

 

History of Aucient Egypt       ....................................            ....... Rawliuson. Egypt's Place in History .............................................. Bunsen. Ancient Egyptians..................................................Willcinson. Records of the Past..................... ............................Birch. Egypt from the Earliest Times........................................ Birch. Secret Societies of all Ages and Countries.............................. Heckethorn. The Esseues........................................................Ginsburg. The Guostics....................._..................................Kin;.

The Mysteries of Free Masonry.....................................      .Fellows. Alphabets of the Seven Planets ........................................ Von Hammer History of Architecture............................................... Fergusson. On Architecture.....................................................Hope. History of Art...................................................... Lubke. Archoeologia........................................................

Acta Latomorum.................................................... Thory. Historie des anciennes Corporations.................................... Ouin Lacroix. The Romans in Britain...............       .............................. H. C. Coote. History and Development of the Guilds.... ...         ........................ Brentano. English Guilds......................................................Smith.

The History of Free Masonry, London Edition ........................ R. Freeke Gould. American Edition of the Same            ................................... ... Carson.

Masonic Sketches and Reprints ........................................ Hughan.

18        DIRECTIONS TO THE READER.

Elirly History and Antiquities of Free Masonry..........         ............... Fort. History of Free Masonry in Europe.................................... Rebold. Historv of Free Masonry ............................................. Laurie. History of Free Masonry ............................................. Findel. History of Free Masonry ............................................. Krause. History of Free Masonry and Concordant Orders........................ Various Authors. Masonic History and Digest.......................................... Mitchell.

Origin and Early History of Free Masonry....... , ....................... Steinbrenner. Masonic History-The A. and A. Scottish Rite.......................... Folger.

a

History of the Knights Templars...................................... Addison. History of the Knights Templars...................................... De Vogue. a Tile Illustrations of Free Masonry..................................... Preston. The Traditions of Free Masonry....................................... Pierson. Land Marks of Free Masonry......................................... Oliver. Constitutions.......................................................Aii(lerson. Ahiman Rezon................................................ ,Dermott. Multa Paucis........................................................ Eucyclopaediaof Free Masonry................................ ........Mackey. Royal Cyclopaedia of Free Masonry .................................... Encyclopaedia Britannica.............................. :.............. Chambers's Encyclopaedia.

Dictionary of the Bible............................................... Smith. Cvclopeedia of Biblical Literature............................            ......... Kitto. Clark's Commentaries................................................ Adam Clark. Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire................................. Gibbon. History of Germany.................................................. Kolrauscli. History of        England.................................................. Hume. History of England .................................................. Mdcaulay.

When referring to the principal authorities in this work, only the names of the au. thors will be given, as follows

Rawlinson, Heckethorne, Chambers, Mackey, Addison, Gould, Folger,            Rebold,           Fergusson,            Findel, etc.


 

 

 

 

 

"The Illustrated History of Freemasonry"

 

19

 

 

CHAPTER I

 

ANCIENT SECRET SOCIETIES AND MYSTERIES

 

The Secret Societies of Egypt, Greece, Syria, and Rome - Origin of Initiation and Symbols - Thrilling Scenes through which the Candidate passed in the Ancient Mysteries - The Ritual and Judgment of the Dead - Description of a Temple devoted to the Mysteries - The Wonderful Labyrinth.

 

To establish the fact that the civilization of Egypt is the oldest known to history, and thereby reach the origin of the ancient societies of which Free Masonry is a descendant,* it will be necessary to compare the dates of the first appearance of the nations of antiquity in the great drama of life. While dealing with a subject that reaches back to the very twilight of time, reliable data is lacking to accurately fix dates so remote, yet from the results of modern research we gather the following: that the advent of Egypt in history was, at least, as early as 4500 B.C.; of Chaldea Babylonia, not earlier than 3000 B.C.; India, 2500 B.C. ; China, 2600 B.C.

 

Menes is, by historians styled the first king of Egypt, yet who or what Menes was we have no certain information for determining. We know that the name "Menes " indicates the first Egyptian king, the beginning of the first dynasty of the old kingdom of pyramid-builders, whose capitol was Memphis. These, after a period of decadence, were superseded by kings of a different race from the south, 2571 B.C., and these in turn, after a brief rule, were conquered by an Asiatic race of Shepherd Kings, 1840 B.C.

 

The so-called Shepherd invasion was not completely successful, as Theban and Xoite dynasties coexisted with the Shepherds during the period of their stay.

 

* See notes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 14, pp. 53, 54, 56.

 

20 ANCIENT SECRET SOCIETIES AND MYSTERIES.

 

Finally the Shepherds were expelled, and the new kingdom was founded about 1640 B.C. From that time, to the present, the pathway of history is comparatively plain.

 

In the third century B.C. Manetho,* an Egyptian priest, by order of the king wrote a history of Egypt. He divided the history of the Egyptian kings into thirty dynasties, covering a period of 5000 years.

 

B.C.

But Bockh places the accession of the first Egyptian king at .............. 5702 Unger.............................................……………………………............... 5613

Mariette Bey................…………………………..................................... 5004 Lenormant............…………………………............................................ 5004

Brugsch Bey........…………………………............................................. 4458 Lauth...............…………………………….............................................. 4157

Ferguson.....................…………………………….................................. 3906 Lepsius.......................……………………………................................... 3852 Bunsen.........................……………………………..................................3623

 

As the above comprises some of the best and most recent authorities on this subject it would place the beginning of the first dynasty as early cer tainly as 4500 B.C.

 

The only country that has seriously competed with Egypt for the first mention in history is Chaldea-Babylonia. But the antiquity of Chaldean ' civilization compared with the Egyptian will be seen from the following carefully prepared table:

 

                                                                                                Years.             Commencing B.C.

               I....................……………...1           Chaldean,        25                              2438

              II............................………...8           Medes,           224                             2418

             III............................……….11           Chaldeans,    258                             2234

             IV............................……….49          “                       458                             1976

              V............................………...9          Arabians,       245                             1518

             VI............................……….45          Assyrians,      526                             1273

            VII.............................………..8           “                       122                                747

            VIII.............................……….6           Chaldeans,      87                                 625

                        Persian conquest.-                                                                               538

 

As inscriptions on tablets recently discovered among the ruins have confirmed the correctness of this table, it may be assumed to closely approximate the true chronology of that country from Nimrod to Cyrus.

 

* Rawlinson : Hist. An. Egypt, vol. ii., p. 6 ; Herodotus, xi., 100, 142; Ferguson, vol. i., p. 112. t Ferguson, vol. i., pp. 144, 145.

 

ANCIENT SECRET SOCIETIES AND MYSTERIES. 21

 

Rawlinson says (vol. ii., p. 22) : "The Old Empire of Manetho is a reality. It lives and moves before us in the countless tombs of Ghizeh, Saccarah, and Beni-Hassan, on the rocks of Assouan and the Wady-Magharah, on the obelisk of Heliopolis, and in numerous ancient papyri; its epochs are well Marked; its personages capable in many cases of being exhibited distinctly; its life as clearly portrayed as that of the classical nations. And that life is worth studying. It is the oldest presentation to us of civilized man which the world contains, being certainly anterior, much of it, to the time of Abraham; it is given with a fullness and minuteness that are most rare, and it is, intrinsically most curious."

 

Intelligent man has, in all ages, realized the existence of two unseen but potent spirits-one, the spirit of good, from whom all blessings are derived, and the other the spirit of darkness, the evil 'spirit. Nowhere was the religious spirit so early and so fully manifested as in the Orient, the land of the Bible. This was especially true of Egypt, where the religious feeling was so strong that it entered into and mingled with all the affairs of life.*

 

The conditions under which the Egyptians lived also rendered them astronomers, as a knowledge of the movements of the principal planets was necessary to enable them to regulate their tillage, so strangely crossed by that disposition peculiar to their country.

From her wise men, astronomers, and leaders in religion came the priesthood of Egypt, and by the priesthood was developed the ancient system of science and religion designated the " Mysteries; " and prior to the Christian era all progress made in civilization was due to organizations known by the general name of Mysteries. The most noted of these societies were, first, the Egyptian, commencing 2500 B.C., followed by the Eleusinian; Samothracian, Gnostics, Dionysian, and Mithraic.

 

The doctrine of the Egyptian Mysteries embraced Cosmogony, Astronomy, the Arts, Sciences, Religion, and the Immortality of the Soul.

 

By impressive rites and ceremonies they endeavored to lead the neophyte from darkness to light, from ignorance to knowledge, morality, and religion.

 

*See pp. 50 to 53 ; also notes 37, 38, 41, pp. 59, 60. t Notes 6, 11, 15, 32, pp. 54, 55, 56, 59.

1 Notes 9, 39, 42, pp. 55, 60 ; also Mysteries, p. 116.

 

22 ANCIENT SECRET SOCIETIES AND MYSTERIES.

 

At first only the better class, including candidates for the priesthood, were admitted into the Mysteries. Later, however, many from the ranks of the common people were initiated, but before proceeding further, they had to pass an examination so rigid, that comparatively but few could reach the greater Mysteries.

 

The priests, seeing that it was impossible for the neophyte to perceive the truths of science and religion except when illustrated by symbols, used symbols adapted to that purpose. Consequently two forms of ethics and religion began to prevail, one for the initiates in the higher Mysteries, and the other for the mass, who could perceive nothing beyond the symbol or image with which they were instructed. Therefore they naturally came to worship the image, hence became Pagans, with all that that term signifies, including the orgies charged to the Mysteries at large.

 

The knowledge of the symbolic language in which the priesthood concealed the real truths was carefully kept within the sacred circle of those who had been advanced to the highest grade of the Mysteries, but the public rites and ceremonies were open to all the people.

The great reverence shown the priests was due to their erudition, and the fact that the sacerdotal functions were hereditary. In fact, the Hierophants of Egypt constituted a sacred caste, which exercised such a controlling influence in the government that even the kings were to a great extent subject to its domination. The priests were divided into castes, and the castes were divided into different ranks. Their dress and mode of living were governed by strict rules, regulating and directing every act of the lives of kings and people.

 

Concerning the functions of the different ranks of the priesthood, we learn from Clemens of Alexandria that in their holy processions the Singer occupied the first place, carrying in his bands an instrument of music.     He was obliged to learn two of the books of Hermes, one of which contained hymns addressed to the gods and the other the rules by which a prince ought to govern.

 

Next came the tree, which were the master of the four Horoscopus, holding a clock and a branch of a palm-symbols of astrology. He was required to be a complete books of Hermes, which treat of that science. One of

 

ANCIENT SECRET SOCIETIES AND MYSTERIES

 

23

 

these explained the order of the fixed stars, the second the motion and phases of the sun and moon, the other two determined the times of their periodical rising.

 

Then followed the Hierogrammatist, or Sacred Scribe, with a book and rule in his hand, to which were added the instruments of writing, ink and a reed. He had to know the hieroglyphics and those branches of science which belonged to cosmography-geography and astronomy, especially the laws of the sun, moon, and five planets; he should be thoroughly acquainted with the geography of Egypt, the course of the Nile, the furniture of the temples and of all consecrated places.

 

After these was an officer denominated Stolistes, who bore a square rule, as the emblem of justice, and the cup of libations. His charge included everything which belonged to the education of youth, as well as to sacrifices, first-fruits, hymns, prayers, religious pomp and festivals, and commemorations, the rules of which were contained in ten books. This functionary was succeeded by one called the Prophet, who displayed on his bosom a jar or vessel for carrying water, a symbol thought to represent the sacred character of the Nile. He was attended by persons bearing bread cut in slices. The duty of the Prophet, as President of the Mysteries, made it necessary for him to be perfectly acquainted with the ten books called sacerdotal, and which treated of the laws of the gods and of the whole discipline of the priesthood. He also presided over the distribution of the sacred revenue dedicated to the support of religious institutions.

 

Thoth was represented bearing in his hands a tablet and reed pen, sometimes - a palm-branch and pen. It was his special office to be present in Amenti when souls were judged, to see their deeds weighed in the balance and record the result. It was he who composed the "Ritual of the Dead," at least its more important portions. He also wrote a book filled with wisdom and science.

 

There were altogether forty-two books of Hermes, the knowledge of which was necessary; of these thirty-six contained the philosophy of the Egyptians, and were carefully studied by the officers mentioned, and the remaining six comprised medicine and surgery.'

 

*See Mysteries, p. 95.

 

24 ANCIENT SECRET SOCIETIES AND MYSTERIES

 

Egyptian mythology comprised a certain number of divinities, principal among which, were Osiris, Isis, Serapis, Hermes, Amun, Ptha, and Typhon.

 

Isis was the personification of universal nature, the parent of all things, the sovereign of the elements. On the front of the temple of Isis was cut this inscription: “Isis, am all that has been, is, or shall be, and no mortal hath ever unveiled me." This goddess was symbolized in different forms; first and principally, as the moon and as queen of the ocean. As queen of the ocean Isis is represented on ancient Egyptian coins as a girl holding a sistrum and unfurling a sail. Around her are the stars of heaven.

 

Osiris, the sun god, represented the abstract idea of the divine goodness or the attributes of Deity.

 

Serapis represented the principal attributes of the judge of the dead and the keeper of Hades.

 

Hermes was the god of science, art, and eloquence.

 

Amun was also a god of the sun; he was subsequently the Jupiter Ammon of the Romans and Zeus of the Greeks.

 

Ptha was the god of fire and life, and afterward the Prometheus of the Greeks.

 

Typhon represented the spirit of evil. His attributes were similar to those of Serapis.

 

In nearly all the earlier forms of religious worship God was worshipped under the symbol of the sun. We also find the sun alluded to in the Scriptures as the most perfect and appropriate symbol of the Creator.

 

The Mysteries, in their primitive form, taught the unity of God and the immortality of the soul of man as their cardinal doctrines, and that the sun was the symbol of Him whom the firmament obeys.*

 

The Ritual of the Mysteries was founded upon the legend of the death and resurrection of the sun-god, Osiris.

 

The Mysteries were in the form of a tragic drama, representing the singular death of Osiris, the search for his body by Isis, and its discovery and resurrection to life and power.

The attack of Typhon, the spirit of darkness, upon Osiris, who is slain,  * Note 10, p. 55 ; Mackey, pp. 514, 515; Macoy, p. 137 ; Stellar Theology, p. 20.

 

ANCIENT SECRET SOCIETIES AND MYSTERIES.

 

25

 

was enacted amid terrible scenes, during which the judgment of the dead and the punishments that the wicked suffered were represented as realities to the neophyte. Following this was the search for the body of Osiris, which was at last found concealed in the mysterious chest, after which the mutilated remains were interred amid exclamations of sorrow and despair. The ceremony closed with the return of Osiris to life and power, and amid effulgent beams of light, were seen the resplendent plains of Paradise.

Therefore the ceremonies represented a mystical death and descent into the infernal regions, where sin was purged away by the elements, and the initiated were said to be regenerated and restored to a life of light and purity. The ordeal was also a test of fortitude.

 

The Mysteries were celebrated once a year, when candidates were inducted into the degrees, viz. : of Isis, Serapis, and Osiris.*

 

THE FIRST DEGREE - ISIS

 

Of the ceremonies pertaining to these degrees we know but little, except that due inquiry was made as to the candidate's previous life, and at the time of initiation he was required to make confession.   He was then taken charge of by a guide, who conducted him down through a low, dark passage to a subterranean apartment, where he met guards representing the tutelary deities of the temple, who demanded answers to certain questions, which, being given, he was conducted through another passage to the apartments for initiation, where he was subjected to severe trials, at the conclusion of which he was required to take a solemn and binding oath of secrecy and fidelity.

 

THE SECOND DEGREE - SERAPIS

 

This degree, like the first, was preparatory to the third, and the adept was required to take an additional obligation.

 

THE THIRD DEGREE - OSIRIS.

 

After due time had passed, and the adept had given an exhibition of the requisite proficiency, he was raised to the third or highest degree, in which he

 

* See notes 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, p. 57; Mackey, pp. 242, 243.

 

26 ANCIENT SECRET SOCIETIES AND MYSTERIES.

 

represented Osiris, his death and resurrection. The conclusion of the obligation of this degree was as follows: "May my departed spirit wander in eternal misery, without a place of rest, should I ever violate the obligations conferred upon me by the Hierophants of the Sacred Mysteries."

 

Many of 'those who were initiated into the Mysteries entered the corporations of architects and builders, who erected the temples and other splendid edifices designed for the worship of Deity; in short, from this class came the rulers, priests, and architects of Egypt, its warriors and statesmen.

 

As the Eleusinian Mysteries were copied from the Egyptian, they constituted a complete reflex of them; and the Eleusinian having been practised down to A.D. 389 (see Hayden, p. 306), we have authentic data for a fuller description of their ceremonies-a description that will apply to the Egyptian Mysteries, as well as to the latter society.

 

 

THE ELEUSINIAN MYSTERIES

 

This institution was established in Greece, 1800 B.C., and when Eleusis was conquered by Athens, the inhabitants, while surrendering everything else, would not yield their mythologies and Mysteries.

 

The Mysteries were of two kinds - the Greater and the Less, the latter being preparatory to the Greater; and, like the Egyptian, they were celebrated once a year. For their purposes a magnificent temple of vast extent was erected at Eleusis. This edifice consisted of the sanctuary, or hall for the ceremonies of the Mysteries, the anactoron, or Holy of Holies, and a vast subterranean labyrinth for the ordeals pertaining to the induction of candidates into the degrees. The ceremonies were grand and impressive throughout. The Hierophant (High Priest) sat in the east upon a magnificent throne and was arrayed in a splendid robe. Around him were seven brilliant lights representing the seven planets. The principal officers in attendance were the Priest, at the altar, the Dadochus, and the Herald. Over the head of the Hierophant a beautiful arch was represented, above which the moon and seven stars were seen. From his neck was suspended a golden globe. In addition to the officers, he had twenty-four attendants, clad in white

 

*Royal Masonic Cyclopxdia, p. 193 ; also see note 16, p. 56.

 

t Note 33, p. 59; Mackey, p. 248.

ANCIENT SECRET SOCIEITG'S AND MYSTERIES. 29

 

robes, all wearing golden crowns, representing the twenty-four ancient constellations of the upper hemisphere.*

 

Rhea, who led the procession in search of the body of her lost companion, represented the moon.

 

The duty of the Dadochus - Torchbearer, was to impose silence on the assembly, and command the profane to withdraw.

 

The Priest officiated at the altar and wore a symbol of the moon. The Herald preserved order, compelled the uninitiated to retire at the command of the Dadochus, and punished all those who disturbed the sacred rites.

 

Bondmen and those with bodily defects were not admitted into the Mysteries.

 

 

THE FIRST DEGREE

 

Previous to the initiation of a candidate due inquiry was made concerning his previous life; be was required to pass through a period of probation, make confession, and undergo lustration. t Finally, at the time appointed for the ceremonies, he was clothed in a dark robe and blindfolded. After being thus prepared he was conducted down through a dark and circuitous passage, into a cavern, where he heard the roar of wild beasts, the hissing of serpents, and was startled by terrible thunder and lightning. At length he was confronted by a massive door, on which was an inscription signifying that "he who would attain to the perfect state must be purified by the three great elements." Immediately after reading this the door slowly swung open and he was thrust into a place shrouded in darkness, where he was tossed about by a whirlwind. He was next compelled to cross a hall into which darted flames of fire, threatening his life. This ordeal passed, he was thrown into a dark and swift stream of water, across which he had to swim or drown. If the candidate had thus far exhibited manly courage and fortitude he was conducted to the great hall of the Mysteries, where, in the presence of the assembled priests and adepts, he took the oath of fidelity and secrecy. He then received the instructions and benediction.

 

* Stellar Theology, p. 12; Royal Masonic Cyclopaedia, p. 194; Mackey, p. 247. t See Mysteries of Free Masonry, pp. 137, 159; see notes 27-29, p. 58.

j See Gould, vol. i., p. 14 ; Stellar Theology, p. 10 ; also notes 13-24, 25, 26, pp. 55, 56, 57, 58.

30 ANCIENT SECRET SOCIETIES AND MYSTERIES.

 

 

THE SECOND DEGREE

 

After a twelve-month's probation the candidate - adept was advanced to a higher degree.

 

In the ceremonies of this degree sacrifice was made for the candidate and he took another oath or obligation. He was then invested with the sacred cloak, and mystic scarfs, a crown of palm-leaves was placed upon his head, and he was called Mystae.

 

 

THE THIRD DEGREE

 

This degree represented the death of Bacchus (Osiris), the search for his body, and its resurrection. At the termination of another period of probation the adept was accorded a second advance-was raised to the third degree of the Mysteries. Therefore, after due preparation, he was conducted through a labyrinth amid horrible scenes into an apartment, the walls of which were draped in black and hung with emblems of death.

 

Scenes of terror multiplied, and the horrors of Tartarus were seen in the distance.     A tragic drama was enacted, in which a murder was committed by three ruffians, a bier rose before him on which lay a dead body. A funeral dirge was chanted, dusky phantoms (Rhea and attendants in search of the dead) passed before him, the corpse was missed from the bier, then suddenly a flood of dazzling light burst through the gloom, and standing in its centre the candi date in amazement saw the resurrected body. Exclamations of triumph and joy were now heard on every side, the fearful ordeal was over, and the brilliant spectacle of the Elysian fields and the bliss of the purified was presented.*         In conclusion the candidate was conducted to the altar and took upon himself the obligation of this degree and was instructed in the Ritual. He was then called Epoptae.

 

The horrors exhibited at the commencement of these ceremonies were intended to represent the condition of the wicked in another life, and the closing scene portrayed the abode of the blessed. The miseries of Tartarus and the happiness of Elysium were contrasted, being pronounced by the priests to be a true picture of what actually takes place in the future place of existence.

 

* See notes 28, 30, p. 58 ; also see Mackey, pp. 247, 248, 249; Stellar Theology, pp, 13,14; Royal Cyclopiedia, p. 188 ; Macoy, pp, 124-129 ; Gould, vol. i., pp. 13, 14.

ANCIENT SECRET SOCIETIES AND MYSTERIES. 33

 

 

THE CABIRI OF SAMOTHRACIA

 

The three principal figures of the Egyptian ceremonial were carried to Berytus, in Phoenicia, and thence into several islands of the Agean Sea. Their worship became very famous, especially in Lemnos, and in the island of Samothracia, which lies near it.

 

They were called the Cabiri (cabirim, potentes), meaning the powerful gods.*

Many noted persons were initiated into these Mysteries, among whom we find such names as Orpheus, Hercules, and Ulysses.

 

Speaking of the Samothraciau Mysteries, Voltaire asked (“Dict. Philo.") : "Who were the Hierophants - those sacred Free Masons who celebrated their ancient Mysteries - and whence came they?"

 

 

GNOSTICS

 

The Gnostics were divided into many sects, and their Mysteries reach back to an early date. The best authorities agree that Gnosticism was an attempt to solve the problems of theology by combining the elements of the Egyptian Mysteries with the Jewish and Christian traditions.

 

THE DIONYSIAN MYSTERIES AND ARCHITECTS

 

These Mysteries, like the others, comprised a tragedy-a murder, search for the body, its discovery and restoration to life. They were celebrated throughout Greece, Asia Minor, and Syria. Their Egyptian origin is shown by the fact that the Dionysian priests devoted themselves to the study and practice of architecture. About 1000 B.C. they established a society known as the Dionysian Architects, and were accorded the exclusive privilege of erecting the temples, and other public edifices.   They were divided into companies, each one of which was governed by officers corresponding to the officers of a Masonic Lodge.

 

They practised charity, had a system of secret words, and used several of the implements of Free Masonry.

 

That a branch of this society was located at Tyre, at the time of the

 

* Note 31, p. 59; also Mysteries, p. 58.

t See Mackey, p. 222 ; Royal Masonic Cyclopsedia, pp. 157, 158.

3

 

34

 

ANCIENT SECRET SOCIETIES AND MYSTERIES.

 

building of King Solomon's Temple, is well attested by history. In 300 B.C. they settled at Teos, where for centuries they practised their arts and Mysteries, making journeys to adjoining countries when their services were called for. In this way it is believed that at least a part of the traveling bands of Free Masons originated.

 

 

MITHRAISM

 

The Mithraic Mysteries were essentially the same throughout as the Eleusinian, except that there were seven grades of the initiates. After passing through trying ordeals the neophyte was presented with an engraved amulet as a token of his admission into the brotherhood.            He was also offered a crown, which, however, he was instructed to refuse, saying, “My only crown is Mithras."

 

He was also marked in some indelible manner, the exact nature of which has not been ascertained.

 

The worship of Mithras was introduced into Rome at a very early date, and it soon became so popular in connection with the Serapis worship as to usurp the place of the ancient Roman deities, and during the second and third centuries of the empire Serapis and Mithras became the sole objects of worship, from the centre to the circumference of the Roman world.* From Rome the Mysteries soon found their way to Gaul, Germany, and Britain, and from inscriptions on tablets and tombs, and from other sources, we learn that they were practised in those countries as late as the tenth century. t

 

The Mithraism of the period to which the Roman Mithraic monuments belong have both a mythological and an astronomical character.

 

From the foregoing it appears that while the Mysteries embraced the arts and sciences, yet the great central idea of them all was, as previously stated, the unity of God and the immortality of the soul. Aspirations for purity and a higher lie are everywhere manifest in their history.

 

In all the Mysteries regeneration was represented; an assassination took place, followed by a search for the body, its recovery and resurrection. In all such ceremonies grief and mourning are immediately followed by the most lively joy.

 

* See Gould, vol. i., p. 23.

 

t Stellar Theology, p. 106; note 17, p. 56; Gould, vol. i., p. 13; Mackey, p. 503.

ANCIENT SECRET SOCIETIES AND MYSTERIES.

 

37

 

As the Mysteries were practised in different parts of Europe to the time of the Guilds and bands of travelling Masons, a complete line of descent from the Egyptian Mysteries down to the Free Masonry of 1717 is shown.            But the main line we shall see led through the Mysteries of Greece, the Roman Colleges of Builders, and the Guilds.*

 

 

THE ESSENES

 

These peculiar people were a secret society of the Jews. They always rose before sunrise, assembled, and prayed with their faces turned toward the sun. Some were occupied in healing the sick, others in instructing the young, and all of them devoted certain hours to studying the mysteries of nature, revelation, and of the celestial hierarchy.

 

The labor of the forenoon terminated at eleven, when they partook of their midday meal, each member taking his seat according to age. t

 

Every candidate passed through a novitiate which extended over three years. In the first stage, of twelve months, lie had to turn all his property into the common treasury.

 

He then received a copy of the ordinances, a spade, an apron (to be used at the lustrations), and a white robe. After the probation he was admitted into the second stage, which lasted two years. During this period he was admitted to a closer fellowship, and shared in the lustral rites, but could not hold an office or sit at the common table.           After passing through the second stage of probation he was admitted to the third rank or degree. On his admission to this rank the candidate had to take a solemn oath to practise charity, and not to reveal the secrets of the order.

 

It is even claimed by ancient and modern authority that Christ was an Essene. This conclusion was arrived at from the following facts: As a sect they were distinguished for an aspiration after ideal purity, so as to ultimately attain an absolute standard of hgliness.

They observed the sabbath with singular strictness, and they believed that to lead a pure and holy life, to mortify the flesh, and to be meek and lowly in spirit would bring them into closer communion with the Creator, therefore Christ would naturally associate himself with an order that was so congenial to his nature.

 

* Note 18, p. 56.

t See Gould, vol. i., pp. 26 to 34 ; also Laurie and Ginsburg.

 

38

 

ANCIENT SECRET SOCIETIES AND MYSTERIES.

 

Again Christ not being heard in public but once until he was thirty years old implies that he lived in seclusion with this fraternity.* And while be frequently denounced the Scribes and Pharisees, he never denounced, or in any way reflected, on the Essenes. Yet as their most important doctrines were taught in secret, and they having had grips and pass-words by which they recognized one another, Christ's association with them could only have been of a general nature.

 

Pliny states that, "Toward the west of the Dead Sea are the Essenes. They are a hermitical society, marvelous beyond all others throughout the whole earth. They live without women, without money, and in groves of palm-trees.            Their ranks are daily made up by multitudes of new-comers who resort to them, and who, being weary of life, and driven by the surges of ill-fortune, adopt their manner of life. Thus it is that through thousands of ages (per saeculorum millia), incredible to relate, those people prolonged their existence without anyone being born among them, so fruitful to them are the weary lives of others."

 

Their existence under the name of Essenes is so fully attested by Jo. sephus as to render it certain that they originated as early as 200 B.C.

 

In the earliest Masonic Ritual, or the one mentioned in the " York Constitutions," there is evidence of ceremonies that were obviously taken from the Roman colleges and that agree with the practices of the Essenes, and Soofes of Persia.

 

It has been claimed that there was a close similarity between the Essenes and the Pythagoreans; but the Pythagoreans were essentially polytheists, while the Essenes were monotheistic Jews. The Pythagoreans believed in the doctrine of metempsychosis, the Essenes did not believe in it.

 

Pythagoras taught that man could control his fortune; Essenism maintained that fate governs all things.

 

The Pythagoreans were aristocratic and exclusive, the Essenes were so meek and so friendly that all joined in bestowing great-praise upon them.

 

* Mackey, p. 261.

 

ANCIENT SECRET SOCIETIES AND - MYSTERIKS

39

 

 

PYTHAGORAS

 

This renowned philosopher was a native of - Samos, and a pupil of Pherecydes. He flourished, says Bayle, about five hundred years before Christ, in the time of Tarquin, last king of Rome.*

 

Pythagoras regarded music as something celestial and divine, and had such an opinion of its power over the human affections that he ordered his disciples to be wakened every morning and lulled to sleep every night by sweet sounds. He likewise considered it as greatly conducive to health, and made use of it in disorders of the body, as well as in those of the mind.

 

The first journey of Pythagoras from his native island was into Egypt, which was celebrated in his time for that kind of wisdom which best suited his genius and temper. On his way thither Jamblichus asserts that he visit ed Phoenicia and conversed with the prophets and philosophers who were the successors of Mochus, the Physiologist.

 

While in Egypt he was introduced to Amasia, the king, a distinguished patron of literary men, and thus obtained access to the colleges of the priests. He passed twenty-two years in Egypt, availing himself of all possible means of information with regard to the recondite doctrines of the priests, as well as of their astronomy, geometry, and other branches.

 

The brethren of the Pythagorean College at Crotona, called Coniobion, Ccenobium, about six hundred in number, lived together as in one family with their wives and children, and the whole business of the society was conducted with "perfect regularity. Every day commenced with a deliberation upon the manner in which it should be spent, and concluded with a retrospect of the events which had occurred and of the business transacted. Their dinner consisted chiefly of bread, honey, and water; for after they were fully initiated they denied themselves the use of wine.            The remainder of the day was devoted to civil and domestic affairs, conversation, bathing, and religious ceremonies.

The Esoteric disciples of Pythagoras were taught after the Egyptian manner, by images and symbols, obscure and unintelligible to those who were

 

* Mysteries, p. 187.   t Ibid., p. 194.

40

 

ANCIENT S£7RET SOCIETIES AND MYSTERIES.

 

not initiated into the mysteries of the school; and those who were admitted to this privilege were under the strictest obligation of secrecy with regard to the secret doctrines of their master.

 

He taught that the first step toward wisdom was the study of mathematics - a science which contemplates objects that lie midway between corporeal and incorporeal beings, and, as it were, on the confines of both, and which most advantageously inures the mind to contemplation.

 

The monad or unity is that quality which, being deprived of all numbers, remains fixed; whence called monad from to menein. It is the fountain of all numbers. The duad is imperfect and passive and the cause of increase and division. The triad, composed of the monad and duad, partakes of the nature of both. The tetrad is the most perfect. The decal, which is the sum of the four former, comprehends all arithmetical and musical proportions.

Next to mathematics, music had the chief place in the teachings of Pythagoras; lie believing that music elevated the mind above the dominion of the passions, and inured it to contemplation. He considered music not only an art to be judged of by the ear, but as a science to be reduced to mathematical principles and proportions.

 

Besides arithmetic and music, Pythagoras cultivated geometry, which he had learned in Egypt, but he greatly improved it by investigating many new theorems, and by digesting its principles in an order more perfectly systematical than had before been done. Several Grecians about the time of Pythagoras applied themselves to mathematical learning, particularly Thales, in Ionia. But Pythagoras seems to have done more than any other philosopher of this period toward reducing geometry to a regular science.

 

He also taught that God is a soul, everywhere in nature ; that the souls of men are derived from his supreme soul, which is immortal; that the principle of all things being unity, he believed that between God and man there is an infinite number of spiritual agents ministering from one to another, and to the great Supreme Soul.

 

He was killed in a riot, B.C. 506, after having lived, according to the most probable statement of his birth, to the age of eighty years. After his death his followers paid a superstitious respect to his memory. They erected

 

ANCIENT SECRET SOCIETIES AND MYSTERIES.

41

 

statues in his honor, and converted his house at Crotona into a temple of Ceres, and appealed to him as a divinity, swearing by his name.

 

After the death of the philosopher, the care and education of his children and the charge of his school devolved upon Aristoeus of Crotona, who, having taught the doctrines of Pythagoras twenty-nine years, was succeeded by Mnesarchus, the son of Pythagoras. Pythagorean schools were afterward conducted in Heraclia by Clinias and Philolaus, at Metapontum by Theorides and Eurytus, and at Tarentum by Archytas, who is said to have been the eighth 'in succession from Pythagoras. The first person who divulged the Pythagorean doctrine was Phialorus.*

 

 

THE FIRST TEMPLES OF EGYPT

 

Although not of vital importance to this subject, yet it will be of interest to indicate, as near as possible, the commencement of the Egyptian Mysteries; therefore, as the weight of evidence gives Memphis t the greatest antiquity in Egyptian history, that city and its temples will be noticed first.

 

Memphis was the first capital of Egypt, was situated in the delta of the Nile, or Lower Egypt, and was founded in the first dynasty. According to Herodotus, the bed of the Nile was changed and an embankment made from one hundred stadia above Memphis to a short distance below the city, to protect it against inundations. The remains of this bank still exist. The city was composed of two portions, one being built of bricks and the other, in which was the citadel, of calcareous stone-" White Wall." In the citadel were some of the principal buildings.

 

The most remarkable features of the city were its temples and its necropolis, in which was the great pyramid, towering high in its centre.

 

Up to 1500 B.C. Memphis remained the religious capital of the old worship, and down to the death of Unas this city was the great seat of the Egyptian empire; but with the accession of the sixth dynasty there was a shift of power to the southward, to Abydos.

 

 

* Mysteries, p. 198.

t The principal seat of the Mysteries was at ?Memphis, in the neighborhood of the Great Pyramid. They were of two kinds, the Greater and the Less (Mackey, p. 242; also see 'Macoy, P. 124; Royal Cyclopredia, p. 188).

 

42

 

ANCIENT SECRET SOCIETIES AND MYSTERIES.

 

The temples of Memphis were numerous and magnificent, the first of which was near the centre of old Memphis. There was a temple of Isis, a temple dedicated to Proteus, a temple of the Apis having a peristyle and court, ornamented with figures, opposite the south propylaeum of the temple of Ptha, and the temple of Ra. Some of the temples flourished in all their glory till the Persian conquest.

 

At Memphis were also the shrine of the Cabiri and the statues of Rameses II, one of which exists as the Fallen Colossus.

 

 

THEBES - ITS FIRST TEMPLES

 

It is believed by writers of note * that this city, as well as Memphis, was founded in the first Egyptian dynasty. But no remains of so early a date have yet been discovered. We find, however, that Sesonchosis, of the first dynasty of Theban kings, commenced to reign 2518 B.C., and its first temple was also erected soon after that time.

 

Thebes was situated on both sides of the Nile, and its remarkable ruins are divided into four principal groups - Karnak and Luxor on the east side of the river, and Medinet Habou, and Gournou on the west side. The distance between Karnak and Luxor is about two miles, which is also the distance between Medinet Habou and Gournou. In each of these quarters are the ruins of one or more splendid temples. This is especially the case at Karnak, where the remains show that over four thousand years ago there stood a temple at that place that was vast in its dimensions and magnificent in its architectural design and finish.

 

Half way between Medinet Habou and Gournou are the retrains of still another temple belonging to Thebes-the Ramesseum, which in many of its details is equal to the great. temple at Karnak. Next in importance among the temples of Egypt was the temple of Edfou, south of Thebes.

 

At Soan, near the mouth of the Nile, the ruins of a temple and of thirteen obelisks can still be traced. At Soleb, qn the borders of Nubia, a temple now stands which is also scarcely inferior in magnificence to those of Thebes.

 

At Sedinga, not far below the third cataract, are the remains of a temple erected by Amenophis III., of the eighteenth dynasty.

 

* See Niebuhr, Dr. Thompson, Smith and Barnum's Dictionary of the Bible, p. 1103.

 

 

ANCIENT SECRET SOCIETIES AND MYSTERIES.

45

 

At Abydos the-remains of two great temples of Osiris have been'-partially disinterred from the sand which overwhelmed them.

 

On the walls of one of these, the tablets of Abydos were, discovered, which first gave connected lists of the kings. These lists nearly confirm those of Manetho, the second of which contains the names of seventy-six kings, ancestors of Manephthah, who reigned about 2000 B.C. But among the best preserved and most remarkable of the ruins of Egyptian edifices are those of the Temple of DENDERA (Tentyra). They present striking examples not only of practices in the ceremonies of the Mysteries, but of the advanced state that Egyptian architecture had attained to.        The gateway in particular, which leads to the Temple of Isis, excites universal admiration.

 

Each front, as well as the interior, is covered with sculptured hieroglyphics, which were executed with a richness, elegance of form, and variety of ornament surpassing in many respects similar edifices found at Thebes and Philae.

 

Advancing along the ruins," says Dr. Richardson, " we came to an elegant gateway or propylon, which is of sandstone neatly hewn, and completely covered with sculpture and hieroglyphics remarkably well cut.            Immediately over the centre of the doorway is the beautiful Egyptian ornament called the globe with wings,* emblematical of the glorious sun poised in the airy firmament of heaven, supported and directed in his course by the eternal wisdom of the Deity. The sublime phraseology of Scripture, “The Sun of Righteousness shall rise with healing on his wings,' could not be more emphatically or more accurately represented to the human eye than by this elegant device."

 

The temple itself still retains much of its original magnificence. The centuries which have elapsed since the era of its foundation have scarcely affected it in any important part, and have impressed upon it no greater appearance of age than serves to render it more venerable and imposing. Another writer, who had seen innumerable monuments of the kind throughout the Thebaid, declared that these ruins exhibited the highest degree of architectural excellence that had ever been attained on the border of the Nile.

The portico consists of twenty-four columns, in three rows, each about twenty-two feet in circumference, thirty-two feet high, and covered with  *Mysteries, p. 97.

 

46 ANCIENT SECRET SOCIETIES' AND 311-STERIES.

 

hieroglyphics. On the architrave are represented two processions of men and women bringing to Isis and to Osiris emblematical offerings. The interior of the pronaos is adorned with sculptures, most of them preserving part of the paint with which they had been, covered. Those on the ceiling were peculiarly rich and varied, all illustrative of the union between the astronomical and religion, creeds of the ancient Egyptians. The sekos, or interior of the temple, consists of several apartments, the walls and ceilings of which are like\vise covered with religious and astronomical representations.

 

The rooms were lighted by perpendicular apertures in the ceilings, and, where it was  possible to introduce them, by oblique ones in the sides. Therefore, the perpetual gloom in which the apartments on the ground floor of the sekos must have been buried was well calculated for the  mysterious practices  of the religion to which it was consecrated.

The ceiling of an adjoining room is divided into two compartments by a figure of Isis in very high relief. In one of them is the circular zodiac,* in the other a variety of boats, with four or five figures in each.           Near this scene is a large lion, supported by four dog-headed figures, each carrying a knife. The walls of the third room are covered with several representations of a person; the first, at the point of death, lying on a couch, then stretched out lifeless upon a bier. T

 

The western wall of the great temple is particularly interesting for the extreme elegance of the sculpture.

 

In the centre of the ceiling of a chapel behind the temple is the face of Isis in high relief, illuminated by a body of rays issuing from the mouth of a long figure, which, in the other temples, appears to encircle the heavenly bodies.

 

About two hundred yards eastward from this chapel is a propylon of small dimensions, resembling in form that which conducts to the great temple, and,-like it, built in a line with the wall which surrounds the sacred enclosure.

 

Still farther toward the east is another propylon, equally well preserved with the rest, about forty feet in height and twenty feet square at the base.

 

* Notes 34, 35, p. 59; Mysteries, p. 99.

t Traditions and Early History of Free Masonry, p. 220.

 

ANCIENT bYECRET SOCIETIES A1VL hf YSTERIE& 49

 

Among the sacred figures on this building is an Isis pointing with a reed to a graduated staff held by another figure of the same deity.

 

Another remarkable structure was the LABYRINTH or Tower situated close to Lake Moeris, in which the priests were at one time lodged, and where the characters of the several works and the symbols of the public regulations were delineated.

 

“The remains of this building, recently discovered by Lepsius, shows that it was founded by Amenemha I., of the twelfth Egyptian dynasty, about 1800 B.C.      This monarch was probably buried in it. This wonderful structure was built of Parian marble, Syenite granite, and porphyry-much of the work being beautifully polished. It contained three thousand chambers and passages said to be vaulted, half of the apartments were under ground and the others above. The upper chambers were decorated with reliefs, the lower were plain, and contained, according to tradition, the bodies of the founders of the building. When Herodotus and Strabo visited this edifice it was difficult to pass through it without the aid of a guide, and the opening of the doors echoed like the reverberation of thunder. For a long time great doubt prevailed whether any remains of the building existed, but it was discovered by Lepsius, who found part of the foundation or lower chambers close to the site of the Moeris lake, or modern Birket el-Keroun." *

 

 

THE OBELISK

 

The first of these monuments to find place in history was that of Usurtasen I, erected at Heliopolis at least 2000 B.C. Referring to this obelisk, Rawlinson  says: " Originally it was beyond all doubt one of a pair placed in front of the great entrance to the Temple of the Sun-the Jachin and Boaz of the Egyptian sanctuary."

 

Thotmes I erected two obelisks of large size before the sanctuary of the temple at Karnak. His daughter Hatasu erected two others before the second propyloeon.

 

Thotmes III erected several obelisks 1500 B.C., the first of which was set up to commemorate his conquest of Naharania, Mesopotamia. One of his

 

'* See Chambers's Encyclopaedia, vol. vii., p. 352; Rawlinson, vol. ii., p.170.

t Ibid., vol. ii., p. 154. 4

 

50 ANCIENT SECRET SOCIETIL'S AND MYSTERIES.

 

Theban obelisks found its way to Rome, and stands in front of the church of

St. John Lateran.

 

Of the other obelisks that Thotmes erected at Heliopolis, two at least were taken by Augustus to Alexandria, where they long remained, known as Cleopatra's Needles.

 

Finally, in 1877, one of these ancient monuments was shipped to England, where, after severe vicissitudes it arrived, and was set up on the Thames Embankment. Another one was taken down by Commander Gorringe and brought to New York in 1880 and now adds its historic interest to Central Park.*

 

When lowering this obelisk at Alexandria, preparatory to shipping it, there was found under, or rather in, the pedestal the following Masonic emblems cut in the stone: The two Ashlars, an Apron, a Trowel, iron or steel, and a Trestle-board. What the original purpose of the obelisk was, is uncertain, but on this one, as on most of the others there were inscriptions hieroglyphics setting forth the achievements of the reigning monarch.

 

 

RELIGION

 

Herodotus visited Egypt in the middle of the fifth century, and concerning their devotion, said:

 

“The Egyptians are religious to excess, far beyond any other race of men."

 

“Writing was so full of sacred symbols, and of allusions to their mythology, that it was scarcely possible to employ it on any subject which lay outside of religion."

 

From their architectural remains it is seen that the temple dominates over the palace, both the temple and the tomb being the expression of religious ideas. The great temple of each city was the centre of its life.

 

That the Egyptians had correct conceptions of the attributes of God will be seen from the following quotations First, from a hymn inscribed on Egyptian papyri, now in the British Museum

 

"He is not beheld;

His abode is not known.

No shrine is found with painted figures of him;

 

Note 36, p. 59; Chambers's Encyclopaedia, vol. viii., p. 714; Bawlinson, vol. ii, pp. 248, 260. fi Scarlet Book of Free Masonry, pp. 458 - 463.

 

ANCIENT SECRET SOCIETIES AND MYSTERIES.

 

51

 

“There is no building that can contain him.

Unknown is his name in Heaven;

He does not manifest his forms;

Vain are all representations of him."

 

In another place God is thus described: "He bath made the world with his hand-its waters, its atmosphere, its vegetation, all its flocks, and birds and fish, and reptiles, and beasts of the field " (Translation by Chabas).

 

"He is their father, and they sons beloved of their father. He is the giver of life, teucher of the hearts, and Searcher of the Inward Parts is his name." " Let not thy face be turned away from us; the joy of our hearts is to contemplate thee."

 

Chase all anguish from our hearts.

The spirits thou hast made exalt thee,

Father of the father of all the Gods,

Who raises the heavens, who fixes the earth,

Maker of beings, author of existences,

Sovereign of life, health, and strength, Chief of the Gods,

We worship thy spirit, who alone hast made us;

We whom thou bast made thank thee that thou hast given us birth.

We give thee praise for thy mercy toward us."

 

 

Inscribed on the tombs is found this formula:

 

"I have given bread to the hungry, water to the thirsty, clothes to the naked, shelter to the stranger." This tenderness for suffering humanity is characteristic of the nation - Brotherly Love, Relief, and Truth.

 

An oracle of Apollo, quoted by Eusebius, says that the Egyptians were the first who disclosed by infinite actions the path that leads to the gods. The oracle is as follows:

 

“The path by which to deity we climb

Is arduous, rough, ineffable, sublime;

And the strong massive gates, through which we pass

In our first course, are bound with chains of brass.

Those men the first, who of Egyptian birth,

Drank the fair waters of Nilotic earth,

Disclosed by actions infinite this road,

And many paths to God Phoenicians showed.

This road the Assyrians pointed out to view,

And this the Lydians and Chaldeans knew."

 

Showing that the religion of the Egyptians originally comprised the essentials of Christianity, and that their moral code was both pure and exalted. But the real nature and attributes of God could only be communicated to such as were initiated into the Mysteries, and gave, unquestionable proofs of their fidelity and zeal. And to the initiate it was a startling and solemn revelation.

 

" It was difficult," says Plato, " to attain, and dangerous to publish the knowledge of the true God."

 

THE JUDGMENT OF THE DEAD

 

This singular ceremony was also embraced in the Mysteries, and was founded on the funeral rites of the Egyptians; and from its judgment in this world no Egyptian was exempt, be his position high or low; on this trial depended the right to an honorable burial.

The dead person was brought to the place of judgment, and to the foot of the tribunal, consisting of several judges, who inquired into his life and conversation. All whom the deceased had wronged, or who knew of his evil deeds, could testify to the same over his dead body. The decision was determined by the weight of evidence, without regard to the position of the deceased; therefore, at one time even a king who had led a wicked life might be excluded from burial in 'his own sepulchre and be buried among the rabble. The judgment at the funeral was believed to be the same as the deceased received in the invisible world at the same time.

 

When no accuser appeared, they ceased to lament the dead person, and his encomium was made. They commended his respect for religion, equity, moderation, chastity, and other virtues.   His birth, which was supposed to be the same with all men, was never allowed as any virtue in him. All the assistants applauded these praises and congratulated the deceased on account of his being ready to enjoy an eternal repose with the virtuous.

 

            ANCIENT SECRET SOCIETIES AND MYSTERIES.

 

53

 

The ceremony ended by thrice sprinkling sand over the openings of the vaults wherein they had put the corpse, bidding him thrice adieu.

 

These practices were almost everywhere copied, and were so many instructions to the people, giving them to understand that death was followed by an account of which they were to give of their life before an inflexible tribunal; and that which was dreadful to the wicked was only a passage into a happier state for the good. Wherefore death was called the deliverance.*

 

NOTES FROM AUTHORITIES

 

1. Documentary evidence, Craft symbolism, and oral - relations alike take us back to Egypt and the East.

 

            " One of the most learned of English Masons, the late Dr Leeson, in a lecture delivered at Portsmouth, on July 25, 1862, states: that Egypt was the cradle of Masonry. The Egyptians were the first to establish a civilized society and all the sciences must necessarily have been derived from this source." Gould, in History of Free Masonry, vol. iii., pp. 222-232.

 

2. “Egypt, remarkable for its historical interests, still retains in her wonderful monuments the earliest records of civilization. A land so ancient, that, even in the early days of Greece, it was considered to be of wondrous and remote antiquity.

            * Note 40, p. 60.

 

Learning appears to have been pursued with great diligence and the education of an ancient philosopher was hardly considered complete until lie had journeyed to Egypt, the cradle of the arts and sciences, and received from the lips of her priests some portion of their traditional lore.         The mode of writing of the Egyptians was singular-they had three kinds of characters.        The hieratic letters were used by the priests on sacred occasions; the demotic in all civil and secular matters; and the hieroglyphic to describe actions in a mysterious manner. The last-named consisted of pictures of every description of men,

beasts, flowers, and instruments. The whole system of instruction was purely symbolic.

 

Their philosophers concealed their particular tenets and principles o£ policy and philosophy under hieroglyphic fib ures, and expressed their ideas of government by signs and symbols." From an oration by J. Flavius Adams, M.D.

 

3. It has been forcibly observed, " that in all the legends of Free Masonry, the line of ascent leads with unerring accuracy through Grecian corporations back to the Orient." Fort, p. 183.

 

4. Says Adam Clark: "All knowledge, all religion, and all arts and sciences have travelled according to the course of the sun from east to west."          Bazot tells us (in his Man uel du FrancMa,on, p. 154) that "the veneration which Masons entertain for the East confirms an opinion previously announced, that the religious system of Masonry came from the East."

 

5. We are not to search for our antiquity in the mythology of Greece or Rouie, Nve advance into remoter ages. We discover in the Ammonian and Egyptian rites the most perfect remains of these originals to whom our society refers. Traditions, p. 34 ; The Mysteries of Free Masonry, p. 220.

 

6. The irradiation of the Mysteries of Egypt shine and animate the secret doctrines of Phoenicia, Asia Minor, Greece and Italy.       Heckethorn, Secret Societies of all Ages and Countries, vol. i., p. 78 ; Gould, iii., p. 223.

 

7. I see no reason why any pause should be made in our inquiry when we reach the Middle Ages.   That era, no doubt, as well as the societies and associations coeval with it, is interestin- to the archaeolo-ist, if it fixes a date, or channel, calculated to elucidate the transmission of Masonic science from the more remote past. Yet the. greater number, not to go further, of the analogies or similarities which are so much dwelt upon have their examplers in the Mysteries to the extent flint they are identical-we mil-lit with as much justice claim Egypt as the land of Masonic origin as limit our pretensions to a derivation from the Vehemic Tribunals of Westphalia. In the Mysteries we meet with dialogue, ritual, darkness, light, death, and reproduction.         It admits of no doubt that the rites and theological expressions of the Egyptians were of universal acceptation.      Gould, vol. iii., p. 236.

 

8. Ferguson, in History of Architecture, vol. i., p. 147, speaking of Assyrian architecture and the Egyptian pyramids, says: "It does not, it is true, rival that of Egypt in antiquity, as the pyramids still maintain a pre-eminence of 1,000 years beyond anything that has yet been discovered in the Valley of the Euphrates.            There is nothing certain in India, that nearly approaches these monuments in antiquity, nor in China or the rest of Asia."

 

9. Pythagoras, Zoroaster, and Confucius drew their doctrines from the Mysteries.      Clemens of Alexandria, speaking of the greater Mysteries, says: "Here ends all instruction.       Nature and all things are seen and known." Had mortal truths alone been taught the initiate, the mysteries could never have deserved or received the magnificent eulogiuws of the most enlightened men of antiquity ; of Pindar, Plutarch, Isocrates, Diodorus, Plato, Euripides, Socrates, Aristophanes, Cicero, Epictetus, Marcus Aurelius, and others.   Traditions of Free Masonry, p. 225.

 

10. Our chief emblems originally from Egypt.        .           .           .           We have retained the Egyptian symbols of the sun and moon), as the emblems of God's power, eternity, omnipresence, and benevolence; and thereby we signify that we are the children of light, and that the first foundation of our profession is the knowledge and adoration of almighty Mesouraneo, who seateth himself in the centre of the heavens; and we have saved from oblivion many of their religious rites, ill our initiation into the First Degree of Masonry, which otherwise would have slept in eternity. Mysteries of Free Masonry, p. 21.9.

 

11. The identity of the Masonic institutions with the ancient Mysteries is obvious from between them. The latter were a secret religious science, and art.      Tradition dates the origin of the time, and males it coeval with the organization of the striking coincidences found to exist worship, and the depository of religion, Mysteries back to the earliest period of society.   Traditions, p. 13.

 

12. Albert Pike, in the Review, vol.

ii., p. 33, says: " Such were the Mysteries and such the old thought, as in scattered fragments it has come clown to us. The human mind still speculates on` the great mysteries of nature, and still finds its ideas anticipated by the ancients, whose profoundest thoughts are to be looked for, not in their philosophies, but in their symbols, by which they endeavored to express the great ideas that vainly struggled for utterance in words, as they viewed the great circle of phenomena-birth, life, death or decomposition, and new life out of death--to their the great mysteries. Remember, while you study their symbols, that they have a profounder sense of those wonders than we have."

 

13. St. Cyril, of Alexandria, who was made bishop in A.D. 412, and (lied ill 444, says in his seventh book against Julian: "These Mysteries are so profound and so exalted that they can be comprehended by those only who are enlightened. I shall not therefore attempt to speak of what is so admirable in them, lest by discovering them to the' uninitiated I should offend against the injunctions not to give what is holy to the impure, nor cast pearls before such as cannot estimate their worth."

 

St. Clirysostom and St. Augustine frequently refer to the Mysteries of initiation. St. Augustine, 400 A.D., says : -I wish to speak openly of the Mysteries, but dare not on account of those who are uninitiated. I must therefore avail myself of disguised terms designating in a shadowy manner (where the whole Mysteries are celebrated) so as to exclude all uninitiated persons. Then guard the doors."

 

St. Auustine says to the initiated : "Having dismissed the Catechumenes, we have retained  56 ANCIENT SECRET SOCIETIES AND MYSTERIES.

 

you only to be our hearers, because, besides those things which belong to all Christians in common, we are now to discuss to you of the sublime Mysteries which none are qualified to give except those who by the Master's sanction have the right to be present."

 

St. Gregory Narianzen, Bishop of Constantinople, A.D. 379, says: " You have heard as much of the Mystery as we are allowed to speak openly in the ears of all; the rest will be communicated to you in private and that you must retain yourself. . . . Our Mysteries are not to be made known to strangers."

 

St. Ambrose, Archbishop of Milan, who was born in 340 and died 393, says in his work De Mysteriis : " ° The Mysteries should be kept concealed, guarded by faithful silence, lest it should be inconsiderately divulged to the ears of the profane.        .           .           .           It is not given to all to contemplate the depths of our Mysteries;      .           .           .           that they may not be seen by those who ought not to behold them nor received by those who cannot preserve them."

 

14. The belief that Free Masonry derived its origin from the ancient Mysteries prevails

in Europe and America. This theory was ably sustained by the learned antiquary Alexander Lenoir, in his celebrated work on the antiquity of Free Masonry, and his views were adopted by most of the Masonic writers of France.

 

15. Wheresoever the Mysteries were introduced they retained their primitive form, adapted to the customs and usages of the national religion. Hence, the same or similar ceremonies- which were applied to Osiris and Isis in Egypt, the great source of secret and mysterious rites, were celebrated in Greece in honor of Bacchus and Rhea; at Eleusis they were applied to Ceres and Proserpine; in Tyre and Cyprus, to Adonis and Venus; in Persia, to Mithras and Mithra; in India, to Maha Deva and Sita; in Britain, to Hu and Ceridwin; in Scandinavia, to Odin and Frea; and in Mexico, to Tialoc and the Great Mother. These appear to be but different names for the deities. Oliver, in Signs and Symbols.

 

16. In discoursing, therefore, of the Mysteries in general, we shall be forced to take our ideas of them chiefly from what we find practised in the Eleusiniau.       Nor need we fear to be mistaken ; the end of all being the same, and all having their common original from Egypt. Herodotus, Diodorus, and Plutarch, who collect from ancient testimonies, expressly affirm, and in this all antiquity concurs, that the Eleusinian mysteries particularly retained the very Egyptian gods in whose honor they were celebrated.

 

Mysteries of Free Masonry, pp. 106, 133.

 

17. Says Mr. King: “There is every reason to believe that, as in the East, the worship of Serapis was at first combined with Christianity, and gradually merged into it with an entire change of name, not substance, carrying with it many of its ancient notions and rites; so in the West a similar influence was exerted by the Mithraic religion."      And as there is no account of their decline, many have supposed that the worship of, and faith in, Mithras had survived down to comparatively modern times.           Mysteries, p. 17.

 

18. Egypt has always been considered the birthplace of the Mysteries. It was there that the ceremonies of initiation were first established. It was there that truth was first veiled in allegory, and the dogmas of religion were first imparted under symbolic forms.

 

ANCIENT SECRET SOCIETIES AND MYSTERIES. 57

 

This system of symbols was disseminated through Greece and Rome and other countries of Europe and Asia, giving origin, through many intermediate steps, to that mysterious association which is now represented by the institution of Free Masonry.    Mackey, p. 242.

 

19. The Isiac Mysteries would seem to be the First Degree among the Egyptians.     The Second consisted of the Mysteries of Serapis. Of their nature we know scarcely anything. In the Mysteries of Osiris, which completed the series of Egyptian esoteric teaching, the lesson of death and resurrection were symbolically conveyed; the legend of the murder and restoration of Osiris was displayed to the affiliate in a scenic manner. Royal Masonic Cyclopoedia, pp. 188, 189.

 

20. The First Degree, as we may term it, of Egyptian initiation was that into the Mysteries of Isis.    The Mysteries of Serapis constituted the Second Degree of the Egyptian initiation. In the Mysteries of Osiris, which were the consummation of the Egyptian system, the lesson of death and resurrection was symbolically taught; and the legend of the murder of Osiris, the search for the body, its discovery and restoration to life is scenically represented.        Mackey, pp. 242, 243.

 

21. Samuel L. Knapp, Esq., in a work entitled "The Genius of Masonry," says: " Behind this veil of Isis I have long thought was concealed our Masonic birth. I now fully believe it." Mysteries, p. 121.

 

22. “The Mysteries of Osiris," says Heckethorn, “formed the Third Degree, or summit of Egyptian initiation."

 

23. In these, the legend of the murder of Osiris by his brother Typhon, was represented, and the god was personated by the candidate. Secret Societies of all Ages and Countries, vol. i, p. 75; Gould, iii., 249.

 

24. Apuleius (Met., book xi.), who had been initiated into all the Mysteries, speaks of those of Isis in the following way: "The priest, all the profane being removed to a distance, taking hold of me by the hand, brought me into the inner recesses of the sanctuary itself, clothed in a new linen garment. I approached the confines of death and having trod on the threshold of Proserpine, I returned therefrom, being borne through all the elements. At midnight I saw the sun shining with its brilliant light; and I approached the presence of the gods beneath, the gods above, and stood near and worshipped them. Behold I have related to you things of which, though heard by you, you must necessarily remain ignorant."

 

"This happy moment (de l' autopsia) was introduced," says Dupuis, “by frightful scenes, by alternate fear and joy, by light and darkness, by the glimmer of light, by the terrible noise of thunder, which was imitated, and by the apparitions of spectres, of magical illusions, which struck the eye and ears all at once." Royal Masonic Cyclopoedia, p. 188; Mysteries, p. 144; also see Moore's Epicurean.

 

25. Dupuis says, in his "Recherches sur les Initiations:" "They exercised the candidates to cross by swimming a large extent of water; they threw them into it, and it was with great difficulty that they extricated themselves. They applied a sword and fire to their bodies; they made

 

58 ANCIENT SECRET SOCIETIES AND MYSTERIES.

 

them pass over flames. The aspirants were often in considerable danger, and Pythagoras, we are told, nearly lost his life in the trials. It was also at the same period that they celebrated the Pyrrhic or fire dance. And this illustrates the origin of the purification by fire and water, for having denominated the tropic of Cancer gate of heaven and of heat or celestial fire, and that of Capricorn gate of deluge or of water, it was imagined that the spirits of souls who passed through the gates on their way to and from heaven, were scorched or bathed ; hence the baptism of Mithra and the passage through the flames, observed throughout the East long before." Mysteries, p. 147.

 

26. Volney says: "The truly grand tragedies, the imposing and terrible representations, were the sacred Mysteries, which were celebrated in the greatest temples in the world, in the presence of the initiated only.            It was there that the habits, the decorations, the machinery were proper to the subjects; and the subject was, present and future life."

 

27. Confession was one necessary preparative for initiation. Those who were initiates also gave further security for their discretion; for they were obliged to make confession to their priests of all the most private actions of their lives; so that by this means they became the slaves to their priests, that their own secrets might be kept. It was upon this sort of confession that a Lacedemonian, who was going to be initiated into the Mysteries of Samothrace, spoke roundly thus to the priest: " If I have committed any crimes, surely the gods are not ignorant of them." Another answered almost after the same manner, "Is it to you or to God we ought to confess our crimes?" “It is to God," says the priest. "Well then, retire thou," answered the Lacedemonian, "and I will confess there to God." These Lacedemonians were not very full of the spirit of devotion - to man.            Hist. of Oracles, p. 114, London, 1688, edit. ; also Mysteries, p. 153.

 

28. The Scholiast on the Range of Aristophanes says : "It was a universal opinion that he who had been initiated into the great Mysteries should obtain divine honors after death." Again, Isocrates affirms (Panegyr.): "The mysteries teach the initiated to entertain the most lively hopes touching death and immortality." Cicero also (De Leg., 1, ii., c. 14) praises these institutions for the same thing : "From them," says he, "we not only reap the advantage of greater happiness in this world, but we are instructed to hope for a better existence hereafter." Oliver, in Historical Landmarks of Free Masonry, vol: ii., p. 100.

 

29. They used as significant emblems the Theological Ladder; the triple support of the universal lodge, called by Masons Wisdom, Strength, and Beauty; the point within a circle, and many other legitimate emblems of Masonry; they used the same form of government, the same system of secrecy, allegory, and symbolic instructions, all tending to the same point, the practice of moral virtue.  None were admitted without previous probation and initiation ; the candidates were bound by solemn oaths, united by invisible ties, taught symbols, distinguished by signs and tokens, and compelled, by a conscientious adherence to the rules of the order they professed, to practise the most rigid morality, justice toward men, and piety to the gods. Oliver, in Signs and Symbols

 

30. To disclose the Mysteries was a heinous offence, and the offender if caught was

 

ANCIENT SECRET SOCIETIF_S AND MYSTERIES. 59

 

doomed. The betrayers of the Mysteries were punished capitally and with merciless severity. Diagoras, the Melian, had revealed the Orphic and Eleusinian Mysteries, on which account he passed with the people as an atheist, and the city of Athens proscribed him and set a price on his head. The poet Aeschylus had like to have been tore in pieces by the people on the mere suspicion that in one of his scenes he had given a hint of something in the Mysteries.

 

31. The names of the Cabiri, with their significations, are thus given in Anthon's Class. Dictionary: Axieros is said to have signified in Egyptian tire All-powerful One; Axiokersos is made to denote the Great Foundator; Axeokersa is consequently the Great Fecundatrix; and Casmilus, he who stands before the Deity, or he who beholds the face of the Deity.

 

Mysteries, p. 59.

 

32. "Nor was it at Athens only that the worship and Mysteries of Isis, metamorphosed into Ceres, were established. The Boeotian worshipped the Great or Cabiric Ceres, and the ceremonies and traditions of their Mysteries were connected with those of the Cabiri in Samothrace.       So in Argos, Phocis, Arcadia, Archia, Messenia, Corinth, and many other parts of Greece, the Mysteries were practised, revealing everywhere their Egyptian origin. Albert Pike, in Review; also see Rev. A. C. Arnold's History of Secret Societies; Bishop Warburton on the Mysteries; Oliver's History of Initiation ; Apuleius Metamorphoses.

 

33. Ruins of ancient temples have been discovered in which the secret arrangement for

carrying on the ceremonies of initiation were found complete.    A temple of Isis which had these secret chambers has been uncovered at Pompeii, and now lies open to the day. Some English explorers who examined the ruins of the Temple of Eleusis discovered many evidences of the fact that the lower part had been arranged for secret ceremonies, there being deeply indented grooves to receive the pulleys which were probably used in the Mysteries to raise “a moving floor " with places for wedges, to fix it immovable at the desired height. There were also eight holes in blocks of marble raised above the floor; four on the right, and four on the left, adapted to receive pins of large dimensions.     See Stellar Theology and Masonic Astronomy, p. 104.

 

34. In a room of the Temple of Tentyra the ceiling is divided into two compartments by a figure of Isis in very high relief. The wall of an adjoining room is covered with representations of an individual; first lying on a couch at the point of death, then stretched out lifeless upon a bier. Masonic readers will understand this without comment.      Chambers 's Encyclopaedia, vol. iv., p. 295.

 

35. The signs of the zodiac portrayed in the centre of the roof of the Free Masons' Hall, London, are in accordance with the astronomical decorations of the ancient temples of Egypt.          Celestial and terrestrial globes also compose a part of the Mason's emblems.    Mysteries, pp. 97-99 ; Historical Landmarks, Oliver, p. 101.

 

36. As early as the twelfth dynasty the obelisk was invented and became an adjunct of the temple, its ordinary position being at either side of a doorway.

 

37. Religious laws and precepts were so numerous, so multiplied, that it was impossible to exercise a profession, or even to obtain subsistence and provide for one's daily wants, without having constantly present to the memory the regulations established by the priests.

 

38. The gods of the popular mythology were understood in the esoteric religion to be either personified attributes of Deity, or parts of the nature which be had created, considered as informed and inspired by him.

 

39. No educated Egyptian priest certainly, no educated layman, conceived of the popular

gods as really separate and distinct beings. All knew that there was but one God.

 

40. It was the universal belief that, immediately after death, the soul descended into the lower world and was conducted to the Hall of Truth (or " of the two Truths "), where it was judged in the presence of Osiris and the forty-two daemons, the "Lords of Truth" and judges of the dead.            Rawlinson, vol. i., pp. 321-329 ; Ritual of the Dead, ch. cxxv. (Bunsen, vol. v., p. 252) ; Herodotus, ii., 37, 60.

 

41. The most ancient of profane historians, and he who speaks in the most learned manner of the religion of the Egyptians, is Herodotus.            According to him the Egyptians were the first people in the world who erected altars to the gods, made representations of them, raised temples to them, and had priests for their service. Never was any people, continues he, more religious.    Mysteries, p. 218.

 

42. The sacred texts taught that there was a single Being, “the sole producer of all things both in heaven and earth.  Himself not produced of any," “the only true living God, self-originated," "who exists from the beginning," "who has made all things, but has not himself been made."            Rawlinson, vol. i., p. 324.

 

 

From "The Illustrated History of Freemasonry"

 

 

61

 

CHAPTER II.

 

IMAGES, FIGURES, SYMBOLS.

 

Origin of Masonic Symbols, Astronomical and Mechanical; Their Original Signifacation.

LANGUAGE was at first, extremely crude and equivocal, so that people would constantly be at a loss, on new conceptions or unusual occurrences, to render themselves intelligible to one another.

 

This necessarily set them to supplying the deficiencies of speech by significant signs; therefore, in the primitive ages of the world, conversation was carried on both by words and actions; from this came the phrase " voice of the sign." Improving upon what had arisen from necessity, they naturally came to expressing their ideas by objects, symbols, and pictures, and what was obscure in them was rendered clear by the simplicity and propriety of the name given each piece.

 

The necessity of personifying the objects the Egyptians wished to paint also suggested the use of allegorical pictures. Furthermore, they at that time had no knowledge of writing otherwise than by delineating the figures of objects intended.

 

Subsequently, when language had become sufficiently intelligible for the ordinary affairs of life; the material accessories were dispensed with by all except the priests, who, perceiving the advantages of symbols in illustrating religious ideas, retained them, making such changes as would adapt them to their purpose. From this was developed the symbolism of the Sacred Mysteries.

 

A symbol is a sign or representation of something moral or intellectual age of material things. Another definition is that it is a visible * See notes 1, 2, 3, p. 86.

 

62        IMAGES, FIGURES, SYMBOLS.

 

sign by which a spiritual, feeling or idea is communicated or expressed. The sun is a symbol of Deity; the acacia is a symbol of immortality, and the lamb is a symbol of innocence and meekness.

 

The ancient Mysteries comprised a series of symbols, and what was spoken consisted of accessory explanations of the image or act. Deity, in his revelations to man; used material images for the purpose of enforcing divine truths. Christ taught by symbols and parables.  The cross is the vital and impressive symbol of Christianity.

 

CABLE-TOW.

 

The Masonic term "Cable-tow" was derived from the Hebrew word Kha Ble Tu, his pledge * (see Ezekiel xviii., 7). In the ancient Mysteries the initiate was invested with a sacred sash, which was said to possess the power of preserving the wearer from danger. It consisted of a cord of three times three strands, twisted together and fastened at the ends. It was a symbol of the Triune Deity.

 

CIRCUMAMBULATION.

 

This word is derived from the Latin circum, around, and ambulare, to walk; therefore to walk around the altar or some sacred shrine. The rite of circumambulation was a prominent feature of the ceremonies of the Mysteries. T This rite was in imitation of the apparent course of the sun from east to west by way of the south, and was accompanied by the chanting of a hymn to the sun-god.

 

In ancient Greece, when the priests were engaged in the rites of sacrifice, they walked three times around the altar, commencing at the east, then toward the south, the west, the north, and then to their starting-point, always following the course of the sun.

Among the ancient Hindoos circumambulation was always practised and always moving with the sun-to the right.

 

* See Traditions, p. 29 ; Mackey, p. 136.   t Notes 7, 8, pp. 86, 87.

IMAGES, FIGURES, SYMBOLS

 

63

 

THE APRON-LAMB-SKIN.

 

The lamb-skin, or white leather apron, was an article of paraphernalia, worn by the kings, priests, and scribes of Egypt. The apron of the king was of a prescribed and peculiar form, belonged exclusively to his rank, and was richly ornamented in front. The priests and the scribes, or hierogromats, likewise wore aprons appropriate to their sacerdotal functions.

 

 

MYSTIC APRON WORN BY THE KINGS OF EGYPT

 

When a candidate was initiated into the ancient Mysteries he was deemed regenerated and was invested with a white apron. The investment was very impressive and succeeded the communication of light.            Since that time the lamb-skin apron has been used as an emblem of purity and distinction. With the ancient Essenes, the investiture of the apron formed an important part of the ceremony of initiation.           It was the belief of the Essenes that purity and rectitude of conduct were most strikingly evinced by white raiment, particularly the white apron. When Aaron was consecrated he was invested with

 

64        IVAGE8, FIGURES, SYMBOLS.

 

an apron. Samuel was girdled with an ephod or apron. St. John the Baptist went girdled with an apron of white leather. The apron is frequently found on Egyptian monuments.*

 

THE TWENTY-FOUR INCH GAUGE

 

The twenty-four inch gauge was an Egyptian implement for measuring; it was also an emblem of a day divided into three parts, for labor, refreshment, and reflection and sleep.

 

THE NORTHEAST CORNER, AND THE CORNER-STONE

 

As it was the practice of the ancients to build their temples facing the east and lay the corner-stone at the northeast corner, it is believed that the cornerstone of King Solomon's Temple was laid at the northeast corner.            Therefore the northeast corner has since been deemed the right place for the cornerstone of an edifice. t

 

The design, strength, and durability of the corner-stone are eminently symbolical. As the foundation and support of a massive building whose erection it precedes, it is, or should be, of material which will outlast all other parts of the edifice, so that when the ocean of time shall have overwhelmed all who were present at its laying, and the ruined edifice shall exhibit the ravages of centuries, the corner-atone will remain to tell, by its form, inscriptions, and deposit, that there once stood on that spot a building consecrated to a noble or sacred purpose by the zeal and liberality of men long since passed away. Likewise the durability of the corner-stone, in contrast with the decay of the building it helped to uphold, reminds the Mason that when his earthly tabernacle shall have passed away he has remaining a corner-stone of immortality-a spark from that Divine Spirit which pervades all nature, and which will survive the tomb and rise triumphant from the dust of death find the grave.

 

* Stellar Theology, p. 62 ; Mackey, p. 83 ; Royal Masonic Cyclopaedia, p. 48. t Stellar Theology, p. 78.

 

EYIAGES, FIGURES, Sr1'IBOIS.    65

 

THE LODGE - ITS FORM, LIGHTS, ETC.

 

The name, lodge, comes from the German, Hutten-loge; Italian, loggia; and the Anglo-Saxon logian, and signified huts or cabins in which the ancient Masons lived when engaged upon a piece of work.* The form of the Ma sonic Lodge is, however, copied from the Tabernacle; and the Tabernacle was copied by Moses from the Egyptian temples. t It was a double cube, an emblem of the united powers of darkness and light in the creation. King Solomon's Temple and the altar of incense were double cubes, therefore Masonic Lodges are, or should be, of the same form.

 

Lodges should be situated due east and west, because " the sun, the emblem and glory of God, rises in the east and sets in the west." All ancient Temples faced the east.

Allegorically, the dimensions of the Lodge are without limit, and "its covering no less than the clouded canopy or starry-decked heavens."  A Lodge has three lights, situated east, west, and south. They are so situated "in allusion to the sun, which rises in the east, reaches the meridian in the south, and disappears in the west."

 

THE SQUARE

 

This implement and symbol originated in Egypt, its form being suggested by the division of a circle into four equal parts by lines drawn at right angles to each other. It was the Egyptian land measure, and it also became an emblem of justice, because by its aid the boundaries of land that were in dispute were adjusted and determined. There was an officer of justice who bore a square as an emblem of his office, and for use. The square was the first geometrical and artificial figure brought into use by operative masons.1

 

THE COMPASSES

 

The angle of 60° alludes to the zodiac, being equal to two signs thereof. Sixty multiplied by the sacred number, three, becomes 180-the dimensions of the Royal Arch; hence the Craft when using the compasses as a symbol, set them at an angle of 60.°

 

* Mackey, p. 472, 473.         t Note 4, p. 86; Masonic world, vol. iv., No. 5.        1 Notes 5, 6, p. 86.

5

 

66        IMAGES, FIGURES, SYMBOLS.

 

THE LADDER OF SEVEN ROUNDS

 

One of the principal symbols of the ancient Mysteries was a ladder of se:-eii rounds or steps. "The seven stages or steps were colored so as to represent the seven planetary spheres, according to the tints regarded by the ancients as appropriate to the seven luminaries, the basement being black, the color assigned to Saturn; the next orange, Jupiter; the third a bright red, Mars; the fourth the golden hue of the sun; the fifth pale yellow, the hue of Venus; the sixth dark blue, Mercury; the seventh silver, the moon."

 

THE LADDER OF THREE ROUNDS

 

This symbol is but a modification of the ladder of seven rounds, and is of the same general signification.

 

IMAGES, FIGURES, SYMBOLS.    67

 

This mystic ladder leads, first, to the " Seven Stars," or Pleiades, in the constellation Taurus, at the golden gates of spring; thence onward and up. ward to the Royal Arch of heaven, emblematically teaching that by the ladder of virtue the soul will at last pass the " cloudy canopy," even to the inmost circle of 11 the starry-decked heavens."

 

In the Masonic system the three principal rounds of the ladder are de. nominated Faith, Hope, and Charity. This symbol in the Mysteries is, however, universally furnished with seven rounds.

 

MASONIC PAVEMENT

 

This pavement was originally used as flooring in Egyptian temples, and in other places where religious assemblies were held. It then represented the variegated face of the earth. The banqueting hall in the palace at Shushan was richly decorated with gold and silver, and was floored with a mosaic pavement of marble in four symbolical colors-red, white, blue, and black.

 

THE BLAZING STAR

 

says a learned writer, " refers to the sun, which lightens the earth with its refulgent rays, dispensing its blessings to mankind, and giving light and life to all things here below." This is the definition of the Blazing Star in the Grand Lodge of England.*

 

THE ASHLARS

 

represent the rough material and the finished work, both in a building and in a Mason.

 

ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST

 

From a well-authenticated tradition we learn concerning St. John the Baptist that his father and mother died when he was quite young, and that lie was then adopted by the Essenes and finally became their Rabin. In that capacity he performed the duty of baptizing the initiates, and thus acquired the cognomen of John the Baptist. His stern integrity, continued preaching

 

*Notes 12, 13, p. 87.

68        IljIAGEs FIGURES, SYMBOLS.

 

against vice, and the unshaken firmness with which he met martyrdom rather than betray his duty to his master, made him a proper patron of the Masonic institution. The festival of St. John the Baptist occurs on the 24th of June.

 

ST. JOHN THE EVANGELIST

 

The mystical nature of his apocalyptic visions and his constant cultivation of brotherly love are the principal reasons that commend him to the veneration of the Fraternity. The festival in his honor is celebrated on the 27th of December.

 

ST. JOHN THE ALMONER

 

was the son of the King of Cyprus, and was born on that island in the sixth century. Early in life he gave up his prospects of succeeding his father on the throne, and went to Jerusalem, where he united with the Knights in works of charity; and to increase his facilities in this direction he erected a hospital for the accommodation of sick and indigent pilgrims. Ronne canonized him under the name of St. John the Almoner, or St. John of Jerusalem. The days of his festival are January 23d and November 11th. St. John the Almoner was selected by the Knights Templars as their patron.

 

THE POINT WITHIN A CIRCLE

 

represents the earth as the centre around which the sun appears to annually revolve among the constellations of the zodiac. The parallel lines are the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. The summer solstice is on the 21st of June, and the winter solstice on the 21st of December. These points are always marked by two parallel lines representing the tropics, as may be seen on any terrestrial map or globe.

 

Most of the ancient nations, when viewing the heavens, considered the east, the direction of the rising sun, as the starting-point. Consequently, the left hand would be north and the right hand south.

 

This ancient custom accounts for the fact that in this symbol the two lines representing the tropics are placed in a perpendicular instead of a horizontal position. In the Indian cave-temples the circle is found actually in-

 

IMAGES, FIGURES, SYMB0LS     69

 

scribed with the signs of the zodiac, in accordance with the practice of the ancients. Which is the most probable, that the Masons of the Middle Ages invented a symbol like this, suggested by their art, or that they inherited or adopted it from Eastern sources?

 

Another explanation is, that the point within the circle represents the Supreme Being; the circle indicates the annual circuit of the sun; and the parallel lines mark the solstices within which the circle is limited. The Mason who subjects himself to due bounds in imitation of that great luminary will not wander from the path of duty.

 

THE WINDING STAIRS

 

There are two versions of the origin of this legend. The first is principally derived from I. Kings vi., 5, 6. The second is the astronomical version.*

 

The seven signs of the zodiac, from the vernal equinox to the first point of Scorpio, which wind in a glittering curve about the heavens, is emblematic of seven winding steps, leading to the place where corn, wine, and oil are brought forth to reward the husbandman. The sun reaches Aries on the 21st of March and Scorpio the 21st of October, passing successively through Seven emblematic steps, corresponding with the ancient version of the Fellowcraft legend; also with the " seven semicircular steps " of the ancient 11 tracing-board " mentioned by Dr. Oliver.

 

In reference to the " winding stairs " conducting 'between the two pillars of the porch, Oliver further says: " The equinoctial points are called pillars because the great semicircle, or upper hemisphere, seems to rest upon them."

 

THE PILLARS AND GLOBES

 

Boaz is derived from Bo, and az, fire-the sun, the great morning fire. Jachin was derived from Jarac, the moon. t

 

The primitive signification of the words Jachin and Boaz will also be seen from Psalms lxxxix., 36, 37, speaking of David: " His seed shall endure for

 

* See Mackey's Symbolism, chapter xxvi. ; also, Stellar Theology, pp. 56-57.

t See Macoy's Cyclopaedia, p. 246; Josephus, in Antiquities, Book viii., chapter iii., and note; Psalms xix.; and Gen. i., 14; Isaiah xi., 12; the Apocalypse xx., 9 ; also Mackey's Symbolism, chapter xiii. ; Stellar Theology, pp. 75, 76; also Dr. Adam Clark.

70        IMAGES; FIGURES, SYMBOLS.

 

ever, and his throne as the sun before me. It shall be established forever as

the moon, and as a faithful witness in heaven.       Selah."

 

It will be noticed in the text of I. Kings vii., 21, and in II. Chi-on. iii., 17, that only the names of those Pillars are given, and without any authentic explanation as to their significance; as " He shall establish," " In it is strength," are translators' notes, and at best can have only a collateral signification. That neither of the Globes would have been designed to represent the earth the following will show.

 

At the era of the building of King Solomon's Temple the world was supposed to be of an oblong form-a double cube. This was the belief of the Rabbins and the most enlightened of the Jewish nation, not only at that period but for centuries after.

 

The same description applied to representations of the face of the heavens, which, according to the belief of the ancients, was of the same form and size of the earth ; the earth being the base, the sky or heavens the upper surface.

 

That the Globes represented the sun and moon will further be seen from a Masonic medal struck in 1798.*

 

From the foregoing it appears that the Pillars and the Globes must be considered collectively, and that they were symbols of Deity and his attributes. The Sun, as previously shown, was among all the ancient nations the emblem of God. The Moon was an emblem of wisdom, while the Pillars, with their crowning ornaments, were symbols of strength and beauty.

 

Further, from the definite description given in the Bible, in I. Kings vii., 15-24 ; II. Chron. iii., lei-17; Jer. iii., 21,            22, it is evident that they were made after Egyptian models. The "lily-work" on the capitals corresponded with the lotus-headed capitals of Egyptian architecture. The pomegranate was also a product of Egypt.         The pomegranate-tree, with its beautiful fruit, is often seen on Egyptian sculptures.

 

THE LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES

 

In an ancient Masonic manuscript the origin of the Seven Liberal Arts and Sciences was attributed to Euclid in the following: " He commensd yn the

 

* See Macoy's Cyclopeedia-Medals.

 

IMAGES, FIGURES, SYMBOLS.    71

 

synes seven; gramatica ys the furste synes, y-wysse, dialectia the secunde so have y blysse, rethrica the thyrdde without nay, musica ys the fourthe as yow say, astromia ys the v., by my snowte, arsmetica vi., without dowte, gemetria the seventhe maketh an ande." "'

A record preserved in the Bodleian Library thus alludes to the arts in. vented by the Masons: " Whatte artes haueth the Maconnes techedde mankynde?"

11 Ans.           The antes, architectural astronomia, geometri, numeres, musica, poesie, kymestrye, governmente, relygonne, and agricultura."

 

“How cometh the Maconnes more teachers than other menue?"

 

“Thehemselfe haueth alleine in arte of fyndynge new artes, whyche art the fyrste Maconnes receaud from Godde ; by the whyche they fynde the whatte antes hero plesethe and the treu way of techynge the same."

 

 

THE LEGEND OF EUCLID

 

Euclid, being master of the liberal sciences, was consulted by the rulers of Egypt as to the best way of increasing the resources of the country so as to meet the demands of the rapidly increasing population for sustenance. His advice was that the intelligent sons of the nobility should be instructed in the liberal sciences, especially in geometry. This advice was immediately acted upon, and Euclid was empowered both to teach those young men the necessary arts and to superintend their labors after they became proficient. To render his plan more complete and acceptable to the rulers, he gave his skilled band charges that they should be loyal to the King and to the Lord for whom they worked, that they should call each other brother, and that the wisest and most skilled among them should be selected as Master.

 

 

THE EQUILATERAL TRIANGLE, LETTER G

 

The Triangle is the true symbol of the Masonic science, geometry, for without a knowledge of its properties and use that science is impossible.

 

The Triangle is the same in form as the ancient Egyptian D, and the Greek delta, or letter D, and the equilateral triangle in the Greek tongue, *'Masonic Register, p. 30-Halliwell MS.; Mitchell vol. i., p. 177.

 

72        IMAGES, FIGURES, SYMBOLS,

 

as well as in other ancient languages, was the initial letter of the name of Deity. In the time of Pythagoras, oaths of importance were administered on the equilateral triangle, by which the name of God was directly invoked.

 

In the Middle Chamber of King Solomon's Temple, in plain view of all who entered, was a triangle, in which was inscribed ~, signifying the ineffable name. The triangle with a Yod in the centre was also one of the original symbols of Free Masonry; but finally the explanation of this symbol was lost, and the initial of the English word " God," took its place, and a new explanation given.

 

As architecture could not be carried on without a knowledge of geometry, and G being the initial letter of that word, it also came to be a part of the Masonic signification of that letter.*

 

SIBOLA - SHIBBOLETH

 

The Eleusinian Mysteries, being derived from the Mysteries of Isis, were known to the Greeks by the name of Ceres, also Cybele. Ceres was the Goddess of Harvest, and, like the beautiful virgin of the zodiac, was repre. sented bearing spears of ripe corn. Isis, in the Egyptian zodiac, occupied the place of Virgo, and was represented with three spears of wheat in her hand.

 

The Syrian name for an ear of corn was sibola, identical with shibboleth, which the Ephraimites pronounced sibboleth-nearly correct. This word also signified " a stream of water." A sheaf of wheat near a river was one of the emblems of the Eleusinian and Dionysian Mysteries. The river originally referred to was the Nile, whose overflow enriched the soil and brought forth the harvest of Egyptian grain, which was at that time symbolically represented by the ears of corn (wheat) hanging by a river. This version of the emblem is much more rational than the tradition describing the brutal slaughter of forty-two thousand men by a barbarian, who offered up his own innocent daughter as a burnt offering. Would the Guild Masons of the Middle Ages have been likely to invent such an emblem?

 

The CORNUCOPIA, or Horn of Plenty, alludes to the constellation Capri* See Mackey, p. 379; Stellar Theology, p. 71.

 

IMAGES, FIGURES, SYMBOLS.    73

 

cornus - to the arrival of the sun among the star's of that constellation. At that time the fruits of the earth - Corn, Wine, and Oil, have been gathered in and stored, so that although the frosts of winter come to destroy vegetation, the husbandman is still blessed with plenty.*

 

Another explanation is, that Bacchus, with other mythological deities, being attacked by Typhon, they at once assumed different shapes and plunged into a river, Pan, or Bacchus, leading the way, the part of his body which was under water taking the form of a fish, and the other part that of a goat. This god presided over the flocks and herds; be was also the god of plenty. Subsequently, the Horn of Capricornus, the Goat, became a symbol of plenty.

 

THE BROKEN COLUMN

 

Rhea was represented as Coelus and Terra, daughter of Sky and Earth. She was also represented as the mother of Jupiter, and the wife of Saturn, with his Scythe, or Time.        In the Dyonysian Mysteries, Dyonysius, identical with Osiris, is represented as being slain.

 

Rhea, identical with Isis and Virgo, goes in search of his body, which she at last finds, and causes it to be buried with great honors.

 

In the left hand Virgo holds a spear o£ ripe wheat, for which Masons have substituted the sprig of acacia, as an emblem of immortality. Her right rests on the broken column, because the ancients figured Virgo, under the name of Rhea, with her right hand resting on a column. t

 

THE TROWEL

 

This was one of the first implements used by the ancient craftsmen in Egypt. A Trowel and Square were found under the pedestal of the ancient Egyptian Obelisk when it was taken down at Alexandria a few years since, to be brought to this country.

 

THE THREE RUFFIANS

 

in the tragedy of the Third Degree are the three autumnal months-the end of the year.            The mystical Hiram, the Sun, was said to be slain by these

 

* Note 14, p. 88.        t Stellar Theology, pp. 68, 69.

74        IMAGES, .FIGURES, SYMBOLS.

 

three months, which he successively meets on his way to the winter solstice, or southern quarter of the zodiac; and on the 23d of December, the shortest day in the year, the Sun was said to lie dead, buried beneath the rubbish of the dead vegetation of summer, in the midst of which, however, still blooms the evergreen, emblematic of spring-renewed life.

In Egypt the search for the slain Master, Osiris, the Sun, was said to be carried on by Isis, and in Syria by twelve Fellowcrafts, representing the twelve signs of the zodiac, and it was found by Aries, the first of the three western signs. Proceeding west, the next sign after Capricorn is Aquarius, the Waterman, anciently known as the Sea-faring Man, and this is also the next to the three western signs, the three Fellowcrafts, who are searching for the three Ruffians, the autumn months.

 

The month of April is represented by the Junior Warden, who fails to raise the body as April fails to raise the sun.     May represents the Senior Warden, who also fails to raise it.

 

            June is represented by the Master, who raises it-as June raises the sun to its highest elevation of the year.*

 

THE LION'S PAW

 

This emblem was found in the sarcophagus of one of the great kings of Egypt, entombed in the pyramid erected to his memory. It brings to mind the representation of the king's initiation into those greater mysteries of Osiris held to be the highest aim of the wise and devout Egyptian."

 

The emblem may be thus explained: The form that lies dead before the altar is that of

Osiris, the personified Sun God, whom the candidate represents in the drama of raising, lying dead at the winter solstice, slain by the grim Archer-November, the fatal month of the year, for the Sun. The figure of the Lion grasping the dead Sun God alludes to the constellation Leo, which prevailed 4,000 years ago, raised the Sun God to his place of power and glory on the summit of the grand royal arch of heaven at the summer solstice, and denoted then, as it does now, that the Sun and the candidate are raised from a symbolical death to life and power by the strong grip of the Lion's Paw, or, as it has later been termed, " the Lion of the tribe of Judah." * Notes 8-10, p. 87.

IMAGES, FIGURES, SYMBOLS.    75

 

The cross which the Lion holds in his other paw is the ancient Egyptian symbol of eternal life. The figure erect at the altar is doubtless that of the Grand Hierophant, with his hand raised in an attitude of command, forming a right angle, with eyes fixed upon the emblematic lion as he gives the sign of command that Osiris, or the candidate, be raised from death and darkness to light and life.*

 

From all of which it appears that the Lodge, its position, form, dimensions,

Lion's Paw.

 

lights, and furniture, also its principal officers, their stations and duties-the movements of the candidate, in fact, much of the important symbolism of Free Masonry have an astronomical significance and are of Egyptian derivation.

 

Masons are also instructed to travel toward the east in search of light, because the sun rises in the east and is the great source of light.

 

WISDOM, STRENGTH, AND BEAUTY

 

In the ancient mysteries these three pillars represented the great emblematical triad of Deity.          In the Hindu mysteries, Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva were considered a triune god and designated " Tri Muti."            Brahma was said to be the Creator, Vishnu the Preserver, and Siva the Judge or Destroyer. Hence in their ceremonies the representative of Brahma was seated in the East, that of Vishnu in the West, and that of Siva in the South.

 

* See Stellar Theology, p. 48 ; note 15, p. 88.

76        IMAGES FIGURES, SYMBOLS.

 

THE ALL-SEEING EYE

 

The ancient Egyptians emblematically and hieroglyphically represented the Sun God, Osiris, by the figure of an open eye, emblematic of the sun, which from the midst of the heavens beholds all things, and by whose heat and light we are enabled to live and see.

 

This emblem was found engraved over the entrance to temples and tombs, and was peculiar to Omniscience.

 

THE ANCHOR

 

was stamped on ancient Syrian coins and signified Hope-hope fog security at the termination of a voyage, and hope for the happy life to come.

 

THE FORTY-SEVENTH PROBLEM OF EUCLID

 

The invention of this problem was attributed to the noted philosopher, Pythagoras.

 

THE HOUR-GLASS

 

was one of the first-known implements for measuring time. Its lesson is time past and future, the present being the point of union between the upper and lower cells. The Greeks held it as symbolic of Zeus-god of the present instant of time, as Kronos was of the past.

 

Clemens of Alexandria, describing one of the religious processions of the Egyptians, informs us that the Singer went forth bearing the symbol of music, and that he was followed by the Horoscopus bearing an hour-glass as the measure of time, showing that the hour-glass was one of the sacred astronomical emblems of the Egyptians.

 

THE SCYTHE

 

The scythe is an emblem of the great leveler - Time.

 

THE COFFIN

 

is an Egyptian emblem of the womb of the universe. The Egyptian coffin was usually inscribed with the history, creed, and character of the dead; a judgment on the life of the departed.

 

I1VAG-ES, FIGURES, 5 Yi't1BOLS.          77

 

THE ACACIA

 

is an emblem of a continuation of life while the rest of the vegetable world is dead or dying. It is also an-emblem of innocence. The species referred to is the sensitive acacia which shrinks from the touch, and therefore is a symbol of that innocence which shrinks from the rude touch of the world. The acacia is a native of Egypt and Syria; it is also the acanthus of Herodotus and Strabo.*

 

The thickets of acanthus, alluded to by Strabo, still grow above Memphis, at the base of the low Lybian hills. In going from the Nile to Abydos the traveller rides through a grove of acacia, once sacred to Apollo, and sees the canal traversing it the ,ame as when the geographer visited that city. (Wil. kinson's Ancient Egyptians, chapter vi.).

 

SIGN AND WORD OF MASTER MASON

 

The first sign of a Master Mason alludes to the sun, when raised to the third sign of the zodiac from the vernal equinox, the point of its brightest light. The Mason who has taken the third degree has attained an equal Masonic elevation.

 

MASONIC COLORS

 

1. Blue, azure blue, the color of the vast vault of Heaven, is symbolic of universal friendship. With the Egyptians, Chaldeans, Chinese, and the Druids, blue was a sacred color. It was the color of one of the Vails of the Tabernacle, also of one of the great Vails of the Temple.

 

2. Purple (red and blue combined). This was also the color of one of the Vails of the Tabernacle, and of the great curtain over the entrance to the Holy of Holies in the Temple. In the American Rite, purple is symbolical of union, from the mixture of red and blue-Mark Master, Past Master, and Most Excellent Master.

 

3. Red-scarlet. As the image of fire it was used by the Egyptians to designate life, love, and zeal. Scarlet was the color of the third Vail of the Tabernacle, and one of the colors of the curtain of the Sanctuary of the Temple.

 

* Stellar Theology, p. 70.

78

 

IMAGES, FIGURES, SYMBOLS

 

4. White. This is one of the most ancient and most generally diffused of all the colors. In the Mysteries it constituted, as it does in Masonry, the investiture of the candidate. It has always had the signification of innocence and purity. In Egypt, the spirits of the dead were supposed to be clothed in white because that color was the symbol of the regeneration of the soul. The Essenes wore white robes.* Black has always been a symbol of mourning. Still the colors for mourning differ in different countries.

 

Yellow. This color was anciently symbolical of light - Divine light.

 

Green.  With the Egyptians this color symbolized the Creator, Preserver, and Instructor of man.

 

 

 

ANCIENT SYMBOLISM

 

An evidence of the transmission of Egyptian symbols through the Gnostics the Azoth

Philosophorum of Basil in the seventh century.     This piece is afforded by a singular engraving Valentine, a philosopher who flourished is mostly occupied by Masonic Symbolism. It shows a winged globe inscribed with a triangle within a square and compasses on which reposes a dragon. On the dragon stands a human figure with two heads, surrounded by the sun, moon, and stars. One hand of the figure holds a square, the other holds a In the globe is seen a point within a circle.

 

in

 

compass.

 

* Light, pp. 6, 10; Note 11, p. 32; Mackey's Cyclopaedia, p. 174, etc. f See Mackey, p. 789.

IMAGES, FIGURES, SYMBOLS

79

 

ASTRONOMY

 

To enable the reader to understand the relation of Masonic Symbolism to Astronomy, a sketch of the leading facts of that science will be given. As the attributes of God and the immortality of the soul are the most exalted and sublime of all truths, they could only be symbolized by the most glorious and sublime objects in nature-tire sun, moon, and stars. "The heavens declare the glory of God, and the firmament showeth his handiwork."

 

FIRST, THE ECLIPTIC

 

This is an imaginary circle in the heavens surrounding the earth, and rep. resents the apparent path of the sun each year among the stars.

 

THE ZODIAC

 

is a belt of stars, extending 8° on each side of the ecliptic, and is therefore 16° wide. This glittering belt is a complete circle of 360° in circumference, divided into twelve equal parts of 30°, each marking the place which the sun occupies during each of the twelve months of the year.   Each division of the zodiac is marked by a separate group of stars, called a constellation. Each constellation was named after a certain " living creature,," originally emblematic of the month in which the sun enters that constellation.

 

The word zodiac was derived from the Greek zodiakos, from zo-on, an animal, compounded directly from the primitive Egyptian zo, life, and on, a being.

 

THE TWELVE CONSTELLATIONS

 

Aries, the Ram ;        Leo, the Lion ;            Sagittarius, the Archer;

Taurus, the Bull ;        Virgo, the Virgin ;      Capricornus, the Goat ;

Gemini, the Twins ;   Libra, the Scales ;     Aquarius, the Waterbearer ;

Cancer, the Crab ;    Scorpio, the Scorpion ;        Pisces, the Fishes.

 

 

96

 

signs of the zodiac," and are as follows

 

These constellations are designated by certain characters,  known as the signs of the zodiac," and are as follows -

 

 

80        IMAGES, FIGURES, SYMBOLS.

 

The sign Aries is a remaining representation of the head and horns of a ram.  Taurus of the face and horns of a bull. Gemini denotes the twins seated side by side; the ancient statues of Castor and Pollux consisted of two upright pieces of wood united by two cross-pieces. Cancer still resembles the claws of a crab. Leo resembles a crouching lion. In Virgo the resemblance is lost. Libra is a picture of a scale-beam. The sign Scorpio displays the sting of that creature.            Sagittarius, the Archer, is well represented by

his sign. Again in Capricornus the resemblance is lost. The sign Aquarius resembles the waves of the sea. In Pisces the resemblance of two fishes joined is seen.

 

In process of time, from convenience in writing, the original pictorial representations denoting the constellations were changed to the present arbitrary signs.

.

 

ARIES

 

Twenty-two hundred years ago this was the first constellation of the zodiac; but by reason of the precession of the equinoxes it is now the second. It is known by two bright stars, about 4° apart, which are in the horns of the ram.

 

TAURUS

 

is next to Aries in the zodiac, and is one of the most celebrated and splendid of all the constellations. The Pleiades are in Taurus. The face of the bull is known by five bright stars forming the letter V, called the Hyades: the most brilliant of these is Aldebaran, which is much used by navigators. The tips of the horns of the bull are indicated by two bright stars. The Pleiades shine brightly near his shoulder. Orion faces the bull, and is known by four bright stars which form a large parallelogram; in the centre of this is a diagonal row of stars, known as the belt of Orion. Two stars of the parallelogram indicate his shoulders, and two his feet. A line of smaller stars and a beautiful nebula form his sword. A short distance below Orion is the sun-star Sirius, the Sothis of the Egyptians. These two stars with Betelgeux, in the shoulder of Orion, form a nearly perfect and beautiful triangle whose sides are each 26°. They are frequently alluded to by Virgil in the " Georgics," and these constellations render this quarter of the heavens sublime and brilliant.

 

IMAGES, FIGURES, SYMBOLS.    81

 

GEMINI

 

is the next constellation in the zodiac, and its principal stars are Castor and Pollux.

 

            They are of the first and second magnitude, and about 4 1/2° apart.

 

CANCER

 

is composed of a group of small stars of the third and fourth magnitudes.

 

LEO.

 

This is a beautiful and celebrated constellation.    It is known by six bright stars situated in the neck and head of the lion, in the form of a sickle. One of its most brilliant stars is Regulus, and being situated almost exactly in the ecliptic, it is of great importance to navigators in determining their longitude. The remarkable meteoric showers of November proceed from the constellation Leo.

 

VIRGO.

 

This is known as the beautiful virgin of the zodiac. She is represented as holding a spear of wheat in her left hand, marked by a brilliant star, called Spica. In the Egyptian zodiac Isis occupied the place of Virgo.

 

LIBRA

 

is represented by the figure of a person holding a pair of scales. This constellation contains four stars in the form of a quadrilateral.

 

SCORPIO

 

somewhat resembles the object after which it is named, and is very conspicuous in the evening sky of July.

 

SAGITTARIUS

 

the Archer, follows Scorpio, and is represented as half horse and half man, in the act of shooting an arrow from a bow. This constellation is composed of several bright stars in the form of an inverted dipper.

 

6

82        IMAGES, FIGURES, SYMBOLS.

 

CAPRICORNUS,

 

the Goat, is composed of fifty-one small stars.

 

AQUARIUS.

 

This constellation is represented by the figure of a man pouring water from a jar. The stars are small and unimportant.

 

PISCES.

 

This is also an unimportant constellation, and is represented by two fishes. The ancients also designated the sun, moon, and planets by hieroglyphic astronomical signs, as follows:

 

 

Sun, O.           Mercury,         Venus, Q.       Saturn, T .

Moon, ~"- .     Mars, d .         Jupiter, 4.

 

All these signs have come down to us from remote antiquity.

 

The zodiac has four principal points, +, the two solstitial and two equinoctial points, which divide the circle of the zodiac into four equal parts, anciently marked by the stars

 

Fomalhaut, Aldebaran, Regulus, and Antares.

 

THE SOLSTITIAL POINTS

 

mark the extreme northern and southern limits of the movement of the sun. When the sun reaches his extreme northern limit, the summer solstice, it is in Cancer; and the winter solstice, or his southern limit, is in Capricornus. The distance of the sun north or south of the equator is called his northern or southern declination. When the sun reaches either solstitial point he begins to turn back toward the other, at first so slowly as to seem to stand still. For this reason these points are called "solstitial," from the Latin Sol, the sun, and sistere - stiti, to cause to stand. For convenience of explanation the sun is said to move north and south; but it is really the motion of the earth, first inclining toward the north pole and then toward the south pole. In June the sun enters Cancer, and on the 21st reaches his greatest northern

 

IMAGES, FIGURES, SYMBOLS.    83

 

declination. As the sun advances north his rays fall more vertically, and thus cause the change from winter and spring to summer in all countries north of the equator. This apparent movement of the sun from one solstitial point to another is the cause of the change of the seasons.

 

THE EQUINOCTIAL POINTS

 

are where the sun crosses the celestial equator, twice yearly in his circuit of the zodiac, at two opposite points, distant from each other 180°, and in time, six months. The point where the sun crosses in March, coming north, is called the vernal equinox; and the other, where he crosses in September, going south, is called the autumnal equinox. At these periods the days and nights are of equal length, and hence are called equinoctial points, from the Latin “aequus,” equall, and “nox,” night. These two points are in the signs Aries (m) and Libra (s1).

 

THE PRECESSION OF THE EQUINOXES.

 

In the movements of the planets a gradual change of place is constantly going on as to the point where the sun crosses the celestial equator. Therefore the sun does not cross the equator at the same place each, year, but crosses a short distance back of the point of his crossing the previous year. As a consequence, the equinoctial point is annually falling back at a uniform rate. Twenty-two hundred years ago the sun crossed the equator in the constellation Aries, but in the progress of centuries the place of the sun's crossing has fallen back 30°, so that it now crosses in the constellation Pisces.

 

The four cardinal points of the zodiac will, however, continue to be marked by the traditional signs (  ), without regard to the constellations which the sun actually enters at those periods; otherwise astronomers would not be able to register upon the face of the heavens the apparent movement of the stars. Although the equinoctial point is constantly falling back, yet, as it causes the stars apparently to advance, it is called the precession of the equinoxes.

 

The rate of this motion is but little more than fifty and a quarter seconds of a degree each year; it therefore takes the equinoctial point about 2,140 years

 

84        IMAGES, FIGURES, SYMBOLS,

 

to fall back a sign, or 30°, and a period of 25,791 years to make a complete revolution of the whole circle of the zodiac. As Plato taught that at the expiration of that period the world would. begin anew, it would be interesting to know when it first took its place in the planetary system.

 

The ancients began the year at the vernal equinox. Starting with the sun at that point and following his progress toward the north, on the 21st of June the summer solstice is reached--the longest day in the year-and the sun has then attained its greatest brilliancy.

 

            Through the summer months his heat and power are at the greatest, but as he approaches the sign Libra, the autumnal equinox, the days begin to shorten, and in October and November they grow short and dark with great rapidity; and finally the cold and stormy winds herald the approach of winter. The sun's rays rapidly grow weaker, until Capricorn is reached at the winter solstice, December 21st-the shortest day in the year-death of the sun.*          For the next two months the sun seems to lie dead in the cold embrace of winter-the origin of the death and resurrection scenes portrayed in the Egyptian and later Mysteries.

 

ANCIENT ASTRONOMY.

 

The Egyptians had made great progress in astronomy, geometry, and other sciences, even before the time of Menes. They " were also the first to discover the solar year, and to portion out its course into twelve parts."            They "obtained this knowledge from. the stars."

 

            Caesar had recourse to the Egyptian astronomer Sosigenes for the correction of the calendar. Plato ascribes the invention of geometry to the Egyptians. Herodotus also says: " Geometry first came to be known in Egypt, whence it passed into Greece" (book ii., chap. cix.). The Egyptians knew time true system of the universe. (Wilkinson's " Ancient Egyptians; Herodotus," book ii., chap. iv.)

 

Their knowledge of astronomy embraced the following facts: That the sun is the centre of the solar system, and that the earth and other planets revolve about it in fixed orbits.

 

            That the earth is round and revolves on its own axis, thus producing day and night.

 

            That the moon revolves about the earth, and that it shines by the reflected light of the sun. The calculation . * See Stellar Theology, pp. 24-31.

 

IMAGES, FIGURES, SYMBOLS.    80

 

of eclipses; the obliquity, of the ecliptic, and that the Milky Way is a collection of stars.

 

            The power of gravitation, and that the heavenly bodies are attracted to a centre.

 

            Pythagoras, who introduced the true system of the universe into Greece, received it from C+ nuphis, a priest of On, in Egypt.* Ideler says: " The Chaldeans knew the main motions of the moon with an exactness which induced the Greek astronomers to use their calculations for the foundation of a lunar theory."

 

Rawlinson also says : " We are informed by Simplicius that Calistlienes, who accompanied Alexander to Babylon, sent to Aristotle from that capital a series of astronomical observations, which he had found preserved there, extending back to a period 2234 B.C."

 

The Romans used Chaldean observations which extended back to 721 B. C. Diodorus Siculus says the Chaldeans attributed comets to natural causes, and could foretell their reappearance. He stated that their recorded observations of the planets were very ancient and very exact.

 

From their great proficiency in astronomy it follows that the ancients possessed the telescope, as the discovery of many of the astronomical facts known to the Egyptians and Chaldeans would be impossible without it.  j

 

Layard, speaking of the discovery of a lens among the ruins of Babylon, says: "This lens was found in a chamber of the ruins called Nimroud. It is plano-convex, an inch and a half in diameter and nine-tenths of an inch thick. It gives a focus of four and a half inches from the plane side." Pliny says that in his time " artificers used emeralds to assist the eye," and that " they were concave, the better to collect the visual rays." I

 

* Rawlinson's Herodotus, Appendix to chapter vii., book ii., and authorities there quoted. t Stellar Theology, pp. 31-33.

$ Layard's Nineveh and Babylon, chapter viii., pp. 16, 17.

86        IMAGES, FIGURES, SYMBOLS.

 

NOTES FROM AUTHORITIES

 

1. Heckethorn, in his valuable work on the Secret Societies of all Ages and Countries, says: " From the first appearance of man on the earth, there was a highly favored and civilized race, possessing a full knowledge of the laws and properties of nature, and which knowledge was embodied in mystical figures and schemes, such as were deemed appropriate emblems for its preservation and propagation. These figures and-schemes are preserved in Free Masonry, though their full meaning is no longer understood by the fraternity. The aim of all secret societies was to preserve such knowledge as still survived, or to recover what had been lost. Free Masonry is the resume of the teachings of all these societies."

 

2. "The first learning of the world," says Dr. Stukeley, "consisted chiefly of symbols." Gould, i., p. 21.

 

3. According to Dr. Armstrong, the symbols and emblems of Free Masonry are divided into three different species: first, such as are derived from the various forms of the ancient Mysteries; secondly, such as are derived from the Mason's craft, as the Square and Compasses; and, thirdly, those which are derived from the Temple of Solomon, the East, the Ladder of Jacob, etc. Gould, iii., p. 229.

 

4. From an oration delivered by Frederick Dalcho, M.D., before the Grand Lodge of South Carolina, 1801: " It must be evident to every Free Mason, that the situation of the Lodge and its several parts are copied after the Tabernacle and Temple, and represents the universe as the Temple in which the Deity is everywhere present."

 

5. In the works of the oldest of the Chinese classics we find distinct allusions to the symbolism of the Mason's art. In the writings of Mencius (s.c. 280) it is taught that men should apply the Square, Compasses, and the Level, figuratively to their own lives, and if they would walk in the straight paths of wisdom, they must keep themselves within the bounds of honor and virtue. In Book VI, of his Philosophy, be says : "A Master Mason, in teaching his apprentices, makes use of the Compasses and the Square. Ye who are engaged in the pursuit of wisdom must also make use of the Compasses and Square."          Gould, vol. i., pp. 22, 23.

 

6. The Masonic Square, the Level, and the Mallet, all carefully displayed upon the memorial of the Roman architect, shows how important a feature the mechanical practice of the art was considered, in estimating the calling to which the Master belonged.         Gould, vol. i., p. 44.

 

7. "The Masonic Rite of circumambulation strictly agrees with the ancient one," and that as " the circumambulation is made around the Lodge just as the sun was supposed to move round the earth, we are brought back to the original symbolism" of the sun's apparent course about the earth. Mackey, Symbolism of Freemasonry, chap. xxi.

 

IMAGES' FIGURES, SYMBOLS.    87

 

8. In tile Indian Mysteries, the Candidate made three circuits around tile hall to the right, crossing each time when he reached the south, saying: " I copy tile example of the sun, and follow his beneficent course." Masonry has retained tile circuits but lost the explanation, which is: "That in the Mysteries the Candidate represents the sun, both in his course from east to west, and in his declination southward toward the reign of Typhon (darkness and winter) there to be slain figuratively, and after a brief period to rise again from the dead and commence his ascent northward," typical of a new life, a new year. Stellar Theology, p. 59.

 

9. "In the Mysteries all was astronomical, but a deeper meaning lay hid under the astronomical symbols. While the bewailing the loss of the sun, the Epopts were in reality mourning the loss of that light whose influence is life.          The passing of the sun through the zodiac gave rise to the myths of the incantations of Vishnu, tile Labors of Hercules, etc.; his apparent loss of power during tile winter season, and the restoration thereof at tile winter solstice, to the story of tile death, descent into hell, and resurrection of Osiris and of Mithras." Heckethorn, Secret Societies of all Ages and Countries, vol. i., pp. 19, 20 ; Gould, vol. iii., p. 225

 

10. "The ancient Egyptians, says Julius Firmicus (Astron., lib. 2, c. 4.), divide each si;-n of the zodiac into three different sections ; and each section was under the direction of an imaginary being, whom they called Decan, or chief of ten. Among the Greeks, also, tile youths who served the tables were called diaconi, deacons; that is, ministers, attendants." Mysteries, p. 300.

 

11. Speaking of the ancient Priesthood, Dupuis says: "The priests clothe themselves in white, a color assigned to Aromaze, the god of light."

 

That white as an emblem of purity and innocence descended to the aborigines of America is shown by tile fact that the Prophet who accompanied Black Hawk and other chiefs to Washington, as hostages for the faithful performance of the treaty made with their nation (1833), thus addressed the President: " Father, I have come this day clothed in white (pointing to his leather doublet), in order to prove that my intentions are of the most pacific nature, and (raising his hands to heaven) I call upon tile Great Spirit of myself and forefathers to witness the purity of my heart on this occasion." Mysteries, pp. 218, 219.

 

12. "The Blazing Star " must not be considered merely as the creature which heralded the appearance of T. G. A. O. T. U., but tile expressive symbol of that Great Being himself, who was described by the magnificent appellations of the Day Spring, or Rising Sun, the Morning Star, and the Bright and Blazing Star."  Oliver, Symbol of Glory, p. 292.

 

13. In tile lectures revised by Dr. Hemming and adopted by the Grand Lodge of England, at the union in 1813, and now constituting the authorized lectures of that jurisdiction, we find the following definition: "The Blazing Star, or glory in the centre, refers us to the sun, which enlightens the earth with its refulgent rays, dispensing its blessings to mankind at large, and giving life and light to all things here below."     Mackey, p. 117.

88

IMAGES, FIGURES, SYMBOLS.

 

14. Corn was employed in the elucidation of the Mysteries of Eleusis, dedicated to Ceres, hence popularly regarded as the Goddess of Agriculture, furnishing mortals with the `1 staff of life." Wine," the blood of the Sun," venerated by the ancients as a universal medicinal remedy for bodily ills, was a significant feature in the Mysteries of Bacchus, or the Deity of Prolific Fecundity. Oil was a substitute for water in the work of purification and consecration in all religious rites, memory of which is conserved in the title of Messiah, "The Christ, or the Anointed of the Lord."            Masonic Chronicle, 1888, p. 266.

 

15. The twelve Fellowcrafts who were deputed for this service (search for Grand Master Hiram) represented the twelve signs of the zodiac; one of whom would be sure to find their Grand Master Hiram-the personification of Osiris, the Sun.

 

It may be remarked that the lamentations uttered for the death of the Grand Master Hiram is in exact accordance with the customs of the Egyptians, in their celebrations of the fabled death of Osiris, the Sun; of the Phoenicians, for the loss of Adonis, and of the Greeks, in their mystic rites of the Eleusinian Ceres.

 

The strong paw of the Lion wrests Osiris from the clutches of Typhon and places him in his wonted course, the archetype of the rising of Grand Master Hiram by the Strong Grip of Lion's Paw. Mysteries of Freemasonry, pp. 267, 281, 283, 284.

 

88

 

 

89

 

CHAPTER III

 

ARCHITECTURE.-MASONRY

 

Origin of the Builders' Art in Egypt.-Origin of the Pyramids and Obelisk. -Their Original Purpose.-Remarkable Revelations from the Interior of the Pyramids.-Tlee Hagnifacent Temple at Karnak.-Its Ruirts. Ancient Egyptian Houses.-Co?t-r.ye of Architectvre fi°om Egypt.-Origin of the Daffevent Styles.-Greek, Roman, Byzantine, Romanesque, SaraCeltic, etc.-Progress of Architectui-e Under the Colleges of Builders.

As the Egyptian Mysteries comprised religion, art, and science, architecture was associated \with religion from the first. Subsequently, upon the increased demand for the, services of architects, minor organizations of the Mysteries were established, and at points more and more remote from the old centre of .Egyptian worship.          Into, those societies not only Egyptians but foreigners were initiated ; and in this way a knowledge of the Mysteries soon reached other countries, notably Greece and Rome.          Thug religion and art came early to walk hand in hand : and among the fiat and grandest works of art were the temples of religion-expressions of the adoration of man for Deity.

Finally, when the Mysteries were generally discontinued, after Christianity had become the State religion of the Roman Empire, the architects who were iiiitiates in the Mysteries, in order to retain a monopoly of the higher secrets of their art, decided to keep up-perpetuate the old society, and from that date until the eighteenth century, architecture-masonry was the principal repositary of the religious elements of the Mysteries. Therefore we will now consider architecture, and trace its course from the banks of the Nile to Rome, where its connection with religion was fully disclosed in the colleges of builders, Nvho transmitted this union of science and religion to their successors, the Guilds.

00        ARCHITECTURE.-MASONR Y

In all inquiries as to the origin of Masonic institutions by writers who assign to it an ancient, or a comparatively modern, origin, architecture is necessarily the subject in and through which their investigations are principally carried on.      And it is through this channel that the essentials of the institution have reached us.

The civilization of Egypt, being the oldest, the first advance in the builders' art was necessarily made by her people.*

The architecture of Egypt originated principally in the construction of the monumental tombs of its kings; the first being those of Aleydoun and Saccarah, in the first dynasty, in the second century of Egyptian history.

The Egyptians believing that the preservation of the body after death contributed to the duration of spiritual existence in the future life, conceived the idea of enbalming the dead and placing the bodies in repositories con strutted for pernianence. f         The general form of their tombs ;-vas that of a truncated pyramid.

External embellishments were confined to the doorways or entrances, which were curiously carved and the lintels rounded. Door-posts were represented in stone on the sides of the doorway; an imitation of lattice Nvork appears above; and at the sides are alternate pilasters and depressions adorned with panelling.

The interior is often found to be elaborately decorated with colored basreliefs, representing either mystic ceremonies, or scenes of daily life.

It was but a small advance on the pyramidal tombs to conceive the idea of adding to their height, solidity, and durability, by the superimposition of further stories constructed on a similar plan.        An example of this stage of construction is seen in the singular monument at llleydoun.     This structure stands upon a rocky knoll, has a square base about 200 feet each way, and rises in three stages at an angle of 74° 10", to an elevation of nearly 125 feet.

The gratifying effect of elevation, gained by means of stages, and the increased durability by greater extent, soon suggested a larger structure. An example of this is seen at Saccarah, where stands an edifice similar in general clin.racter to that of Meydoun, but built in six instead of three stages; the stone decreasing in size from the first stage to the top of the pyramid.         It i-+ * See notes 1, 2, 3, 4, pp. 146, 147.   t See note 5, p. 147.

ARCHITECTURE.-MASONR Y       91

also considerably larger on the ground, and its altitude 75 feet higher than the Meydoun monument.

Beneath this pyramid, and almost under its apex, is a chamber paved with granite blocks, which, when discovered, contained a sarcophagus, and was connected with the external world by concealed passages_

Leading into a small chamber, is a doorway ornamented at the sides by green cubes of baked clay with enamelled surfaces, alternating with blocks of limestone. On the lintels which covered the doorway, at the top, were hieroglyphics.

A PYRAMID BEFORE ITS SIDES WERE FINISHED.

The next thing that would naturally suggest itself to an artistic mind would be the external finish, by smoothing the exterior, either by cutting down the angles of the stages to a uniform level, or by filling up the spaces between the top of each step and the side of the succeeding one ; both of which plans the Egyptians subsequently followed.

The next advance in the size of these structures is found in one of the pyramids of Ghizeh.   It exceeds the Saccarah structure in its height by eigh teen feet. It was built in steps or stages, like the Saccarah monument. The lower half of the pyramid was covered with several layers of a beautifid red granite, bevelled at the joints.

*Note 7, p. 147.         See Bunsen, Egypt's Place in Universal History, vol. ii., p. 166; RaWlin-,OD, vol. i., pp. 190 to 217; Fergusson, vol. i., P. 100.

9 2       -zI R CHITEOT UR E-MAS'O-VR Y.

Under the apex, sunk down in the native rock on which the pyramid stands, is a series of chambers, in one of which was found the sarcophagus of the monarch whom tradition pointed out as the builder of the monument.*

The roof of this chamber was composed of huge blocks, set obliquely and extending front the side walls, on which they rested, to the centre, where they met at an obtuse angle.     (The incipient arch.)  The granite slabs covering the sides were fastened to the rock and to each ether by iron clamps, two of which were found in sit-a.

This sarcophagus was remarkable.            With the exception of the lid, it Nvas formed of a block of blue-black basalt, and still exhibited marks of the saw which was used in quarrying it. At the ends were reproduced doorways, which were imitations of woodwork, while the sides represented the facade of a palace.           The dimensions of the sarcophagus were 8 feet long, 3 feet high, and 3 feet wide.            It was carved and polished with great care, and was a beautiful object.

Passing over the many intermediate pyramids, we come to the great pyramid of Ghizeh, the largest edifice which the world contains. It is 200 yards northeast of the second pyramid.

Its original height is estimated it 485 feet, or higher than fit. Pam's, London. The length of its side was 764 feet, and its area a little over thirteen acres.t

The stones in the lowest course were 30 feet in length, by 5 feet in thickness, but as in the other pyramids, they decreased in size in the different courses, until at the top they were only• 18 inches thick.

In the middle of its northern front is an entrance front the thirteenth stage up from the base, which conducts by in incline to a subterranean chamber; deep in the rocks, and nearly under the apex of the pyramid. This chamber° measures 46 feet by 27, and is 11 feet high.   The passage is so low and narrow that it is necessary to creep through it in a stooping position.       Over the entrance are two stones, placed at an angle which meet at the top, so that they support each other and act as an arelb by supporting the superincurnbent masonry.        This construction continues along the passage until it enters the

*Rawlinson, vol. i., note 3, p. 197.

t See note 6, p. 147; also Rawlinson, vol. i., p. 204.

AR CHITECT L'BE.-MASONIC Y    95

reek at a distance of about 40 yards from the outside.    It continues on through the rock in the same line 70 yards, then horizontally 9 yards to a subterranean chamber.

Again, at the distance of 21 yards from the entrance, an ascending passage leads from the descending one 124 feet toward the heart of the pyramid, then divides, and a low horizontal gallery, 110 feet long, leads to a room called the " Queen's Chamber," which is 19 feet by 17 in size, and is roofed in with sloping blocks at a height of 20 feet in the centre. Proceeding again, in the line of the ascending passage, a longer and much loftier gallery is reached, which is joined by a short passage to the great central chamber, where was found the sarcophagus of Cheops, or Khufu.       The dimensions of this chamber are 34 feet by 14 feet in height.            It is wholly composed of granite, and is beautifully polished.

In the construction of the chambers and passages of these pyramids, the Egyptian architects exhibited great skill and technic powers.*

Near the base of the great pyramid are found numerous tombs, whose walls bear the cartouche of the same ring-Suphis.   His name was also found in one of the chambers of the great pyramid.            These are adorned with paintings so artistic as to enable us to fully realize the state of ancient Egyptian society. Still more striking than the paintings are the portrait statues which have recently been discovered; nothing more realistic has been achieved since the invention of photography.t

THE GREAT TEMPLE AT KARNAK-ITS WONDERFUL RUINS.

This immense edifice was commenced by Sesostris-Osortasen, of the Twelfth Dynasty, 2435 B.c., who erected a sanctuary here. Then came the Shepherd domination, which lasted over five centuries, after which the work was resumed, and prosecuted by successive monarchs-Amenophis, Thotmes I., Thotmes HL, Maneptha, Rhamesis the First, and the Bubasite Kings, until completed-occupying many centuries of time; each century contribut. ing its advance in art; so that when completed, it fully exemplified the culurination of Egyptian architecture.

* Notes 8 and 9, pp. 147, 148.        t Note 13, p. 148.

i

96        AJ~CHITECTUli'E.-HASONR Y.

The grand entrance was througli a long avenue of Crio sphinxes facing each other.   This led to a portal between two lofty pylons, one of which re. mains nearly complete, and is 135 feet high.         The portal led into a great colu-t, which was supported by round pillars and a double line of columns clown the centre. This court and the corridors are 275 feet long by 329 feet wide-comprising an area of over 90,000 feet.

Adjoining, and forming a hart of the Great Temple, was a shrine or sanctuary, 160 by 80 feet. This was ornamented throughout with sculptures and inscriptions which exhibit great skill and care in their execution.*

On the side of the court facing the great entrance were two more pylons eve]] higher than the first, and from them projected two masses like the antoe of a portico, between which a flight of seven steps led up to a vestibule 50 by 20 feet.        From this, a broad and lofty passage conducted to the hypostyle

hall, the climax of this vast edifice.  Its length was 340 feet by 170 feet in width.

This superb hall was supported by massive and beautiful columns (see illustration), which were divided into three groups. Twelve columns, each 66 feet high and 11 feet in diameter, formed the main or central avenue, while each of the great wings was supported by 61 smaller columns.

These were arranged in seven rows of seven columns in a row, and two rows of six each ; making the internal area of this hall 56,000 feet, and the -area externally of the main edifice over 90,000 feet.

The main avenue was illumined by light from the Clerestory-light as bright as from the noonday sim, but without its heat. The arrangement of the columns in the wings was such, that they appeared to be gradually fad ing into obscurity, and finally lost in space.      This, with the massiveness and beauty of the form-,, and the brilliancy of their colored decorations, demonstrated the astonishing possibilities of the science of architecture.

Projecting into the great hall was a vestibule enclosed by thick walls, flanked at the angles by square piers. Beyond this was a long corridor, open to the sky, and on each side stood a lofty obelisk of rose-colored granite, covered with hieroglyphics.

* See note 12, p. 148; also Rawlinson, vol. i., pp. 230 to 241 ; and Fergusson, vol. i., pp. 118 to 121.

Apt, CHITE'CT UPE.-MASONIP Y.

Still further on was another vestibule, beyond which was a, cloistered court, 240 by 62 feet.  Its roof was supported by square piers with colossi in

HALL OF THE GREAT TEMPLE, KARNAx.

front.    Just inside of this court, on each side of the entrance, stood two more obelisks, 100 feet in height and 8 feet square at the base.

Proceeding again, anotlier short flight of stairs led up to a portal opposite 7

98        AR CHITECTUR.E.-MASONR Y.

to that at the main entrance of the cloistered court.           This portal opened into a vestibule 40 by 20 feet, with a doorway in the middle of each side which conducted to the adytum.

This apartment was about 120 feet square and comprised a central hall of finely polished granite, 02 by 1>4 feet, 'Which was flanked on either side by a set of small apartments.

Both the large and small rooms were everywhere adorned with painted sculptures and hieroglypliical legends.

Passing from this, a porch or ante-room was reached, and from this room a doorway 8 feet wide led into the Holy Place, 20 by 14 feet, from which another passage of the same width as the last conducted into the Holy of Holies-the great objective point toward which all the arrangements of this immense temple tended.

This sacred place was 27 feet by 14, and its walls and ceiling were decorated in a manner appropriate to its purpose.

This sanctum sanctorum, with its inner and outer apartments, its porch and larger approaches, will suggest to both the Masonic student, and the student of Architecture, that this snperb Egyptian Temple was the prototype of the Temple of Solomon at Jerusalem.          The old temple at Edfou, Upper Egypt, also affords important points of similarity to the Jewish Temple, so that there is no doubt but that the latter was copied from one or both of these edifices.

This immense structure, considered as a whole, presents the following remarkable particulars

Its length, outside of all, was 1,200 feet, and its width about 340-nearly an oblong, and giving an area of 396,000 feet. It comprised two great courts, one of which was colonnaded ; an oblong cloister, supported by piers, orna mented with colossi-two great pillared halls-one of them with its pylons covering more ground than the Cathedral at Cologne--the largest of all the northern cathedrals; and compared with this edifice, the mass comprising St. Peters and the Vatican is insignificant.

Altogether, this vast and magnificent edifice at Karnak was the crowning glory of Egyptian architecture, and in many respects surpassed the grandest achievements of the Mediaeval Craftsmen.

AR CHIZEC1'URE--MASOIVR Y.   .           99

ANCIENT EGYPTIAN HousFs.

Among the pictorial representations which ornament Egyptian structures are illustrations of private residences. In one, there is a representation of the facade of a house, the centre, and two wings. The centre, which is higher than the rest, is crowned by a roof shaped like a truncated pyramid ; at the base of this is a projecting cornice, and below the cornice a plain \-all, through which is a door at the right hand corner.       At the right of the door is a wing,

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ANCIENT EGYPTIAN HousE.

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SECTION OF AN EGYPTIAN HOUSE.

which consists of two stories, each ornamented with four pillars, forming in the one case a colonnade, in the other a gallery.           The left wing is similar to the other, but shorter, and is ornamented with two pillars to each story.     The wings have an architrave above the pillars, and are then crowned with a double cornice.*

Another picture exhibits the courtyard of a three-story mansion of much elegance, and apparently decorated for a festival.  The central doorway is supported on either side by slender pillars representing a lotus-plant.            Inside the doorway is seen a staircase, which conducts to the upper apartments. The

* Fergusson, vol. i., p. 131; Itawlinson, vol. i., pp. 258, 259.

100     A_R CHITECT URE.--MASONR Y.

staircase is represented as being carpeted, and having a mat at the foot of the first step. To the left is seen a doorway and three small windows protected by perpendicular bars. Over this rises a story built of wood or bricks, and broken by two windows, with the blinds drawn nearly to the bottom.

At the top is an open gallery with painted cornice, supported by four pillars.     On the right of the main entrance the wall is plain, with the

- -         - ._---~ --          .=-_     exception of a low door,

way.    Above it a -drap

I61V I II I IIII I OIiFIILYII 141114NLIIIIpI,L'ITII'LI'.17111pIIILI11II11WIIIIILLIIlilIl4ildt01iII1IfItLIJ!Ii',L'H

EGYPTIAN HOUSE, WITH COURT.

ery or awning is seen. The next floor exhibits pillars at either end, and between them appears to be another awning.           Above this is a range of short pillars supporting an upper gallery or half-story, but too low to have been inhabited.            The front is crowned by a cornice painted in stripes of red, blue, and white, and resting at either end of the house on a lotus pillar.

GLASS.

Among the arts known to the Egyptians was that of making glass. From remains of glass articles, and from hieroglyphics, it appears that they were proficient in this manufacture at a very early period of their national existence.       The process is represented in the paintings of Beni Hassan, exe

cuted in the reign of that monarch.  Ornaments of glass have been found having the same specific gravity as that of English glass. Many glass bottles and vases have been found in the tombs, some of them of very remote

A.R CHITEOT URE-MASONIC Y.   101

antiquity.         Such was their skill in this art that they successfully counterfeited the amethyst and other precious stones.

Winckelmann believes that glass was more generally used in ancient than in modern times, being used by the Egyptians even for coffins.

BABYLONIA.-ASSYRIA.

As early as 2000 B.C.,* the builders' art was sufficiently advanced in the Euphrates Valley to entitle it to a place in the history of architect-ire; this is demonstrated by the remarkable ruins recently discovered and uncovered at Wurka Mughear, Abu Shuhrein7 Kaleli Sliergat, at Khorsabad, Koyunjik, and Nimroud. In the mounds of these places the remains of structures have been found that are in many respects wonderful. This is especially true of the great observatory and palace at Khorsabad, the Temple, Birs Nimroud, and the palace of Ashurbanipal at Nimroud.           The materials used were mostly sun-dried brick and alabaster slabs.

But of vastly greater importance than the architecture of this country, are the records-history engraved on- tablets-that were found near 'Where they bad once been systematically arranged around the halls of noted struct ures.     These tablets supply a long stretch of ancient history that otherwise would have been lost.

Assyrian architecture may he said to have reached doNffn to the destruction of Babylon by Cyrus, 538 B.c.; yet the only impression it made on subsequent civilization was to the east and south of the Euphrates, as but little, if any, connection between it and western, or European, architecture has yet been proved.

Having now reached the domain of classical architecture, a definition of the term, and an explanation of its primary elements, are in order. Architecture, according to Webster, is the art or science of building. Another definition is : ornamental construction.       Its primary elements are the Column, the Arch, and the Dome.

* Fergusson, vol. i., p. 150.

102 ARCHITECTURE.-T1Y.

COLUMNS.

The first dwellings of mankind were caves, and tents made of bark, and the skins of animals. The first improvement on this where timber was plenty, was wooden structures: either of logs laid horizontally one upon the other- log-houses-or buildings supported by posts; with posts for doorways, etc. Where timber was scarce, recourse was had to stone and brick. Therefore, the first pillars made of the durable materials might, or might not, have been suggested by the posts or pillars used in wooden buildings.

From the oldest of the rock-cut tombs in Egypt, the pillar can be traced from a plain pier to a Doric Column.            At first it was a mere pier, square or rect angular; then the projecting angles were cut away, and the shape became octagonal; finally the octagon was rounded off into a circle. For greater strength and elegance, the base and entablature were added. Next, ornamentation was attempted, and that sort of fluting appears which subsequently characterized the Doric order of the Greeks.'

In the tombs of Beni Hassan, in Middle Egypt, there are pillars having sixteen shallow curved indentations, which are carried in straight lines from the top to the bottom of the columns, streaking them with delicate varieties of shade and lightadding greatly to their richness and effect.

RHAMESSION COLUMN, THEBEs.

There is another still more elegant column which is found occasionally in the early tombs, which deserves notice. This column imitates four reed or lotus stalks, bound with a ligature over the top, above which they swell out and form a capital.            It ,vas sometimes delicately colored with streaks and bars of blue, and other colors, which rendered its appearance very effective.

* See Rawlinson, vol. i., pp. 219, 220; Fergusson, vol. i., p. 248.

i

AIRCRITECTURE-MASUNR Y.      103

THE ARCH; ITS ORIGIN.

The first appearance of the arch was in Egypt, in the arches: ~,,ofs of tombs, and small chambers, in the vicinity of the pyramids.        The arch is also found in the chambers and passages in the pyramids, notably the third.         As this pyramid was erected in the fourth dynasty, or nearly 3,000 years B.C., it places the arch among the first inventions of the ancient builders.'"

In the rear of the Rharnession, at Thebes, there are a series oy arches built of brick, and evidently of the same age as the building itself. In Ethiopia, the porches of some of the pyramids, built as early as the tenth century B.C., have arched roofs built of stone, in both the round and pointed forms.t Other early examples of the pointed arch have been found in the ruins of Khorsabad, in the arched gateways of that city. The facade of one, in particular, was beautiful, and all of these arches were constructed in accordance with the true principle of the arch.     Just when or by whom the pointed arch was introduced in Europe, is uncertain, but all churches in Provence (France), from the time of Charlemagne to that of St. Louis, were vaulted, and the pointed arch was introduced by Abbot Suger, at St. Denis, in 1144.

THE DOME

Was invented by the Romans about 400 B.C.       The Romans being familiar with the arch, its form suggested to them the Dome.    It was first used in Italy as a roof for churches, but later it took its proper place as the crowning glory of temples and other edifices.       This is illustrated by the Dome of the Pantheon, one of the grandest expressions of architecture in existence.           Other noted domes are St. Peter's, Rome; St. Paul's, London ; St. Sophia, Constantinople ; St. Vitale, Ravenna ; San Marco, Venice; and the Capitol, at Washingg ton.

GRFCIAN ARCHITECTURE.

Tradition alleges that a colony of Egyptians under Cecrops were among the fiat settlers of Attica ; but the predecessors, if not the ancestors, of the

*Notes 10 and 11, p. 148; Rawlinson, vol. i., pp. 198-206.

t Hope, pp 122-146. $ Fergusson, vol. i., p. 448.

~ See Fergusson, vol. ii., pp. 436-438 ; Chambers, vol. iv., p. 504.

104     AR CHITfC7'UR-E.-MASONR Y.

Helenes were the Pelasgians (1184 B.C.),* and they were the first people to develop art in Greece. In consequence, however, of the length of time that has elapsed since the Pelasgic races ruled in that country, the architectural remains of their structures are few.         The most remarkable of these yet discovered are the tombs of the kings of Mycenoe, which, in Homeric times, was one of the most important of their cities.       The largest and most perfect of these tombs is that of Aretus. The largest chamber is 48 feet 6 inches in diameter, and was of the shape of a regular equilateral-pointed arch. The dome was lined internally with plates of brass or bronze, nails of which metals are now found there ; and the holes from which other nails have heen drawn, or have dropped out, are still to be seen all over the place.

Larrissa, Argos, and Ephyra, were three of their fortified cities. They

constructed dams, water-works, and canals that exhibited great skill.   They were also familiar with navigation.     Of their sculpture, the principal relics are the head of Medusa and the image of Orpheus.

Grecian architecture, however, as we kno\v it, first appeared at Corinth nearly under the Cypselidae (650 B.C. ), having undergone a great transformation in the meantime.         On its reappearance it was no longer characterized by the ornate art of Myceme, but had assumed the characteristics of Egyptian art, and with more. than Egyptian massiveness.

Grecian architecture was originally divided into three styles: the Doric, Ionic, and the Corinthian. As the Doric art progressed the early massive forms gave place to more elegant and slender proportions.

The Doric was the order that the Greeks specially cultivated, so as to make it exclusively their own. When first introduced from Egypt, it partook of Egyptian solidity; but it gradually became attenuated to the lean form of the Roman order of the same name.          The columns of this order were

at first 4.47 diameters high, then 6.025, and at last 7.015.1        It has no orna ments on its capital except triglyphs.         Notwithstanding this, the Doric order will doubtless always be admitted to belong to a higher class of art, because all its forms and details are better adapted to their purpose than those of either of the other styles.

* Fergusson, vol. i., pp. 241, 242; Chambers, vol. i., p. 845 ; vol. vi., p. 169; vol. Xi., p. 1026. t Fergusson, vol. i., pp. 243, 244, 248, 249.

i

AR CHITECTURE.--MASOIVR Y.   105

The oldest example of the Doric style is a temple at Corinth, of the age of Cypselus (about 650 B.C.). The remains of this temple show that the various members of the style were fully developed, all being of a massive and heavy description, strongly resembling its prototype at Beni Hassan, in Egypt.

The temple of Theseus (438 B.C.) and that of Jupiter at Olympia (440 B.c.), Apollo Epicurius at Bas&e, and Minerva at Sunium, are examples of the Doric style.

But of all the great temples of Greece, the most celebrated was the Parthenon; the only octastyle Doric temple in that country, and of its class the most beautiful building in the, world.            This edi five was built entirely of white marble; and the masonry in this, as in other Doric works of importance, is put together with the most perfect workmanship.

L0N1C.

This style took its rise about 500 B.C., and to a certain extent depends upon ornamental carving for its effects. Its columns are nine diameters high, and its entablature is adorned with volutes, and its cornices have modillions. These exhibit the most perfect execution and Nvorkmaiiship, all being dralvn and cut with the greatest possible exactness.

Those details and ornaments which were only painted in the Doric, were carved in the Ionic order, and therefore remain visible to the present day.' Yie oldest example of the Ionic style was the temple on the Ilissus, dating from about 484 B.C. Following this is the beautiful little temple dedicated to Nike Apteros, the Wingless Victory, which stood in front of the Propylw at Athens. The last and most perfect example of this order is the Erechthenm, on the Acropolis, its date being about 420 B.C., the great epoch of Athenian art.

In the Ionian and other colonies of Asia Minor many fine examples of this style were erected, among which was the celebrated temple of Diana, at Ephesu5.

* Chambers, vol. vi., pp. 169, 170; also notes, 14, 15, and 16, p. 149. t Fergusson, vol. i., p. 254; Chambers, vol. vi., pp. 170, 171.

106

This was the next style introduced in Greece, and combines to some extent the characteristics of both the preceding. The capitals of this order were copied from the bell-shaped capitals of Egypt, as the Doric was from their oldest pillars.

But like everything in art that the Grecians touched, they soon dered it Greek by the freedom and elegance with which they treated it. column is ten diameters high, and its capital is adorned with two rows of leaves and eight volutes or scrolls, which sustain the abacus.            The cornice has modillions, and the frieze is beautifully ornamented.

The Corinthian is the most florid of the styles invented by the Greeks, and from its richness and splendor, it afterward because a great favorite with the Romans, in whose hands Greek art spread over the Empire.            One of the oldest and most beautiful example of the Corinthian order is the Choragic monument of Lysicrates, built 335 B.C. It is one of the most striking works of art of the merely ornamental class to be found in any part of the world.

The largest example of this order is the temple of Jupiter Olympius at Athens. This, however, may be called a Roman building on Grecian soil, having been commenced in its present form under Antiochus Epiphanes, by the Roman architect Cossutius, and finished by Hadrian.

Greek columns were at first supposed to be bounded by straight lines, but it has been ascertained 'that they have an entasis or convex profile in the Parthenon to the extent of yh of the height.     While this cannot be perceived in ordinary positions, yet the lack of it gives that rigidity and poverty to columns so observable in modern edifices.*

The technical classification and designation of Greek temples is determined by the mode in which the columns of the porticos are arranged. The cella, or temple proper, is a square chamber contained within four walls; the simplest form of portico is called distyle in antis, the two side walls being continued past the end wall, and terminated with antae, with two columns

re nThis

between.

AR CHITECT URE.-MASONR Y.

CORINTHIAN.

* Fergusson, vol. i., pp. 250-259 ; Chambers, vol. vi., p. 170.

.ARCHITECTURE.--llfA`801VR Y.  109

Where the portico has four columns between the antoe, it is called tetrastyle. These temples generally had the same arrangement at both ends. In front of both ends of the plan distyle in antis, there was frequently placed a range of six columns, and from the flank column a row was continued along both sides. This arrangement is called peripteral, and the temple is designated hexastyle and peripteral.

The Parthenon is an exception to the above, as it had a hexastyle portico at each end of the cella, in front of which is placed an octastyle portico, and

seventeen columns on each side.

A range of columns around a temple, or square, is called peristyle.*

CARYATIDES.

The name, as well as their being used only in conjunction with the Ionic order and its details, all point to an Asiatic origin for this questionable form of art.

ROMAN ARCHITECTURE.

We next come to the culminating period of ancient civilization.   We first saw art originate and become thoroughly established in Egypt.      Early Pelasgic art has been indicated in Asia, Greece, and Etruria. Next in Greece, under the Cypselidae, we see all these elements gathered together, the best qualities taken from each, so that the whole formed the most perfect and beautiful combination of intellectual power and architectural science that the world had yet witnessed.    After a brilliant but brief domination over the arts by Greece, all the different styles of architecture were collected in Rome, and thence spread their influence over the world. t

The earliest inhabitants of Rome were also Pelasgians ; these were followed by Aryans. Their principal neighbor on one side was Etruria, also a Pelasgian nation; on the other side was Magna Grwcia, originally colonized by Hellenic settlers of kindred origin.    Therefore, Rome derived her architecture directly and indirectly from Greece.         Indirectly, at first, through the Pelasgians and Etruscans, and later directly from Greece.

* Chambers, vol. vi., p. 171 ;            Fergusson, vol. i., pp. 259-261. t Fergusson, vol. i., pp. 294-303.

110     ARCHITECTURE.--MASONR Y.

The advance made at first in architecture by the Etruscans is exhibited by the remains and representations of their bridges, gates, and aqueducts; and many examples of Etruscan art are found in their tumuli, which still exist in

great numbers.

Time has reduced most of them to nearly the level of the ground, while a few of the larger ones still retain an imposing appearance. Although nearly all have been rifled at some early period, yet treasure and curiosities are still discovered in them.

One of the most remarkable of these structures, opened in modern times, is at Cervetere, known as the Regulini Galeassi Tomb.

Bedsteads, shields, arrows, and vessels were hung in a curious recess in the roof, doubtless representing a place for hanging such vessels in the house of the living. The treasures found in this tomb are in the oldest style of Etruscan art.*

Roman architecture may be said to have been the transition form between the Greek and Gothic. The Romans adopted the Greek form of decoration; they decorated their exteriors with columns crowned by straight architraves and cornices, and inside these they formed the real construction with arches and vaults.

The use of the latter gradually extended, especially in the construction of the interiors.           By means of arches the Romans were able to roof in large areas without encumbering the floor with pillars.         This was carried out in many important structures, such as the baths of Caracalla, Diocletian, and the Basilica of Constantine. In their works of public '.til-ty-aqueducts, bridges, etc., the Romans always used the arch as the fittest mode of construction.

The arcuated form came more and more into use, until it was universal The Romans also conformed the Greek decoration to the circular arches by I          bending the entablature around the curves, as in the palace of Diocletian, at Spalatro.

To the Romans, therefore, is due a great improvement, if not the perfection, of the arcuate construction, together with a well-developed internal decoration.          The early Christians adopted the Roman forms of construction and *Fergusson, vol. i., pp. 286-290.

ARCHITECTURE.-MASONRY.       t I1

decoration, and this was particularly conspicuous in their sacred edifices built during the Middle Ages.

In Egypt, architecture was applied to palaces, temples, and tombs; in Greece, almost wholly to temples and theatres; and in Etruria, to tombs. But in Roman cities we find temples basilicas theatres, amphitheatres, baths,

111Wll11~C17llulyyl)Llllluy4ull'nliulinweiuIILf'/_All

AN INTERIOR VIEW, POMPEII.

tombs, arches of triumph, bridges, and aqueducts, all equally objects of architectural skill.

One of the first strides in advance made by the Romans was by developing the arch and using it as a vault. The inost perfect example of this was the rotunda of the Pantheon.

But with the primitive orders of the Greeks, they not only added nothing to the Doric or Ionic, but the latter suffered at their hands. With the Corinthian they were more successful, as they added fulness and strength to its

112 ARCHITECTURE.-MA S0-Y Y.

capital,, and thereby contributed to the perfection of an order which, for richness, proportion, and architectural fitness, has hardly been surpassed.

Among the Roman examples of this style are the temple of Jupiter Stator., the Pantheon, and the Maison Carree at Nimes.*

COMPOSITE ORDER.

But, not satisfied with the Corinthian, the Romans attempted to improve it, and in doing this they hit upon what is known as the Composite Order. Its columns were ten diameters high, and its capital has two rows of leaves of the Corinthian and the volutes of the Ionic:° Its cornices have modillions.

A decidedly Roman order is the Composite. Arcade.      This was a combination of Grecian and Etruscan architecture, Etruscan with a Grecian front.

SASSANIAN ARCHITECTURE.

For the sake of maintaining the sequence of this history, the architecture of Persia, and its vicinity, will be noticed here.

The Sassanidre dynasty derived its name from Sassan, grandfather of Ardisher, the king who ascended the throne of Persia A.D. 226.

As their religion required no temples, their public buildings were mostly palaces. These structures were built principally of sun-dried brick and wood, and were profusely ornamented with gold, silver, and rich hangings, beautiful in color and embroidery.   An example of this style is the great Mosque at

Diarbekr.        This building was originally a palace, and was erected in the lat ter part of the third century.            Another beautiful example, was the palace at Mashita, built early in the seventh century.

Not only in the early, but in the middle, ages, artists from Constantinople were eagerly sought after by both the monarchs of the Orient and the sovereigns of the Occident.

During the reign of the Sassanide dynasty, Greek artisans were in demand at the Persian court. A prince of this royal race, Nashervan by name, made the singular request of some Grecian philosopher to come and instruct young men of distinction in Greek theology.

* See Chambers, vol. x., p. 360 ; Fergusson, voL i., pp. 300, 301.

A.P G''.F,~ITECT Ul~ '.-T-MA,SO.NI~ ~'     113

ROMANESQUE-CHRISTIAN.

This style was introduced between the reigns of Constantine and Justinian, and was a modification of the classical Roman form. To the eastward it merged into the Byzantine style during the reign of Just-inian, A.D. 527 to 564.    In Italy and the South of France, the Romanesque continued to be prac.

RUINS OF THE GREAT MOSQUE AT DIARBEKR.

tised till the seventh century, and finally was merged into what came to be known as the Gothic.*

Among the noted examples of this style in Rome are St. Peter's, A.D. 330; St. Paul's, 386 ; Quattro Coronati, 625 ; and St. Clement's, 1118.

There were also octagon and circular churches ; the latter were the prototypes of the Christian Baptisteries.

The earliest churches of the Christians at Constantinople and elsewhere, were closely imitated after the Basilica-Hall of Justice-such changes only having been made as the exigencies of the rites and ceremonies of the Christians required.

* Fergusson, vol. i., pp. 396-399.

114     AR UHIZ'WCT URA.-MASONR Y.

They not only adopted the plans and mode of construction of the Romans, but used the actual materials of Roman buildings which had been destroyed by the barbarians.

In remote districts, where the builders had to prepare, new material, they followed as closely as they could the Roman plans of construction. In process of time, when decorations were again desired, the new styles retained some of the original forms; each style depending for its peculiar character on the particular Roman form it retained and developed.

The style of architecture known as Byzantine, arose in the East, soon after Constantine transferred the government of the Roman Empire to Byzantium, and, until the seventh century, is said to be the Byzantine.            The second, or Neo-Byzantine, included those forms which were practised in the East from the eighth century, till it was superseded by the Renaissance.

The Byzantine style was principally established by the church of St. Sophia-the great mosque of Constantinople.

ARCHITECTURE.-MASONR 2 .     119

The fundamental principles of this style, as applied to churches, was a varied application of the Roman arch; its exhibition in the form of the dome being its most characteristic feature.*     In the St. SOJ)hia, the dome covered the principal central portion of the church, and was supported by strong and lofty pillars, held together by bold arches. To this central space was joined others of smaller size, which were covered by half cupolas or arches of more ordinary construction.

Frequently churches were erected in the form of a Greek. cross, with the cupola rising in the centre, and smaller or semi-cupolas surmounting the four arms.

Many other details, such as the square capitals tapering downward, and the bold projecting mouldings ornamented with foliage seemed to have owed their strength and origin entirely to the ingenuity of Byzantine architects. The constant use of the apse is, after the cupola, their most marked feature.

ST. SOPHIA.

The original church of St. Sophia was erected by Constantine, and was burned to the ground in the fifth year of Justinian (A.v. 532). It was . rebuilt by the colleges of builders and Greek craftsmen, by order of Justinian ; the architects being Anthemius of Thralles, and Isodorus the elder.       It was completed 537 A.D.

In the same year a part of the dome fell, in consequence of an earthquake; but this damage was soon repaired, leaving the structure very nearly as it now stands.

While viewing his completed work, Justinian exclaimed, ~~ I have surpassed thee, O Solomon! " He did not realize the extent to which his edifice excelled King Solomon's Temple, nor that in some respects he had surpassed the Pantheon at Rome. It is even now an open question whether a Christian church exists whose interior is equal to this marvellous creation of Byzantine art.

Of the other beautiful mosques erected in Constantinople, that of Suleimanie,

* Note 17, p. 149.

t Ferousson, vol. ii, p. 443; Rebold, pp. 283-287.

120     ARC'HITECTURE.-MASONl~ Y.

completed in 1555, remains unsurpassed, and compares favorably with the church of St. Sophia.*

For several centuries Byzantium continued to be the centre of art and literature ; the relation of Constantinople to the rest of the world being the same as Atlie,ps was to remote antiquity.

Byzantine architecture found its way into foreign lands, and one of the first edifices erected in this style was built at Ravenna. It was constructed in the form of a Greek cross, and was erected about the middle of the fifth century.

The cathedrals of Angoulerne, Worms, Speyer, Mayence, and the church of St. Castor, at Coblenz, Santa Maria, of Cologne, all betray the singular characteristics of Byzantine -architecture.

A large and prominent example of the Byzantine style, is the Doge's Palace, Venice. Its erection was commenced in 813, and through all its additions and alterations it retained its Byzantine character until 1301, but from that time until 1423, the alterations were principally executed in Gothic.

CATHEDRAL or, ST. Manx's.

The present edifice was commenced in 9:17, the original building leaving been burnt down in a riot the previous year.            It was completed, including the mosaics and internal decorations, in 1094.     The first part erected, was the interior, covered by the five great domes which are arranged in the form of a Latin cross.  The central one, and that in front, are 42 feet in diameter in

ternally ; the other three, 33 feet each.        This cathedral is Byzantine with Gothic and Renaissance additions.       Its interior is said to be the most impressive in Western Europe.t Subsequently Byzantine edifices profited by the example of St. Mark's.

* Fergnsson, vol. ii., p. 540.

t Recently a crypt has been discovered and cleared out, which extends under the whole of the eastern part of the church, 86 feet by 74.     Its vaults are supported by fifty-six monolithic columns,

5 feet 6 inches high ; the whole height from the floor to the arch crown being 9 feet.    In the centre, immediately under the altar of the upper church, on a raised platform between four stone pier., originally rested the relics' of St. Mark ; this part being more highly decorated than the rest of the crypt.          There seems no doubt that this crypt, in all its details, forms part of the church as re-erected in the eleventh century, and is interesting as remaining almost unaltered to the present day. Fergusson, vol. ii., pp. 362-392.

AR CEITECZ'URE.-MA SONR Y.   125

The fascinating power of Byzantine art not only extended from the Orient to the Occident, but its influence reached the land of the Cossack; and in the year 955 the Russian Princess Olga, on her return from Constantinople, built t Kieff, a church in the form of a Greek cross.        Near the close of the tenth century the Grand Duke Valdimar embraced the Christian religion and adopted the Greek ritual. Immediately after this he erected at Kieff, under the supervision of a Byzantine architect, a cathedral, which was dedicated to the name, 11 Divine Wisdom."

Santa Croce, at Florence, is remarkable for the great men who lie buried beneath it, and Santa Maria Novella possesses something exceptional in that city, a fagade : but neither of these has anything to redeem its defects in the eye of an architect.

SAILACENIC.

This style was developed by the Mohammedans in the latter part of the seventh century, and it prevailed in the East, in Northern Africa, and in Spain.*

Wherever the Saracens successfully established themselves, they immediately turned their attention to beautifying the towns and villages by erecting sumptuous edifices; and for this purpose Abd-er Rallfnan, the Mussulman, ruler of Spain, procured for Cordova a Byzantine architect. In the year 820, a son of Haroun-al-Raschid, a friend of Charlemagne, applied to the Greek Empire for the best works extant, in order to have them translated into Arabic and used in the colleges of Borna, Corfu, Cairo, Tripoli, and Tunis.

Noted structures of this style were the great Mosque at Damascus, the Madrissa at Tspalian, the Khan's Palace at Khiva, the Sulelmanle Mosque in Constantinople, the Kaitbey Mosque at Cairo, a Minaret at Tunis, and the Alcazar and Alhambra in Spain.

In 936 the Caliph Abd-er Rahman determined to erect at Zara, near Seville, the royal castle known as the Alcazar, and secured the services of the most skilful architects from Bagdad and Constantinople, to design the work and superintend the craftsmen employed on it. This castle, when com. pleted, was noted for its peculiar style of architecture and its strength.

* See Fergusson, vol. ii., pp. 497, 516, 520, 540; Fort, p. 347.

126     AR CHITECTURE-MAS01YR Y

THE ALIIAMBRA.

This singular edifice was erected at Granada by the craftsmen of several nations, under Mohammed ben Alhamer, and completed by Yousouf in 1354. As a whole, this was in many respects a wonderful structure.            The palace, when completed, constituted an expression of the combined styles of the architectural art of that period.            In fact, in many of its details and general effect, it has not been surpassed in modern times.

The style of architecture pertaining to the tombs, which forms a prominent feature of Saracenic architecture, is missing in Spain. The Moors seem to have been of a purely Semitic race, either from Arabia, or descendants of the old Phoenician settlers on the southern coast.

B AGDAD.

In the ninth century Haroun-al-Raschid got a large number of the craft together at Bagdad, a-ad repaired, improved, and enlarged that singular old city, principally in the Saracenic style. (See p. 695.)

GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE.

Under this title are comprised the principal styles of architecture which prevailed in Western Europe from the middle of the twelfth century to the sixteenth.

But, as previously stated, the pointed arch constructed with wedge-shaped voussoirs was used by the Ethiopians as early as the tenth century B.c., and by the Assyrians in the eighth century.        The Saracens also used it at Cairo in the seventh century A.D.* All the churches in Provence (France), from the time of Charlemagne to the reign of St. Louis, were vaulted on the principle of the pointed arch.

The term Gothic was at first bestowed by Renaissance architects on the mediaeval styles as a term of reproach. The name, however, outlived the reproach at first implied, and a feeling of admiration has succeeded; as the * Fergusson, vol. L, p. 448.

ARCHITECTURE.--MASONR Y.     129

Gothic now ranks as one of the noblest and most complete styles of architecture ever developed.

The first vaults constructed were simple, semi-circular tunnel vaults; but it was found that these, besides being gloomy, required massive walls to resist their thrust.        An attempt was then made to obviate this difficulty by trans verse arches thrown across at intervals under the tunnel-vault, to act as strengthening arches. Buttresses -with a slight projection were supplied outside to support these,. and a beam of wood was sometimes introduced at the wall-head, from buttress to buttress, to assist in resisting the thrust of the vault.

This, with a few other improvements, was the origin of the groin rib, the development of which played so important a part in Gothic vaulting. Improvements in vaulting went on to the last of the twelfth century, when the principles of the Gothic style were fully developed.

Therefore it will be seen that this style was not the invention of a nation or an individual, but a growth from an early period--a gradual development mostly necessitated by structural requirements.

The transition from the round Gothic to the true pointed Gothic style in France took place with the revival of the National power.

One of the earliest, if not the earliest, examples we have of the fully developed Gothic style is the Cathedral of St. Denis, in which are deposited the remains of the kings of France. This cathedral was founded by the Abbe Suger, in 1144.           The Cathedral of Notre Dame, the magnificent Cathedrals of Chartres, Rheims, Amiens, Beauvais, Bourges, and many others of this style soon followed.t

Following the Norman conquest, in 1066, the architecture of England made a marked stride in advance; and nearly all the great cathedrals of that country were either rebuilt or remodelled in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.

The first appearance of the pointed arch in -England is believed to be at the rebuilding of the Cathedral of Canterbury, after the fire of 1174. The architect who superintended that work for the first five years was William of Sens (France).    The details and arrangements are so different from anything

* See Chambers, vol. vi., pp 83-86.

t Fergusson, vol. i., p. 532; vol. ii., pp. 53, 246, 321, 407N

else of the same age in England, that his influence on the style of the building can hardly be doubted.

Yet, down to the year 1200, the round arch was currently employed in con-

j           ARCHITECTURE.-1VAS0 VR Y.    131 i

junction with the pointed.      At that time, however, it gave way to the lat

ter. which dominated for three centuries; and it is in the cathedrals of the

VIEW IN PETERBOROUGH CATHEDRAL.

twelfth and thirteenth centuries that are found the noblest developments of the Gothic style.

In Germany the Gothic style early found a congenial home, and among its grandest acnieverrnents were the Cathedrals (if Cologne and Strasburg.

132     ARCHITECTURE.-1TAASONR Y.

The great typical cathedral of Germany is that of Cologne.

Its dimensions are 466 feet in length, by 275 in width, being the largest cathedral of Northern Europe; and also one of the noblest expressions of the. adoration of man for Deity ever erected in any country.

Among the edifices-monuments of the craftsmen's skill, erected during the thirteenth century, are Westminster Abbey, the Cathedral at Lichfield, the Cathedrals of Paris, Rheims, Chartres, Rouen, Bruges, Amiens, Beauvais, Strasburg, and Cologne.

In the fourteenth century the Cathedrals of York and Exeter, and King's College at Cambridge ; the cathedrals of Metz, Perpignan, Meaux, Auxerre, Tours, Couio, Milan, Seville, Barcelona, and the Ducal Palace at Venice, were erected.

RENAISSANCE.

This style followed the Gothic, and was derived from the Venetian style of Italian architecture, which made its appearance in the fifteenth century. From Italy this style soon found its way into France, and thence into England and other countries.*

IN BRIEF.

1. Egyptian Architecture was established as early as 2500 B.c.-First Temple at Memphis erected.

The great Temple at Karnak commenced, 2435 B.C.

Scope, or field of operations of Egyptian Architecture, Egypt, Syria, and Greece.

2. Greek Architecture, established 1250 B.C.-Mycenx founded at that time. Pelasgian art, from 1200 B.C. to (355.

Greek architecture proper, commenced 650 B.C.            . Cypselidae, building of Temple at Corinth at the above date.t Selinus founded, and a Temple commenced 626.

Doric order invented 650 B.C. Ionic invented 500 B.C.

* Chambers, vol. vii., p. 54, and vol. x., p. 188. t Fergusson, vol. i., p. 231.

ARCHITECTURE.-MAS0-YR Y.      137

. Corinthian invented 33.0 B.C.

Theron, at Agrigentum, commenced great Temple 480. Climon, at Athens, Temple of Thesus, built 469. Pericles, at Athens, Parthenon finished 438.

Temple of Jupiter, at Olympia, finished 436. Erectheium, at Athens, finished 335. Monument of Lysicrates, at Athens, 335. Scope of Greek architecture, Greece and Italy. 3. Roman Architecture, established 616 B.C.

The Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus commenced at that time. Pantheon erected A.D. 13.

Colosseum A.D. 70. Destruction of Pompeii, 79. Trajan's Column erected, 98. Diocletian's Palace at Spalatro, 284. Maxentius Basilica at Rome, 306. Constantine, transfer of Empire to Constantinople, 328. Scope of Roman Architecture, Southern Europe.

4. Sassanian Architecture, established 250 A.D. Scope, Persia and vicinity.

5. Romanesque, established 450 A.D., Italy and Greece.

6. Byzantine-Roman and Greek combined.           Established A.D. 330.

The old Byzantine practised until the eighth century, then the .Neo-Byzantine till the twelfth century.

St. Sophia erected, and dedicated A.D. 537. Scope, Greece, Asia Minor, and Italy.

7. Saracenic Architecture. Mohammedan-dates from the Hegira, A.D. 622. Scope, Asia Minor, Northern Africa, and Spain.

8. Gothic Architecture.          Developed between the seventh and twelfth centuries.    Scope, Europe.

Cologne Cathedral, erected 1248. One of the grandest expressions of art in the world.

Strasburg Cathedral, first erected in 800.  Destroyed by lightning 1007. Rebuilt in the fourteenth century.

138     AID CHITECT UEL:-MASONli' Y.

9. Renaissance style, established in the middle of the fifteenth century. Scope, Italy, France, and England.

NOTED STRUCTURES.

The great Pyramid of Ghizeh erected 3000 B.C. The vast Temple at Karnak, 2435 B.C.

King Solomon's Temple, 1004 B.C. Temple of Jupiter Stator, Rome, 685 B.C. Temple of Diana at Ephesus, 552 B.C. Parthenon, Athens, dedicated to Minerva, 442 B.C. Pantheon, Rome, a circular temple, 27 B.C. Colosseum, Rome, circular, 75 A.D.

CANTERBURY CATHEDRAL, founded A.D. 602. Destroyed by the Danes, 1011. Rebuilt 1130. Again burnt, and rebuilt 1184. The great tower completed 1495.

THE TOWER, London, first built 1078.

CHICHESTER CATHEDRAL, built in the thirteenth century. LINCOLN CATHEDRAL, founded 1127.

LICHFIELD CATHEDRAL, founded 1148. Notre Dame, Paris, 1163.

The Alhambra, Spain, founded 1250.

ST. PETER'S, Rome, begun 1506.            Finished 1626.

ST. PAUL'S, London, begun 1675.            Finished 1710.

DWELLINGS OF DIFFERENT RACES--FROM THE IRON AGE TO THE RENAISSANCE,

IN THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY.

No. 1. This illustration is from a dwelling of baked clay, recovered from a lake in Italy. Its immersion under water is accounted for from the fact that the lake occupies the crater of an extinct volcano.

2. An Egyptian house, 1400 B.C. 3. Hebrew, 1000 B.C.

144     ARCH-TTECTURL:-MASONR 1

From the foregoing we -find that from Egypt the builders' art proceeded north to Syria, and after manifesting itself in -ping Solomon's Temple, it proceeded westward to Greece, where it was greatly developed and perfected. Proceeding westward again, it came to the Tiber; for on the absorption of Greece by the Roman Empire, B.C. 1414, the arts and sciences of the. Greeks found a ready market in Rome. From Rome and Greece, architecture proceeded into Gaul, Germany, and the British Isles.

Although the Romans gave their iiatnes to certain styles of architecture, yet they were nearly all originally copied from, or suggested by, Greek mod. els.    This will be readily understood from the fact that the Italian craftsmen were, from the first, constantly reinforced by Greek artisans.            Finally, after Italy had become replete with both public and private structures; and Christianity had created a demand for church edifices beyond that country, the Corporations of Builders began to extend their operations into the northern and western portions of Europe.

The independent corporations had been preceded, however, by the Colleges of Builders, that had accompanied the Roman armies in their catupaigns of conquests.* To summarize, architecture as we know it, originated on the banks of the Nile; took its course along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean, then westward to Greece, Italy, France, Germany, and Britain.

NOTES FROM AUTHORITIES.

1.         In any consecutive narrative of the architectural undertakings of mankind, the description of what was clone in Egypt necessarily commences the series, not only because the records of authentic history are found in the valley of the Nile long befor# the traditions of other nations had assumed anything like tangible consistency, but because, from the earliest dawn the inhabitants of that mysterious land were essentially and pre-eminently a building race.

2.         Fortunately there is hardly a building in that country which is not adorned with the name of the kin- in whose reign it was erected. In royal buildings trey are found on every wall and pillar. ` The older cartouches are simple and easily remembered, and when we find the buildings thus dated by the builders themselves, and their succession recorded by subsequent kings on the walls of their temples, we feel perfectly certain of our sequence, and nearly so of the actual dates of the buildings; they are, moreover, such a series as no other country

* Notes 14 and 15, p. 197.

ARCHITECTURE.-MASONR Y.      147

in the world can match either for historic interest or architectural magnificence.           Fergusson, History of Architecture, vol. i., pp. 89, 124.

3.         The history of Egypt will always be, to a very large extent, a history of art.         Art bad, so far as we know, its birth and earliest development in the valley of the Nile.            Rawlinson, xi., p. 33.

4.         The palaces, tombs, and temples of Upper Egypt, present to us the earliest known in

stances of architecture, sculpture, and painting.   Kitto, vol. i., p. 604.

5.         The Egyptians had a profound belief in the reality of the life beyond the grave, and a conviction that that life was, somehow or other, connected with the continuance of the body. They embalmed the bodies of the dead in a most scientific way ; and having thus, so far as possible, secured them against the results of natural decay, they desired to secure them against the malice of enemies.      Rawlinson, vol. i., p. 210.

6.         The Egyptians, as stupendous in their excavations as the Hindoos, are far more so in those edifices, like the temples of Thebes and the pyramids of Memphis, raised on the surface of the ground, in which blocks of stone of immense weight, conveyed to a great distance from the quarry, elevated to a surprising height, and cut and interwoven with others in the most ingenious and solid manner, imply mechanical powers and skill of the highest description, of which the Hindoo buildings give no example.

To talk of Egyptian architecture, at least in its public monuments, is to discuss what, in respect of size, of integral component parts, and solidity of the whole, is most astonishing. Hope on Architecture, pp. 10, 14.

See also Birch, Egypt from the Earliest Times, pp. 32, 41 ; Lenormant, Manuel d'Histoire Ancienne, vol. i., pp. 537, 538; Fergusson, History of Architecture, vol. i., p. 98 ; Bruasch, Egypte, pp. 51-59, etc.

7.         Herodotus (11, 125) expressly notices that the stones were raised in this way, a step at

a time, by machines placed on the step below.     Mr. Perring found marks of the use of such

machines wherever the upper surface of the original steps was exposed to view.       He conjec tured that the machine used was the polyspaston of Vitruvius.   Vyse, Pyramids of Ghizeh, vol. i., p. 197.

8.         No one can possibly examine the interior of the great Pyramid without being struck with astonishment at the wonderful mechanical skill displayed in its construction.   The immense blocks of granite, polished like glass, and so fitted that the joints can scarcely be detected.

Nothing can be more wonderful than the extraordinary amount of knowledge displayed in the construction of the discharging chambers over the roof of the principal apartment, in the alignment of the sloping galleries, in the provision of ventilating shafts, and in all the wonderful contrivances of the structure.         All these, too, are carried out with such precision, that

148     ARCHITECTURE.-MASONR Y.

notwithstanding the immense superincumbent weight, no settlement in any part can be detected to the extent of an appreciable fraction of an inch. Rawlinson, vol. i., p. 214, quoting Fergusson.

9.         These builders were able, first of all, to emplace their construction with astronomical exactness ; secondly, to employ in them, wherever it was needed, masonry of the most massive and enduring kind ; thirdly, to secure the chambers and passages, which were essential features of such structures, by contrivances of great ingenuity, perfectly adapted to their purpose ; and fourthly, by their choice of lines and proportions, to produce works which, through their symmetry and the imposing majesty of their forms, impress the spectator, even at the present day, with the feelings of awe and admiration, such as are scarcely excited by any other architectural constructions in the whole world.        Rawlinson, vol. ii., p. 82.       , Vyse, Pyramids of Ghizeh, vol. i., p. 176.

10.       Circumstances have come to light, one after another, tending to throw the date more and more backward, until at length it seems to be admitted that in Egypt the arch existed in the time of Joseph.         The observations of Rosillini and of Sir J. G. Wilkinson led them irre

sistibly to this conclusion.     In the valley of D,ty r el Medeeneh, at Thebes, are several tombs of the early date of Amenophis.           Among the most remarkable of these is one whose brick roof and niche, bearing the name of the same Pharaoli, proves the existence of the arch at the remote period of B.C. 1540.            Wilkinson's Topography of Tliebes, p. 8.

To the same period belong the vaulted chambers au(1 arched doorway which yet remain in the brick pyramid of Thebes (Wilkinson, Ancient Egyptians, iii., p. 317).     The most ancient, actually existing, arches of stone occur at Memphis, near the modern village of Saqqara.  Kitto, vol. i., p. 203.

11.       It is generally supposed that the Egyptians were ignorant of the true principles of the arch, and only employed two stoues ineeting one another at a certain angle in the centre, when they wished to cover a larger space than could be conveniently done by a single block. This, however, seems to be a mistake, as many of the tombs and chambers around the pyramids and temples at Thebes are covered by stones and brick arches of a semicircular form, and perfect in every respect as far as the principles of the arch are concerned.            Fergusson, vol. i., p. 204.

12.       Of all the great structures of Egypt, the Temple of Karnak is the grandest expression of Egyptian art, and compares favorably with the greatest. of mediaeval cathedrals.     See Rawlinson, vol. i., pp. 230-241.

13.       They (the Egyptians) understand also, better than any other nation, how to use sculpture in combination with architecture, and to make their colossi and avenues of sphinxes group themselves into parts of one great desi-n, and at the same time to use historical paintings, fading by insensible degrees into hieroglyphics on the one hand, and into sculpture on

ARCHITECTURE:-MASONR Y       149

the other, linking the whole together with the highest class of phonetic utterance.        With the most brilliant coloring they thus harmonized all these arts into one great whole, unsurpassed by anything the world has seen during the thirty centuries of struggle and aspiration that have elapsed since the brilliant days of the great kingdom of the Pharaohs.      Fergusson, vol. i., p. 139.

14.       It is hnown, from the testimony of Diodorus Sicalus, and from the conformity of the Athenian laws with those of the Egyptians, that the first inlMbitants of Attica were an Egyp tian colony.    We have several proofs that it originally came from the city of Sais.

15.       There is no doubt that the Doric style took its origin from the rock-cut tombs of Beni

Hassan, in Egypt.      Modern discoveries have shown that Greece owed much to the earlier civi

lization of the countries which preceded it in history.        To the architecture of Egypt almost

every feature of Greek architecture can be traced.           See Fergusson, vol. i., pp. 110-242.

16.       There exists in Egypt a class of temples called maineisi.            They are of a simple peristylar form, with columns in front and rear, the latter being built into a wall and seven square piers on each flank.            What renders them more than usually interesting to us is the fact that they were undoubtedly the originals of the Greek peristyle forms, that people having borrowed nearly every peculiarity of their architecture from the banks of the Nile.      We possess tangible evidence of peristyle temples and protodoric pillars erected in Egypt, centuries before the old. est known specimen in Greece.      Fergusson, vol. i., pp. 126, 127.

17.       When the Romans transferred their capital to the shores of the Bosphorus, the semioriental nation seized on their own circular form, and, modifying and moulding it to its pur pose, wrought out the Byzantine style ; in which the dome is the great feature.        Fergusson, vol. i., p. 297.

 

149

 

 

150

 

CHAPTER IV

 

KING SOLOMON'S TEMPLE

 

The .Building of this Remarkable Edifice.-Preparing the Timber in the Forests of Lebanon.-Cutting the Stone in the Great Subterranean Quarry. -Striking Scenes, the Ancient Craftsmen at Work. -Secret Meetings of the Master Workmen.-Completion and Dedication of the Temple.-Its Destruction and Commencement of the Captivity.

TiaE next Masonic landmark on the grand highway of time is Mount Moriah, and the next notable expression of the builder's art after leaving Egypt was the Temple of Solomon. There also at the building of the Temple we get the first notice of a society or lodge of artisans.

The preparation of the site and the building of the Temple involved a vast amount of labor and required a multitude of workmen, therefore the Masters and Supervisors found it expedient to hold secret meetings for instruction on the work and for mutual assistance.

As Moses and other Jews of the better class who had resided in Egypt had been initiated into the Sacred Mysteries, and had transmitted the same to the Jewish people, they had entered largely into the religious rites of the Jews previous to the reign of King Solomon. The Egyptian system being both secular and religious,* its essentials soon found their way into the Masters' meetings ; and tradition says that the first meetings were held in a valley near Jerusalem, the better to guard against intrusion; but subsequently, for greater convenience, they built a cabin-lodge, on Moriah, near the work of the Temple.

This lodge was presided over by a Master of the Craft, and the meetings were held at stated periods, taking care that none entered except those who had been initiated and could snake themselves known.t

*Notes 1 to 7, pp. 180, 181. t Note 9, p. 181.

KING SOLOXON'S TEMPLE.         151

The topography of the site of Jerusalem when in a state of nature would have shown a very rough locality. The Tyropean Valley ran through it from north to south, with what was subsequently known as Mount Zion on the west and Mount Moriah on the east.           Moriah is a rocky spur, extending from the mountains on the north of Jerusalem about 2,000 feet in a southeasterly direction and terminating in a sharp and nearly perpendicular point.

The height of Mount Moriah at its highest point was 140 feet above the Valley of Jehoshaphat on the east, 70 feet above the Tyropean Valley on the west, and 2,360 feet above the Mediterranean.

Rugged as was this rocky hillock, it was the scene of three remarkable events. First, Abraham here prepared to offer his son a sacrifice; second, David erected an altar here on which to offer up sacrifices to appease the de stroying angel; third, it was the site of the Temple of Solomon-Real and Mythical.

The erection of this edifice was managed by three men, noted in sacred and profane history. First, by Solomon, King of Israel, who furnished the money and precious metals and had the general supervision of the undertak ing; second, Hiram, King of Tyre, who furnished men and material, mostly cedar timber; third, Hiram Abif,* also a Tyrian, a talented and skilful artificer, who superintended the manufacture of the vessels and ornamentation of the Temple.

The friendly relations that existed between Solomon and Hiram, King of Tyre, was the natural outcome of the long period of peace that had existed between the Jews and Phoenicians. According to Phoenician historians, King Solomon also married a daughter of the King of Tyre.

Hiram Abif was of a mixed race, his father being a skilful Tyrian mechanic and his mother a Jewess. His genius and acquirements were such as to place him early in life at the head of his profession in his own country. Therefore King Hiram could see no more practical way of assisting his friend Solomon than by giving him the service of such a skilful artificer.

The first thing to be done was to prepare the top of Mount Moriah for the Temple, its porch and courts.            This alone was a herculean task, as Moriah extended from the hills like a promontory, sharp at the top, with its sides *Note 7, p. 181.

152     KING SOLOMON'S TEXPLE.

and the south end falling away nearly perpendicular. Therefore to make a level area of the required size, nearly as much labor was necessary as was involved in the largest of the pyramids. As it would require a vast amount of stone and earth to level up the south end, it was decided to do it by a series of columns resting on the bed-rock and supporting a massive platform above.

TEMPLE AREA.

A better idea of the magnitude of the undertali-ing will be had when the extent of the rough hill that was to be made level is given. The Temple inclosure, or area, was 1,500 feet long, by an average of 950 feet wide, be ing widest at the north end.  The surrounding walls were from eight to ten feet thick at the base by four feet at the top, and from fifty to seventy-five feet high above the surface on the Kedron Valley side. The platform over this work being so massive as to render it proof against fire and falling ruins during the destruction of the several temples above, some of the original work at the south end is still to be seen, and is minutely described by recent explorers.        The entrance to it from the south end and from above was small, and known to .hut few, even in Solomon's time.

The corner-stone of King Solomon's Temple was laid in the month of May, 1012 n.c., and in the fourth year of the reign of King Solomon; and the Temple was completed in seven years, five months, and twenty-seven days.

Following the preparation of the site, the material that entered into the erection of the Temple and the sources from whence they were derived will nest be considered.

STONE.

First in order, is the large amount of stone used in such a structure. Geology discloses the fact that Mount Moriah consists of tertiary limestone, the upper strata of which is hard and compact, while the un derlying stratum is soft and white, but hardens rapidly on exposure to the air.     It was of this latter stone that the mason-work of the Temple was built.         But it is only a short time since, and then by accident, that this discovery was made.            Dr. Barclay,* coming into the city one evening by way of * An American missionary.

KING SOLOMON'S TEMPLE.        1.57

the Damascus gate, noticed that his dog acted strangely, close to the base of the ancient city wall, and on investigation discovered a small aperture extending down under the wall, through which it was evident that some animal was in the habit of passing. As Mohammedan law is very strict concerning the Temple area, forbidding any displacement of stone or soil in or about the sacred precincts, the discoverer waited until the following night, when with a small party of assistants, with implements for digging, he repaired to the hole under the wall, and as a precaution against wild animals and reptiles the dog was sent forward, and when it was evident that he had not met with anything serious. digging was commenced in earnest. Following the aperture, it led them down into the ground for a distance of ten feet, then horizontally a short distance to the southward, when they were astonished to find themselves in a large cavern, the cimmerian darkness of which was only intensified by their small lamp.     Subsequent investigation, however, disclosed the fact that this was nothing less than the great quarry from which the stone for the Temple had been taken.         This cavern is a short distance northwest of the Temple area, and under that part of Jerusalem now called Bezetha, the Mohammedan quarter.         The largest apartment in the cavern is 750 feet by 100 feet wide and an average of 30 feet high. At intervals, pillars of rock were left to sup port the top of the cavern. From this apartment a labyrinth of smaller rooms opened in every direction, and in all of them chippings and other evidences of the work done here were found.

When this quarry was operated, it was lighted by many small lamps set in niches in the wall. This is shown both by the niches, and by streaks of soot left by the smoke of the lamps, some of the soot-lines being as black and bright as when they were made nearly three thousand years ago.

The floor of the quarry is uneven and is dverywhere littered with chip. pings, and stones split from the sides of the quarry are lying around in various states of finish, showing that for some reason the masons had suddenly quit . their work, never to return.

As the bed of this quarry was higher than the Temple area, the blocks of stone were doubtless rolled out of the southern end, and thence to that part of the site where they were to be used, but by what process of engineering these great blocks were elevated into position we have no means of knowing.

158     KING SOLOMON'S TEMPLE

The illustration of this quarry at page 154 is from a sketch made by an artist on the spot, and the costumes of the workmen are in accordance with the descriptions given in the Scriptures and by contemporaneous writers.

CEDAR.

Next in importance to the stone was the cedar used in the Temple.       This was cut in the renowned forests of Mount Lebanon, near two mountain streams called the Nar el Kelb and Kadisha, their head waters being about fifteen miles from the sea.     Here this timber was cut, hewn, finished, and marked or numbered, and then conveyed down the course of these streams to the sea, where it was made into rafts or floats.            The rafts were manned, and taken down the coast of the Mediterranean to Joppa-a very hazardous undertaking at best.

There are small harbors at the mouth of both streams, which rendered them convenient places for making up the rafts and preparing them for the sea.   The harbor at the mouth of the Nar el Kelb is a short distance north of Beyrout.      One side of the harbor is formed by a rocky promontory, and on the sides of the higher rocks inscriptions have been cut by invaders and con. querors from Assyria,, Macedonia, Egypt, and France.

Thirty-five miles north of this harbor is the inlet of the Kadisha.   This is an ancient port, and here are ruins of very ancient buildings. What a busy and graphic scene these two harbors presented three thousand years ago!    For here the many craftsmen of Hiram and King Solomon were engaged in making up the fragrant and beautiful cedar timber into rafts preparatory to its voyage to Joppa.      In the forest, fifteen miles above, was

another busy scene.  Clad in their peculiar costume and using their unique tools, were many thousands of men at work.  Some felling the giants of the forest; groups of craftsmen, under the superintendence of skilled workmen, or Masters, were squaring and finishing the timber for the Temple; while others were conveying it down the watercourses to the harbors below.

And when it is considered that they had then to traverse the boisterous Mediterranean for a distance of one hundred and thirty miles, it will be seen that it not only required care in putting the rafts together, but also skill in

KING SOLOMON'S TEMPLE.        163

handling them on the route.  Tradition says that for greater safety they secured three rafts together, one after the other, and that they were propelled by sails and oars.

On the arrival of the rafts at Joppa, another difficulty had to be overcome, as the rocky shore was so steep that each piece of timber had to be lifted twenty feet to the landing above.       From the landing, the timber was carried thirty-five miles to Jerusalem on the backs of asses and mules - a difficult and tedious operation; for their lack of facilities had to be made up by a large force of men and animals, and by severe and often dangerous labor.

Over three years were occupied in cutting and preparing the timber and dressing the stone in the quarries. At length, after the material was all on, or near, the site of the Temple, the two bodies of men from the forest and quarries united for the purpose of placing it convenient for use. Finally, when everything was ready and the process of erection commenced, every piece exactly fitted the place it was designed for.

This splendid edifice consisted of three courts: the Porch, the Sanctuary, and the Holy of Holies.* Passing through the eastern entrance of the wall, the first court, or Court of the Gentiles, was reached. This court was so named because the Gentiles were permitted to go no farther. Proceeding across this court, a passage through a low wall was reached, from which fifteen steps led up into the Court of the Women, and beyond this court was that of the Men.    To these two courts the Jews came daily for the purpose of offering up prayers to Deity.  Beyond the last-named court was the Court of the Priests, and in the centre of this, was the Altar of Burnt Offerings. From the Court of the Priests twelve steps led to the Temple proper, which consisted, first, of the Porch; second, the Sanctuary; third, the Holy of Holies.         At the entrance to the Porch was a splendid gate of Corinthian brass. On one side of this gate was-a pillar named Jachin, and on the other side one called Boaz.   Passing from the Porch, the Sanctuary was reached through a portal across which hung a beautiful veil of many colors, which mystically represented the universe.

In the Sanctuary were arranged the various utensils for worship in the * Note 8, p. 181.

164     KING SOLOMON'S TEMPLE.

Temple, among which were the Altar of Incense, the Ten Golden Candlesticks, and the Ten Tables of Stone ou which offerings were laid previous to sacrifice.

Crossing the broad Sanctuary, the Holy of Holies, or innermost chamber, was reached. At the entrance to this sacred place there were two doors of olive-wood, beautifully sculptured, inlaid with precious metals, and further adorned with veils of blue, purple, scarlet, and fine linen. The Holy of Holies contained the Ark of the Covenant, overshadowed by the Cherubim. As this place was said to have been rendered most sacred by the very presence of God, it was deemed a sacrilege worthy of death for anyone except the High Priest to enter it, and even he could only enter it once a year, On the Day of Atonement.

EAST GATE--GATE FACING THE SUN.

The ancient East Gate of the Temple enclosure was of a size and style worthy of its purpose.          Its length was 70 feet, its width 55 feet, and it pro jected 6 feet outside of the wall.          Two beautiful columns divided it into a double arcade, lighted at the west end by two domes. Its interior was ornamented with rich carvings, producing a grand and imposing effect.     A massive stairway led up 25 feet to the platform above.

DEDICATION OF THE TEN[PLE.

From the time the corner-stone was laid, the work ou the Temple was steadily prosecuted, until it was completed, which was in a little more than seven years, so that it was dedicated in 1004 x.C., or in the year 3000 accord ing to Hebrew chronology. At its dedication there were assembled the priests, the elders, the heads of the tribes and all the men of Israel-a great multitude, to take part in the dedication of the most beautiful temple hitherto erected in Syria. The Ark of the Covenant having been brought from the City of David, it was deposited with great solemnity in its place in the Holy of Holies. "And it came to pass, when the priests came out of the Holy Place, that the Cloud filled the house of the Lord, so that the priests could not stand to minister because of the Cloud : for the glory of the Lord had

KING SOLOMON'S TEMPLE.        169

filled the house of the Lord.  And it came to pass, ,hen Solomon had finished the house of the Lord, and the King's house, and all Solomon's desire which he was pleased to do, that the Lord appeared unto Solomon a second time, as he had appeared unto him at Gibeon.   And the Lord said unto him, I have hallowed this house which thou hast built, to put my name there forever."

THE MOSQUE, DOME OF THE ROCK.

This renowned and beautiful edifice was erected by Constantine on the site of King Solomon's Temple, over the spot then believed to be the Holy Sepulchre.  It is octagonal, 160 feet in diameter; its columns are of marble of the most precious kinds, and either belonged to the Temple of Herod or to that erected by Hadrian on the same spot. Its Mosaics are beautiful, though much altered in design by Mohammedans, Nvho have added painted glass of beautiful patterns and exquisite color to the windows.

HIRAM ABIF-THE HEAL AND THE MYSTICAL.

There are two accounts of the building of King Solomon's Temple.       One account gives the actual history of that event and describes the three noted men who figured in it.  The other account is traditional and allegorical.

In one account Hiram Abif appears as a real person, just as he was ; in the other he appears as a mystical personage. He -,vas really the cunning craftsman employed by King Solomon to beautify and adorn the actual Tem ple ; he was an emblematic being, representing the sun, who by his inagnetic power raises the Royal Arch of heaven and beautifies and adorns the terrestrial and celestial spheres. Therefore his name has a. twofold meaning, significant of his real and of his mystical character.

In the Masonic tradition the mystical Hiram is represented as being an architect, superintending the building and drawing out the plans for the Temple.

But according to the Bible and Josephus, Hiram was no architect at alldrew out none of the designs for the Temple.

* Fergusson, vol. ii., p. 432.

170     KING SOLOMON'S TEMPLE.

The mystical Hiram of Masonic tradition is represented as having lost his life in a singular manner just before the completion of the Temple, and with some of his designs unfinished ; while according to the sacred Scriptures, the real Hiram lived to finish all his labors in and about the Temple, and for King Solomon. That the Hiram of history mentioned in the Bible and by Josephus is a different personage from the traditional Hiram, will be seen by the following

The designs, form, and dimensions of the Temple were all given by divine inspiration and command (II. Chron. iii.). To have altered or modified them in the smallest particular would therefore have been a sin, which would have called down the instant and terrible punishment of Jehovah.           Hiram is nowhere mentioned or described in the Bible as being an architect or builder, but in I. Kings vii. he is described as being "filled with wisdom, and understanding, and cunning to work all works in brass."

Josephus thus mentions Hiram : " This man was skilful in all sorts of work, but his chief skill lay in working in gold, silver, and brass, by whom were made all the mechanical works about the Temple, according to the will of Solomon " (" Antiquities," Book VIII., Chapter iii., p. 4).

Nowhere is there a word said about his having anything to do with the management of the building of the Temple ; but, for evidence on this point, see 1. Kings vii. ; 11. Chi-on. iv., 11-19; also Josephus.     From which we learn what part of the work of the Temple Hiram really did do-that he made for King Solomon the two pillars of brass called Jachin and Boaz, and their ornaments; the molten sea of brass with twelve oxen under it; the ten brazen lavers with their bases, and many pots, shovels, and flesh-hooks, together with all the other altar furniture to be used in the Temple.

All of these articles were made of bright brass, and were cast in the clay grounds between Succoth and Zeredatha (II. Chi-on. iv. ; 1. Kings vii., 4546).       Therefore the scene of Hiram's labors must have been over fifty miles from Jerusalem, or two days' journey.    This distance, with the making of the moulds and the patterns for the great number of large and small pieces, many of them difficult of construction, renders it evident that Hiram must have been occupied most of his time at the place where he made the Temple furniture, rendering it impossible, under the circumstances, that he could

KING SOLOMON'S TEMPLE.        175

have supervised the work in Jerusalem, or even visited it daily during the building of the Temple.

Besides these works in brass, we are told that Hiram made for the Temple, of pure gold, ten candlesticks for the altar, with flowers, lamps, and tongs, bowls, snuffers, basins, censers, and hinges of gold for the Holy Place and for the doors of the Temple.      All being the work of a " cunning worker in metals," not of an architect or builder.

The historical Hiram lived to finish all his work.     " So Hiram made an end of doing all the work that he had made King Solomon for the house of the Lord " (H. Chi-on. iv.).

Therefore, as the historical Hiram was no architect, and did not suffer death before the completion of the Temple, it follows that it was the mystical Hiram-Osiris, representing the sun-who meets with that fate near the completion of the emblematic Temple, the year.   (See p. 88.)

SUMMARY OF THE TEMPLES OF JERUSALEM-THE JEWS.

King Solomon's Temple commenced, 1012 B.C. ; dedicated, 1004 B.C. ; plundered by Shishak, 971 B.C. ; restored by Joash, 856 B.C. ; robbed and polluted by Ahaz, 740 B.C. ; restored by Hezekiah, 726 B.C., but he gave the treasures of the Temple as a ransom, 711 B.C. ; desecrated by Manasseh, 698 B.C. ; repaired by Josiah, 624 B.C.

Nebuchadnezzar carried a part of the sacred vessels to Babylon, 606 B.C. He plundered and burnt the Temple, and carried the principal inhabitants captive to Babylon, 588 B.C.

Cyrus gave the decree to Zerubbabel and other Jews to return and rebuild the Temple, 536 B.C.

It was completed in the second year of Darius, 515 B.C. Pillaged by Ptolemy Lagos,* 320 B.C.

Plundered by Antiochus, 170 B.C. Plundered by Crassus, 54 B.C. Rebuilt by Herod, 18 B.C.

* Chambers's Encyclopaedia, vol. ix., p. 912.

176     KING SOLOMON'S TEMPLE.

Finally it was destroyed by Titus, 70 A.D.

The Mohammedan mosque of Omar now stands on its site.

The destruction of the Israelitish nationality by the Roman legions caused the Jews to disperse into Persia and other provinces of the Roman empire, and wherever they settled, they immediately became famous as astronomers, mathematicians, and geometricians.          The Moors of Spain were also greatly indebted to their Jewish subjects for an institution of learning controlled by rabbis from Jerusalem.          The fame of this institution was such that many scholars were attracted to it from the cities of Spain and from abroad.            Several Israelites gained distinction by writing learned treatises on geometry. Later, Charlemagne commissioned a Jew of great Oriental learning to visit the East, for a special purpose; and another Jew brought him many costly foreign fabrics, which the emperor highly prized.

In Alexandria the rabbis enumerated over twenty thousand scholars to whom Judaistic theology was taught. Learned rabbis declared that all the lore of their fathers was not transmitted in writing, but that much of it had been perpetuated by Moses, in an oral form.        Such traditions were recorded in books with interpretations by erudite Jews.

The Israelites were numerous in Rome during the age of Julius Caesar, and their customs and creed very largely influenced the residents of the great metropolis.

ANCIENT TYRE-THE Ho11IE OF TIDE TWO HIRAMS.

Tyre was founded in 1250 B.C., two hundred and thirty-eight years before the corner-stone of King Solomon's Temple was laid. Even in the days of David it was a stronghold for its commerce.

This ancient port is one hundred and fourteen miles north of Jerusalem and eighty-seven miles up the coast from Joppa. The old city stood on the mainland in the rear of the present town, and at first bore the name of Palm tyrus, or old Tyre.         The site of the present town was an island until the invasion by Alexander the Great, 350 n C., when, in order to attack the city to greater advantage, he built a causeway out to it from the mainland.       Subse.

KING SOLOMON'S TEMPLE.        179

quently the action of the sea caused the sand to accumulate around and over the causeway, until it became solid land, forming a peninsula of the whole. The articles of export were the famous Tyrian dye, sugar, glass, and other manufactured goods.      Sugar-cane was cultivated near Tyre, and sugar was made similar to that now made in the Southern States and in the West Indies.

The Tyrians worshipped Hercules as a god, and built and dedicated a temple to him. Tyre also possessed many other splendid edifices, but, like indi. viduals and nations, it had its birth, a period of activity, and then its death, so that the few ruins of it now to be seen may be likened to its grave-stone bearing an inscription commemorating its former greatness.

Many columns and floors of marble lie buried under the rubbish all over the site of the old city. Hundreds of beautiful columns and capitals, many of them wholes have been carried away to Joppa and other places, and built into modern structures. The large amount of such ruins attests the grandeur and wealth of this ancient commercial city.        At the time of Christ, Tyre contained a population of 150,000, but it is now a miserable Arab village of 3,000 inhabitants.

Anything relating to Hiram Abif being of interest to Masons, one of the traditions which have been transmitted to us will be noticed.

A few years before the building of the Temple, Hiram Abif, as the agent of the King of Tyre, purchased some curious and valuable stones of an Arabian merchant, who told him that they had been found by accident on an island in the Red Sea.          The King directed his agent to go and investigate the truth of the report, which he did; and he had the good fortune to discover many precious stones called topaz, with which the King of Tyre richly adorned his palaces and temples.    Subsequently these stones were brought in the ships of Tyre for the service of King Solomon.

KING HIRAM's TOMB.

On the crest of a hill about six miles from Tyre, is a massive sarcophagus resting on a lofty pedestal of dark-gray stone. The dimensions of this sarcophagus are twelve feet eleven inches, by five feet eight inches wide,

180     KING SOLOMON'S TEMPLE.

and three feet six inches deep.       The lid is roof-shaped and three feet six inches high in the centre.         A small hole has been broken through one end of the tomb, but whether it was done by curiosity-seekers or by robbers in search of valuables is not known.         The great antiquity of this tomb, its massive proportions, and the commanding position it occupies, strongly corroborate the tradition that it is Kind Hiram's tomb.   The country surrounding it is now dotted with Arab villages embowered in groves of olives, pomegran. ates, and oranges.

Carthage, so renowned in ancient history, was founded by a colony from Tyre; 869 B.C.

The skill of the Carthaginians in masonry was such as shows them to have been a highly intelligent people. Their marble temples, gold statues, splendid palaces, ships, and forts, point them out as occupying a prominent position among the nations of the earth; and when it is considered that their ships sailed on every known sea, carrying on a trade with all the known world, it is not surprising that they so long disputed with the Romans the right of universal empire.

NOTES FROM AUTHORITIES.

1.         In " A brief examination of the Rev. Mr. Warburton's Divine Legation of Moses," London, 1742, are the following remarks

"We have no profane records that can reach by many hundred years so high as the ancient state and constitution of the religion and priesthood of Egypt, in and before the days of Moses. But as the Mosaic constitution itself was accommodated to the natural temper and bias of people perfectly Egyptianized, and who knew nothing but the language, religion, laws, and customs of Egypt; and as this people could never be brought off from the religion and customs to which they had been naturalized, the history of Moses and the prophets gives one almost as just and adequate a notion of the religion, priesthood, and worship of Egypt, as if their own history had been handed down to us. Mysteries, p. 118.

2.         In a German work by C. L. Reinhold, entitled " The Hebrew Mysteries," or the oldest religious Freemasonry, it is affirmed that the Mosaic religion was an initiation into mysteries, the principal forms and regulations of which were borrowed by Moses from the secrets of the old Egyptians.

KING SOLOMON'S TEMPLE.        181

3.         Josephus says that: "The high and sublime knowledge which the Gentiles with difficulty attained in the celebration of their mysteries, was habitually taught to the Jews at all times."

Moses could not have been left in ignorance of this mysterious knowledge, because, as he himself informs us, he was acquainted with " all the learning of Egypt."    Traditions, pp. 18, 19.

4.         A steady and uninterrupted intercourse of the Hebrews of Egypt with those of Palestine, propagated the secret mysteries of the former among the Israelites, and ultimately gained a well-defined status in the creeds of the Jews.

5.         Clemens of Alexandria affirms that Moses studied in the colleges of the priests of Egypt, and there learned arithmetic, geometry, symbols, and hieroglyphics ; which Justin Martyr called the emblematical part of the Egyptian Scriptures.

6.         The method of instruction by symbols, which had been in use in Egypt from the earliest times, was subsequently adopted by the Jews, who thenceforth interpreted their sacred writings allegorically.  In this way Egyptian philosophy gradually found its way into the Jew

ish schools.    And the Egyptian Platonic, Pythagorean, and Oriental afterward became blended with their doctrines and ancient faith, and appears in their scriptures.       See Gould, vol. iii., p. 63. Brucker's Historia Critica Philosophise; also Ginsburg.

7.         To the name of Hiram, in the original Hebrew, from which Abif is taken, the affix is

Abbi, the possessive case of Abba ; which signifies father, figuratively, a superior.    His proper address then is my father, in court style my lord.   In this sense it is equivalent to Adonis, Baal, or Osiris, all names of the sun.

8.         In reference to the pattern given to David for the Temple, Piresou, in "Traditions of Freemasonry," says : " There is another belief that the temple was built upon a plan correspond ing with one of the temples at Edfou, in Upper Egypt.         This latter had its porch, the entrance to which was between two pyramidal moles ; the entrance conducted to a court surrounded with pillars, and winding stairs furnished access to a middle chamber."      Traditions and Early History of Freemasonry, pp. 18, 19, 20, 176.

9.         Such Fraternities had become so numerous in Rome at the commencement of the reign of Numa Pompilius, that he deemed it advisable, both for their encouragement and regula tion, to make them a ward of the state.    From this period they flourished under the name of Colleges of Builders till the eigbth century, when they, with slight modifications, began to be known as Guilds, by which name they were principally known down to 1717, to the transformation from operative to speculative masonry.

 

181

182

CHAPTER V

 

COLLEGES AND GUILDS

 

The Colleges of Bailder.s.-Their Lodges, Ofcers, aiid Practices Closely,471alogous to Those of Free Masons.-They Carry on Most of the Architecture, Engineerhzq, and Jlasonry of Their Time.-Build Splendid Petb lic _9difaces, Bridges, and Military Works. -Froma Rome, the Colleges Accom1_)any the Roniait Armies into Gaul, Germany, and Britain.

 

FOLLOWING the course of architecture westward, the next grand landmark in the history of the ancient craft is Rome; for here the idea of combining for the promotion of a, connmon purpose, as manifested at the building of King Solomon's Temple, next appeared; and here the different interests of society were first represented by regular organizations, known as Colleges or Guilds.

Whenever, in the history of the world, civilization has reached that point where art and trade began to be practised, men engaged in a common pursuit have combined together for the promotion of their common and joint in terests.

 

            Hence, in the early history of Rome we find such organizations, notably, the Colleges of Builders.*

 

The term " collegium " originally signified a number of persons voluntarily associated together for a particular purpose.

 

Among the most noted of these organizations were the Roman Colleges of Builders, established about 71.55 n.a. The object of these societies was instruction in architecture and kindred arts, in religion,- mutual advancement and assistance.

The first regulation established was, that no meeting was competent to act with less than three members present.

 

* Notes 1, 2, p. 195.  t Notes 6-11, pp. 195, 196. $ Notes 4, 5, 9, pp. 195, 196 ; also, Ilebold, pp. 35, 259.

 

COLLEGES AND GUILDS.            133

 

Each College was presided over by a Magister, which is exactly translated by the English word "master." The next twos officers were the Decuriones, whose duties were nearly identical with those of. Masonic Wardens, the Mas ter's orders being given through them.     Next in order was the Scriba, or Secretary, Atliesaureusis, or Treasurer, and lastly, a Sacerdos, or Chaplain, who conducted the religious services.

 

Monthly dues were imposed for the general and special purposes of each College, for the assistance of needy brethren, and for the burial of their dead, etc.

In their corporate capacity, the Colleges could hold property.     They had a common chest, a common cult, and permanent places of meeting.

 

On the death of a member, he was publicly interred in a common sepulchre, or columbarium, all the survivors being present.

 

Members were not liable for the debts of their College, but the property of the College itself could be seized. They could sue or be sued by their syndicus or actor.

 

Each College celebrated three days, viz., its natal day, came cognationis, dies violarum and dies roses.

 

The members called themselves Fraters.  " For among them," says Mr. Coote, " existed the dear bond of relationship which, though artificial, was that close alliance which only a common sentiment can make."

 

The College held secret meetings at stated periods, in which candidates were initiated, and craftsmen advanced to a higher grade and received esoteric instructions.*

 

The candidates for admission were elected by the voice of the members.f

When a man was admitted into the fraternity of a College, he was said to be a co-optatus in collegium. The verb " co-optare," employed to signify an election into a College, comes from the Greek optomai, " to see, to behold." This same word gives origin, in Greek, to epoptes, " a spectator or beholder," one who has attained to the first degree in the Eleusinian Mysteries. Furthermore, those Colleges that were sanctioned by the government were called " Collegia licita," or lawful Colleges, while those not authorized *Note 8, p. 196.    t Note 10, p. 196.

 

184     COLLEGE'S AND GUILDS.

 

were called " Collegia illicita," equivalent to lawfully constituted, and clandestine Colleges.

 

In the Colleges there were three grades of initiates-apprentices, fellow workmen, and masters. Their meetings were opened by a religious ceremony -not sectarian, but recognizing Deity as the Grand Architect of the Universe.

The ritual comprised and taught certain religious ceremonies, a knowledge of the obligations and duties imposed upon the initiate, a knowledge of certain symbolisms, and secret modes of recognition, and the oath and its invio lability.   The Fellowcraft was also instructed in the use of the implements of masonry, especially the square plumb, level, chisel, and mallet.

To render a member eligible for the position of Master, he had to make due proficiency in the arts and trades for the execution of civil, naval, and hydraulic architecture.

 

The Colleges comprised the civil and engineering science of the period in which they flourished ; _ therefore, accompanying each legion of the Roman armies, in their campaigns of conquest, was attached a brigade of the Frater nities, whose duties were to (lesign and construct the military roads, entrenched camps, and fortifications, and direct the labors of the soldiers and workmen in the execution of these works.t They were subject to the commanders of the legions only in matters pertaining to the movements of the army and military works, but otherwise they maintained all their privileges. On the return of an army, after a career of conquest, many of the Fraternities would remain in the conquered countries and engage in the erection of houses, bridges, and public edifices, disseminate their arts and doctrines, and found towns and cities.        In this way several of the most noted ancient cities, both in Britain and on the Continent, were founded-notably, the cities now known as London, York, St. Albans, in England, and Strasburg, Cologne, and Paris, on the Continent.

Subsequently, the Colleges were known as Guilds; and as the centuries advanced they improved their system, and not only kept abreast of the civilization of the day, but often led it.1

* Note 3, p. 195.        t Also see Rebold, pp. 71-73, 263.

Note 7, p. 195.           Also notes 14-20, pp. 197, 198.

COLLEGES AND GUILDS.            189

 

One of the earliest works the Colleges were engaged on was a temple to Jupiter Stator.

 

From 610 to 500 B.C. they prosecuted the erection of several renowned temples, a great sewer, the Cloaca maxima, through Rome, a strong wall around j      the Vimiual, Quirinal, and Esquiline Hills, which were then included in the city limits.      They also completed two extensive circuses; and between 500 and 480 B.C. they erected the temples to Saturn, Mercury, and Castor-Pollux. The year 451 B.C. was noted for the creation of the laws of the Twelve Tables, the eighth of which was for the regulation of the Colleges of Builders. Sixty-one years later Rome was sacked by the Gauls, and a part of its monuments destroyed, but they were re-erected by the Colleges.

 

Between 312 and 285 B.U. the celebrated Appian Way was constructed by the Colleges, or Fraternities, as they were now often called. They also constructed the first great aqueduct. The temple to Romulus, on which was placed the first sun-dial, was also erected about this time.

 

During the fifty years following (275 B.c.) the Romans conquered most of Gaul, and with the army came a large number of Fraternities, who proceeded to fortify strategic points, and construct great highways. They also founded the city of Cordova, in Spain, and Empordorum, in Gaul.

 

After the defeat of Hannibal by the Romans, the Fraternities erected a temple to commemorate the event.

The first city hall and court of justice in Rome was erected by the Fraternities, 125 B.C.

Prior to 75 B.C. military colonies were established by the Romans throughout Gaul, one colony in the vicinity of Massillia (Marseilles) and another near Arles.  Arles afterward became the capital of the Kingdom of Arles. Here the Fraternities erected an aYnpbitheatre, obelisk, and other noted works, the ruins of which are still to be seen.

Subsequently, Julius Csesar completed the conquest of Gaul, comprising what is known as France, and ordered the Fraternities to reconstruct and enlarge the cities now known as Treves, Rheims, Rouen, Bordeaux, Besangon, Lyous, Toulouse, and Paris.

They also erected in Paris two new temples, one to Isis, and one to 11 ithra.

 

190     COLLEGEti5 AND GUILDS.

 

Jewish architects in Rome were admitted into the Colleges of Builders A.D. 10. At this time particular attention was paid to teaching the Egyptian. Mysteries in the Colleges; and in the writings of Vitruvius Polliu he de scribes and extols the doctrines of the Fraternity, which, clothed in allegory and illustrated by symbols, then formed the basis of the teachings of those colleges.

 

F. Vespasian caused the Colleges to erect the famous Colosseum, A.D. 70. This vast structure was capable of containing 100,000 people; and under the supervision of the Fraternities 12,000 captive Jews were compelled to assist in its construction.

 

Marcus Aurelius caused the Colleges to construct the road from Civita to Arles? A.D. 163.

 

The break between the Government and the Fraternities, that had for some time existed on account of the new religion, was widened during the latter part of the reign of Aurelius, and later by Diocletian, by renewed and cruel persecutions of the proselytes, comprising a large portion of the Fraternities; and as a consequence, many of those who could not leave Rome found secure, if dismal, retreat in the vast Catacombs of the city against the bloody edicts issued against them. By sallying forth secretly by night, they man. aged to secure provisions, and thus existed in this noisome abode for years. Finally many of the more venturesome, including members of the CollegesMasons-made their escape to France and England.t

 

In the great procession ordered by Gallienus, in Rome (A.D. 263), the Colleges marched with shields and banners, having their place after the sacerdotal hierarchy.          Later, in the triumphant march of Aurelian, celebrating his victory over Zenobia, the Colleges attached to his army appeared in the pro. cession, bearing their banners.

 

Under the orders of the Emperor Aurelian, the Fraternity erected two temples to the Sun at Palmyra (A.D. 275). These edifices surpassed in grandeur the temples at Heliopolis.

 

In A.D. 313, Constantine the Great not only stopped the persecutions of the Christians, but caused a decree to be issued which established Christianity as the religion of the state.

 

* Note 13, p. 196.      f Rebold, pp. 277-281.

 

COLLEG-ES AND GUILDS.           193

 

The seat of government )f the Roman Empire was transferred to Byzantium, A.D. 325. And as the frequent irruptions of the northern savages rendered the occupation of the better class of artisans precarious in Rome, they soon after followed the imperial family to the new metropolis.         They the more readily sought the new capital, as many of them were Greeks by nativity, and preferred to consecrate their talents to the land of their birth. Therefore, Constantinople became the headquarters of master architects and other skilled artificers; and from the Byzantine Empire art again proceeded westward-light from the east again flashed forth to remote countries.

 

Immediately after removing to Byzantium, Constantine, by edict, placed the Colleges under the patronage of the Empire, and gave them immunity from all civil exactions, including taxation.          Thus the Colleges were estab lished by imperial recognition, and when the code was promulgated in -t38, all the privileges and immunities previously granted were confirmed to them. A.D. 330, Constantine changed the name of Byzantium to Constantino ple, and commenced immense improvements, which necessitated the assistance of many architects and workmen.    Consequently, the Masonic Fraternities came here in great numbers.  The foundations of the Church of Saint Sophia having already been laid, the work on this unique and splendid edifice was pushed to completion. Subsequently, this church was destroyed by fire, hat was re-erected, A.D. 550.    Finally the Turks converted it into a mosque, and thus it remains at this time.

As the colleges of artificers travelled extensively in the East and Europe, they were brought into contact with all forms of national life, and were subjected to the adventitious circumstances attendant upon a sojourn in distant countries; therefore, they travelled and worked in regularly organized bodies and always maintained the Colleges-Guilds.*

RACES.

 

As the terms Celtic, Gaul, Picts, and Scots will frequently occur hereafter in this work, a brief explanation of them will not be amiss here.

The Celtic nations were a group of the Aryan family that came from Asia, claimed by some to be Scythians, who invaded Europe, and finally- set

* Notes 12 to 20, pp. 196-198.

 

194     COLLEGES AND GUILDS.

 

tled in Spain, France, Northern Italy, Belgium, and the British Isles.       All the above countries, except Britain, were designated by the Romans as Gallia -Gaul.

The Picts, or Pictish, were a Celtic race, and were first known to history in the northeast of Scotland. Their descendants are now found in Ireland, the Highlands of Scotland, a part of Wales, and the north of France.

 

The Scoti, or Scots, were also a Celtic people from Ireland.

 

The Turanian races were the first to people the world beyond the limits of the original cradle of mankind.

 

In the ancient world the typical Turanians were the Egyptians ; in the modern, the Chinese and Japanese, and perhaps the Mexicans.

 

The Turanians existed in the valley of the Euphrates before the Semitic or Aryan races came there. The Tunguses in the north, the Mongols, Turks, and all the tribes generally described as Tartars, are Turanians.

 

The oldest people in Europe of this family are the Pelasgi and the Etruscans. The race also appears in the Magyars, Finns, and Lapps, but ultimately they were everywhere overpowered by the Aryans who drove them into remote corners.

 

THE SEMITIC RACES

 

developed themselves in the track of country between the Mediterranean, Tigris, and Red Sea; also in Abyssinia, and colonized the northern coast of Africa.

 

The Turanians were builders; the Semitic races never erected a building worthy of the name. When King Solomon decided to build the Temple at Jerusalem, he lead recourse to Turanians to take the lead in the work.

 

In Assyria the remains of splendid palaces have been found that were more or less Semitic, but having been built of wood and sun-dried bricks, their history was only preserved from the accident of their having been so clumsily built as to bury themselves with their tablets in their own ruins. T

 

* Arvan designates the ethnological division of the human race called Indo-European.           It consists

.,: an Eastern and Western branch. The Eastern branch comprises the people of Persia, Armenia, Afghanistan, and of Northern Hindoostan. The Western branch comprises the people of Europe, with the exception of the Turks, Magyars of Hungary, and the Finns of Lapland.

 

t See Fergusson, vol. i., p. 70; Haydn's Dates, p. 399.

 

COLLEGES AND GUILDS.            1195

 

The Aryans first appear prominently in the Western world in Greece, where by a union with the Pelasgi, a people apparently of Turanian race, they produced a civilization more brilliant than anything the world had before seen.

 

The Aryans next appear in Rome, mixed with the Turanians, Etruscans, and Celtic tribes of Italy; and lastly in Northern Europe.*

 

NOTES FROM AUTHORITIES.

 

1.         Plutarch and other historians ascribed the first organization of the Roman Colleges to Numa Pompilius, second king of Rome; although, as Newman conjectures, similar organiza tions previously existed among the Alban population.           See Mackey, p. 653.

 

2.         In proceeding with the inquiry into the early history of the Collegia, it will suffice, I think, as regards their extreme antiquity, to state that while their institutions have been coin0 ascribed to Numa, this figure of speech is most probably only another way of expressing that their existence was coeval with that of Rome itself.

 

3. A lawfully constituted College was legitimum, and an unlawful one, illicitum. The distinction is not clearly laid down.

 

4.         No College could consist of less than three members.    So indispensable was this rule that 'the expression, tres faciunt collegium, °` Three make a College," became a maxim of the civil law.

 

5.         In its constitution the College was divided into decuriae and centurim, bodies of ten and one hundred men ; and it was presided over by a magister and by decuriones-a master and wardens.     Among other officers there was a treasurer, sub-treasurer, secretary, and archivist.

 

To each candidate on his admission was administered an oath.           Dues and subscriptions were imposed to meet the expenses of the College.         The History of Free Masonry, by Gould, pp. 40-42.

 

6.         Peculiar religious rites were also practised, perhaps with a veil of secresy ; and those forms of worship constituted an additional bond of union.  Palgrave, Rise and Progress of the English Commonwealth, vol. i., p. 332.

 

7.         Although: no rules are extant of any of the trade Colleges of the Romans, some of those in use among the Colleges, Cultorum Dei, have descended to us.         Of one of these last-men. tioned corporations, the rules or. by-laws are given by Mr. Coote, who next cites corresponding regulations of three Guilds (or, as he prefers to style them, Colleges), established in

 

* See Fergusson, vol. i., pp. 55-75 ; Chambers, vol. v., pp. 9-16.

196     COLLEGES AND G UILDS.

 

London, Cambridge, and Exeter, respectively, composed of gentlemen or persons unconnected with trade ; and having carefully compared the rules of the British Guild with those of the College Cultores Dei already quoted, their resemblances are placed in formal juxtaposition, and he adds: "These coincidences, which cannot be attributed to imitations or mere copying, demonstrate the absolute identity of the Guild of England with the Collegium of Rome and of Roman Britain." Gould, vol. i., p. 43; Coote, The Romans in Britain, pp. 390-413.

 

8.         These Colleges held secret meetings, in which the business transacted consisted of the initiation of neophytes into their fraternity, and of mystical and esoteric instructions to their apprentices and journeymen.            They were, in this respect, secret societies like Masonic Lodges. The first regulation, which was an indispensable one, Nvas that no College could consist of less than three members.

Each College was presided over by a chief or president, N\hose title of Magister is exactly translated by the English word " Master." The next officers were the Decuriones. They were analogous to the Masonic " Wardens."

 

9.         There was also in the Colleges a Scriba, or " Secretary," who recorded its proceedings; a Thesaurensis, or "Treasurer," who had charge of the common chest; a Tabularius, or keeper of the archives, equivalent to the modern "Archivist ; " and lastly, as these Colleges combined a peculiar religious worship with their operative labors, there was in each of them a Sacerdos, or priest, who conducted the religious ceremonies, and was thus exactly equivalent to the "Chaplain" of a Masonic Lodge.

 

10. In the Colleges, applicants for admission were elected, as in the Masonic Lodges, by the voice of the members.       Mackey, p. 654.

 

11.       The partly religious character of the Roman Colleges of Artificers constitutes a very peculiar analogy between them and Masonic Lodges.         The history of these Colleges shows that an ecclesiastical character was bestowed upon them at the very time of their organization by Numa.

 

12.       It cannot be doubted that Krause is correct in this theory : that the incunabula, the cradle or birthplace of the modern Masonic Lodges, is to be found in Roman Colleges of architects.

 

13.       But when we view Free Masonry in a higher aspect, when we look at it as a science of symbolism, the whole of which symbolism is directed to but one point, namely, the elucidation of the great doctrine of immortality of the soul, and the teachings of the two lives, the present and the future, we must go beyond the Colleges of Rome, which were only operative associations, to that older type to be found in the Ancient Mysteries, where precisely the same doctrine was taught in precisely the same manner.      Mackey, 657, 658.

COLLEGES AND GUILDS 197

 

14.       On page iv of preface to Fort's Early History and Antiquities of Free Masonry, he says :        "The immediate argument and scope of this treatise may be briefly stated as follows. To commence with a narrative of the state of fine arts at the decline and fall of the Roman Empire, and also of the propagation of architecture and its kindred sciences by bodies of builders, who developed into Middle-Age Free Masons.

 

15.       Again, at page 40, in speaking of the presentation of the Greek artists in the eighth century, he says: " Upon their arrival in Italy and in Southern Europe, they were quickly associated with the corporations of builders."

151. After the sixth century, translators and commentators designate the Roman corporations as Guilds as often as they do Colleges.   See Gould, vi., p. 39.

GUILDS.

 

16.       We cannot wonder that, at a period when artificers and artists of every class, from those of the most mechanical, to those of the most intellectual, nature, formed themselves into exclusive corporations of architects, which in conformity to the general style of such corpora tions, assumed that of Free and Accepted Masons, and was composed of those members who, after a regular passage through the different stages of apprenticeship, were received as masters and entitled to exercise their profession on their own account.  '

 

17.       Those Italian corporations of builders, therefore, whose services ceased to be necessary, in the countries where they lead arisen, now began to look abroad toward those northern climes, for that employment which they no longer found at home ; and a certain number united and formed themselves into a single greater association or fraternity, which proposed to seek occupation beyond its native land ; and in any ruder foreign region, however remote, where new religious edifices and skilful artists to erect them, were wanted, to offer their services.

 

18.       Whenever they carne in the suite of missionaries, or were called by the natives, or arrived of their own accord to seek employment, they appeared headed by a chief surveyor, who governed the whole troop, and named one roan out of every ten, under the name of warden, to overlook the nine others.

Even in England, as late as the reign of Henry VI., iY, an indenture of covenants made between the church wardens of a parish in Suffolk, and a company of Free Masons, the latter stipulated that every mail shrill be provided,with a pair of white leather gloves and an apron ; and that a Lodge, properly tiled, should be erected at the expense of the parish, in which to hold their meetings.      See Hope on Architecture, pp. 229 to 238.

 

19.       Hughan, one of England's noted historians, says: " Believing as we do that the present associations of Free Masonry are an outgrowth of the Building corporations and Guilds of

 

198     COLLEGES AND G U11-D8.

 

the Middle Ages, as also the lineal descendants and sole representatives of the early secret Masonic Sodalities, it appears to us that their ancient laws and charges are specially worthy of preservation, study, and reproduction."

 

20.       In Germany, and in Germany alone, we have, among the archives of chapters, found actual working drawings of edifices erected, or to be erected, on such a scale, and so complete and minute, as to prove that on the spot, and among the local Lodges of Free Masons, existed as well the bead that invented, as the hand that executed, those monuments.    Hope, p. 423.

 

198

 

 

199

 

CHAPTER VI.

 

GERMANY AND VICINITY.

 

The Romans Invade Germany but Meet with, a Stubborn Resistance, which Gave the Colleges of Builders Plenty of Occupation in Constructing Bridges, Forts, and -Entrenched Camps.-B. C. 10, they Cut a Canal through between the Rhine and Issel, and Opened a Passage to the Zuider Zee.-Fighting Step by Step, the Romans so far Establish Tlaemselves in A.D. 100, that not only Markets but Towns had Sprung up in Various Places, and by A.D. 225 Manufactures, Temples, and Theatres were Becoming Numerous.-Salzburg, Ratisbon, Augsburg, Strasburg, Basle, Baden, Cologne, and other Noted Cities were Founder? -All under the Supervision of the Colleges, whose Achievements were so well Appreciated by the more Intelligent Natives that they Eagerly Sought Initiation into this Roman Society, and thus its Arts and Ethics were Perpetuated here under the name of Guilds.

 

HAVING sketched the operations of the Colleges of Constructors in Rome, and in the Roman armies, their advent into Germany, and the noted events pertaining to their stay in that country will now be given.

 

In the year 113 B.C. the Romans, who were guarding the passes into Italy, were confronted by a wild and unknown tribe from across the Danube.

 

Soon after this, they defeated the Romans near Norega, in the mountains. Carbo, who commanded the Romans here, had proved treacherous to them, for upon their request to remain on friendly terms with him, he had provided them with false guides, who misled them among the mountains, while he advanced by a shorter route and fell unexpectedly upon them. For this breach of faith they fought the Romans furiously, and would have utterly destroyed them had not a heavy storm intervened and assisted the latter in their flight.

 

200     GERMANY AND VICINITY.

 

Whence these hordes originally came no one knew.        They called them selves Cimbri and Teutoni.        It appears, however, that the Cimbri had for a considerable length of time been wandering about, and had already fought with many nations, and now, quitting the Danube, appeared upon the Roman frontiers.            Whether they are to be considered as collective tribes intent upon migrating, or only as troops of warriors seeking adventures, or people who had formed themselves by c egrees into one entire mass or nation by the junction of different tribes, and required a country wherein to settle, cannot be positively decided.

 

The Romans, who were contemplating the conquest of the whole earth, were astonished to now find themselves defeated by a horde whose name they scarcely knew; therefore, they quickly collected together another large army under the Consul Marcus Manlius, and sent it to the assistance of Scipio, whose legate, Scaurus, had been vanquished. But the envy and dissension that existed between the generals now paralyzed their action, which the Germans took advantage of, and gave them such a battle that eighty thou. sand Romans and their allies were left dead upon the field.

 

The Consul Marius, however, soon collected another large army and con. ducted it over the Alps to the river Rhodanus (the Rhone), and there formed a defensive camp, where he rested and drilled his troops for a short time. He then moved on to Aquae Sextoo, the present Aix, in the south of France, where a multitude of the Germans were ready to dispute his further progress. Here a terrible battle ensued, which resulted in such a route of the Germans that the Romans killed and took prisoners more than one hundred thousand. Shortly after this battle, the Prince of the Teutoni, Teutobod, was taken prisoner in his flight across the mountains, and was subsequently forced to form in Rome the chief ornament in the triumphant train of Marius ; and according to the account of the Romans, he was so tall that his figure rose above all the trophies. The arms and booty were burnt as a great sacrifice to the gods, excepting only what was preserved of the most costly and rare. This battle took place in the year 102 B.c., eleven years after the battle of Noreja.

Subsequently, Julius Caesar appeared upon the scene and confronted Ariovistus, a vain German chief, who had invaded Gaul and gained some advantages. To Caesar's request for an interview, Ariovistus returned an

 

GERMANY AND VICINITY.  201

 

insolent reply, which soon resulted in a fierce and bloody battle, in which the Germans were defeated with great slaughter.

 

When the Germans were driven to flight, they hastened toward the Rhine. But the Roman cavalry overtook the greater part, and but few, among whom was Ariovistus, saved themselves by swimming or by traversing the river in small boats.   His two wives were killed in the flight, and of his two daughters, one was slain and the other taken prisoner. Ariovistus himself was not again heard of.

Cmsar next began the subjection of the Gallic tribes, which he conquered one after the other, and kept constantly advancing to tire lower Rhine. Intelligence then came to him that two German tribes had passed over that river to seek a new settlement in Gaul.

 

            He therefore determined to build a bridge across the Rhine and make the Germans feel in their own country the power of Rome. In ten days he constructed, with much ingenuity, below the place where the Moselle falls into the Rhine, a large wooden bridge, and crossed it with his army.

 

Caesar's design was to attack the confederation of the Suevi ; they, however, retreated with their wives and children far back into the interior of the forest, and there awaited the enemy.   But Caesar, finding that they had se lected their ground with great prudence, did not consider it advisable to follow them thus far. He therefore halted only eighteen days on the right bank of the Rhine, devastated with fire and sword the vicinity of the siege; where the Siganbri then dwelt, and then returned across the river.

 

Later Caesar again crossed the Rhine, and again the Germans retired to their forest strongholds, upon which he re-crossed the river as before; and after this he did not again pass into Germany, but endeavored to raise troops from among them to serve in his legions.   This was easy to do among such a brave people, where there were always bold men ready to go forth for pay, booty, and the love of war. Caesar was likewise a hero, who well understood how to win the hearts of his warriors; he always led them to victory. . German subsidies helped him thenceforth to win his battles, and at Pharsalus, where he fought the last battle against Pompey, and where it was decided which of the two should rule the,world, they afforded him important aid. Caesar was assassinated 44 B.c.

202

 

1'lie Romans also attacked those tribes which dwelt upon the sides of the Alps toward Germany-Tyrol-tribes partly of Gallic and partly- of un

known origin, who, being unable to defend themselves against their skilled enemies, were not only conquered, but many of them were sold as slaves.

 

This contest was concluded in the year 15 s.c.     Henceforward the river Danube was, on the east side; the boundary between the Romans and the Germans.           From the other side, however, the river Rhine was no longer to

 

GERMANY AND VICINITY.

 

ST. GOAR.

 

(For the subjects of illustrations see pages 240 and 241.)

GERMANY AND VICINITY.  203

 

remain so, for Auo ustus sent his stepson, Claudius Drusus, a hero competent to accomplish great works, to attack the Germans in their own country.

 

In the years from 12 to 9 B.C. lie warred with the Suevi, Usipeti, and other tribes, and passed on from the lower Rhine to the rivers Lippe and Ems, as far as the Elbe.      But his invasion did not result in conquests.            He, however, prepared the way for further operations, as he caused his Colleges of Constructors to build strong forts at the mouths of the rivers which emptied into the Rhine and the North Sea, thus enabling him to convey into the country a portion of his army with greater security upon a fleet of small vessels, and to transport their provisions conveniently after.

 

For this purpose he also commenced a canal and united the Rhine, between Doesberg and Isselort, with the Issel. By means of this canal the Rhine was brought into connection with the Zuider Zee, the Flevum Ostiuin

of the ancients ; and the Romans, henceforth, by means of this outlet, were enabled to have communication with the North Sea from all their strongholds on the Rhine. Drusus also took this mode of uniting himself with the Friesi at.d of reaching the mouth of the Ems by sea, where he likewise built a fort, opposite to the present Emden.           On the Rhine lie built forts, and strongly fortified Bonn and Mentz, the last upon the border against the. Suevi, and provided them with bridges and flotillas for their defence.       Also upon the Tauuus Mountains, near the present Hamburg, he built a fort as a defence against the Chatti.

 

In his last campaign, Drusus advanced from his fort on the Taunus Mountains into the land of the Chatti, beat them, as well as the Marcomanni, under Marbodius, and forced the latter to retreat further eastward; but although he was victorious, he lost his life; for on his return he fell from his horse, and died a few weeks afterward from his injuries.

Tiberius, his brother, succeeded him in the command.    IIe was of an artful and deceptive disposition ; and besides arms, he employed finesse against his enemies; and by the aid of the strong forts placed on the Rhine and its affluents, and of the frontier walls which inclosed the occupied country, the northwestern portions of Germany, nearly as far as the Weser, appeared to be already subdued-a Roman province.

 

* History of Germany by Kohlrausch, p. 51.

 

204     GERMAN Y AND VICINITY.

 

Since the invasion of the German country a multitude of its youths had arrived at Rome ; some as hostages, some as prisoners, and many were in the Roman service. These became acquainted with Roman military affairs, their art of government, and their craft, civil and military.

 

This, and the campaigns and forts of Drusus, and the cunningly devised

 

TRIENT--TRENT.

 

arts of Tiberius, had not only rendered the intercourse between the Romans and German; extensive, but so intimate as to effect a great change in the National manners and customs of the latter. Under the supervision of the Colleges of builders, bridges and dikes were built across the morasses; towns with markets sprang up around the Roman camps, which enticed the Germans to purchase and barter.          The Roman Governor, Sentius Saturninus, who was in Germany in the year 6 A.n.. contributed much to these changes, as he was a man who united honesty with affability; and as many of the Germans worked

 

GERMANY AND YICTNITY. 205

 

under the Colleges in their military and civil works, it came to pass that many of the more intelligent were received into their ranks.

Yet, notwithstanding the submission and conformity of the Germans to Roman laws and customs, the love of liberty was as strong as ever with them, and only needed a competent leader to precipitate a revolt.

 

Among the German youths who had resided in Rome was Arminius (by some called Hermann), the son of Segimer, Prince of the Cherusci, who, by distinguished military service, had acquired the right and dignity of a Roman citizen and knight, and had returned to his country well instructed and practised in all the arts of war. With these advantages and a determination to free his country from the Roman domination, he soon managed to gain the confidence of his countrymen, and become their leader.            He first, from the disaffected tribes, got together a large army, which he concentrated in the depths of the Teutoburger forest, in the present principality of Lippe-Detmold.

 

Around his position on all sides were mountains and narrow valleys, with nowhere a beaten path visible-nothing but a thickly-grown and impenetrable wood.

Into this trap the Romans under Varus, who was now in command, were tempted to advance. It was in the stormy autumn season-heavy rains had made the ground slippery and every step unsafe, while the tempest above roared.            Warriors, beasts of burden, loaded with baggage and ammunition, all pressed heedlessly on as in perfect security.           But suddenly, from out of the thickets on all sides, the German hordes charged upon them, and by dint of numbers and desperate fighting, succeeded after a two days battle, in nearly annihilating the Roman army.

 

Upon receipt of this terrible news, Tiberius was hastily despatched to the Rhine with a rapidly collected army. But to his astonishment, he found everything quiet; and not being disposed to penetrate the country far in quest of an enemy, nothing was accomplished.    In a short time afterward be succeeded Augustus in the Empire, and transferred to his nephew, Germanicus, the son of Drusus, the management of the war against the Germans.

 

Germanicus, having in mind the great example of his father, resolved to revenge the defeat of Varus ; therefore, he made such preparations as in. sured his success.            He collected a large fleet of vessels, with deep and

 

206     GERMANY AND VICINITY

 

broad holds, and smaller ones with flat bottoms for landing. Everything being ready, he embarked his army of not less than ninety thousand men, and passing through the Fossa Drusiana into the North Sea, landed at the mouth of the Ems.     Here the Chauci were obliged to supply an auxiliary army, and the Angrivari were forced into subjection on the lower Weser.            The Romans then advanced and took a position between the present Minden and. Vlotho. Here they were attacked by Arminius, at the head of the Germans, and a battle ensued; but after a long and fierce contest the Germans were defeated.

Of the subsequent fate of Arrninius, Tacitus relates that he was murdered in the year 21, in the thirty-seventh year of his age.

 

Although the Romans were successful in the last campaign, they thought no more of subduing Germany, but applied themselves solely to securing their frontiers against the incursions of the German tribes and Eastern hordes.           As a stroke of policy, the Emperor Claudius granted to the chief seat of the Ubi, the distinction of a colony of his retired veterans ; and later, in honor of his consort, Agrippina, born on that spot, it was called Colonia Agrippina (Cologne).

 

The allied tribes were now frequently overrunning the Roman territory, but were temporarily checked by Marcus Aurelius, who however, died from his exertions during the campaign at Windobona (the present Vienna), in the year 180.

 

A.D. 22,5.-At this time the Germans had become acquainted with money and many luxuries. The Romans had planted the vine on the Rhine, and constructed roads, cities, manufactories, theatres, fortresses, temples, and altars. Roman merchants brought their wares to Germany, and carried back amber, feathers, furs, slaves, and the very hair of the Germans; for it was now the fashion in Rome to wear light flaxen wigs instead of the natural hair.

 

From the foregoing sketch of history, it will be seen that the long intercourse between the Germans and Romans had, as a consequence, resulted in thoroughly familiarizing the former with the essentials of Roman civilization -especially the arts and ethics of the Colleges, as many of the more intelligent natives had joined the latter after having assisted them in their works. The operations of the Colleges included the founding of the following citiesviz., Salzburg, Ratisbon, Augsburg, Basle, Strasburg, Baden, Spires, Worms,

 

GERMANY AND VICINITY.  209

 

Mentz, Treves, Cologne, and Bonn.            Remains of their military works are also still to be seen.

 

The time was, however, near at hand when the Roman. sway would terwinate in Germany, for the Germans from the west, and the Goths from the banks of the Vistula and the Black Sea, were pressing the Romans east and west.           The Emperor Valens, in an attempt to stay the progress of the Goths under Fridigern, was defeated, and taking refuge in a but was discovered, and the but burnt over his head.   This occurred in 378.    ,

The. Emperor Theodosius contrived to weaken the Goths by divisions, and made Fridigern's successor, Athan-aric, conclude a peace.

 

Theodosius died in the year 395, and his two sons, Honorius and Arcadius, divided the Empire between them. Arcadius took his seat at Constantinople, and Honorius in Italy. The first division was called the Eastern, and the second the Western, Empire. Soon after this, Alaric the Goth advanced against Italy, against Rome itself; and in this once proud metropolis the terror of the people amounted to a panic. For since six hundred years they had seen no enemy before their city, nor during eight hundred years bad they beheld an enemy within their walls; hence the title, the " Eternal City.,, When the Romans fully realized their great peril, they promised to comply with the demands of Alaric, which were five thousand pounds of gold and thirty thousand of silver, besides a multiplicity of rare and costly articles.       To meet this demand they were obliged to have recourse to the ornannents and decorations of the ancient temples; and it is said that, among the statues of their divinities, that of Valor was also melted down.

 

Notwithstanding this great sacrifice and humiliation, Alaric marched on Rome the second time acid tool: it by storm. This took place on the 23d of Aug-st, in the year 410.      The Goths plundered the palace, and houses of the nobles; but they so far moderated their ire, that they did not burn the city. Following this were the ravages of Attila the Hun; but singularly enough, the crowning catastrophe was to come from Africa-Carthage-as Genseric the Vandal king came over, overthrew and devastated Rom-6 in 455.

Passing over the intervening general history, we arrive at a period when Christianity began to exercise a decided influence on the affairs of nations, and give a different turn to civilization, the arts, and sciences.

 

14

210     GERMANY AND YTCTNTT Y.

 

Winifred, who afterward received the title of Bonifacius (the Beneficent), was one of the first who rendered the new status conspicuous in Germany. He labored from the year 718 to 705, with inexhaustible courage, for Chris tianity in Franconia, Thuringia, on the Rhine, and among the Saxons and Friesi. He also possessed a knowledge of architecture, which enabled him to collect the communities into villages, and thus lay the foundations of new towns.

 

As many of the Ger. mans had received their first knowledge of the Masonic art from their intercourse with the Romans and their Colleges of Builders, they were prepared to co-operate with him in his laudable designs. To facilitate his operations he divided his force into two classes,

 

" Magistri        Operum,"        or Masters, and Operui, or Craftsmen. In addition to these, laymen were employed, under the su

OLD GATE HOUSE, HILDESHEIM.

(For subjects of illustrations see pages 240 and 241.)

pervision of the Magistri,

'           and as there were many men of intelligence among them they gradually became possessed of the skill and esoteric principles of their masters, so that ultimately they be came strong enough to separate themselves from the ecclesiastical fraternities, and not only form organizations of their own, but monopolize the construction of important edifices throughout the country.

 

Charlemagne (768-814) also paid great attention to architecture and

 

GERMANY AND VICINITY.  211

 

agriculture in his dominions, which was soon imitated by the Ecclesiastics, who, with axe and fire vigorously attacked the gloomy forests, and opened up to cultivation vast areas of forest lands ; and in connection with companies of Craftsmen, commenced to erect church edifices and other buildings upon the cleared ground.            Previous to the time of Charlemagne, houses 'were mostly constructed of wood-stone was seldom used, and tile was rare.        The wooden cabins contained but one room, from the middle of which arose a single post, which furnished a support for the roof.           But under Charlemagne stone dwellings as well as public edifices of stone were introduced. The celebrated palaces of the Emperor at Aachen, lngelheim, and the residences o£ the nobility, were built of stone.

 

            As an illustration of the style of the day, one of the Emperor's dwellings contained eleven work-rooms, three sleeping apartments, and two for storage.

950. From this time forth wooden structures were torn down, and in every direction arose new buildings, larger and more elegant than those that preceded them. A.D. 1001 the Church of St. Benigne and the rotunda at Dijon were constructed.   From 1005 to 1020 there were erected at Rheims, Tours, Cambrai, Orleans, Limoges, and in other towns in France, numerous cathe. drals and other edifices, affording employment to a large array of craftsmen. Clugny Abbey still possesses a curious structure which dates back to the year 1088.

 

The Cathedral at Ainiens was completed in 1288.           Sainte Chapelle was built in 1248, and Notre Dame, of Paris, was finished in 1275.        The Cathedral at Worms was also completed in the thirteenth century.*

LOMBARDY.

Although the building fraternities were found located in that part of Cisalpine Gaul afterward known as Venice and Lombardy, as early as 288 B.c., yet it was not until several centuries later that their history here became conspic. uous.

In the spring of 568 King Alboni broke up from Hungary with. all his Lon. gobardian men, their women and children, accompanied by twenty thousand

* Fort, pp. 38-71.

212

Saxons,in(l leaving the country to their allies, the Avari, they, set out to locate themselves in a land more fruitful, and under skies more genial. It way a beautiful morning, when from the heights of one of the mountain, of the Alps, afterward called the King's lblountain, the astonished strangers cast their eyes down upon lvhat was for the future to be their country.

 

The condluest of Pavia, at the conflue>>ce of the Ticino a--id the Po, soon follo\ved, and Alboni's dominion in Upper Italy was established. Subsequently lie made Pavia the chief city of those districts.    In Lower Italy, also, this people conquered beautiful tracts of land and founded the principality of Benevento, which comprises the greater portion of the present kingdom of Naples; and it was only by the intervention of the Fraiila that the Longobardi were prevented from taking possession of the whole of Italy.*

 

The Longobardi being ignorant of the builder's art, had recourse to the Romart Colleges, and I3yz(t-ntine noo),kynenn. Numerous structures were erected in Northern Italy by them, including a church dedicated to St. John the Baptist, near Milan, in which the celebrated iron crown was preserved.

 

After th2, fall of the Roman Empire, Lombardy became a centre of trade, art, and architectural science, and from thence went forth Colleges or Guilds of Masons into the northern and western parts of Europe. This also contributed to the origin of the Gernian Guilds of the Medieval Ages.t

 

King Rotfaris of Lombardy promulgated an edict, which expressly mentions the Colleges of Builders, and their Masters as NIagistri.

 

In A.D. 1051 a large number of the craft united in Lombardy for the purpose of reviving the operations of the Colleges, and their design was seconded by the Church, the Abbots, and Prelates, many of whom esteemed, it an honor to become members of the Fraternity and participate in their secrets.

 

Lombardy long maintained its preeminence as an active centre of the arts, wherever fragments of the Colleges of Builders were located, they having survived the ordeal of many wars, and fully maintained their old organization; but they now passed under the name of Free Corporations-Guilds.

 

GERMANY AXI) VICINITY.

* History of Germany, by Koldrausch, p. 81.

f Mackey's Cyclopxdia, p. 823; Rebold, pp. 50, 73, 297.

GERXA1V Y AND VICINITY.           215

STRASBURG}.

 

The original Cathedral of Strasburg was founded in 504, but in 1007 it was struck by lightning and nearly destroyed.      The present edifice was com menced in 1015.    Its spire is four hundred and sixty-six feet high, being one of the highest in the world.         The nave and the western front is the glory and boast of this edifice, and possesses, in a remarkable degree, all the beauties of the German style.          The details are pure and beautiful, and the design is of peculiar boldness.         Altogether, this is one of the finest Gothic edifices in Europe.

 

The Cathedral at Ratisbon, although much smaller, is another beautiful specimen of German art.    It was commenced in the year 1275.

 

It was at the Masonic Congress at Strasburg, in 1275, under Erwin of Steinbach, that the German fraternity, in imitation of their English brethren, assumed the name of Freemasons and established a system of regulations for the government of the craft.

 

OLD DOCUMENTS.

 

AS the internal workings of the Masonic Institution during the Mediaeval Ages will be best seen from the old manuscripts and documents that have been preserved and brought to light, the most important of those belonging to Germany, France, and England will be presented in connection with the Masonic history of those countries.

 

THE STRASBURG CONSTITUTIONS.

 

Item: No craftsman or master shall be received in the Fraternity who goes not yearly to the Holy Communion, or who keeps not Christian discipline, or who squanders his substance at play; but should anyone be inad vertently accepted into the Fraternity who does these things as aforesaid, then shall no master nor fellow keep fellowship with him until be desists therefrom, and has been punished therefor by those of the Fraternity.

* Unimportant portions are omitted.

 

216

GER-111A1VY AND TrIOIVITY.

 

No craftsman nor master shall live in adultery while engaged in masonry; but if such a one will not desist therefrom, then shall no travelling fellow nor Mason work in company with him, nor keep fellowship with him.

 

If a master have a complaint against another master for Having violated the regulations of the craft, or a master against a fellow, or a fellow against another fellow, any master or fellow who is c()ncerned therein shah give no tice thereof to the roaster who presides over the Fraternity, and the master who is inforinetl thereof shall hear both parties, and set a day when he will try the cause ; and meanwhile, bef,;re the fired or appointed day, no fellow shall avoid the master, nor master drive away the fellow, but render services mutually until the hour when the matter is toy lie Heard and settled.           This sliall all be done according to the judgment of the craftsmen, which shall be observed accordingly.

 

            Moreover, the case shall he tried on the spot where it arose, before the nearest toaster who keeps the Book of Statutes, and in whose district it occurred.

Item: Every Parlirer * shall honor his master, be true and faithful to him according to the rule of Masonry, and obey hini with undivided fidelity, as is meet and of ancient usag(%        So also shall a fellow.

 

And when a travellinng fellow-craft desires to travel further, he shall part from his master and from the Lodge; in such wise as to be indebted to no one, and that no man have any grievance against kiln, as is meet and proper.

 

A travelling fellow, in whatever Lodge lie may be employed, shall be obedient to his master and to the p~Lrlirer, according to the role and ancient usage of Masonry, and shall also keep all the regulations and privileges which are of ancient usage in the said Lodge.

If a complaint be made involving a greater punishment, as, for instance, expulsion from Masonry, the same shall not be. tried or judged by one master in his district, but the two nearest masters who are intrusted with the copies of the Statutes, and who have authority Over the Fraternity, shall be sumtnoned by him, so that there may be three. The fellows also who were at work at the place where the grievance arose shall be summoned also, and whatsoever shall be with one accord agreed upon by those three, together with all the fellows, or by a majority thereof, in accordance with their oath * Parlirer (orator, speaker) held au intermediate position between the fellow and the master.

 

GERMANY AND VICINITY.  219

 

and best judgment, shall be observed by the whole Fraternity of craftsmen.

 

Item: If two or more masters who are of the Fraternity be at variance or discord about matters which do not concern Masonry, they shall not settle these matters anywhere but before Masonry, which shall judge and reconcile them as far as possible.

 

If a mason or fellow fall sick, or a fellow who is of the Fraternity, and has lived uprightly in Masonry, be afflicted with protracted illness and want for food and necessary money, then shall the master who has charge of the box lend him relief and assistance.

 

THE STATUTES OF THE PARLIRERS AND FELLOWS.

 

No craftsman or master shall set at work a fellow who commits adultery, or who openly lives in illicit intercourse with women, or who does not yearly make confession, and goes not to the Holy Communion, according to Christian discipline, nor one who is so foolish as to lose his clothing at play.

 

Item: If any fellow should wantonly take leave of a Grand Lodge or from another Lodge, he shall not ask for employment in the said Lodge for a year to come.

 

THE APPRENTICES.

 

No craftsman nor master shall knowingly accept as an apprentice one who is not of lawful birth, and shall earnestly inquire thereof before be accepts him, and shall question such apprentice on his word, whether his father and mother were duly united in lawful wedlock.

Although by Christian discipline every Christian is bound to provide for his own salvation, yet it must be duly remembered by the masters and crafts. men.*

 

THE BROTHER BOOK.t

 

The Ordinances and Articles of the Fraternity of Masons, renewed at the Chief Lodge at Strasburg on St. Michael's Day MDLXIII.

 

* Steinbrenner, pp. 84 to 95.            f Gould, vol. i., p. 119.

220

GERMANY AND VICINITY

 

THr+: FIRST ARTICLE.

 

That if any article in this. Look be too hard or heavy, or any be too light, then pray those wlio~ are, of our Guild, hcing in a majority, alter, lesseei, or increase such articles, according to the tiiue,, the necessities of the land, and the course of affairs.

And NN-lien there is a general summons they shall meet together in chapter form, according to the contents of this bool:, and their resolutions shall be kept on the oath wliielr each one has taken.

 

Whoso comes into this Guild of his own good will, as hereafter stands written in this book, he shall promise to keep every point and article if lie be of our craft of Masonry.

 

            .           .           And be it masters or fellows, they shall and must conduct themselves honorably, and none shall be wronged by them; Ordinances to punish them on the

therefore have we taken power in these occasion of every such act.

 

Whoever it be, either plaster or Below, who shall oust from his work an. other master who is of this Guild of craftsmen, or shall apply for the work that he possesses, be it large or small, the same shall be brought to task, and no master or fellow shall have any corneuunion with Min. And no fellow who is of this Guild shall enter into his employ so long as lie possesses the work which he has dishonorably obtained; nor until he shall have made restitution and given satisfaction to him who Nvas thus dispossessed of the work; and also until lie shall have been punished by the masters, who are enjoined to do so by the Guild.

 

And no craftsman or master shall take money from a fellow for showing teaching him anything touching Masonry.

 

No craftsman or master shall be received into the Guild who goes not yearly to the Holy Sacrament, or keeps not Christian discipline, and sduanders his substance in play.

 

            But should anyone be inadvertently accepted into the Guild who does these things as aforesaid, no master shall keep company with him; nor shall any fellow stand by him until he shall have ceased to do so, and been punished by those of this Guild.

 

If a fellow takes wore: of a master who has not been advanced in this

Or

 

GERMANY AND VICINITY.  223

 

Guild of craftsmen, he shall not be punished therefor; but nevertheless, the fellow shall keep the Ordinances as hereinbefore and hereafter written.        And what it behooves him to give to the Guild, that shall be done by him.     .           .           . But if a fellow would take unto himself a lawful wife, and not being employed in a Lodge, would establish himself in a city, he shall on every Ember week pay four pennies, as long as he shall not be employed in one of the Lodges.

 

It is also further decided, as regards the driving away:     If it happen that anything be reported of a master or fellow, a matter of hearsay, repeated from one to the other, so long as it is not certain ; and if the aforesaid is not right eously convicted thereof, he shall be avoided or driven away by no one, but pursue his work until such time as it shall be really brought home to him, and he be righteously convicted.

 

It is also decided, that where a matter begins and takes its rise, there it shall be settled, or in the nearest Lodge where a book lies. And neither party shall appeal until plaint and answer take place and are heard, nor carry the matter further than aforesaid, unless it be rejected there.

 

All those, be they roasters or fellows, who are of this Guild, shall hold in obedience all points and articles as stand both before and hereafter written. But if anyone should perchance break one of the points and become punish able, and if afterward he be obedient to the regulations by sufficing to that which has been ordered as amends, he shall have done sufficient, and be released from his vow as regards the article wherefore he has been punished.

 

CONCERNING THE PUNISHMENTS THAT MAY ENTAIL EXPULSION FROM THE CRAFT.

 

If a complaint be laid before a master, such as would entail the greater punishment ; for instance, if anyone is to be forbidden the craft, that shall the master of -a district not hear or judge of alone, but call. to his aid the two nearest masters, who also possess a book and power according to these ordinances; that there may be three of them, and also the fellows that are in the employ where the complaint arose; and that which these three, together with the fellows, unanimously or by a majority, shall then decide on their oath and to the best of their judgment, that shall hereafter be maintained by the whole body of craftsmen.

 

GERMANY AND VICINITY

 

WHEN QUARRELs ARISE, NOT CONCERNING MASONRY.

 

Should it be that two or more masters who are of this Guild be at variance or discord about matters which do not concern Masoiiry, they shall not, on account of this difference, summon one another anywhere but before the craft and brotherhood ; and they shall judge and reconcile then, to i,he best of their ability.

 

All masters and craftsmen who are of this Guild, and Gave Lodge employ. ment, shall each possess a box, and every fellow shall pay thereto every week one penny, and every master shall faithfully collect such money and whatever else may be due, and annually account for it tc the Guild where the nearest boot: lies, that the poor may be relieved, and the necessities of our Guild provided for.

 

Should it be that a master or fellow be put to expense, or defray anything on account of the Guild, and notice be given how the same occurred, siich expense, be it large or small, shall be returned to such master or fell(mw out of the (mild box.  And also, if anyone coine to grief with justice orr Other things touching this Guild, then shall everyone, be he the master or fellow, l)e helpful to the other, and lend him assistance on his oath to the Guilcl.       Nevertheless, no one shall, of his own accord, without advice of other iuasters and fellows, put the Brotherhood to any expense.

 

A travelling fellow, in whatever Lodge lie may be employed, shall be obedient to his master and warden, according to the rule and ancient usages of Masonry, and shall also keep all the regulations and privileges which are of ancient usage in the said Lodge.

And a fellow shall not revile his master's work, either secretly or openly.

 

No master or craftsman shall employ any fellow who consorts with a woman in adultery, or who openly lives a dishonorable life with women, or wlio goes not to the Holy Communion according to Christian discipline, or o«c who is so foolish as to game away his clothing.        Should it be that a craftsman or work-master have a travelling fellow in his employment, and wish to discharge him, he shall not discharge him except of a Saturday or pay evening, that he may know how to travel on the morrow, unless he have

GE-RXA:VY A1VI) VICINITY.           227

given cause of offence.        The same shall also be done by a fellow, if he demand his discharge.

 

Likewise the fellow shall, in the future, make no more mutinies or con. spiracies to leave any employ collectively. But should a master behave otherwise than right in any case, he shall be summoned before the craft, and submit to its judgment.

 

No fellow shall go out from the Lodge without leave ; or if he go to his broth or any other meal, not remain out without leave; nor shall any male Holy Monday.     If anyone do so, he shall stand to punishment by the master and fellows, and the master shall have power to discharge him in the week when he will.

 

In the first place, every apprentice, when lie has served his time and is declared free, shall promise the craft, on his truth and honor, in lieu of oath, that he will disclose or communicate the mason's greeting and grip to no one, except to him to whom he may justly communicate it, and also that he will write nothing thereof.

 

And no one shall alter, of his own will and power, his mark which has been granted and lent him by a craft; but if he will ever desire to alter it, he shall only do it with the knowledge, will, and approval of a whole craft.

 

THE TORGAU ORDINANCES, 1462.*

 

Concernin y the worshipful Wasters of k5tone-masons of the Craft, the Wardens, and the Fellows.

 

All Articles and Statutes, as they are written in the Book; how each and every one in his conduct and station in the craft shall demean himself, both here in Zwickau and elsewhere, in all lands as in the Book, so stands hereafter written, each article separately. . . . And all these articles have been drawn up from the letter of the ancient Lodge rites, that were instituted by the holy crowned martyrs, to the honor and praise of the Holy Trinity and Mary Queen of Heaven.

 

* Gould, vol. i., p. 134.

 

t Valuable facts are disclosed in these statutes, concerning the general government and practices which then prevailed within the Lodge, that we do not get from the Strasburg constitutions or Brother Book.

 

227

 

 

228     GERMANY AND VICINITY.

 

1. Therefore have we made divers rules and statutes with the help of God.

And for God's service shall every master of a work, be it great or small, give on each fast of our lady one old goat.

 

Awl every fellow shall give every week to the box one penny for God's service.

And every one shall keep his time according to the ancient traditionary trsages of the hvi(l ; if tic do that lie is free, and even if he do it not with council, according to the usages of the land and the craft.

 

And every master shall be upriglit in all things.      He. shall incite neither warden, nor fellow, nor apprentice to evil, nor to ought whence harin may arise.

And every master sliall keep his Lodge free from all strife, yea, his Lodge shall lie keep pare as t1ie seat of justice.

 

Therefore shall no inaster allo\v a harlot to enter his Lodge ; but if any one have ought to co_:immie \with her, he shall depart from the place of hibor so far as any one may cast a gavel.

 

If other roasters learn tliereof, they shall fine him for each offence in five pounds of wax.

 

A master shall appoint his warden, master and warden being both present ; aiid he shall appoint no warden unless he be able thereto, so that the craftsmen and lie be supplied.    .           .

Wben a master has set a warden, the fellows shall swear to lie obAicrrt onto bim as a master, and the \varden shall pledge master and fellows.

 

And the roaster has power, if lie so will, to rest in the Lodge at vesper tide.

Arid if any fellow sliall,rmike a jonrnev for the Guild in that concerns the craft his expenses also shall he paid liim oat of the box.

 

And if a master or fellow come free of the craft or trade, and demand a marl: of a work-master, to bim shall lie grant his wishes, and lie shall give for the service of God that which shall the adjudged of masters and fellows. And to masters and fellows shall he pledge the marl. doubly.

 

No master shall withhold his marl: from his apprentice for a further

GFR11IANY AND VIC-LITITY.         229

 

space than xiiij days, unless it be that the apprentice has wasted his master's time ; he shall then first do his behest before that and the feast.

 

And no master shall show any reluctance to pledge his apprentice's iuarl{, and the several clericals whom he may bid thereto, with a penuy wheaten bread of xv. gr., a loaf of xv. gr., meat, and two stoups of wine; and the ap prentice shall not bid more than x. fellows; and if he bid more, then shall he buy more, that the master suffers not thereby.

 

The master shall knock with three blows, the warden with two consecutively, and one for announcements at morning, noon, and eve, as is the old usage of the land.

 

The master may appoint an apprentice who serves for knowledge to the office of warden, if lie be able to maintain it.

 

The master may lend his apprentice a mark to travel with during his apprenticeship, if the master have no employment, and must let him travel.

No master shall allow his apprentice to pledge his marlz, unless he have served his time.

 

No master shall lay snares for another and entice away his apprentice, so reads the letter.

 

No master shall employ any one who has brought himself to shame or dishonor, either by word or deed ; he is worse than a hound ; him shall the master set down as void of honor, likewise also the fellows.

 

And a master may hold a General Court in his Lodge over his own fellows, and he shall judge righteously by his oath, and not of hatred, or of friendship, or of enmity.

 

And furthermore, no master shall judge alone of that which touches honor or good repute; but there shall be together three masters who shall then judge such matters.

 

And he shall every quarter-day hold a hearing of lords and craftsmen, whether any offence were, whether they have wasted time, lived riotously, gamed, or otherwise acted disorderly, whence harm might come to wardeus or master; that they shall make known to the master, that he may punish therefor as is meet.

Every warden shall preserve his Lodge, and all that he has shown to, and all that is entrusted to him.

 

230     GERMA-NY AND VICINITY.

 

And if any fellow be in need on account of sickness, and have not whE withal to live because he lieth sick, he shall be assisted from the box, and he recover he shall pay it.

 

And if any fellow shall make a journey for the Guild, in that, that co terns the craft, his expenses shall also be paid him out of the box.

THE CHARTER OF COLOGNE.*

 

It is claimed that in 1035, a general assembly of representatives of th, progressive Lodges was convened at Cologne, under the direction of tier man, Bishop of that city, and there prepared and adopted the Charter of Cologne.

FROM THE CHARTER.

 

" We, the Elect Masters of the venerable Society sacred to John, or of the Social Order of Freemasons, rulers of the Lodges or tabernacles constituted at London, Edinburgh, Vienna, Amsterdam, Paris, Lyons, Frankfort, Ham burg, Antwerp, Rotterdam, Madrid, Venice, Ghent, Konigsberg, Brussela, llantzic, Middleburg, Bremen, and in the City of Cologne, in the year, month, and day after mentioned.

~~ Our President being the Master of the Lodge established in this city-a venerable brother and most learned, prudent, and judicious man, called to preside over these deliberations, by our unanimous vote-do, by these letters, addressed to all the above-mentioned Lodges-to our brethren present and future-declare, that forasmuch as we have been considering the designs which, in these calamitous times, embroiled by civil dissensions and discord, have been imputed to our aforesaid Society, and to all the brethren belonging to this Order of Freemasons, or of John, opinions, machinations, secret as Nvell as openly detected; all of which are utterly foreign to us, and to the spirit, design, and precepts of the Association.

"Therefore, having all these considerations in view, it bath seemed to us expedient, and even absolutely necessary, to expound the true state and origin of our Order, and to what it tends, as an institution of charity itself, and

* See Gould, vol. ii., p. 496.

 

GERMANY AND VICINITY.  233

 

to give forth to the Lodges or conclaves of our Society the principles thus expounded.

" For these causes, by these universal letters, compiled according to the context of the most ancient monuments which are extant, concerning the objects of the institution, the rights, and customs of our most ancient and our most secret Order, we, Elect Masters, influenced by the most solemn sanctions, adjure all fellow-laborers, to whom these presents notiv or in time hereafter may come, tliat they withdraw not themselves from the truth contained in this document. Moreover, to the enlightened as well as to the darker world, whose common safety concerns and strongly interests us, we announce and proclaim

" A.      That the Society of Freemasons, or order of brethren attached to the solemnities of St. John, . . . are more ancient than any Order of Knights,    .           .           .           and existed in Palestine and Greece, as well as in every part of the Roman Empire, long before the Holy Wars and the times of the expeditions of the above-mentioned Knights into Palestine.

`~ S.    That our Association now, as formerly, consists of the three degrees of Disciple, Fellow, and Master-the last, or Master, admitting of Elect Masters and Superior Elect Masters.

" C.      That among the Doctors, Masters of this Order, cultivating the sciences of mathematics, astronomy, and other studies, a mutual interchange of doctrine and light was maintained, which led to the practice of electing, out of those who were already Elect Masters, one in particular, who, as excelling the rest, should be venerated as Supreme Elect Master or Patriarch.

" D.      The government of our Society, the mode and rule according to which the rays of the flaming light be imparted and diffused among the illuminated brethren, as well as the profane world, rest entirely with tl)e highest Elect Masters.

11 E.   To us it is by no means clear that this association of brethren, prior

234     GERMANY AND VICINITY.

to the year 1440 were known by any other denomination than that of Brethren of John. But at that time, we are informed, the Fraternity, especially in Valence and in Flanders, began to be called by the name of FreernasGns.

" F.      Although, in works of benevolence, we pay no regard to religion or country, we, however, consider it safe and necessary, hitherto, to receive none into our Order but those who, in the society of the profane and unenlightened are professedly Christians.

" G.      To those duties which are, commanded and undertaken by a solemn oath, are added those of fidelity and obedience to the secular rulers lawfully placed over us.

" H.      The principles on which we act, and all these, our efforts, to whatever purpose and direction they may tend, are expressed in these two precepts: `Love and regard to all men as brethren and relations ; render to God what is God's, and to C esar what is Caesar's.'

" I.        The secrets and mysteries which veil our undertakings conduce to thi, en~l ; that without ostentation we may do good, and without disunion of action, prosecute our designs to the uttermost.

"K.       We cerebrate, annually, the memory of St. John, the forerunner of Christ and patron of our community.

"L.       These, and the rest of the corresponding ceremonies of the Institution, though represented in the meetings of the brethren by signs, or speech, or otherwise, do, nevertheless, differ totally from the rites of the churches.

I'M.      He is considered a brother of the Johannite Society, or Freemason, who, in a lawful manner, by the help and under the direction of some Elect Master, with the assistance of at least seven brethren, is initiated into our Mysteries, and who is ready to prove his adoption by the signs and tokens which are used by other brethren, but in which signs and words are included those which are in use in the Edinburgh Lodge, or Tabernacle, and its affiliated Lodges, as also in the Hamburg, Rotterdam, and Middleburg Tabernacles, and in that which is found erected at Venice.

I

" N.      Nothing is more necessary than a certain conformity among all those   f who are dispersed throughout the world, as members of one aggregate body;

GERMANY AND VICINITY.

 

235

 

wherefore these present letters, testifying the nature and spirit of our Society, shall be sent to all and sundry Colleges of the order existing.

Signed,

44

 

Hermanus, Carlton, Jo. Bruce, Fr. Von Upua,

(. ornelius Banning, Colligni,

Virieux,

Johannis Schroeder, Hofmann,

A. Nobel,

Ignatius de la Torre, Doria,

Jacob Uttinhove, Fal h,

Nicholas Van Noot, Phillipus-Melancthon, Huy ssen,

Former Abel,

Jacobus Prepostius."

 

Concerning the authenticity of the Charter of Cologne we have the jollowing .

There was between 1519 and 1601, in the city Of Amsterdam, Holland, a Lodge whose name was Het Vredendall, or the Valley of Peace.

In the latter year Romanish fanaticism caused this Lodge to be closed; but in 1637 it was revived under the name of Frederick's Valley of Peace. In this lodge-room, at the time of its restoration, there was found a chest, bound with brass, secured ildth, three locks and three seals, which, according to a protocol, published on the 29th of January, 1637, contained the following documents

1. The original warrant of constitution of the Lode, Het Vredendall. 2. A roll of all the members of the Lodge, from 1519 to 1601.

3. The original charter, given to the Brotherhood at the City of Cologne, of which the document here presented is a translation.

In 1821, Dr. Krause published it in his celebrated work, "The Three Oldest Masonic Documents."

A Dutch writer, P. J. Schouten, who had seen the original document, describes it as being written on parchment, in Masonic cypher, in the Latin language, the characters uninjured by time, and the names signed, not in cy pher, but in the ordinary character.           The Latin is t"nat of the Middle Ages.

236     GERMANY AND VICIIVII'Y.

 

The learned antiquaries of the University of Leyden testified that the paper on which the register of this Lodge was written is of the same kind that was used in Holland at the beginning of the sixteenth century, the time of its date, and that the characters of which it is composed are of the same period. This register refers to the Charter of Cologne, as existing at that time; so that, if the learned men of Leyden were correct, the Charter must be nearly three centuries old.

Hermann V., Bishop of Cologne, whose name as Hermanus heads the list of the subscribers to the Charter, was afterward censured by the Church for having presided over this assembly.

The Charter asserts that there were many irregular Masons and false systems in 1530, and that true Masonry was only to be found in nineteen Lodges represented at Cologne, showing that that society had detached itself from the general body of Masons.

The Official Register of the Grand Lodge of Scotland, published at the end of its "Laws and Constitution" (edition 18,52, p. 60), states that the " Lodge of Edinburgh, No. 1," was instituted in 1018, seventeen years before the promulgation of the Charter of Cologne.

There has also recently been discovered a transcript in French of the minutes of a Lodge at La flaye, from the date of its Constitution, January 29, 1637, during its entire first year.    This Lodge, moreover, is declared to be a continuation of a still odder Lodge at Amsterdam, a list of whose members existed, extending from 1519 down to 1601, when the Lodge lapsed into slumber by reason of popular troubles and prosecution of a war.

More singular still, the Lodge at La Haye worked four degrees: Apprentice, Companion, Master, and Master Elect, into which degree it appears that His Highness Frederick Henry, Stadtbolder of the Netherlands, had been initiated previous to 1637.

Also see Mackey in American Masonic Review for 1859, pp. 51 to 61, and authorities there quoted. Also, Masonic Chronicle, February, 1890, pp. 70 to 74.

G-EKRHANI' AND VICINITY.           237

 

TRAVELLING CRAFTSMEN.-THEIR DRESS, ETC.

In the Mellia;val Ages the Craft often travelled in search of employment; and during these journeys they were usually under the lead of an experienced architect.          As they were always well armed and travelled in companies, they had little to fear from the marauding hands who infested the highways.        In the centre of the companies Nvas a pack-horse who carried their tools and provisions, which was tinder the care of the Oblati.*

Craftsmen of that period were clad in a singular costume, consisting of a short tunic of woollen material, black, or gray, open at the side, a gorget with a cowl or hood attached, and a leather girdle from which was suspended a, short, heavy sword, and a small leather sack, or satchel.

Over the tunic they wore a black scapulars, which, while at labor, they tucked beneath their girdles; lout when cuil>loyed in religious exercises or on festival clays it was allowed to hang loosely over their garments.      The Oblati wore clothes in like manner, with the exception of the Moxetta and Scapular v. In summer they wore tunics of linen, and in winter of woollen. They wore a ])road felt or straw 1)at, tight-fitting leather breeches, and long hoot,,.     These costumes were retained unchanged in fo)r)n for several centttries j

The Fraternity, from the nature of their art, were continually b)-ought into contact with all classes and conditions of people, and were therefore far ahead of their contemporaries in general knowledge and education.

Indications of their oplmsition to the prevailing corruption of the Church exists to this clay in many of the ancient edifices erected by their hands. In the Church ))f St. Sebaldus, at Nurcinberg, is a carvii)g in stone representing a nun in the embrace of a monk.      In one of the tipper corridors of the Strasburg Cathedral there is a sculptured representation of a religious procession. First comes a bear, carrying a cross ; next follows a hog and a goat, bearing a case with religious relid))es, in which is a sleeping fox.

In the Church of Doberan, Mecklenburg, is an altar-piece still in a good

* Thev were youths who waited on the 'Masons, fetched wood, water, stone, and tended the sick in the hospital.

t Steinbrenner, p. 69.

238     GERMANY AND VICINITY.

state of preservation, which exhibits in the foreground several priests turning a mill, in which the dogmas of the Church are being ground out.*

NOTED CITIES IN GERMANY.

WORK OF THE OLD CRAFTSMEN. ST. GOAR.

1.         This is one of the oldest towns in Germany.           It claims to be older than Rome, but it was doubtless first built by the Romans.

WORMS.

2.         This city was founded by the Romans, and was by them called Bor

betomagus.    It was plundered by the Alemanni in 354 A.D., and by Attila in 451.       It was rebuilt by Clovis in 475, and in 806 Charlemagne resided here. The most striking feature of this old city is its cathedral. It was founded in the eighth century, but was not completed until the twelfth.    It is a massive edifice, partly in the Byzantine style, with four towers.

MAYENCE-MENTZ.

3.         This city was also founded by the Romans.           It has several remark

able towers, one of them being over four hundred feet high.       It has numerous

old churches and chapels.   This city is very strongly fortified.

TRENT.

4.         This is the ancient Tridentum, founded by an Alpine tribe, the Tri

dentini.            Among its examples of mediaeval architecture are ruined castles, em battled walls, spires, towers, and a cathedral.       The cathedral was begun in 1212, and is a beautiful specimen of the Romanesque style of Lombardy.

HEIDELBERG}

5. is one of the ancient cities of Germany, in the grand duchy of Baden. . Among its noted buildings is the Church of the Holy Ghost, which * See Steinbrenner, in Traditions, pp. 75, 76, 80.

GERMANY .AND VIG1INI1'Y           241

is divided through the centre by a partition-wall.    On one side Catholic service is carried on, and on the other side the Protestants worship at the same time.

HILDESHEIM

6. is an old town of Hanover, founded in the eighth century. It is noted for its very old houses and gateways.

In 1868, while some soldiers were digging in the vicinity of the old gate, illustrated on page 210; they discovered, at the depth of nine feet, sixty silver vessels, of the best period of Roman art.

SALZBURG.

7.         This is an old city founded in, or before, the tenth century.           One of its most noted and conspicuous features is the old feudal castle.

ROSTOCK.

8.         This city was founded in the eleventh century.       Among the noted works of the old Craftsmen are St. Peter's and St. Catherine's churches.        The former has a tower four hundred feet high.

NUREMBERG

9.         is another city dating from the eleventh century.    It was a free city in 1219, and in 1532 a Diet was held here which secured religious liberty to the Protestants.

 

241

 

 

 

 

212

 

 

CHAPTER VII.

THE COLLEGES IN GAUL-FRANCE.

With the Boman Armies of Invasion they enter Gaul. - Construct            the Military Works and Bridges.-Build Vessels, Villages, Edifcces, etc.Ultimately Known as Compagnons.- With Practices and Traditions very Sa7nilar to Ancient Masonry.

FOLLOWING the career of the Colleges in Germany, their advent and opera. tions in France will now be sketched.

In following the rise and progress of the Guilds of France, it is necessary to consider that, until comparatively recent times, France was not a homogeneous State.      On the arrival of Coesar-58 B.c.-he found it divided into three very distinct nationalities, which he named Gallia Belgica, Gallia Aquitania, and Gallia Propria, or Celtica.*         The Aquitani came from Spain, and were of African origin.        The Belgee were Teutons, their language and customs. Gothic, and the Celts were the original inhabitants, whose descendants are now found in Gallicia And Brittany.

During the Roman conquest of Gaul (70 to 55 B.C.) the building fraternities, besides constructing the many extensive military works needed, also made other great improvements throughout the country-founding and building towns, edifices, bridges, and highways.  Gaul had, at this time, a population of three millions.

Subsequently, Augustus continued the improvements commenced by Coesar, employing all the different bands of constructors-not only the Masonic corporations, but wood-workers. Thus, temples, monuments, roads, private buildings, and ships were being built, presenting a scene of the greatest activity even as early as 27 B.C.t

*Chambers, vol. iii., pp. 16, 17.       Hayden, p. 768.

t Rebold, pp 65-67.   Chambers, vol. v., p. 518.

THE COLLEGES IN GA UL-FRANCE.      243

I

The great Roman highways were marked from their starting-point with mile-stones from five to eight feet high, and the distance given in miles and leagues.

As a means of Romanizing the people, Augustus founded a large number of military colonies. This policy succeeded so well that those colonies originated nearly all the old cities of France; among ' which are Bordeaux, Be sangon, Bourges, Rheims, Rouen, Toulouse, Paris, and Tr6ves.          Each of these cities had its forum, theatre, temples, aqueducts, and schools.

Between 306 and 336 France was divided into seventeen provinces. Many districts are now celebrated for the very products which then constituted their staple industries ; and splendid ruins still testify to the opulence of the ancient citizens.

Roman sway and prosperity in Gallia, however, at last reached a period in which it was destined to be interrupted, and later terminated, as the country was constantly invaded by the German tribes, the most persistent of which was the Franks, who, advancing step by step, finally secured permanent pos. session of the country.

History first distinctly mentions this people about the middle of the third century as a union of North German tribes.*            Flavius Vopiscus first names them in the life of the Emperor Aurelian, about 242.      They were a very strong and bold people.        Their opinion of themselves is expressed in the introduction to the Salic Law, where it states that 11 The high-famed nation of the Franks, who have God for their judge, are brave in war, profound in council, firm in union, noble, manly in .form, bold, and prompt."          Such was the nation which, though small in numbers, by strength and courage burst the yoke of the Romans.

They traversed Roman territory, particularly Gaul, from one end to the other, and even crossed the Pyrenees into Spain and took the city of Tarragona. The Romans, in the third century, had so frail a tenure of these coun tries that the Franks and other warlike hordes, among whom were the Burgundians and Vandals, had possession of seventy considerable cities in Gaul. About the year 482 Clovis, the son of Gilderich, became Prince of the Salian Franks, and eventually king of all the Franks.          He first attacked the * History of Germany, Kohlrausch, p. 65.

`?44    THE COLLEGES IN GA UL-FRANOE.

Roman Governor Syragrius and defeated him at Soissons (Snessiones), and occupied the country as far as the Loire. This took place in the year 486, and practically terminated the Roman rule in Gaul.

The kingdom of the Franks was subsequently divided into two great portions, Neustria and Austrasia, or the Western and Eastern Kingdoms. In the Western Kingdom the Roman manners and language maintained their superiority ; but in the East those of the Germans predomin.ited.

During the occupation of the country by the Romans, the Masonic Corporations had made a practice of receiving into their membership Gauls of the better class; and on the departure of the Romans they reorganized and elected their own officers, and devoted themselves principally to erecting church edifices ; in fact, they became attached to the Church, and might be termed Masonic Ecclesiastics. Among the noted architects of this kind, between 659 and 740, were St. Ferol, St. Elor, Bishop of Noyon, Dalmac, Bishop of Rhodes, and Agricola, Bishop of Chalons.

About the year 700 the Grand Steward. over the Kingdom of the Franks was Pepin, a careful and prudent man, who restored order and justice, held the old March Assemblies regularly, and so won the love and confidence of the people by restoring their rights, that he was enabled to make the office hereditary in his family.

His son, Charles Martel, who was Grand Steward after him, saved the whole of Christianity at this time from a great impending danger-Mohainmedanism.

Savage hordes had suddenly appeared from the southeast, and had in a short time traversed extensive tracts with fire and sword, subjecting all to their dominion.          No nation could withstand them ; their arms were irresist ible, and struck their opponents like lightning. These strangers were the Arabs, and they derived their impetus from the new faith. For he whom they called their prophet, Mohammed, had announced to them much from the doctrines of Moses and of the Saviour; besides which, he promised to this people, who were addicted to sensual pleasures beyond everything, great re= wards and eternal bliss in Paradise if they fought zealously for their new religion, and extended it over all countries.

After the Mohammedans had overrun Spain, they crossed the Pyrenees

THE COLLEGES IN GA UL--b7RAYCE.   247

and fell upon France. At the same time they showed themselves below Constantinople with a large army and a fleet; so that they embraced in their operations the whole of Europe from east to west, determined upon conquering and proselyting it. Constantinople, however, with its strong tivalls and Greel: fire, which the inhabitants used against the ships of their enemy, checked them.         And in France they were opposed by the powerful hero, Charles Martel,.who, with his Franks, crossed the river Loire to meet the enemy, and came upon them on the wide plain between the cities of Tours and Poitiers.

Here, on a Saturday in October, 732, a terrible battle was fought, and the Arabs were repulsed with great slaughter, as nearly three hundred thou. sand fell, together with their general, Abderrahman.*           Those who remained fled toward Southern France, whence Charles soon drove them forth, and placed forever a boundary against them on that side.           For this wonderful deed he was highly honored throughout all countries.       He died in the year 741.

In 753 Pope Stephen crossed the Alps to secure the assistance of Pepin (successor of Martel) against the Longobardian King Aistulph, who had conquered Ravenna and demanded tribute and submission from the Pope. Pepin promised aid, and retained him through the winter at his court. Here the Pope repeated the anointment of the King as already performed by the Holy Boniface, anointing also his two sons, Carloman and Charles (after he had himself lifted the latter, then twelve years old, from the font), and then presented to the Franks those members of the newlycreated dynasty as alone legitimate. In the spring of the year 755 the king advanced against Italy, defeated:Aistulph at Susa, conquered Ravenna, with the surrounding country, which had previously belonged to the Greek Emperors, and presented it to the Pope.           This formed the beginning of the Papal States.

The termination of the Roman domination in France did not terminate Roman civilization; for at the time of Charlemagne, Craft Guilds, successors to the Roman Colleges, were established in the principal cities of that coun try.   Roman industries and traditions were perpetuated till a late date; for * History of Germany, p. 88.

248     THE COLLEGES I1V GA UL-FRANCE.

even in the fourteenth century industries still flourished which had created the opulence of Roman Gaul.*

Many Roman edifices also exist in a complete state of preservation; show. ing that, despite the ravages of the Gothic hordes, some cities were never destroyed or even deserted. At Rheims a trij)le arch of Roman construction is still used as one of the city gates-the Porte-de-Mars.

REMAINS of A ROMAN TEMPLE AT NismEs.

Arles, once the metropolis of Gaul, possesses the ruins of an amphitheatre, two temples, also a Roman triumphal arch in excellent preservation.

At Nismes is the famous Maison Carree.  It is 76 feet in length, 39 feet in height and breadth, with 26 columns, each standing 27 feet from the ground. It is in nearly as good a condition as when erected in honor of the grandsons of Augustus.         This ancient city has also an amphitheatre nearly as large as that of Rome, and in a better state of preservation.

* Note 1, p. 260.        t Gould, vol. i., p. 183.

THE COLLEGES IN GA UL-Fli'A<VCE.    249

FRENCH GUILDS.

The Colleges of Builders flourished in France during the Roman occupation ; but soon after the departure of the Romans the name, " College " was dropped, and Compagnonnage and Guilds substituted, under which names they were known until the reorganization of the Masonic bodies, in 1717.

The first French Guild that was authorized by law was that of the 1VIarchands de d'eau de Paris. The document iii which this company was legally recogtlized bears date A.D. 11`.1, wherein Louis VI. grants certain privileges which had been previously vested in him, and in which it is treated as an already ancient institution.

This Guild all French writers claim to be a direct successor of the Nautm Parisiaci, one of the Roman Colleges.* The grounds for this belief being its great antiquity, and the fact that a College-Nautae-did exist here under the Romans.       In the reign of Tiberius Caesar the Nautae erected an altar to Jupiter, and in digging in the eighteenth century, on the spot where the Hotel de Ville now stands, this ancient altar was unearthed.      It bears the following inscription

'° TIB. CXSARE. AVG. IOVI. OPTVM MAXSViII0 . . . . M NAVTX PARISIACI PVBLICE POSIERV

IN."

The oldest Code of the French Guilds, which has been preserved, is that of Boileau-date about 12(10.      In it there is evidence of a much earlier exis tence.     This Code unites, under the banner of St. Blaize, the masons, stone masons, and plasterers.

CODE OF THE MASONS.--BOII.EAU.t

He may be a mason in Parih who wishes, provided, alway.Q, that he knows the handcraft, and that he works after the usages and customs of the craft, and they are these

None may have in his employ but j apprentice; and if he have an ap* Gould, vol. i., p. 185; also note 4, p. 260.

f Ibid., vol. i., p. 197.

250

THE COLLEGES IN GA UL-FRANCE

prentice, he may not accept him for less than vj years service ; but for longer service may he well accept him, and~lso for pay, if he be able to obtain it. And if he accept him for less than vJ years, then is he cast in a fine of xx sols, to be paid to the Chapel of St. Blaise, unless they be his own sons born only in honorable wedlock.

And the king who is at this time, and to whom God grant long life, has granted the mastership of the masons to Master William, of Saint Patu, for so long as it shall please him.        Which Master William took oath in Paris, with in the precincts of the palace aforesaid, that he would the aforesaid craft well and loyally keep to the best of his power, as well for poor as rich, for weak as strong, for so long as it shall please the king that he shall keep the said craft; and afterward. the said Master William did take the form of oath aforesaid, before the Provost of Paris, at the Chastelet.

And every mason, and every mortarer, and every plasterer, shall swear by the saints that he will keep the craft aforesaid well and truly, each one in his place; and if they know that anyone do ill in anything, and not act accord ing to the usages and customs of the craft aforesaid, that they will lay the same before the master whensoever they shall know thereof, and on their oath. The master whose apprentice shall have served and completed his time, shall appear before the master of the craft, and bear witness that his apprentice had served his time well and truly; and then the master who keeps the craft shall cause the apprentice to swear by the saints that he will conform to the usages and customs of the craft well and truly.

And no one shall work at this craft after the strike of 3 P.-4., at Notre Dame, during flesh time, and of a Saturday in Lent, after vespers shall have been chanted at Notre Dame, unless it be to close an arch or stairway, or to

close a door-frame placed on the street.   And if anyone work beyond the hours aforesaid, unless it be of necessity in the works aforesaid, he shall pay iiij pence as a fine to the master who keeps the craft, and the master may seize the tools of him who shall be recast in the fine.

The master of the craft has cognizance of the petty justice and fines of the masons, and of their workmen and apprentices, as long as it shall please the king, as also of deprivation of their craft, and of bloodless beatings, and of clameur de proprete.

THE COLLEGES IN GA. UL-FRANCE      253

And if any of the aforesaid craftsmen be summoned before the master who keeps the craft, and lie absent himself, lie shall pay a fine of iiij pence to the master; and if he appear at the time and acknowledge his fault, he shall forfeit; and if he pay not before the night, he shall be fined iiij pence to t1k master; and if he deny and be found to have done wrong, he shall pay iiij pence to the master.

The master who rules the craft cannot levy but one fine for each offence; and if he who has been fined is so stiff-necked and so false that he will not obey the master or pay his fine, the master may forbid him the craft.

If any one of the afore-mentioned crafts, whose craft shall have been forbidden him by the master, shall nevertheless use his craft, the master may seize his tools and keep them until he have paid the fine; and if he forcibly resist, the master shall make it known to the Provost, and the Provost shall compel him.

The masons and the plasterers owe the watch duty, and the tax and the other dues which the other citizens of Paris owe the king.

The mortarers are free of watch duty, and all stone-masons, since the time of Charles Martel, as the wardens (preudomes) have heard tell from father to son.

The master who keeps the craft in the name of the King is free of the watch duty for the service he renders in keeping the craft.

He who is over sixty years of age, and he whose wife is in child-bed, so long as she lies abed, are free of watch, by order of the king.

STATUTES AND ORDINANCES MADE BY THE MASTERS.-MASON ARCHITECTS OF THE CITY OF MONTPELLIER.

According to their ancient privileges, which have been lost and destroyed during the troubles and wars which, have been in, this country, and now reenacted under the good pleasure of our Sire the King, and of the Court of fonsieur, the Governor of the said city.

Item.    The fellow (compagnon) who shall desire to present himself for the said mastership shall have served previously, and accomplished, his three years of apprenticeship which he shall cause to be sufficiently made apparent,

204     THE COLLEGES IN GA UL-F-RA1VC7T'.

and also that after his said apprenticeship he has served the masters of the s'd city or elsewhere for three or four years.

Item. Every Saturday or Sunday each master shall be required to place in the box each week, to be employed for the benefit of poor masters and fellows, widows and orphans of the said masters, ten pence of 'fours, and the fellows working for hire, three pence of Tours.

Item.    Every apprentice shall be required to place in the box, immediately on his entering upon his apprenticeship, fifteen sols of Tours, to be employed as already said; which fifteen sols the master who has received the said apprentice shall himself place in the said box, whether or no he be reimbursed by the said apprentice; and the said master shall be required to inform thereof the said apprentice, or he who undertakes for him the payment of the said fifteen sols.

" TTised at the council of the office of the Royal Domain, in the Court of the Government of the City of Montpellier, the regulations containing statutes made and agreed by the Master Masons working at the art of masonry and ar chitecture in the said city, conformably to what they u ed to do of old times." In 1493 Peyre Borgonhon, Master Mason, reports to the Consuls of Montpellier that he could no longer find masons to work at the fortifications under four sous per diem; and these, " after taking information respecting the prices elsewhere, and considering also that the days in the month of April were among those of the longest of the year, resigned themselves to pay the price asked."         This is one of the earliest strikes in the building trade.

THE COMPANIONAGE, OR L E S COMPAGNONS DU TOUR DE FRANCE.

The " Companionage" signified the associations formed by the journey. men of France for mutual instruction, support, and assistance. They practised a real initiation-a mystic reception-and cherished venerable legends.

In 1814 Agricol Perdiguier published his " Livre de Compagrionnage," giving as accurate an account of their history and traditions as the nature of his oath would permit.      In the same year a talented authoress published a work,

* Gould, vol. i., pp. 212-228.

THE COLLEGE'S IN GAUL-FRANCE.      255

~~ Le Compagnon du Tour de France."    Attention being thus called to the Com. panionage, the subject was investigated by other writers, several of whom were themselves companions.

The Companionage was composed of three great divisions.     The principal division was denominated Sons of Solomon, and the others were called re spectively, Sons of Maitre Jaques, and the sons of Mitre Soubise.            They all concurred in ascribing their origin to the Stone Masons of Solomon.*

In whatever town a charge was deposited, there the craftsman found a house of call devoted to his purpose, and a branch of the society. These towns were called Villes du devoir, or du tour de France.t

The villes du tour cde France were Marseilles, Lyons, Avignon, Nismes, Montpellier, Clermont Ferrand, Bordeaux, Nantes, and Paris. Tours, Cha. Ions-sur-Saline, Beziers, La Rochelle, Angouleme, Saumur, Orleans, and later Alger-all included in the Roman occupation.

INTRODUCTION OI:, INITIATION.

In Perdiguier's own handicraft we find the following customs and arrangetlients prevailing: A young workman presents himself, and requests to be made a member of the Society. His sentiments are inquired into, and if his replies are satisfactory, he is embauche.

At the next General Assembly he is brought into an upper room, where, in presence of all the companions and affilies, a series of questions are asked him, to ascertain that he has made no mistake-that it is into this society, and not in some other, that he wishes to enter.   The ordinances are then read to him, and he is asked whether he can, and will, conform thereto.  If he replies, "Yes," he is affiliated and conducted to his proper place in the room. If he is of the right material he receives the Degree of the Companionage, and is eligible to its various offices.

In this Society there were three further degrees: Compagnon recu, Compagnon fini. and initiated Compagnon-Compagnon initie.      All these degrees

* Notes 2, 3, 5, pp. 260, 261.

t The word devoir is equivalent to " charge," suggestive of ancient Masonic charges.            The British charges are a written Code of Rules of Conduct prefaced by a traditional history of the craft, which exactly corresponds with that of the French devoir.           Gould, vol. i., p. 216.

256     THE COLLEGES IN GA UL-I'RA-NCE.

were attended with a ceremony of which Thory, writing a generation earlier than Perdigaier, says: 64 Their itaitiations are accompanied by secret forms, and their unions existed from time imrnenrorial."

Perdiguier, mourning the obliteration of the ancient landmarks and cus. tof#s, gays of another society: "They have no mystery, no initiation, no distinctions."

The assemblies of the craft were usually held on the first Sunday of every month, and at the banquets each member paid an equal sum.

The privileges and advantages to which a member was entitled were vari. ous. Upon his arrival in a town or city he was directed where to find employment.

In case of sickness, the members took turns in visiting him, and providing for his wants. In come of these societies he was granted a sum of ten sous per diem during the time he remained in the hospital, the amount of which was presented to him oil his leaving.       If he should be cast into prison for any ordinary offence lie was assisted in every possible way.

Each Society had an officer called Rouleur, whose duties were onerous. He welcomed new arrivals, found them work, and on their desiring to leave, saw that all their old scores were cleaned off, and then accompanied them to the gates of the town.         It was also his duty to convoke the assemblies.

The Sons of Solomon provided their members with work as follows: The Rouleur introduced the applicant to Iris new master, who advanced five francs toward his future wages. This sum the Rouleur retained, advising the journeyman to be careful to earn it.

When a companion brought disgrace upon his Society, a special meeting was called, and in presence of the assembly he was forced on his knees, the companions standing round and drinking to his damnation; during which time he was compelled to drink water until nature rebelled and he was unable to imbibe any more, when it was poured over him. The glass which he used was broken, and his colors were torn from him and burned; the Rouleur then led him round the room, each companion bestowing a buffet, not to hurt him, but as an expression of contempt.  He was then led to the door, and made his exit in manner set forth in the " Lay of St. Nicholas."

THE COLLEGE,S' IN GA UL-FRANCE.    257

-And out of the doorway he flew like a shot, For a foot flew up with a terrible thwack, And can-ht the foul demon about the spot Wh>p his tail joins on to the small of his back."

In reference to King Solomon, Perdiguier says: "The Sons of Solomon claimed that this king gave them a charge, and incorporated them fraternally within the precincts of the Temple." He also says. " The stone-masons (of this Fraternity, S. of S.) are counted the most ancient of the Companions." Concerning the tradition of Maitre Jacques, Perdiguier adds: "There is one which enjoys an extended acquaintance with the very many Compagnons du Devoir. It is from this that I extract, without changing a single word, the following details. .

THE TRADITION OF MAITRE JACQUES.

11 Maitre Jacques, one of the Masters of Solomon, and a colleague of Hiram, was born in a small town called Carte, now St. Romili, in the south of Gaul. He was a son of Jacquin, a celebrated architect, and devoted him self to stone-cutting.    At the age of fifteen lie left his family and travelled into Greece, then the centre of the fine arts, where he entered into close alliance with a philosopher of the highest genius, who taught him sculpture and architecture.        He soon became celebrated in both these arts.

~~ Hearing that Solomon had suminoned to himself all the famous men, he passed into Egypt, and thence to Jerusalem. He did not at first gain much distinction among the workmen ; but at last, having received an order from the chief master to construct two columns, he sculptured them with such art and taste that he was accepted as a master.

Maitre Jacques arrived in Jerusalem at the age of twenty-six.    He remained there only a short time after the construction of the Temple; when many masters wishing to return to their country, they took leave of Solomon loaded with benefits.

11 Maitre Jacques and Maitre Soubise made their way back to Gaul. They had sworn never to part; but before long M. Soubise, a man of violent character, becoming jealous of the ascendency which M. Jacques had acquired

258     THE COLLEGES IN GA UL-Fh'ANCE.

over their disciples, and of the love which they bore him, separated from his friend and chose other disciples.

M. Jacques landed at Marseilles, and M. Soubise at Bordeaux.            Before commencing his travels M. Jacques chose thirteen Compagnons and forty dis ciples, and being deserted by one of them, he chose auother.          He travelled three years, leaving everywhere the memory of his talents and virtues.    One day, being at some distance from his disciples, he was assailed by ten of the followers of M. Soubise, who attempted to assassinate him.        In order to save himself lie plunged into a swamp, the canes (or reeds, in French " joncs ") of which not only supported him, but afforded a refuge from the blows of his assailants.            While these cowards were seeking some means of reaching him, his disciples arrived and effected his rescue.

He then withdrew to St. Beaune. One of his disciples called Jeron betrayed him to the disciples of M. Soubise. One day after sunrise, M. Jacques being alone, engaged in prayer in his accustomed spot, the traitor arrived, accompanied by the executioners, and gave as usual, the kiss of peace, which was the preconcerted death-signal. Five villains at once fell upon, and killed him with five dagger wounds.

His disciples arrived too late, but yet in time to receive his last farewell. ~~ I die," he said, `'for God has so willed it.          T forgive my assassins, and for bid you to follow them."  He pronounced a few more words which they were unable to understand, and crossing his arms over his breast, expired in his forty-seventh year-four years after leaving Jerusalem, and 989 B.C.

The funeral ceremonies lasted three days.            The procession crossed forests and mountains, and encountered a terrible storm, but at length arrived at the final resting-place, where the body was lowered into the grave.       The Elder descended beside it, the Companions covering both with a pall; and after the former had given the Guilbrette they covered the grave with large stones and sealed it with heavy bars of iron, after which they made a great fire, and threw into it their torches and all that had been used during the obsequies of their master.          His raiment was preserved in a chest.       Subsequently the sons of M. Jacques separated, and divided among themselves his clothing, which was thus distributed

" His hat to the hatters ; his tunic to the stone-masons ; his sandals to the

THE COLLEGES IN GA UL-FRANCE.      209

locksmiths; his cloak to the joiners; his belt to the carpenters; his staff to the wagon-makers."

~~ After the division of the articles belonging to M. Jacques, the act of faith was found which was pronounced by him on the day of his reception (as master probably) before Solomon, Hiram, the High Priest, and all the Masters."

Their funeral ceremonies were peculiar.    If a companion died his Society

undertook all the expenses of his interment.          The deceased was carried by four or six of his fellows, who changed from time to time.  On the coffin were placed two canes crossed, a square and compass interlaced, and the colors of the Society.          Each companion wore black crape on his left arm and on his cane, and wore his colors.         They marched to the church, and thence to the cemetery, in two lines, placed the coffin on the edge of the grave, and then formed around it the "living circle."  The Master next addressed the mourners, then all knelt on one knee and offered up prayer to Deity.     The coffin was then lowered, after which two canes were placed on the ground. be. side the grave so as to form a cross.

/Two Companions then took their places, each within one of the quarters of the cross, turned half around on the left foot, moved the right foot forward so as to face each other, and thus occupied with their feet the four quarters of the cross.            They then took each other by the right hand, whispered in each other's ear, and embraced.     All went through this ceremony in turn, knelt again on the edge of the grave, offered up a prayer, threw three lumps of earth on the coffin, and retired.

In some cases the ceremony concluded as follows:         After the coffin was lowered a Companion descended and placed himself beside it; a cloth was stretched over the mouth of the grave, and lamentations arose from below, to which the Companions above replied. The concealed Companion then gave a portion of the guilbrette to the deceased.

The first public Masonic edifice built in France was in Marseilles, and entitled " The Lodge of St. John."     It was 08 feet long, 30 broad, and 42 feet high.       It was decorated with paintings of the best artists.            At the bottom of the hall, under a gilded canopy with blue hangings and trimmed with gold, was a painting representing the " Genius of Masonry," supporting the portrait

2t;0      THE COLLEGES IN G 4 UL-FR-zrXCE.

of the then King of France, with an inscription in Latin, the translation of which is, `' Tlie Masons of Marseilles have erected this monument of their affection to their most beloved king."

A genius seated below the pedestal presents with one hand this inscription, and with the other the arms of the Lodge, with their motto, " Deo, Regi, et Patriae, Fidelitas "-fidelity to God, our king, and country. Above, is a genies which crowns the king.

To the right of this is another splendid painting, representing the wisdom of Solomon, with this inscription above it, " Prudencia "-prudence.

To tlae left is another, representing the courage of St. John the Baptist in remonstrating with Herod upon his debaucheries, with the inscription, " Fortitudo."

NOTES FROM AUTHORITIES.

1.         Much of the account of the Compagnonnage has been drawn from Gould's History of Free Masonry, vol. i., pages 212, 241. 249 ; and the following are among his conclusions : " we may add to the preceding the great probability that the French Guilds were direct descendants of the Roman Colleges without serious break of continuity, and that the trade guilds, rit their earliest stage, preserved a modification of the ancient mysteries, which may also have been previously celebrated by the Colleges. Their ceremonies continued to be practised in secret, the in tsterpiece and the banquet only being allowed to become known to the outside world."

2.         1. '° Sons of Solomon " certainly remind us in general terms of our fraternity.   2.         Companions de liberte, free company of Free Masons.

English charge, and the documents Assembly " is a term common to both panion sound strangely familiar. 6. Passed with our own expression.

3.         Devoir is a literal translation of our appear to be of very similar form. 4. "General societies.  5.            Accepted companion and initiated comcompanion presents a remarkable coincidence

3.         Perdiguier, who was a " Compagnon," writes of the organization as a Free Mason would of Free Masonry, ix, without disclosing aught of an esoteric character ; but the legend and customs are carefully described.      Gould, vol. i., pp. 240, 241, 249.

4.         In France, especially in the south, the continuation of the Colleges was unbroken ; for there the Roman Law predominated throughout all the vicissitudes of government, and at the Revolution, it superseded the Federal Law of the Pays Coutumier. Coote, Romans of Britain, ii., pp. 390-413.

·        Register, p. 509..

·         

THE COLLEGES IN GA UL-FRANCE.      261

 

5.         According to Dr. Luio Brentano, who published, in 1870, an essay on the history and development of Guilds, England is the birth-place of the Mediaeval-Guilds, from whom he says that the modern Free Masons emerged.       They existed, however, in every country of Europe, and we identify them with the Compagnons du Tour de France, and the Baucorporationen of Germany.

 

Besides being brotherhoods for the care of the temporal welfare of their members, the Craft Guilds were, like the rest of the Guilds, at the same time religious fraternities.

In this respect the Craft Guilds of all countries are alike ; and in reading their Statutes, one might fancy sometimes that the old Craftsmen cared only for the well-being of their souls. We find innumerable ordinances also as to the support of the sick and poor ; and to afford a separate asylum for distress, the London Companies early built dwellings near their halls. Mackey, pp. 310 and 311.

 

261

 

262

 

CHAPTER VIII

 

ADVENT OF THE COLLEGES IN BRITAIN

 

Tliey Enter the Country with Ccmsar's Army (f Invasion, 55 B.c.-The Natives Make a Stubborn .Resistance.-Bloody Battles take Place.-Fate of the Brave Caractacus, and of Queen Boadicea and her Beautiful Daughters.-Mildary Camps are Constructed at Different Places.Under the. SITervision of the Colleges, Towns grow up Around or Near these Can,p&-Cities are Founded, Notably London, Fxeter, Dover, Chester.-After an Occupation of the Country for over Four Hundred Years the Romans Leave it, but ,Everywhere Leave the Strong Impress of Civilization-Principally Through, the Operations of the Colleges, which, were Subsequently Known as Guilds, and Lastly as Free Masons.-Remarkable Remains of Roman Structures in Many Places. -1717, Free Masonry, as it Had Existed for Centuries, is now Freed from its Operative Domination, and its Doors Thrown Open to Good and True Men, without Regard to Occupation or Rel-i yion.-Singular Ancient 1Yasonic Documents.

B.C. 55. Caesar determined upon the' conquest of Britain, and after making due preparations he embarked the infantry of two legions in eighty vessels, at or near where Calais now stands. His cavalry were embarked at another place fifteen miles distant.

Having a fair wind,,Caesar arrived on the coast of Britain the morning following, but not finding a suitable place to land, he sailed along the shore un. til three o'clock, when he disembarked at Deal, where he found a large body of the British ready to dispute his progress; but although his cavalry had not arrived and the natives fought with desperate valor, yet they were forced to retreat with heavy loss.

Following this, the Romans advanced into the country in various directions,

0 a z y z 0 z 0 y x r. 0 a H 10

by ?7

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AD VENT OF THE COLLEGES IN BRITAIN.        263

but always meeting with such stubborn resistance that their operations finally came to a stand; and for nearly one hundred years after the invasion, the only result to Rome was a small annual tribute paid by a few chiefs.

In 43 A.D., however, Claudius despatched four legions under Aulus Plau. tius against Britain, and he succeeded, after several desperate engagements, in reducing the southern portion of the country to the condition of a Roman province.

A.D. 50, Plautius was succeeded by Ostorus Scapula, who pressed the war vigorously, and, to secure the Roman conquest in that part of the country, he caused his Colleges to erect, fortifications on the banks of the Severn and Avon.      He next settled a strong colony of his veterans with some Colleges at Camalodunum, both to hold in check the neighboring warlike tribes and to spread a knowledge of the useful arts among the people.           Scapula then advanced against Caractacus, one of the bravest of the brave British chiefs, whom he found strongly fortified,* and his works were so well defended that the first attack of the Romans was repulsed, with considerable loss.        Persistence and discipline, however, prevailed; their works were carried by assault, and the brave chief, his wife, and daughter, were taken prisoners.            Later on, Caractacus was sent a prisoner to Rome, and on corning in sight of the city, he remarked to his guard that he was astonished that the possessors of such magnificence should envy him a poor hovel in Britain.

The next events of importance in the Roman conquest of the island were the capture of the Island of Mona--Anglesey-by Suetonius, and the desperate battle fought with Boadicea, widow of Prastagus, king of the Iceni.f  Prastagus had for many years been a faithful ally of Rome, and on his death, the better to secure a portion of his inheritance to his family, he named his daughters and the Roman Emperor as his joint heirs; but instead of compliance with this modest arrangement, the Roman Procurator took possession of the whole in the name of the Emperor.    This aroused the indigna. tion of Boadicea, and she remonstrated against the robbery, but instead of redress she was severely beaten with rods, and her two beautiful daughters were dishonored before her eyes.            The intelligence of these outrages spread like wild-fire, and the Iceni and Trinobants first attacked and captured the

* Note 1, p. 369.        t Hume, vol. i., pp. 6, 7.

:'64      A. D VENT OF THE COLLEGES IN BRITAIN.

Colony of Carnalodunum ; defeated the ninth legion, that was marching to its relief; took Londinium and Verulamium, and the blow was so overwhelming that only a fragment of the army and a small portion of the inhabitants escaped alive. The rage of the insurgents against the inhabitants was caused by their quiet submission to the Romans.

In 62, however, Suetonius got together a force large enough to act on the offensive and marched against the enemy, whose success had drawn a multitude from all quarters into their ranks, which the Romans found occupying a good position and under the command of Boadicea.         Just before the cornmencement of the struggle Boadicea was seen slowly advancing along the lines of her army, standing in a singular-looking chariot.           She was enveloped in a mantle, encircled by a heavy gold chain, lrer long hair reaching to her feet, and she thus addressed her army :    " Britons are accustomed to fight under a woman.           Avenge me as a woman of your own class; avenge my liberty outraged, my body torn by the scourge; and avenge my innocent daughters dishonored."    Exasperated by her words, the Britons rushed to the attack, and a fierce and bloody battle was fought; yet notwithstanding the great inferiority of the Romans in numbers, their firmness, splendid discipline, and the knowledge that no quarter would be given if defeated, carried them through the terrible onslaught of the enemy and to victory, which not only ended in a rout, but in the slaughter of over eighty thousand Britons.      As soon as Boadicea saw that she was defeated, she ended her life with poison. Passing over some minor events, we next come to the administration of Agricola, who was appointed governor of Britain A.D. 78.. He first repressed a revolt of the Ordovices ; then pushed his conquest to the river Tay and fortified several strategic points.   Still advancing north, he crossed the Forth to the frontier of Caledonia, where he caused his Colleges to construct a military wall with towers, from the Forth across the country to the Clyde.

Afterward, when Agricola had by force and wise management brought the country into a state of, peace, lie improved the opportunity to disseminate the useful arts and a taste for Roman amusements among the people.           He pro moted the erection of temples, forums, and other public works by grants from the treasury, and caused the sons of the chiefs to receive special instructions from his Colleges of Builders.

ADVENT OF THF, COLLEGES IN BRIZAIV.        267

As the Caledonians * were still giving the Romans trouble in the north, Agricola (A.D. 85) advanced into their country, niet them on the Grampian hills, 30,000 strong, under Galgacus, and after a sanguinary battle put them to flight, leaving 10,000 dead on the field.    Undaunted by defeat, hoivever, the Caledonians continued to hara s the Roman.; so that on the arrival of Hadrian in Britain (A.D. 123) he found that lie could not maintain the Roman power up to the wall of Agricola, and therefore built a second wall acr()ss the country nearly 100 miles south of the first, and soon after this the broad belt between the two walls was practically abandoned to the tireless Caledonians.

During the stay of the Emperor Hadrian he resided at York, where by the aid of the Colleges lie made some important improvements as well as in other parts of the province.

The next event of note in the Roman occupation was the arrival of the Emperor Septiuius Severus, A.D. 208. He found the Caledonians overrunning the northern portions of the country, even menacing the Roman domination on the Island, but with his legions of veterans he defeated them with great slaughter, and again brought them to terms.

Notwithstanding this, knowing the bitter enmity of the northern tribes both against the Romans and the Britons, Severn-, caused his Colleges to construct a formidable line of fortifications across the country, immediately north of the wall of Hadrian.    This new line of works consisted of a massive stone wall, with towers at regular distances apart. The towers, however, were placed on hills or projecting rocks, even though the wail made a d0our to reach such a position.   Hence the towers served both as points of observation and defence.         During Severus's stay he also resided at York, and died there A. D.     `_311.

The next matter worthy of consideration in this connection was the arrival of Carrausius, in 287.

During the persecutions of the Christians in Rome, large numbers of the people, including many members of the Colleges of Builders, took refuge in Britain, and these, uniting with those already there, comprised among their nurnber many men of great intelligence and skill throughout the country; so that when Carrausius, in command of the Roman navy, took possession of *Note 10, p. 370.

268     AD VENT OF THF, COLLEGES IN BRITAIN.

Britain and proclaimed himself Emperor, lie found it necessary to conciliate them in order to strengthen his precarious position; therefore he restored and confirmed all their ancient privileges. This was done at his residence, Veru. lam (Saint Albans), A.D. 290.    Among the immunities and privileges granted them at this time were freedom from taxation and the supervision of all public works, from which circumstance they were sometimes called Free Masons.

When Carrausius negotiated with the Colleges on his landing, they were represented by Albanus, who had the general oversiglit of the Fraternity in that country.       Albanus was also a convert to Christianity, and in his zeal for the new faith he undertook to convert Carrausius ; but his Pagan Majesty was pleased to consider this so presumptuous that nothing less than death could atone for the affront.  Therefore he decreed that Albanus should be beheaded, which was done in 293.*  But, as if in retribution, Carrausius was himself assassinated three years later.

During the sway of Carrausius in Britain (287-'390), be employed the Colleges in the erection of public edifices, some of which rivalled those of Rome. Following Carrausius came Constantinus, who, like his predecessors, made York his home.          His rule was so judicious and conciliatory that lie was held in great esteem by the people.          He died in 306, and soon after his death his

wife Helena inclosed London with a stone wall.    Constantinus was succeeded by his son, the celebrated Constantine.  On his accession to the throne religious toleration was restored throughout the Empire, and Christianity made great progress in Britain.

At this time a hierarchy was established, and at the council of Arles, in 314, the Bishops of York, London, and Camalodunum assisted.

The last event of any importance in, the Roman occupation was the arrival, in 343, of Theodosius, who marched against the Scots and

driving • them back into their mountains.

But Rome, torn by internal dissensions and hard pressed by Northern and Eastern hordes, was compelled to abandon Britain in 416.

Notwithstanding that much of the Roman rule had been tyrannical, yet their intercourse with the people of the island had greatly improved the condition of the latter.

succeeded in

*Notes sand 9, p. 3%. '

AD VE1VT OF THE COLLEGES IN BRITAIN.     271

The Colleges of Builders had constructed for the legions, intrenchments and fortified camps, and, as time advanced, temples, dwellings, bridges, and (other extensive improvements followed; thus laying the foundations of towns and cities. So that, even in the second century, over eighty of the former, and not a few of the latter, had arisen south of the Tyne, including York, London, Chester, Lincoln, Dover, and Colchester.            And as the more intelligent of the natives were admitted into the bodies of constructors, the builder's art had spread so rapidly that architecture, as early as the third century, had attained a degree of perfection in Britain not to be found in any other Roman province.       As the public and private works had been carried on by both Romans and the natives, under the supervision of the Colleges, the great influence exercised by this organization in the formation of society, the development of Guildie Masonry, and the useful arts will readily be seen.*

Britain was also indebted to Rome for her first code of laws, municipal government, and civil tribunal.t

Evidences of Roman civilization are still to be seen, in structures and the ruins of them, at Dover Castle, Lincoln, Riclhborough Castle, Chester, St. Albans, York, Porcliester, Leicester, and Colchester.     The most remarkable anc most interesting remains of Roman works are those of the wall and to ers extending across the country from Wallsend on the Tyne to BowneAs in Cumberland. This wall runs so closely to a wall of earth and stone that: some believe the two were constructed at the same time, but according to the'most authentic accounts the earth wall is much the oldest.$          One of the most noticeable features of the ruins of the stone wall and towers is, as previously stated, the uniform straightness of its course except where the towers are located.          The outer face of the wall was built of blocks of ashlar, and the inter'ior was filled with rubble and mortar.    Near the wall, at nearly regular intervals, were stations or camps sometimes comprising a large tower,'while at a distance of about a Roman mile there were placed small towers.     Considerable architectural finish was given to these towers by the Roman craftsman.            Says an English writer: " For nineteen miles out of Newcastle the road to Carlisle runs on the foundations of the wall, and during the summer months its white, dusty surface contrasts well with the surrounding verdure. *Notes 2 and 3, pp. 369, 370.    t Note 4, p. 370.         1 Probably the wall of Hadrian.

272     AD VENT OF THE COLLEGES IN BRIT~4IX

Often will the traveller, after attaining some of the steep acclivities of his Sath, observe the road stretching for miles to the east and west of him, resembling a \%,bite ribbon on a green ground."

TRAVEL IN BRITAIN IN THE LAST PART OF THE ROMAN OCCUPATION.

The next important remains of Roman military works is Richborough Castle, in Kent. It is a parallelogram, embracing in its area nearly five acres. The walls are 23 feet high and 11 feet thick at the bottom and 10 feet at the top.       First, .there are several courses of flint, then two courses of bonded tile,

THE DR UIDS IN .BRITAIN. 270

%Id from this to the top of the wall there are alternate sections of ashlar and tile.

Another interesting relic is Newport Gate. It was the north gate of the Roman city, Lindum, and from it a .military road leading toward the Humber may still be seen.        This gate forms the principal entrance into the city from that side.

Another reminder of the Roman occupation is the ancient city of Chester. The two main streets cross each other at right angles and were cut through the solid rock.            The houses were built on the ungraded ground from six to ten feet above the level of the streets, and had passages and stairs cut up to them from the streets below. These old streets and several of the Roman houses are still to be seen ; also many other evidences of the presence of the Romans, such as " Arthur's Oven,'" mosaic pavements, metallic implements of war, of architecture, art, bronze, inscriptions, etc.

But one of the most unique of all the Roman remains is Pharos Tower, in Dover Castle.        Its form is octagonal, and it was built of alternate courses of tufa, flint, and Roman brick-the latter nearly two feet long.            An arched doorway leads into the south side of the tower.          On the east side of it is a lofty arch, faced with stone, the soffit of which was turned with brick. This arch doubtless once communicated with some building adjoining.

THE DRUIDS OF BRITAIN.-THEIR MYSTERIOUS RITES, ETC.

When the Romans first invaded Britain, the inhabitants were famous, even among foreign nations, for their superior knowledge of the principles, and zeal for the rites, of their religion.     The esoteric doctrines of the Druids were so similar to those of the ancient Egyptians and subsequent societies, that several writers claim to see a close analogy between them.

That the mysteries of the Druids originated in the East, is shown by the great annual festival they held on May 1st, in honor of Belinus; or the _sun. On this day prodigious fires were kindled in all their sacred places, and on the tops of all their cairns, and many sacrifices were offered to that glorious luminary, which at that time began to shine upon them with great warmth. Of this festival there are still some vestiges remaining, both in Ireland and

276     THE DRUIDS Ilk' DRI1AIll_

in the Highlands of Scotland, where May 1st is called Beltian, that is, the fire of Be], or Belitius.

In some of their lamest temples, particularly that 'of Stmielienge, they hau laid stones of prodigious weight oil the tops of standing pillars, which forn.ed a kind of circle aloft in the air, and added much to the grandeur of tire whole.

The temple at Classerness (Island of Lewis), Nvas constructed oil geometrical alid astrouoinical principles, in the form of a cross a>>d a circle. The circle consi.,ted of twelve upright stones, in allusion to the, solar year, or the

I

twelve sig>>s of the zodiac; the east, west, and south are masked lay three stones each, placed without the circle in direct lines, l)oiicting to each of those tlcmi tern ; and toward the north is a double row of twice nineteen stones, forming two perpendicular parallel lines, with a single elevated stone at the entrwnce.      In the centre of the circle stands, Digit exalted above the rest, the gigantic repre_~;entative of the Deity, to which the adoration of his worship. pets was peculiarly directed.

Among the ancient Britons, and some other ancient nations, the 1w.vs were not considered as the decrees of their princes, but as the commands of their gods.            Therefore violations of the laws were not regarded as crimes against prince or state, but as sins against Heaven, for which the Priests, as ininisters of Heaven, had alone the right of taking vengeance. The Druids exercised the prerogatives of explaining and executing the laws, in their full extent.   "All controversies," says CLeiar, "both public and private, are determined by the Druids.            If any crime is committed, or any murder perpetrated, if any disputes arise about the division of inheritances, or the boundaries of estates, they alone have the right to pronounce sentence ; acid they are the ouly dispensers both of rewards and punishments."         This oligarchy had one engine which contributed much to procure submission to their decisions.    That was the sentence of excommunication, which they pronounced against persons, or tribes, when they refused to submit to their decrees.            The interdicts of the Druids were no less dreadful than those of the Popes, when their power was at its greatest height.

* See PZvsteries, pp. 201, 206, 238; Toland Druids, vol. i., p. 90; also History of Great Britain by Robert Henry, D.D.

THE ANGLO-SAXONS.       279

~~ The garments of the Druids were remarkably long; and when employed in religious ceremonies, they always wore a white surplice. They usually carried a wand in their hands, and wore a kind of ornament encased in gold, about their necks, called the Druid's egg.         Their necks were likewise decorated with gold chains, and their hands and arms with bracelets; they wore their hair short, and their beards remarkably long.'

" The I)ruids had one chief, or Arch-Druid, in every nation, who acted as high-priest, or pontifex maximus. They had absolute authority over the rest, and commanded, decreed, and punished."

Suetonius Paulinus, who was Governor of Britain under Nero, A.D. 61, observing that the isle of Anglesea was the great seat of disaffection to the Roman government, and the asylum of all who were forming plots against it, determined to subdue it. Therefore he conducted his army to the island, and defeated the Britons who attempted to defend it, though they were animated by the presence, prayers, and exhortations of a great multitude of Druids; and not content with cutting down their sacred groves, demolishing their temples, overturning their altars, he burned many of the Druids in the fires which they had kindled for sacrificing the Roman prisoners, if the Britons had gained the victory.   So many of the Druids perished on this occar lion, that they were never able to make any considerable figure after this period.

ANGLO-SAXONS.

We now come to an event that was destined to change not only the his. tory of Britain, but the history of the Masonic Fraternities-the advent of the Jutes, Saxons,- and Anglii in that country.

The Britons being deserted by the Romans, and consequently subjected to incursions of their tireless enemies, the Scots, Picts, and Northern pirates, they invited the first-named people to come to their assistance.    The

* See Edinburgh Encyclopaedia.

f The Saxons' confederation was named in the year 288, by Eutropius ; it was formed of the remaining Lower German tribes, who had not joined the Franks, or had again separated themselves from them. Amm. Marcellinus next mentions the Saxons as the neighbors of the Franks, about the middle of the fourth century. The greatest territorial extension which they gained up to the time of Charlemagne was from the Danes; and in addition they occupied Lower Saxony and the greater portion of Westphalia, the banks of the Elbe, Weser, Aller, Ems, Lippe, and Ruhr. History of Germany, p. 65.

280     THE A1ATGI,O-SAXONS.

remedy, however, proved to be worse than the disease, for after their new allies had repulsed the Scots, they settled in the land, and true to the instincts of their natures, they committed cruel and brutal barbarities on the people, not hesitating to ransack and destroy whole villages where any defence was made against them. Then the term " Anglo-Saxon " was equivalent to savagery ; now it is the general title of two great nations.

These tribes of people came to Britain in the following order:

First, the Jutes; second, the Saxon,,; and lastly, between 527 and 547, came the Anglii.       The latter, like the Jutes, came from Schleswig, and there is still a corner of Schleswig called Anglen.   Therefore it was doubtless from the Anglii and their country that the national name " England" originated. A part of the descendants of the Colleges of Builders also tool: the name Anglo-Saxon Guilds; and from 750 to 975 these (xuilds had become so numerous and influential that their ordinances were not only sanctioned, but frequently imitated, in legislation.          In fact, legislation as early as the latter part of the seventh century was merely a reproduction of the older laws of tire Colleges or Guild..  In the year 715, by the decree of King Ina, the Guildic brethren, who had slain a thief, were rendered liable to a prescribed penalty.* In the time of Alfred the Great, the amercements to which these bodies were subjected for the murder of a Guildic member were defined with precision.           The Judicia Civitttis Londonia,' ,%. U. 92-1-940, contains ordinances for the maintenance of social duties in the Guildships.

The statute of one of the Guilds at Cambridge throws much light upon the internal structure of these sodalities at that time.    It was called thegna gilde.t   The following are the vital elements in the creed of this oath-bound society

"Members shall swear on the reliques [holy-dome] that they will help, aid, and assist each other, in spiritual and secular matters, and that the corporation itself shall sustain the personal difficulties of brethren Who have justice with them."

Conspicuous among the exemplars of the esoteric teachings of the Colleges, was Austin, a Christian and architect, who came to England in A.n. 557 for the purpose of converting the Anglo-Saxons to Christianity.            He placed * Note 7, p. 370; Fort, p. 392.   t Fort, p. 404.

THE COLLEGES AND THE CHURCH. 283

himself at the head of the Masonic Colleges, augmented their membership from the more intelligent of the new-corners, and assisted them out of the difficulties that the recent wars had involved them in. Austin subsequently became Archbishop of Canterbury, thus enabling him to still further assist the Fraternity by giving them work on churches, etc. It was in this manner that a part of the building fraternities became attached to the monasteries, and operated with them for nearly four centuries.

Among the grand old edifices of England is the Cathedral of Canterbury. Its nucleus, or commencement, was a church built and used by the Roman Christians, in the fourth century. To this additions were made until the latter part of the eleventh century. In 1174 the choir was destroyed by fire, and was rebuilt under William of Sens.

Notwithstanding the temporary affiliation of the -Colleges with the Church, he who aspired to the rank of master had to prove to the Craft that he had travelled in Italy and the East, and possessed a knowledge of the architecture of those countries.       In this way the Masonic bodies, in connection with the Church, became the conservators of the science and art of that period; and the esteem in which these corporations were held was such as to create a circle of activity and influence that embraced a large portion of Western Europe. This prosperous state of affairs was soon, however, to meet with a temporary but severe reverse.          For, as the cohesion of the different tribes, and peoples who were to constitute the British nation was not yet strong enough to enable them to defend the country against the Danes, that people repeatedly overran the richest portion of the island; and between 845 and 870 they plundered and then burned nearly all the church edifices and other public buildings, together with the records and ancient documents of the churches and Lodges that had been preserved in the monasteries. These wars paralyzed the operations of the Craft until peace was fully restored. Then, however, in consequence of the general destruction of public buildings, the services of the Fraternities were in great demand ; and the travelling bands were everywhere seen proceeding to localities where building operations were going on; consequently the Masonic institution soon felt the impetus of the renewed activity, and from this time forth it constantly increased both in numbers and influence.

28=1   THE GUILDS IN BRIT -41N.

TRANSITION STATE.

Prior to the eighth century, the huil(ling fraternities had nearly all passed under the title of Colleges of Builders, lout, in consequence of the national peculiarities of the people within the scope of their operations, and of im provements in their system, they began to change their title, and were in the eiglith Century known as Brother Masons and Coulpagnons in France; Guilds and sometimes Free Masons in England ; Colleges and Guilds in Germany ; and Colleges and Masonic Fraternities in Italy. This, therefore, may be termed the transition period, for in a few years we find that the name, " Colleges of Builders " had nearly disappeared, and in its place the terms Guild and Free Mason were used.

When we consider the wonderful cliange that has been wrought in North America in less than four centuries, and then consider that the Roman occupation of France, Germany, and Britain extended over a period of four cen turies, it will be evident that, as a consequence, Roman civilization made a strong impression upon the people of those countries.

The most durable and still visible impression was made by that feature of civilization expressed by the arts and sciences, as these had everywhere been disseminated directly by the Colleges of Constiruetor.q,* and later, indirectly, by the Church, after it had allied itself with architecture and the Colleges. Hence, the process by which the external and internal workings of the Roman Collegia reached the Guilds of the Mediaeval Ages will be clearly discernible, or in other words, it will be seen that the Guilds were simply a continuation of the Colleges.

SEYAR?.TION OF CHURCH AND ART.

Luxury and dissipation having found its way into the Church, religious services had become but little better than mockery. This, and the domineering spirit shown by the Church toward lay Craftsmen, caused such dissatisfac tion as resulted, in the eleventh century, in the withdrawal of the laity from the domination of the priests and the formation of independent Guilds, thus

* Notes 5 and 6, p. 370.

THE GUILDS IN BRITAI1V  287

resuming the plan of the old Colleges of Builders.            And at the commence. ment of the twelfth century, not only architecture, but the other arts, had passed from the monasteries to the lay architects-the Guilds.        The forma. tion of independent lay Guilds was also hastened by the attitude of the nobility toward artisans.            Disregard of personal rights and numberless acts of violence drove the people to combine for their defence, and prominent among the defensive associations were the Masonic Guilds, who frequently defied not only the nobles, but royal authority.       Therefore, at this time the Masonic Guilds assumed not only a definite, but a controlling, position in mediaeval society. In " Historical Account of Master and Free Mason," p. 420, we find that the Master Masons of England, in addition to the work they did for the government, were employed in the invention of military stratagems.  The construction of all the public works, exclusive of church buildings, was also under the supervision of the Guilds.

THE ADMISSION OF NEW MEMBERS INTO GUILDS IN THE TWELFTH CENTURY.

Before opening a lodge a guard was stationed at the entrance of the cabin in which the meetings were held, to prevent the uninitiated from entering or seeing the transactions within.         A candidate for admission had to meet the following requirements: He must be free-born, of a certain age, physically sound, and exhibit satisfactory evidence of his capacity to acquire a knowledge of Masonry and kindred arts. As in the Colleges of Builders, so in the Guilds, an initiation fee was required of the candidate.

All instruction necessary to enable the apprentice to become a Fellow was imparted to him, together with such grips and pass-words as prevented imposition from the uninitiated, attesting that the requirements then in vogue were substantially the same as now prevail in Free Masonry.

The time of an apprenticeship varied.        In Germany it was fixed at five years; in France, six; in England, seven years.  Upon the expiration of the term the Craftsman was entitled to ask and receive advancement to the degree of Fellow or Companion, which grade in the line of promotion was exclu. sively recognized by the mediaeval Masons.

* Note 12, p. 371.

288

THE C UILDS I-V BRITAIN.

In the thirteenth century apprentices, upon their advancement to the degree of Fellow, took the prescribed oath upon the Scriptures or I1oly-Dome, which were held by a Senior Warden.           The exact length of time that the obligated candidate remained a Fellow is not known, but it is inferable that when initiated into the, secrets of this degree, he received the essentials of the mystic rites of the brotherhood, and when the prescribed time. ;.t)(l proficiency entitled him to the final grade of Master, or third degree, it was conferred upon him. He was then instructed in the powers and duties pertaining to that degree, together with the secret symbolism Nti-liich constitutes the groundNvorlc of the institution, as the mystical and geometrical secrets of the Order were given in this degree.

The Masters field regular quarterly meetings, at which the affairs of the Fraternity were discussed and arranged ; those who had violated ;any of the rules and regulations were tried and punished, and the meetings concluded with a feast.    Early in the fourteenth century the Guilds were endowed with power to select by ballot any reputable citizen and accept him as a member. One Guild in England, whose origin was traceable beyond the Norman conquest, elected the clergy to membership.

In 127-', EdNvai-d I. reigned, and his son, Edward, iviis the first Prince of Wales-the Welsh having submitted to his father. In 128.5 the laying of the cap-stone of Westminster Abbey was celebrated by a great concourse of Masons, with great pomp.

In 1331 King Edward III. became a member of a Guild in London, and frequently followed by his successors, and the nobility of

his example was the kingdom.

Tracing the progress of the Craft in Britain, England, Germany, and France down to A.D. 1300, we find that they had so increased in numbers and importance that all the architecture of Europe was in their hands.            Large bands of them, under the name of travelling Free Masons, passed from place to place, constructing cathedrals where such edifices were to be built.-" But that this order occupied a position in history of vastly more importance

* in a work entitled Parentalia, the author thus speaks of the Guilds: " Their government was regular, and where they fixed near a building in band, they made a camp of huts. A surveyor governed in chief ; every tenth man was called a Warden and overlooked each nine."

GUILDS AND MASONS.     291

than . a purely mechanical association, will be seen from the fact that since the sixth century it has numbered among its Grand Masters, or presiding officers, fourteen kings and princes and twelve dukes, who esteemed it an honor to belong to the Ancient Order.

In 1351 the craft, under William of Wykeham, were engaged in the erection of Windsor Castle; and here occurred a strike, as the men refused to proceed with the work unless their wages were raised.      Their demands being refused, they abandoned the work in a body, but as the government did not then depend upon their votes an act was passed, compelling the recalcitrants to resume labor or be branded.    They resumed labor.

The ancient records show that in 1422 there was a Lodge in successful operation at Canterbury, and the name of Thomas Staplyton is recorded as Master, John Morris Custos as Warden; there were also fifteen Fellow Crafts, and three Entered Apprentices named in the same record.

In the year 1438 the Grand Masters of Scotland are accorded jurisdiction by James II., King of Scotland, who also authorized them to establish special tribunals in the principal cities for the trial of Craftsmen for Masonic of fences.       For this privilege each Master Mason was to pay annually into the

State Treasury a tax of four pounds.           Each Grand Master was likewise au thorized to have a reception fee collected for each new member.           Immediately after this the King nominated William St. Clair to the position of Grand Master adjunct for the lodges of Scotland.

In 1442 Henry VI., King of England, was initiated into the Masonic fraternity, and his example was followed by nearly all the gentlemen of his court. As the King and these gentlemen were admitted as accepted Masons, it is supposed that all the details of initiation were not observed.

In 1607, James I. proclaimed himself protector of Free Masonry in his kingdom.

In 1666, a great conflagration took place in London, by which over 40,()00 houses and ninety churches were destroyed. As such a wide-spread disaster left a large portion of the inhabitants without shelter, an army of build ers was required at once. Therefore, a call was extended to the Masonic fraternity throughout Europe to repair to London and co-operate with the craft there in rebuilding the burnt city.

J, J

THE GUILDS AND NASOXS IN BRITAIX

Soon after the commencement of these building operations the craft organized themselves into lodges,,and this action Nvas followed by placing the lodges under the Lodge of St. Paul.

In the reign of Henry VII., the Grand Master of the Order of St. John; at Rhodes, assenibledtill the knights in grand convocation, and chose Henry their protector.       Stlbsecluently, by virtue of his office of Protector, Henry ap pointed John Islip, the Abbot of Westminster, and Sir Ilicliard Bray, Wardens, through whom his suinmons Avas issued for co>>venin,g an assembly of Master Masons at his palace. And, on the assemMing of the Craft, a grziu(l procession was formed, under charge of the King, Nvlio walled to the East of Westminster They and there laid the corner-stone of the King's Chapel, according to the ancient usa-es of the Order."

During the reign of Edward VI. and the bloody Catholic Mary, 1-gut little of Masonic interest transl)ired.            Elizzthetli ascei!ded the throne in

.           At this time the Fraternity lead become ,o wimerous in the south of Digland that it was deemed proper to district the kingdom, and appoint a Master in Chief of e:,,ch district. ~lccordlingly, Sir Francis PLussel, Earl of Bedford, was chosen to take charge of the Masons iii the Nortlwrn- division, and Sir I'liomas Gresliam of the Sotitlterit ; btit the Ge>>eral Assembly crnitinued to meet at York, where the records wore at this time kept.

Sir Thomas Gresltanl superintended the building of the first 11oval Excltaiige.            The corner-stone of this English Bourse was laid ()it June ,7, 1566, acid it was finished in November, 1 ,567. In 1570, the Queen having dined with Sir Thomas, and been shown by him thro11g11 the buildinV', with which site Nvas partictfarly pleased, she cans(-(l the name of the edifice to be proclaimed, I,y herald and trtunpet, the I'oyall ETchan-ge.

Charles HoNvard, Earl of Effinghain, was next chosen Master, and presided in the south of England until 1588, wren George llastinga, Earl of Htintinudon, was chosen Master, and served in that office until the death of Queen Elizabeth, in 1603.

On December 27, 1561, a general assembly of Masons met at York, and bad organized for business, when, 1)y order of Queen Elizabeth, a detachment of soldiers proceeded to their hall for the purpose of dissolving the * 11Zitebel, vol. i., 1,. 184.

FREE MASONS.      295

assembly; but the officer commanding the troop, finding that the meeting had no political significance, so reported to the Queen, who revoked her order. 1590. King James of Scotland conferred upon Patrick Copland the right of filling the office of Senior Warden of Free Masons in Banff, Kincardine, and Aberdeen.            Eight years later, at a general meeting in Edinburgh, new statutes from all the Lodges in Scotland were accepted and adopted.

FREE MASON-ORIGIN OF THE TERM.

Several causes contributed to establish the prefix Free, to Mason.       First, and principally, as the secrets could be extorted from slaves, none but ,free men were admitted into the hermetic societies.*         Second, in many localities, the fraternity were exempt from taxes, made f tee of thein, and were therefore called Free Masons.         The French Masons made a. practice of calling each

other Frere (Brother), hence Free Mason. Lastly, the free stone-workers

were often called Free Masons.      Although this term had been in use for centuriesj yet it did, not begin to appear on records much before the fourteenth.1 The following examples are from old records, and from epitaphs in churchyards.

In 1535 the Dean and Chapter of Wells granted to William Atwodde, Free Mason, the office previously held in the church by William Smythe, with a yearly salary.           The letter of appointment makes known that the salary in question has been granted to Atwodde for his good and faithful service in his art of Free Masonry.

~~ Rec. of the gudnian Stefford, Fremason for the holle stepyll wt Tymbr, Iron and glas XXXVIIJI,."

1550.  The free mason heuyth the harde stone's and Hewyth of hre one

pece and there another, tyll the stones be fytte and apte for the place where he          I wyll laye them.            Euen so God the heavenly free mason builde thys christen churche, and he frameth and polysheth us, whiche are the costlye and precyous Stones wyth the crosse and affiicyon, that all abomynacyone and wickedness which do not agree unto thys gloryous buyldynge, myghte be removed and taken out of the waye I. Petr. II.

* Notes 13 and 14, p. 371.   t Note 18, p. 372.      1 Notes 15, 16, 17, pp. 371, 872.

296

FREE MASONS.

1590.  March 19th. John Kidd, of Leeds, Free Mason, gives bond to produce the original will of William Taylor, junn, of Leeds.

On a tomb in the Church of St. Helen, Bishopsgate, is the following

~~ Here lyeth the bodie of William Kerwin of this city of London, Freemason, who departed this lyfe the 26th day of December ano 1594."

Among the epitaphs in Holy Trinity Churchyard, Hull, is the following 1708, Dec. 27; under the above date Sarah Roebuck, late wife of John Roebuck, Freemason.

Entick, describing the two armories in the Tower of London, says:        " It was begun by King James II., but finished by King William, who erected the small armory, in which he with Queen Mary his consort dined in great form, having all the Warrant Workmen          .           .           .           to attend them, dressed in white gloves and aprons, the usual badges of the Order of Free Masonry."

ELIAs AsUMOLE.

This eminent mason and antiquary was the only child of Simon Ashmole, of Litchfield, in which city he was born May 23, 1617. At the age of sixteen he went to reside with his cousin, Thomas Paget, Esq., in London, where he remained for several years. In 1638 he married Eleatior, daughter of Peter Mainwaring, and during the same year became a solicitor in chancery. In 1641 he was sworn an attorney to the common pleas. He then practised law and prosecuted his studies till March, 1646, when he was made a Captain in Lord Ashley's regiment at Worcester, and on June 12 he was made Comptroller of the Ordnance.           After the surrender of Worcester he withdrew to Cheshire, and on October 16th of the same year he was made a Free Mason. Subsequently he returned to London, and having lost his wife several years previous, he married Lady Mainwaring in 1649.    He at this time had for friends and associates men of note: and in 1661 he was admitted a Fellow of the Royal Society.

* Gould, vol. iii., pp. 154-167.

 

t There is, therefore, nothing to induce the supposition that the secrets of Free Masonry, as disclosed to Elias Ashmole in 1646-in aught but the manner of imparting them-differed materially, if at all, from those which passed into the guardianship of the Grand Lodge of England in 1717. Gould, vol. iv., p. 364.

FREE MASONS.      297

 

He was the author of several important works, including hermetic works and a Masonic Ritual.        He died May 18, 1692, aged seventy-five.

FROM AsIBIOLE'S DIARY.

" Oct. 16,        4.30 P.M.-I was made a Free Mason at     Warrington, in Lancashire, with Col. Henry Mainwaring, of Karincham, in Cheshire.    The names of those that were then of the Lodge were Mr. Rich. Penket, Warden; Mr. James Collier, Mr. Rich. Sankey, Henry Littler, John Elarn Rich, and Hugh Brewer."

Nothing of a Masonic character transpired in his intercourse with the fraternity that Ashrnole thought worth recording again, until 1682, but at that date we find the following

`1 March 16, 1682.   10.-About J P.M.       I reed a summons to appear at a lodge to be held the next (Jay at Mason's Hall, London.          11.-Accordingly I went, and about noone were adrnitted into the Fellowship of Mnson" Sir William Kni_zht, Capt. Rich. Bortiiwick, Mr. Will. Woodman, Mr. Wm. Grey, Mr. Samuel Taylour, and Mr. William Wise.

"I was the Senior Fellow among them (it being thirty-five years since I was adrnitted).            There Nvere present beside myself the felloNvs after named Mr. Thomas Wise, Mr: of the Masons Company this year. Mr. TLonnas 5hor±hose, Mr. Thomas Shadbot.          Wainsdford Esq., Mr. Nick: Young, Mr. John Shorthose, Mr. William Hamon, Mr. John Thompson, and. Mr. Will: Stanton.      We all dyned at the Halfe Moone Tavern in Cheapeside, at a noble dinner prepared at the charge of the New - accepted Masons."

 

THE RULES OR ORDERS OF THE ALNWICKE LODGE.

 

" Orders to be observed by the Company and Fellowship of Freemasons att a Lodge held at Alnwicke, Septr. 29, 1701, being the Geul Head Meeting Day. "First, it is ordered by the said Fellowship thatt there shall be yearly Two Wardens chosen upon the said Twenty-ninth of Septr., being the Feast of St. Michael], the Archangel], whicll Wardens shall be elected and appoynted by the most consent of the Fellowship.

* Gould, vol. iv., p. 262.

 

FREE MASONS.

 

" Item. Thatt hoe Mason shall take any work thatt any of his Fellows is in hand with all-to pay for every such offense the sum of........ ;C 2. 6s. 8d.

" Item. Thatt noe Mason shall take any Apprentice (but he must) enter him and give him his charge within one whole year after.        Nott soe doing, the master shall pay for every such offense ........................ 3s. 4d.

 

" Item. Thatt every master for entering his apprentice shall pay .. . ..6d.

" Item. Thatt every Mason when he is warned by the Wardens or other of the Company, and shall nott come to the place appointed, except he have a reasonable cause to show the Master and Wardens to the contrary; nott

soe doing shall pay ............................................ 6s. 8d. " 8th Item.           Thatt noe Mason shall show (shun) his Fellow or give him the lye, or any ways contend with him or give him any other name in the place of meeting, than Brother or Fellow, or hold any disobedient argument, against any of the Company reproachfully, for every such offense shall pay, 6d.

" Item. If any Mason, either in the place of meeting or att work among his Fellows, swear or take God's name in vain, thatt he or they soe offending shall pay for every time ........................................ 5s. 4d.

 

" Item. Thatt if any Fellow or Fellows shall att any time or times discover his Master's secretts, or his ovine, be it nott onely spoken in the Lodge or without, or the secretts or councell of his Fellows, thatt may extend to the damage of any of his Fellows, or to any of their good names, whereby the science may be ill spoken of, for every such offense, he shall pay . ..e1 6s. 8d. " Item.        Thatt noe Fellow or Fellows within this Lodge shall att any time or times call or hold assemblys to make any Mason or Masons free Nott acquainting the Master or Wardens therewith, for every tune so offend. in, shall pay ................................................ 3 6s. 8d. " Item.            Thatt all Fellows being younger shall give his elder Fellows the honor due to their degree and standing.            Alsoe thatt the Master Wardens, and all the Fellows of this Lodge doe promise severally and respectively to performe all and every the orders above named, and to stand bye each other (but most particularly to the Wardens and their successors) in sueing for all and every the forfeitures of our -,aid Brethren, contrary to any of the said orders, demand therefor being just made."

* Gould, vol. iv., p. 267.

 

FREE MASONS.      301

 

" At a true and perfect Lodge kept at Alnwicke, at the house of Mr. Thomas Davidson, one of the Wardens of the same Lodge, it was ordered that for the future noe member of the said Lodge, Master, Wardens, or Fel lows should appear at any Lodge to be kept on St. John's day without his apron and common square fixed in the belt thereof; upon pain of forfeiting two shillings and six pence, each person offending, and that care be taken by the Master and Wardens for the time being, that a sermon be provided and preached that day at the parish church of Alnwicke by some clergyman at their appointment; when the Lodge shall all appear with their aprons on, and common squares as aforesaid, and that the Master and Wardens neglecting their duty in providing a clergyman to preach as aforesaid shall forfeit the sum of ten shillings."

 

FROM THE RECORDS OF SMALLWELL LODGE-ENTERED APPRENTICES.

 

" For as much as you are contracted and bound to me of our Brethren We are here assembled together with one accord to dictate unto you the Landable Dutys appertaining unto those yt are Apprentices to those who are of

the Lodge of Masonry, which if you take good heed unto and keep, will find j   the saiue worthy your regard for a worthy Science: for at the building of the Tower of Babylon, and Citys of the East, King 1\Timrod the son of Cush, the Son of Ham &c., gave charges and orders to Masons, as also did Abraham in Egypt. King David and his son King Solomon, at the building of the temple at Jerusalem, and marry more Kings and Princes of worthy memory from time to time and (lid not only promote the ffame of the 7 Liberal Sciences, but formed Lodges and gave and granted their commissions and Charters to those of, or belonging to the Science of Masonry, to keep and hold their assemblys for correcting of faults, or making of Masons, when, and where, they pleased."

After the restoration of Charles 11., who had suffered much in exile and knew the value of Masonry, he embraced the earliest opportunity to restore the ancient Order to its wonted prosperity.        Therefore on the 2 7th of Decem ber, 1663, a General Assembly of Masons was held under the authority of the King.

 

At this Assembly, Henry Jermyr: Earl of St. Albans, was chosen Grand

 

 

 

302

 

Master, and after the transaction of preliminary business the following resolutions were adopted

49 1. That no person of what degree soever be made or accepted a Freemason, uule~;s in a regular lodge, whereof one to be a Master or Warden in that limit or division where such lodge is kept, and another toy be a Craftsman in the trade of Freemasonry.

11 2. That no person hereafter shall be accepted a Freemason but such as are of able body, honest parentage, good reputation, and an observer of the laws of the land.

113. That no person hereafter who shall be accepted a Freemason shall be admitted into a Lodge or assembly until he has brought a certificate of the time and place of his acceptation from the Lodge that accepted him unto the Master of that limit or division where such Lodge is kept, and the said Master shall enroll the same in a roll of parchment, to be kept for that purpose, and shall give an account of all such acceptations at every General Assembly.

114. That every person who is now a Freemason shall bring to the Master a note of the time of his acceptation, to the end that the same may be enrolled in such priority of place as the brother deserves; and that the whole company and Fellows may the better know each other.

11 5. For the future the said Fraternity of Freemasons shall be regulated and governed by one Grand Master, and as many Wardens as the said Society shall think fit to appoint at every annual General Assembly.

" 6. That no person shall be accepted unless he be twenty-one years old, or more."

SPECULATIVE MASONRY.

SPECULATIVE MASONRY.

1717. We have now arrived at the second, and grand epoch in the history of the ancient craft. This begins with the reorganization of Free Masonry, the disappearance of the operative domination in the Society, and its assumption of a speculative or philosophic character.            Notwithstanding the fact that members of the Masonic Guilds, both in England and in other countries, had for many centuries been known as Free Masons, and that their esoteric teachings had gradually become more and more of a speculative character,* yet until this time their membership had principally been composed * Notes 20, 21, 22, pp. 372, 373.

SPECULATIVE MASOIVRY.          303

of operative Masons.            Now, however, a change is to be made by which the temples of the Fraternity are to be thrown open to good and true men without reference to their calling, religion, or nationality.

In 1703 the Lodge of St. Paul, after due deliberation, passed the following important resolution : " RESOLVED, THAT THE PRIVILEGES of Masonry shall no longer be confined to OPERATIVE MASONS, but be free to men of all profes sion, provided that they are regularly approved and initiated into the Fraternity." The object of this act was to augment the membership of the Society by the admission of men in the different ranks of life, and thereby perpetuate its philosophical and religious principles as taught by allegories and symbols.

But on account of the opposition of some influential members, this change.was not adopted by the fraternity at large until 1717. At that time a general assembly was convened in London, the resolution of 1703 adopted, and the first real Grand Lodge constituted.

Soon after the establishment of the Grand Lodge of England it commenced to organize lodges, and this suggested the necessity of better regulations. Therefore, in 1718, George Payne, then Grand Master, requested the brethren to unite with him in collecting all the old documents and records pertaining to the subject.* The result was the collection of considerable important data, including the Gothic constitutions, from which he compiled and arranged a series of charges and regulations. These were submitted to the Grand Lodge under Montagu, in September, 1721, and after its consideration by that body, they empowered Dr. James Anderson to revise and prepare the same as a. Code of Law and Doctrine for the use of the Lodges in England.     This, by the assistance of Payne and Desaguliers, he did, and at the meeting of the Grand Lodge held at the Queen's Arms, St. Paul's Churchyard, on December 27, 1721 (being the Festival of St. John the Evangelist), the same was pre. sented for approbation. Upon which a committee of fourteen learned brothers was appointed to examine the manuscript and report.

On March 25, 1722, at a Grand Lodge held at the Fountain Tavern, in the Strand, the committee reported that they had examined the manuscript containing the history, charges, regulations, etc., of Masonry, and after some * See Gould, vol. iv., pp. 280-348.

304

SPECULATIVE MASONRY.

amendments had approved of the same. The G. L. approved of the conclusions of the committee, and directed that the book be published, * which was done, and submitted to that body in print, January 17, 17'33, under the title: " The Book of Constitutions of the Freemasons; containing the History, Charges, Regulations, etc., of the most Ancient and Right Worshipful Fraternity. For the use of the Lodges." -

Thus originated the famous "History, Charges, and Regulations of the Most Ancient and Right Worshipful Fraternity."

Returning to the year 1717, the establishment of the historic Grand Lodge of that date, together with a sketch of succeeding Grand Lodges, will now be given. and in the peculiar language of Dr. Anderson

" King George 1. entered London most magnificently on September 20, 1714. And after the rebellion was over, 1716 A.n., the few Lodges at London, finding themselves neglected by Sir Christopher Wren, thought fit to cement under a Grand Master as the Center of Union and Harmony, viz., the Lodges that met."

" No. 1.           .           .           .           Ale-house, in St. Paul's Churchyard.

" 2.      At the Crown Ale-house, in Parker's Lane, near Drury Lane.

" 3.      At the Apple-'tree Tavern, in Charles Street, Covent Garden.

" 4.      At the Rummer and Grapes Tavern, in Channcel Row. Westtninster.t "They and some old Brothers met at the said Apple-Tree, and having put into the chair the oldest Master ilason (now the Master of a Lodge), they constituted themselves a Grand Lodge pro Tempore in Due Forin, and forthwith revived the Qa~rterly communication of the Officers of Lodges (call'd the Grand Lodge), resolved to hold the Annual Assembly and Feast, and then to abuse a Grand Master from among themselves till they should have the Honour of a Noble Brother at their Head. I

`' Accordingly, on St. John Baptist's Day, in the third year of King George 1., 1717 A. D., the Assembly and feast of the Free and accepted Masons was held at the foresaid Goose acid Gridiron Ale-house.

" Before Dinner, the oldest Matter   (now the Master of a Lodge), in

*See Mitchell, pp. 241, 242.            Also Notes 23, 24, and 26, p. 373

t Gould, vol. iv., p. 279.         1 Note 25, p. 373.

~ The first four Grand Masters were elected under the banner of the old Lodge of St. Paul. Gould, vol. iv., note 4, p. 282.

See

SPECULA TIVE MASONR Y.         soy

the Chair, proposed a list of proper Candidates; and the Brethren by -the majority of Hands elected Mr. Anthony Sayer, Gentleman, Grand Master of Masons, who being forthwith invested with the Badges of Office and Power by the said oldest Master, and install'd, was duly congratulated by the Assembly, who pay'd him the Homage ; Mr. Jacob Lamball, Carpenter, and Captain Joseph Elliot, Grand Wardens.

" Sayer, Grand Master, commanded the Masters' and Wardens of Lodges to meet the Grand Officers every Quarter in Communication, at the Place that he should appoint in his Summons sent by the Tvler.

"Assembly and Feast at the said Place, 24 June, 1718. Brother Sayer having gathered the Votes, after Dinner proclaim'd aloud our Brother George Payne, Esq., Grand Master of Masons, who being duly invested, install'd, con gratulated, and homaged, recommended the strict Observance of the Quarterly Communication; Mr. John Cordwell, City Carpenter, and Mr. Thomas Morrice, Stone-cutter, Grand Wardens. And desired any Brethren to bring to the Grand Lodge any old Writings and Records concerning Masons and Masonry, in order to show the Usages of antient Tit-lies; and this year several old Copies of the Gothic Constitutions were produced and collated.

Assembly and Feast at the said Place, 24 June, 17 19.  Brother Payne having gathered the Votes, after Dinner proclaim'd aloud our Reverend Brother John Theophilus Desaguliers, LL.D. and F.R.S., Grand Master of Masons, and being duly invested, install'd, congratulated, find homaged, forthwith reviv'd the old regular and peculiar Toasts or Healths of the Free Masons. Now several old Brothers, that had neglected the Craft, visited the Lodges ; some Noblemen were also made Brothers, and more new Lodges were constituted. Mr. Anthony Sayer foresaid and Tho. Morrice, Grand Wardens.

" Assembly and Feast at the foresaid Place, 24 June, 1720.      Brother Desaguliers having gathered the Votes, after Dinner proclaim'd aloud George Payne, Esq., again Grand Master of Masons, who being duly invested, in stall'd, congratulated, and homaged, began the usual Demonstration of Joy, Love, and Harmony. Mr. Thos. Hobby, Stone-cutter, and Mr. Rich. Ware, Mathematician, Grand Wardens.

This Year, at some private Lodges, several very valuable manuscripts 20

306     SPECULATIVE MASONJ? Y.

(for. they had nothing yet to print) concerning the fraternity, their Lodges, Regulations, Charges, Secrets, and Usages (particularly one writ by Mr. Nicholas Stone, the Warden of Inigo Jones) were too hastily burnt by some scrupulous Brothers; that those papers might not fall into strange Hands.

" At the Quarterly Communication or Grand Lodge, in ample Form, on St. John Evangelist's Day, 1720, at the said Place.

" It was agreed, in order to avoid disputes on the Annual Feast-day, that the new Grand Master for the future shall be named and proposed to the Grand Lodge some time before the Feast, by the present or old Grand Mas ter; and if approv'd that the Brother proposed, if present, shall be kindly saluted; or even if absent, his Health shall be toasted as Grand Master Elect. " Also agreed, that for the future the New Grand Master, as soon as he is install'd, shall have the sole Power of appointing both his Grand Wardens and a Deputy Grand Master (now found as necessary as formerly) according to antient Custom, when Noble Brothers were Grand Masters.

" ° Accordingly

" At the Grand Lodge in ample Form on Lady-Day, 1721, at the said place, Grand Master Payne proposed for his Successor our most Noble Brother John, Duke of Montagu, Master of a Lodge; who, being present, was forth with saluted Grand Master Elect, and his Health drank in due Form; when they all express'd great Joy at the happy Prospect of being again patronized by noble Grand Masters.

" Payne, Grand Master, observing the number of Lodges to increase, and that the General Assembly requir'd more Room, proposed the next Assembly and Feast to be held at Stationers' hall, Ludgate Street; which was agreed to.

" Then the Grand Wardens were order'd, as usual, to prepare the feast, and to take some Stewards to their Assistance, Brothers of Ability and Capacity, and to appoint some Brethren to attend the Tables; for that no strangers must be there.      But the Grand Officers not finding a proper Nnrnber of Stewards, our Brother Mr. Josiah Villeneau, Upholder in the Burrough Southwark, generously undertook the whole himself, attended by some Waiters, Thomas Morrice, Francis Bailey, &c.

" Assembly and Feast at Stationers' Hall, 24 June, 1721, in the 7th Year of King George I.

SPECULATIVE MASONRY.

307

" Payne, Grand Master, with his Wardens, the former Grand Officers, and the Masters and Wardens of 12 Lodges, met the Grand Master Elect in a Grand Lodge at the King's Arms Tavern, St. Paul's Church3 ard, in the Morning; and having forthwith recognized their Choice of Brother Montagu, they made some new Brothers, particularly the Noble Philip, Lord Stanhope, now Earl of Chesterfield; And from thence they marched on Foot to the Hall in proper Clothing and due Form; where they were joyfully receiv'd by about 150 true and faithful, all clothed.

"After Grace said, they sat down in the antient manner of Masons to a very elegant Feast, and dined with Joy and Gladness. After Dinner and Grace said, Brother Payne, the old Grand Master, made the First Procession round the Hall, and when return'd he proclaim'd aloud the most noble Prince and our brother,* John Montagu, Duke of Montagu, Grand Master of Masons. Montagu, Grand Master immediately called forth . . . John Beal, M.D., as his Deputy Grand Master.

" In like Manner his Worship called forth and appointed Mr. Josiah Villeneau and Mr. Thomas Morrice, Grand Wardens, who were invested and installed by the last Grand Wardens.

"Upon which the Deputy and Wardens were saluted and congratulated as usual.

"Then Montagu, G. Master, with his Officers and the old officers, having made the 2d procession round the Hall, Brother Desaguliers made an eloquent Oration about Masons and Masonry; And after great Harmony, the Effect of brotherly Love, the Grand Master thank'd Brother Villeneau for his Care of the Feast, and ordered him as Warden, to close the Lodge in good time. "The Grand Lodge in ample Form on September 29, 1721, at King's Arms foresaid, with the former Grand Officers and those of ld Lodges.

" His Grace's Worship and the Lodge finding fault with all the Copies of the old Gothic Constitutions, order'd Bro. James Anderson, A. M., to digest the same in a new and better Method.

"The Grand Lodge in ample Form on St. John's Day, 27 Dec., 1721, at the said King's-Arms, with former Grand Officers and those of 20 Lodges.

" Montagu, Grand Master, at the Desire of the      Lodge, appointed 14 * Gould, vol. iv., pp. 282, 283.

308     SPECULATIVE MASO_NR Y

learned Brothers to examine Brother Anderson's Manuscript, and to make report. This Communication was made very entertaining by the Lectures of some old Masons.

" Grand Lodge at the Fountain, Strand, in ample Form, 25 March, 1722, with former Grand officers and those of 24 Lodges.

" The said Committee of 14 reported that they had perused Brother Anderson's Manuscript, viz., the History, Charges, Regulations, and Master's Song, and after some Amendments had approv'd of it: Upon which the Lodge desir'd the Grand Master to order it to be printed.            Meanwhile in. genious Men of all Faculties and Stations being convinced that the Cement of the Lodge was Love and Friendship, earnestly requested to be made \Ia. sons, Affecting this amicable Fraternity more than other Societies, then often disturbed by warm disputes.        ,

" Grand Master Montagu's good Government inclin'd the better Sort to continue him in t ie Chair another Year; and therefore they delay'd to prepare the Feast.

" May 25th, 1722.-Met the Duke of Queensboro', Lord Dunbarton, Hinchinbroke, &c., at Fountain Tavern Lodge, to consider of (the) feast of St. John's." " Nov. 3rd,* 1722.-The Duke of Wharton and Lord Dalkeith visited our lodge at the Fountain.

" But Philip, Duke of Wharton, lately made a Brother, tho' not the Master of a Lodge, being ambitious of the Chair, got a Number of Otliers to ineet him at Stationers' Hall, 24 June, 1722. And having no Grand Officers; they put in the Chair the oldest Master Mason (\vho was not the present Master of a Lodge, also irregular), and without the usual decent Ceremoidals, the said old Mason proclaimed aloud : Philip Wharton, Duke of Wharton, Grand Master of Masons, and Mr. Joshua Timson, Blacksmith, and Mr. William Hawkins, Mason, Grand Wardens; but his Grace appointed no Deputy, nor was the Lodge opened and closed in due form.

" Therefore the noble Brothers and all those that would not countenance Irregularities, disown'd What-ton's Authority, till worthy Brother Montagu heal'd the Breach of Harmony by summoning the Grand Lodge to meet

* The entries of May 25 and November 3, 1722, are from Dr. Stukelv's Diary and introduced to fill a break that occurs here in Anderson's account.            See Gould, vol. iv., p. 288.

SPECULA TIVE 11IASONRY         309

17 January, 1723, at the King's-Arms foresaid, where the Duke of Wharton, promising to be true and Faitliful, Deputy Grand Master Beal proclaim'd aloud the most noble Prince and our Brother, Philip Wharton, Duke of Wharton, Grand Master of Masons, who appointed Dr. Desaguliers the Deputy Grand Master, Joshua Timson foresaid, and James Anderson, A. M., Grand Wardens, for Hawking, deinitted as always out of Town, when former Grand Officers, with those of 25 L()dges, paid their Homage.

" G. Warden Anderson produced the new book of Constitutions, now in print, which was again approv'd, with the Addition of the Antient Manner of Constituting a lodge.

" Now Xasonry flourished in Harmony, Reputation, and Numbers; many Noblemen and Gentlemen of the first Rank desir'd to be admitted into the Fraternity, besides other Learned Men, Merchants, Clergymen, and Trades men, who found a Lodge to be a safe and pleasant Relaxation from Intense Study or the Hurry of Business, without Politicks or Party. Therefore the Grand Master was obliged to constitute more new Lodges and was very assiduous in visiting the Lodges every Week with his Deputy and Wardens; and his Worship was as well pleas'd with their kind and respectful Manner of receiving him, as they were with his affable and clever conversation.

" Grand Lodge in ample Form, 25 April, 1723, at the White Lion, Cornhill, with former Grand Officers and those of 30 Lodges, call'd over by G. Warden Anderson, for no Secretary was yet appointed; when Wharton, Grand Master, proposed for his Successor the Earl of Dalkeith (now Duke of Buckleugh), Master of a Lodge, who was unanimously approv'd and duly saluted as Grand Master Elect."

At a meeting held April 28, 1124, Grand Master Dalkeith proposed the Duke of Richmond as his successor, and he was saluted as Grand Master elect.

"At the assembly and feast, June 24, 1724, Grand Master Dalkeith, his Deputy and Wardens, visited the Duke of Richmond, in the morning, at his house in Whitehall, wlio, with many brothers duly clothed, proceeded in coaches from the West to the East, and were handsomely received at the hall by a large assembly]

* Note 27, p. 373; Gould, vol. iv., p. 290.    t Mitchel, p. 244.

310     SPECU ATI FE MASO-YR 1

"The Grand Lodge met, and having confirmed their choice of    .           .           . Grand Master, adjourned to dinner. Dinner being ended, Grand Master Dalkeith made the first procession around the tables, viz., Bro. Clinch to clear the way;

" The Stewards, two and two abreast with white rods;

"Secretary Cowper, with the bag, and on his left the master of a Lodge, with one great light;

Two other great lights borne by two masters of Lodges;

" Former Grand Wardens proceeding one by one, according to juniority ; "Former Grand Masters proceeding according to juniority;

" Sorrel and Senex, the two Grand Wardens; " Desaguliers, Deputy Grand Master, alone;

" The Sword carried by the Master of the Lodge to which the sword belonged ;

" The Book of Constitutions on a cushion carried b3- the Master of the Senior Lodge present;

" Richmond, Grand Master elect, and Grand ivlaster Dalkeith.

" During the procession around the table three times, the brethren stood up and faced about with regular salutations; and when returned, Bro. Dalkeith stood up and, bowing to the assembly, thanked them for the honor he had of being Grand Master, and then proclaimed aloud to the most noble prince and our Bro. Charles Lenox, Duke of Richmond and Lenox, Grand Master of Masons. The Duke having bowed to the assembly Bro. Dalkeith invested him with the ensigns and badges of his office and authority, installed him in Solomon's Chair, and wishing him all prosperity sat down at his right hand.     Upon which the assembly joined in due homage, affectionate congratulations, and other signs of joy."

This concludes the first seven years--the eventful period in the history of the Grand Lodge of England.

December 15, 1730.-" Brother Sayer attended the Grand Lodge'to answer the complaint made against him, and after hearing both parties, and some of the Brethren being of the opinion that what he had do>>e `vas clam destine, others that it was irregular, the question was put whether what was done was clandestine, or irregular only, and the Lodge was of the opinion that

SPECULATIVE MASONP Y.          311

it was irregular only; whereupon the Deputy Grand Master told Brother Sayer that he was acquitted of the charge against him, and recommended it, to him to do nothing so irregular for the future."

11 In April, 1735, Lord Weymouth was installed Grand Master, and to give our readers some idea of the estimation in which the fraternity was then held by the nobility and gentry, we mention the following individuals as being present on that occasion, viz. : The Dukes of Richmond and Athol; the Earls of Crawford, Winchelsea, Balcarras, Weyms, and London; the Marquis of Beaymont; Lords Cathcart and Vene Bertre; Sir Cecil Wray and Sir Edward Mansell."

ORDER OBSERVED IN MASONIC PROCESSIONS IN 1742.

Tyler to clear the way. The Music.

The First light, carried by the Master of the fourth Lodge. The Wardens of the Steward's Lodge.

The Master of the Steward's Lodge. The Grand Secretary with the bag.

The Grand Treasurer with the staff. The Provincial Grand Masters, juniors to walk first. All Past Junior Grand Wardens, juniors to walk first. All Past Senior Grand Wardens, juniors to walk first. The Second Light, carried by the Master of the third Lodge. All former Deputy Grand Masters, juniors to walk first. The Third Light carried by the Master of the second Lodge. The Junior Grand Warden.            The Senior Grand Warden. The Deputy Grand Master. The Master of the Senior Lodge, with the Constitution on a cushion. The Grand Master elect. The Sword Bearer, carrying the Sword of State. The Grand Master.

On April 3, 1747, a resolution was passed discontinuing for the future the usual procession on the feast day. `1 The occasion of this prudent regulation was that some unfaithful brethren, disappointed in their expectations of the

* Mitchell, p. 255.

312     SPECULATIVE MASOIVR Y.

high offices and honors of the society, had joined a number of the buffoons of the day in a scheme to exhibit a mockery of the public procession to the grand feast."

OTHER, NOTABLE EVENTS.

Lord Byron was elected Grand Master on April 30, 1747, and presided over the fraternity until March 2(l, 1752, when he proposed Lord Carysfort as his successor.

In 1787, the Prince of Wales, Sir Samuel Hulse, Col. Stanhope, Lord Lake, and others petitioned the Duke of Cumberland, then Grand Master, for a warrant to constitute a new Lodge, to be called Prince of Wales Lodge. This petition was granted in 1787. Sir Samuel Hulse Nvas named the first Master, Col. Stanhope and Lord Lake, Wardens.            Soon after this, however, the Prince of Wales was made Master of the Lodge, and in 1792 the Dukes of York and Clarence were elected Wardens, which offices they filled until the Prince of Wales ascended the throne.*

In 1827, Humber Lodge laid the corner-stone of a new Masonic Hall, the ceremony of which commenced as follows

Dep. G. M.-I hereby, in the presence of all these Worshipful Masters, Wardens, and Deacons, and in the presence of all these Master Masons, worthy and diligent workmen of our secret Craft, do ask of you and your company if you know yourself at this time to have done anything contrary to the law of Masonry, which has not been told to the provincial authorities, and whereby you should be suspended from your work?

W. M.-We are good Masons at this very time.

D. P. G. M.-Have you among your company any brother guilty of brawlings, strife, and disobedience in open Lodge ?

W. M.-We have none, Right Worshipful Master.

D. P. G. M.-Have you among your company any brother who, in open lodge, is guilty of drunkenness, common swearing, or profane words?

W. M.-We have none, Right Worshipful Master.

D. P. G. M.-Have you authority to do this day's work ?

*Mitchell, p. 388.

SPECULATIVE MASONRY.           313

W. M.-We have, Right Worshipful Master, and, with your permission, will here read it.

The authority was then read, the procession formed, and the corner-stone laid in ample form.'

SCHISMS.

As every publication of the schisms and contentions that have from time to time taken place in the different bodies of Free Masonry, furnishes material with which cranks and fanatics can assail the institution, their publication is neither profitable nor dignified.        Consequently all such matters will receive but little further notice in this work than is necessary to maintain the sequence of current Masonic history.

In consequence of the erasure of lodges for not attending the quarterly, meetings and non-payment of dues to the Grand Lodge as instituted in London in 1717, both members and lodges commenced in 1739 to dissent and rebel against the Grand Lodge.           The seceders did not at first set up a Grand Lodge, but simply held themselves independent of all authority-denied the right of a general governing head.           They professed to be governed by the ancient law which authorized any number of Masons to assemble when and where they please, and there to make Masons. But dissatisfaction and discontent increased until 1752, when the 'schism culminated in an open re. bellion and the establishment of an independent body, which at first they termed " Grand Committee."

On February 5, 1752, the seceders met at the Griffin Tavern, in Holborn, London, where were present the representatives of Lodges from No. two to ten inclusive, when upon the representation of John Morgan, the Grand Secretary, that he wished to retire from office, Lawrence Dermott was examined as to his qualifications for the position, and unanimously chosen Grand Secretary. Later on he became Deputy Grand Master; and being both aggressive and energetic, he did. not hesitate to take any advantage of the other body, within his power. Therefore he designated his Grand Lodge the "Ancient York Masons," and the Grand Lodge of England "The Moderns."  But upon ascertaining that the " Grand Lodge of All England " at * Mitchell, p. 390.            t Note 28, p. 373.

314     SPECULATIVE MASONRY

York was still in operation, he dropped the name "York" and took the title of " Ancients."       This significant distinction helped his society immense ly.*            The new body was furnished with a constitution by Dermott, which he termed the " Ahiman Rezon," the first edition of which was published in 1756, under the title " Ahiman Rezon : or a Help to a Brother."

In 1771 John, the third Duke of Athol, was installed Grand Master, and in 1775 he was succeeded by the fourth Duke of Athol. From this fact the "Ancients" were also called Athol Masons; and during the Grand Master ship of the Athols they granted dispensations for lodges in North America which ultimately resulted in capturing the Grand Lodges of several States. The trouble between the Grand Lodge of England, established in 1717 at London, and the Lodge of All England, at York, was caused by the establishment of lodges by the first-named Grand Lodge at different places in Yorkshire.           The culminating point appears to have been the establishment of a lodge in the city of York itself in 1761. This spurred_ the York Grand Lodge into renewed activity, which was manifested by the establishment of lodges in territory especially claimed by the Grand Lodge at London.      But this, as well as the Dermott schism, was healed at the general reconciliation in 1813. On St. John's Day, December 27th of that year, the brethren of the several lodges who had been previously reobligated and certified by the Lodge of Re. conciliation were arranged on the two sides of Free Mason's Hall, in such order that the two Fraternities were completely intermixed. The two Grand Masters seated themselves, into equal chairs, on each side of the throne.          The Act of Union was then read and accepted, ratified, and confirmed by the Assembly. One Grand Lodge was then constituted. The Duke of Kent then stated that the great view with which he had taken upon himself the impor. tant office of Grand Master of the Ancient Fraternity, as declared at the time, was to facilitate the important object of the Union, which had been that day so happily consummated.          He therefore proposed His Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex to be Grand Master of the United Grand Lodge of Ancient Freemasons of England for the year ensuing.          This being put to vote, was carried unanimously, and the Duke of Sussex received the homage of the Fraternity."

* Notes 29 and 30, p. 374.

t Gould, vol. iv., pp. 414, 447, 502.

SPECULATIVE MASONRY. 315

GRAND M.q STERS 11 GRAND LODGE OF ENGLAND," FROM A.D. 1717.

11 MODERNS. "

1.         1717.  Anthony Sayer.

2.         1718.  George Payne.

3.         1719.  J. T. Desaguliers, LL.D., F.R.S.

4.         1720.  George Payne (re-elected).

5.         1721.  John, Duke of Montague.

6.         1722.  Philip, Duke of Wharton.

7.         1723.  Francis Scott, Earl of Dalkeith.

8.         1724.  Charles Lennox, Duke of Richmond.

9.         1725.  James Hamilton, Lord Paisley.

10.       1726.  William O'Brien, Earl of Inchiquin.

11.       1727.  Henry Hare, Lord Coleraine.

12.       1728.  James King, Lord Kingston.

13.       1729-1730. Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk.

14.       1731.  Lord Lovel (Earl of Leicester).

15.       1733.  Anthony Brown, Lord (Viscount) Montague.

16.       1733.  James Lyon, Earl of Strathmore.

17.       1734.  John Lindsay, Earl of Crawford.

18.       1735.  Tlionias Thynne, Lord (Viscount) Weymouth.

19.       1736.  John Campbell, Earl of Loudoun.

20.       1737.  Eduard Bligh, Earl of Darnley.

21.       1738.  Henry Brydges, Marquis of Carnarvon.

22.       1739.  Robert, Lord Itaymond.

23.       1740.  John Keith, .Earl of Kintore.

24.       1741.  James Douglas, Earl of Morton.

25.       1742=1743. John, Lord (Viscount) Dudley and Ware.

26.       1744.  Thomas Lyon, Earl of Strathmore.

27.       1745-1746. James, Lord Cranstoun.

28.       1747-1751. William, Lord Byron.

29.       1752-1753. John Proby, Lord Carysfort.

3110,  SPECULATIVE lYlASONR Y.

30.       1754-1756. James Brydges, Marquis of Carnarvou (Duke of Chaudos~

3'..       737-1761. Sholto Douglas, Lord Abet-dour.

32.       1762-1763. Washington Shirley, Earl Ferrers.

33.       1764-1767. Cadwallader, Lord Blaney.

34.       1768-1771. Henry Somerset, Duke of Beaufort.

35.       1772-1776. Robert Edmund, Lord Petre.

36.       1777-1781. George Montague, Duke of Manchester.

37.       1782-1790. H. R. H. Duke of Cumberland.

38.       1791-1812. H. R. H. the Prince of Wales (His Majesty George IV.).

39.       1813.  H. R. H. Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex.*

GRAND-MASTERS "GRAND LODGE OF ALL ENGLAND, HELD AT YORK.77

11 YORK MASONS. "

1.         1705.  Sir George Tempest, Baronet.

2.         1707.  The Rt. Hon. Robert Benson, Lord Mayor of York.

3.         1708.  Sir William Robinson, Baronet.

4.         1711.  Sir William Hawkesworth, Baronet.

5.         1713.  Sir George Tempest, Baronet.

6.         1714.  Charles Fairfax, Esq.

7.         1720.  Sir Walter Hawkesworth, Baronet.

8.         1725.  Edward Bell.

9.         1726.  Charles Bathurst.

10.       1729.  Edward Thompson.

11.       1733.  John Johnson, M.D.

12.       1734.  John Marsden.

(Hiatus.)

13.       1761-1762. Francis Drake, F.R.S.

14.       1763-1764. John Sawry Morritt.

15.       1765-1766. John Palmer.

16.       1767.  Seth Agar.      .

* McClenachan, vol. i., pp. 52, 53.

SPECULATIVE MASONRY.           317

17.       1768-1770. George Pal mer.

18.       1771-1772. Sir Thomas Gascoigne, Baronet.

1:1.      1773.  Charles Chaloner.

2ir.       1774-1775. Henry Stapleton.

21.       1776--1779. William Siddall.

22.       1780.  Francis Smyth, Jr.

23.       1782.  Robert Sinclair.

24.       1783-1784. William Siddall.

25.       1790.  Thomas Kilby.

26.       1792.  Eduard Wolley.

GRA-YD MASTERS , GRAND LODGE OF ENGLAND."

44 ANCIENTS. "

1.         1753.  Robert Turner.

2.         17,54-1755. Edward Vaughan.

3.         1756-1759. Earl of Blessington.

4.         1760-1765. Earl of Kelly.

5.         1766-1770. The Hon. Thomas Matthew.

6.         1771-1774. John, third Duke of Athol.

7.         1775-1781. John, fourth Duke of Athol.

8.         1782-1790. Earl of Antrim (Marquis of Antrim).

9.         1791--1813. John, fourth Duke of Athol.

10.       1813.  H. R. H. Duke of Kent.

GRAND MASTERS OF THE 11 UNITED GRAND LODGE OF ENGLAND."

1.         1813-1842. H. R. H. Duke of Sussex, K.G.

2.         1843-1869. Earl of Zetland, K.G.

3.         1870-1874. Marquis of Ripon, K.G.

4.         1874-1901. H. R. H. Albert Edward, Prince of Wales,

1901-  Duke of Connaught.

318     SPECULATIVE MASONRY.

SIR CHRISTOPHER WREN.

As frequent mention is made of this distinguished architect in connection with the History of Free Masonry in England, he b3- some writers having been made to pose as G. M., a brief sketch of his life will be of interest to the Fraternity."

Sir Christopher was the son of Dr. Wren, and was born in Wiltshire, October 20, 1632.         In his fourteenth year he was entered as a gentleman com. moner in Wadlram College, Oxford.          Even at this early age he was noted for his mathematical knowledge, and was an inventor of several mathematical and astronomical instruments.   At the age of twenty-one he was elected a Fellow of All Souls' College and had achieved distinction as an inventor of scientific instruments, etc.

In 1660 he was appointed by King Charles II. one of a -commission to superintend the restoration of St. Paul's Cathedral. Before, however, the designs could be carried into execution, the great conflagration occurred which laid a great part of London, including St. Paul's, in ashes.

Soon after the great fire, he was appointed assistant to Sir John Denham, the Surveyor-General. in the great work of rebuilding the city. Meeting with opposition to his plans for the future restoration of the burnt districts, he abandoned his position-with Denham, but subsequently he superseded him. Having then full scope for his genius, he erected a large number of churches and other public edifices. But the crowning work of his life was the erection of St. Paul's Cathedral, which was begun in 1675 and completed in 1710, Notwithstanding that the authorities seriously altered his plans, yet this Cathedral is held to be one of the finest edifices in Europe to day.

When surveying the ground to begin this mighty edifice, there was an occurrence that was regarded by many as an omen of good. Having determined the outward lines for the foundation of the buildings he found the centre, and sent a laborer for a stone to mark the spot, who seizing upon the first he came to among the rubbish, brought up part of an old grave-stone, having on it but a single word of the original engraving, viz., Resurgam.

In the progress of the work on the foundations, Wren met with an * See Gould, vol. iii., pp. 3-55.      t Note 19, p. 372,

i

SPECULATIITF. MASONRY           319 ,

unexpected difficulty.            He began to lay the foundation from the west end, and had progressed successfully to the east end, where the bottom was very good ; but as he went on to the northeast corner, which was the last, and where nothing was expected to interrupt, he came upon a pit, where all the pot-earth had been robbed by the potters of old tunes.

Here were discovered quantities of urns, broken vessels, and pottery ware of divers sorts and shapes. How far this pit extended northward there was no occasion to examine. "It was no little perplexity to fall into this l)it at last." He wanted but six or seven feet to complete the design, and this fell into the very angle northeast. He knew very well that under the layer of pot-earth there was no other good ground to be found till he came to the low-water mark of the Thames, at least forty feet lower.   His artificers proposed to him to pile, which he refused, for the piles may last forever when always in water, otherwise they would rot.           His endeavors were to build for eternity. He therefore sunk a pit about eighteen feet square, to the depth of forty feet, where he found a firm sea-beach, which confirmed the opinion of many that the sea had been, in ages past, where St. Paul's Church stands.

 

The following is from a paper prepared by. Sir Christopher Wren in his old age, designed as a letter of instruction to those who might succeed him " Siuce Providence, in great mercy, has protracted my age to the finishing the Cathedral church of St. Paul's and the parochial churches of London, in lieu of those demolished by the fire, and being now constituted one of the commissioners for building, pursuant to the late act, fifty more churches in London and Westminster, I shall presume to communicate, briefly, my sentiments, after long experience; and without further ceremony.

 

" I conceive the churches should be built, not where vacant grounds may be cheapest, purchased in the extremities of the suburbs, but among the thicker inhabitants, for convenience of the better sort, although the site of them should cost more-the better inhabitants contributing most to the future repairs, and the ministers and officers of the church, and charges of the parish. " I could wish that all burials in churches might be disallowed, which is not only unwholesome, but the pavement can never be kept even, nor the pews upright; and if the churchyard be close about the church, this is also

331)        SPECULATIVE -ZIL48ONRY

 

 

inconvenient, because the ground being continually raised by the graves occasions in time a descent by steps into the church, which renders it damp and the walls green, as appears evidently in all old churches.

 

"It will be inquired, Where, then, shall be the burials ?      I answer, in cemeteries seated in the outskirts of the town. And since it has become the fashion of the day to solemnize funerals by a train of coaches (even where the deceased are of moderate condition), though the cemeteries should be half a mile or more distant from the church. . . . This being enclosed with a strong brick wall, and having a walk round and two cross-walks decently planted with yew-trees, the four quarters may serve four parishes, where the dead need not be disturbed at the pleasure of the sexton. . . .

°1 In these places beautiful monurnents may be erected ;, but ye;; the dimensions should be regulated by an architect, and not left to the fancy of every mason; for thus the rich, with large marble tombs, would shoulder out the poor, when a pyramid, a good bu.t on a pedestal, will take up little room in the quarters, and be more proper than figures lying on marble beds. The walls will contain escutcheons and memorials for the dead, and the area good air and walks for the living.

 

~~ The capacity and dimensions of the new churches may be determined by a calculation. It is, as I take it, pretty certain that the number of inhabitants for whom these churches are provided are five times as many as those in the city who were burnt out.

`~ The churches, therefore, must be large; but still, in our reformed religion, it should seem vain to make a parish church larger than that all present can both hear and see distinctly.

 

            The Romanists, indeed, may build larger churches.         It is enough if they hear the murmur of the mass and see the elevation of the host; but ours are to be fitted for auditories.            I can hardly think it practicable to make a single room so capacious, with pews and gal. leries., as to hold above two thousand persons, and all to hear the service and both to hear distinctly and see the preacher. I endeavored to effect this in building the parish church of St. James, Westminster, which I presume is the most capacious, with these qualifications, that bath yet been built; and yet, at a solemn time when the church was much crowded, I could not discern, from a gallery, that two thousand were present.

 

 

 

 

 

 

OLD ENGLISH DOOUMENTS AND MSS.                  323 ~

Concerning the placing of the pulpit, I shall observe: A moder­ate voice may be heard fifty feet distant before the preacher. . . . A Frenchman is heard further than an English preacher, because he raises his voice and never sinks his last words.        I mention this as an insufferable fault in the pronunciation of some of our otherwise excellent preachers, which schoolmasters might correct in the young as a vicious pronunciation.            .           .           ."

OLD DOCUMENTS AND MSS.

These invaluable additions to Masonic history were preserved by the old Lodges and by descendants of officers and members of old Lodges, and subse­quently were gathered into the British Museum, Bodleian Library, and other repositories, where they are now to be seen.

From this source selections will be made that will indicate the internal operations of the Order-show what the institution was in England from the fourteenth to the seventeenth century.

FROM THE HALLIWELL MSS.

Date, 1390.

The clerk Euclyde on tbys wyse hyt fonde, Thys craft of gemetry yn Egypte londe. Yn Egypte he taw 3 hte hyt ful wyde,

Yn dyvers londe on every syde ; Moray erys afterwarde, y understonde, 3 er that the craft come ynto thys londe. Thys craft come ynto Englond, as yzow say, Yn tyme of good kyuge Adelstonus day; He made tho bothe halle and eke bowre, And hye temples of great bonowre,

To sportyn bym yn bothe day and ray 3 th,

And to worschepe hys God with all hys my 3 th. Thys good lorde loved tbys craft ful wel,

And purposud to strengtbyn hyt every del,

For dyvers defawtys that yn the craft he fonde; He sende aboute ynto the londe

* Masonic Register, p. 17.

 

 

 

 

 

 

324     OLD ENGLISH DOCUMENTS AND MSS.

 

After all the masonus of the crafte, To come to hym ful evene strst 3 fte, For to imende these defautys alle

By good eonsel,        3 of hyt myt 3 th falle. A semble theiine he cowthe let make Of dyvers lordis, yn here state, Dukys, erlys, and barnes also,

Kny 3 thys, sgwyers, and mony mo, And the gret burges of that syte, They were ther alle yn here deg;re; These were ther uchon algate,

To orde3°ne for these masonus astate. Tlher they sow 3 ton by here wytte, How they my 3 thyii governe hette ;

Tlie furste artycul of thys gemetry :The nuiyster mason inoste be ful securly Bothe stedefast, trusty, ti-we,

Hyt slial hyinever thenne arewe

 

The secuiide artycul of aood masonry, As 3 e move liyt here hyr specyaly, That every master, that ys a mason, Most ben at the (-enerale connre-acyon, So that he hyt resouable y-tolde~

Where that the semble schal be holder And to that semble he most nede bon,

The thrydde artycul for sotlie hyt -.,sse, That the mayster take to no prentyss, But he have good seuerans to dwell Seven 3 er with hym, as y 3 ow telle.

The fowrthe artycul thys moste be, That the mayster hym wel be-se, That he no bondemon prentys make, Ny for no covetyse clo hym take.

The fyfthe artycul ys swvthe good, So that the prentes be of lawful blod;

OLD ENGLISH DOCU1tiIENIS AND 11ISS.         325

 

The mayster sclial not, for no vaiita,,,P, Make no prentes that ys outrage ; Hyt ys to mene, as 3 e mowe here,

That he have hys lyines hole alle y-fere ; To the craft hyt were great sohame,

To make au lh;clt ncon and a lame, For an unp~,rf.vt coon of suche plod Schulde do the craft but lyttul good. Thus 3 e rnoNve knowe ever3•chon,

The craft wolde have a my 3 thy mon ; A mayrned mon he hath no my 3 ht, 3 e move hyt knowe long zer ny 3 ht.

LANSDOWNE MS.

 

(In the British Museum, and known as the Burghley Papers.-Sixteenth Century.)

"Here Begineth the True Order of Masonrie.

" The might of the Father of the Heavens the Wisdome of the Glorious Son, And the goodness of the Holy Ghost three persons and one God be with us now and ever Amen.

11 Good brethren and Fellows our purpose is to show you how and in what manner this Noble and Worthy Craft of Masonry was first founded and begun, And afterwards how it was confirmed by worthy Kings Princes and by many other Worshipfull inen, And also to all those that be heere, We minde to chew you the Charge that belongs to every trees Mason to keep, for in good ffaith if you take good heed it is well worthy to be kept for A worthy Craft and curious Science. Srs there be Seaven Liberall Sciencies of the which the Noble Craft of Masonry is one, And the Seaven be these, The first is Gramer and that teacheth a man to Spell and Write trewly, The second is Rethorick and that teacheth A man to speake faire and Subtill, The third is Lodgick and that teacheth A man to deserne the trees from false, The fEowrth is Arethrnatick and that teacheth A man to Reckon and Account all manner of Accompts, the fifth is Geometry and that teacheth A man's and Measure of Earth and of all things, of the which this Science is called Geometry, The sixth is called Musick : and that teacheth A man to sing with Voyce and

* Blank spaces in the original.         Hughan, p. 207.

 

326     OLD ENGLISH DOCUMENTS AND MSS.

 

Tongue and Organ Harp and Trump, The Seaventh is called Astronomy and that teacheth A man to know the Course of the Sunn and the Moone and the Stars, these be the Seaven Liberall Sciences of the which all be founded by one which is Geometry, and thus a man, may prove that all the Seaven Sci. ences be founde by Geometrie for it Teacheth a Man and Measure ponderation that worketh any Craft but he worketh by some Mott or Measure And every man that buyeth or selleth they buy or sell some weight or Measure, And all this is Geometry, And the Merchant and all other Craftmen of the Seaven Sciences, and the Plowmen and Tillers of the Earth and Sowers of all manner of Graines Seeds and Vine plants, and Setters of all manner of ffruits ffor Grainer or Arethmatick nor Astronoiny nor none of all the SeaN-en Sciences can no man find Mott or Measure in without Geometry wherefore methinks that the said Science of Geometry is most worthy, And all the others be founded by it. But how this worthy Science and Craft was first founded and begun I shall tell you before Noyes food there was A man which was called Lameth as it is written in the Bible in the 4th Chapter of Genesis, and this Lametb had 2 Wifes the one called Ada the other Sella, by the first wife Ada he begat a Sonne and a daughter And these 4 Children found the beginning of all these Crafts and Sciencies in the World, ffor the Eldest Sonne Gabell found the Craft of Geometry and he fed flocks of sheep and Lambs in the ffields : And first wrought houses of Stone and he and his Brother Titball found the Crafts of Musick song of mouth harp and Organs and other Instruments. The third Brother Tubalican found the Smith Craft of Gold and Silver Iron and Copper and Steel, And the daughter found the Craft of Wel)bing and these children knew well that God would take vengeance for Sinn either by (fire or Water, wherefore they wrought the Sciences they had founded in 2 P-tillers of Stone, that they might be found afterwards, and the one Stone was called Marble for that would not burne in the ffire, And the other Stone was called Latherne that would not be drowned with water; Our Intent is to tell you how and in what manner these stones were found that these Sciences was written on.       .           .           .           Armes the father of the Wiseman he found one of the 2 Pillers of Stone and found the Science written therein and he taught it to others.

And the worthy Mr. Ewclides gave it the name of Geometry, and

OLD ENGLISH DOCUMENTS AND MSS.           327

 

how it is called through out all the World Masonrie Long after when the Children of Israell were come into the Land of Berhest which is now called the Countrey of Jerusalem where King David begun the Temple that is now called Templum Dei, and is named with us the Temple of herusalem and the same King David Loued Masons then right well and gave them good pay, and lie gave the Charges and Manners that he learned in Egipt which were given by that worthy Doctor Ewclid and other more charges that you shall hear afterwards; And after the decease of King David, then reigned Solloman that was King Davids Sonne and he performed out the Temple that his father had begun and he sent after Masons into Diverse Countreys and into Diverse Lands and he gathered them together so that he had 24000 Workers of Stone and were all named Masons and he chosed out of them 3000 and were all ordained to be Masters, Rulers and Governors of his worke, and was there a King of another Region which men called Iram and he loved well King Solloman and gave him Timber to his worke and he had a Sonne that was called a man that was a Master of Geometry, and was chiefe Master of all his Masonrie & of all his Graving, Carving and all other Masonry that belonged to the Temple, this is witnessed in the Holy Bible (in Libro Regium quarto et Tertio) and this same Solloman confirmed both the charges and the Manners which his ffather had given, and thus was the worthy Craft of fa sonrie confirmed in that Countrey of Jerusalem.   And many other Regions and Kingdoms men walked into Diverse some because of Learning to learn more cunning, and some to teach them that had but little cunning, .

and thus came this Noble Craft into ffrance and England, in that season stood void as fforagine Charge of Masons until St. Albanes and St. Albanes was a worthy Knight and Steward to the King of his household and had Government of his Realme and also of the mal:eing of the Walls of the said Towne, and he loved well Masons and cherished them much and made their pay right good for he gave iijis vjd a week and iijd before that time all the Land a Mason took but one penny a day and his meat till St. Albones mended it and he gott them a Charter of the King and his Councell for to hold a Gen. erall Councell and gave it to name Assembly. Thereat was he himselfe and did help to make Masons and gave them Charges as you shall heare afterwards, soone after the Decease of St. Albones there came Diverse Warrs into

328     OLD ENGLISH DOCU-31ENIS AND MSS.

 

England out of Diverse Nations so that the good rule of Masons was distirbed and put downe vntill the tyine of Icing Adelstoaa is his tyrne there was a worthy King in England that brought this Land into good rest and he builded many great workes and buildings, therefore he loved well Masons for he had a Sonne called Edwin the which Loved Masons much more than his ffather did and he was soe practized in Geometry that he delighted much to come and talke with Masons and to Learne of them the Craft, And after for the love he had to Masons and to the Craft, he was made Mason at Windsor and he got of the King his ffather a Charter and commission once every yeare to have Asseml)ley within the Realme where they would within England and to correct within themselves ffaults & Tresspasses that were done as touching the Crafts, and he held them an Assembley at Yorke and there he made Ma. sons and gave them Charges and taught them the Manners, and Commands the same to be kept ever afterwards And tooke them the Charter and Commissien to keep their Assembley, and Ordained that it should be renewed from King to King, and When the Assembley were gathered together he made a Cry that all old Masons or young that had any Writings or Understanding of the Charges and manners that were made before their Lands wheresoever they were made 1llaswas that they should chew them forth. There were found some in ffrench, some in Greek some in Hebrew and some in English, and some in other Languages, and when they were read over and overseen well, the intent of them. was understood to be all one, and then he caused a Book to be made there of how this worthy Craft of Masonrie was first founded and he himselfe Commanded and also then caused that it should be read at any tyme when it should happen any Mason or Masons to be made to give him or them their Charges, and from that time untill this Day Manners of Masons have been kept in this Manner and forme as well as Men might Governe it and ffarther more at diverse Assembleys have been put and Ordained diverse Charges by the best advice of Masters and Fellows (Tune onus ex Senioribus contat Librum et ille poneret manam Suam Super Librum) Every man that is a Mason take good heede to these "Charges, If any man fiude himselfe guilty in any of these Charges wee pray that he may amende himselfe or principally for dread of God you that be charged take good heede that you Keep all these Charges well for it is a great perill to a man to forsware himself upon the Booke.

OLD ENGLISH DOCUMENTS AND HISS.           329 I

 

CHARGES.

 

" The First Charge is that you shall be true to God and holy Church and to use noe Error or Heresie you vnderstanding and by wise wens teaching, also that you shall be Leige men to the King of England without Treason or any ffalsehood and that you know noe Treason or treachery but that ye amend and give knowledge thereof to the King or his Councell also that- ye shall be true to one another (that is to say) every Mason of the Craft that is Mason allowed you shall doe to him as you would be done to yo selfe.

" Secomlly and ye shall keep truely all the Councell of the Lodge or of the Chamber, and all the Councell of the Lodge that ought to be kept bY the way of Masonhood also that you be noe theefe nor theeves to yo' Knowledge free that you shall be true to the King Lord or Master call all Masons yo ffelloNvs or yor Brethren and noe other names.

"1`ojwe4VY also you shall not take your ffellow, wife in Villoney nor deflowre his Daughter or Servant nor put him to disworship also you shall truely pay for yo meat or drinke wheresoever you goe to Table or Board whereby the Craft or Science may be slandered, These be the Charges Generall that belouge to every true Mason both Masters and Fellows.

" Nwv I will rehear°_~e other Charges sarigle fog° 11Iasons Allowed.

" First that noe Mason take on liiin noe Lords worke nor other mans but if he know himselfe well able to performe the worke soe that the Craft have noe Slander.

"Secwidlf also that noe Master nor ffellow shall take Doe Prentice for lesse than Seaven yeares and that the prentice be able of Birth that is ffi~ee bonze and of Limbs whole as a Man ought to be and that noe Mason or ffel. low take no Allowance to be maid Mason without the Assent of his ffellows at the least Six or Seaven, that lie that be maide be able in all degrees that is free borne and of a goode Kindred true and no bondsman and that he have his right Limbes as a man ought to have.

" Sixthly also that none slander another behind his back to make him loose his good name.

" Seventhly that noe ffellow in the house or abroad answere another vngodly or reprovable without cause.

OLD ENGLISH DOCUMENTS AND MSS.

" Eighthly also that every Master Mason be noe coman player at the Dice Cards or hazard nor at, any other vnlawful playes through the which the Science or Craft may be dishonored.

" Ninethly also that noe Mason use no Lechery nor have whereby the Craft may be dishonored or Slandered.

" Tenthly also that no ffellow goe into the Towne by night except he have a ffellow with him who may beare record that he was in an honest place.

" Eleventhly also that every Master and ffellow shall come to the Assembly if it be within 50 Miles of him if he have any warning and if he have tresspassed against the Craft to abide the award of the Master and ffellows.

been abroad

1° Tliese be all the Charges and Covenants that ought to be read at the rnakeing of a Mason or Masons.

"The Almighty God who have you & me in his Keeping Amen.

HARLEIAN MSS.,* No. 1942. DATE 1600.

26. 11 Noe person (of what degree soever) bee accepted a free mason, unless bee shall have a lodge of five fee masons; at least, whereof one to be a master, or warden, of a limit, or division wherein such lodge shall be kept, and another of the trade of Free Masonry."

27. " That no p'son shal bee accepted a free mason, but such as are of able body, honest parentage, good reputacon and observes the laws of the land." 28. "That noe p'son hereafter bee accepted free mason, norshall bee admitted into any Lodge or assembly untill bee bath brought a certificate of the time of adoption from the Lodge yt accepted him, untill the Master of that limit, and devision, where such Lodge was kept, which sayd Master shall enrole the same in parchm't in a role to bee kept for that purpose, to give an acct of all such acceptions at every General Assembly."

29. "That every p'son who now is a free mason, shall bring to the Master a note of the time of his acception to the end the same may bee enroll'd in such priority of place of the p'son shall deserve, and to ye end of the whole company and fellows may the better know each other."

* Gould, vol. i., p. 88.

OLD ENGLISH -DOCUMENTS AND 1M8S.        331

30. "That for the future the sayd Society, Company and fraternity of free masons shall be regulated and governed by one Master, and assembly and Wardens, as yo said Company shall so fit to chose at every yearly as. sembly."

:31. 11 That no p'son shal bee accepted a free mason or know the secrets of the said Society until he bath taken the oath of secrecy hereafter following I, A. B. Doe, in the presence of Almighty God and the Fellows and brethren here present, promise and declare that I will not at any time hereafter by any act or circumstance whatever, reveal or make known any of the secrets, priv. ileges, or counsels of the Fraternity of free masonry, which at this time, or any time hereafter shallbee made known unto mee soe help me God and the Holy contents of this book.

THE APPRENTICE CHARGE.

1. " That he shall be true to God and the Holy Church, the Mr. and Dame whome he shall serve."

" And that he shall not steale nor peke away his Mr. or dames goods, his oun

prince, his

nor absent hiniselfe from their service, nor goe from them about pleasure by day or by night without their licence."

3. "And that he do not commtt adultery or fornication house with his wife, daughter, or servant. or any other."

4. "And that he shall keepe council in all things spoken Chamber by any Masons, fellows, or freemasons."

5. "And that he shall not hold any disobedient argument freemason, nor disclose any secret whereby any difference may any Masons, or fellows, or apprentices, but Reverently to

all freemasons being sworne brethren to his Mr."

6. "And not use any carding, diceing, or any other 7. " Nor haunt Taverns or alehouses there to waste out Licence of his Mr. or some other freemason."

8. "And that he shall not commit adultery in any shall worke or be tabled."

9. "And that he shall not purloyn

nor willingly suffer harme or shame or consent thereto, during his said

nor

in his

Master's

in Lodg

or

against any arise amongst behave himselfe to,

unlawful games."

any man's goods, with

man's house where he

steal the

goods of any p'son,

332

OLD EI'VGLISH DOCUMENTS AND MSS.

apprenticeship either to his Mr. or dame, or any other freenzason.        But to withstand the same to the utmost of his power, and thereof to inforine his said MT. or some other freemason, with all convenient speed that may be."

GENERAL CHARGEs FOLLOWING THE BUCHANAN MSS.

11 (1.) The charges are that you shall bee true men to god and his holy church: that you use noe heresie nor errors in your understanding to distract men, teacheings.

11 (2.) And alsoe that you bee true men to the Kinge without any treason or falsehood and that you shall know noe treason or falsehood but you shall amend it or else give notice thereof to the Kinge and Councell or other officers thereof.

11(3.)  And alsoe that you shall be true each one to other that is to say to every Master and Fellow of the Craft of Masonrie that be free masons allowed and doe you to them as you would that they should doe to )-on.

" (4.)    And alsoe that every free Mason Keepe councill truly of the secret and of the Craft and other Councill that ought to bee Kept by way of Masonrie.

" (5.)    And alsoe that noe Mason shall be a Thiefe or accesary to a thiefe as farr forth as you shall know.

And alsoe you shall be true men to the Lord and Master you serve and truly see to his profitt and advantage.

" (7.)    And alsoe, you shall call Masons your fellows or Brethren and noe other foule name nor take your fellows wife violently nor desire his daughter ungodly nor his servant in villanie.

" (8.)    And alsoe that you truly pay for your table and for your meate and drinke where you goe. to table.

(9.)      And alsoe you shall doe noe villanie in the house in which you table whereby you may be ashamed.

~~ These are the Charges in general that belong to all free masons to keepe both Masters and Fellows.*

"'These bee the Charges singular for every Master and Fellowe as follow

eth

* Gould, vol. i., p. 98.

OLD ENGLISH DOCUMENTS AND HISS.           333

SPECIAL CHARGES.

" (1.)    First that noe Mason take upon him noe Lord's worke nor other mens worke unless hee know lihnselfe able and skillfull to performe it soe as the Craft have noe slander nor disworshipp but that the Lord and owner of the worke may bee well and truly serve.

" (9.)    And alsoe that noe fellow within the Lodge or without the Lodge missweare one another ungodly without any just cause.

" (10.)  And alsoe that everyone reverence his fellow elder and put him to worshipp.

" (11.)  And alsoe that noe Mason play att Cards or I)ice or any other game whereby they should slander.

" (12.)  And alsoe noe Mason shall bee a Common Ribald in Lechary to make the Craft slandered.

" (13.)  An(] alsoe that no>e fellow shall goe into the towns in the night tliereas is a Lodge of Fellowes witliout some Fellowes that may beare him witnesse that liee was in a honest place.

" (14.)  And alsoe that every Master and Fellow shall come to the Assembly if it be within seven miles about him if liee have warning or else to stand to the award of Master and Fellowe,

"These charges that you have received you shall well and truly keepe not disclosing the secrecy of our Lodge to man woman nor child: Sticke nor stone thing movable nor immovable soe God you helpe and his holy lloome.

" Amen           .           .           .           Finis."

AN EPITOME OF ARTICLES AND POINTS, IN OPERATION IN THE FOURTEENTH

CENTURY.

FIFTEEN ARTICLES FOR THE "MAYSTER MASON"

1.         He must be " stedefast, trusty, and trewe," and upright as a judge.

2.         " Most ben at the generale congregacyon," to know it where it " sebal be holde."

3.         Take apprentices for seven years " Hys craft to lurne, that ys profy - table."

334

OLD ENGLISH DOCUIJIEETS AND MSS

4.

take."

"The prentes be of lawful blod," and " have hys lymes hole."

" To take of the Lord for hyse prentyse, also muche as hys felows." " Schal no thef " accept, " lest hyt wolde turne the craft to schaine." " Any mon of crafte, be not also perfyct, he may hym change."

" No werke he undurtake, but he come bothe hyt ende and make." "Ther schal no mayster supplante other, but be as systur and

5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

10. brother." 11.        He ought to be "bothe fayr and fre," and "techyt by hys mychth."

12.       " Schal not hys felows werk deprave," but " hyt amende."

His apprentice " he hym. teche," in all the requisite particulars. So " that he, withynne hys terme, of hym dyvers poyntes

13. 14. lurne." 15.

may

" No bondemon prentys make         .           .           .           Chef yn the logge he were y.

Finally, do nothing that " volde turne the craft to schame."

FIFTEEN POINTS FOR THE CRAFTSMEN.

Most love wel God, and holy churche and mayster and felows." Work truly for " huyres apon werke and holydays." Apprentices to keep " their mayster conwsel " in chamber

1. 2. 3. logge." 4. lawe."

5. Masons to accept their pay meekly from the master, and not to strive.

6. 7.

cubyne."

8.         Be a true mediator "To his mayster and felows fre," and act fairly all.

9.         As steward to pay well, and truly "To mon or to wommon, whether

to

" yn

" No mon to hys craft be false." and apprentices to " have the same

But to seek in all ways " that they stonde wel yn Goddes lawe." Respect the chastity of his master's wife, and

"his felows con-

* See Gould, vol. i., pp. 82, 83.

OLD ENGLISH DOCUMENTS AND MSS.           335

10.       Disobedient masons dealt with by the Assembly, the law, and forswear the craft.

11.       Masons to help one another by instructing those deficient in knowledge and skill.

1:),.      The decisions of the Assembly to be respected, or imprisonment may follow.

13.       " He shall swere never to be no thef," and never to succour any of ~~ fals craft."

14.       Be true " to hys lygh Lord the Kinge," and be sworn to keep all these points.

15.       And obey the Assembly on pain of having to forsake the craft and be imprisoned.

FROM THE SLOAN MS., 3329. DATE, 1659.

11 The Mason word and everything therein contained you shall keep secret; you shall never put it in writing directly or indirectly ; you shall keep all that we or you attend; shall bid you keep secret f °om man, woman or child, stock or stone, and never reveal it but to a brother or in a Lodge of Free. masons and truly observe the charges in any Constitucion all this you promise and swear faithfully to keep and observe without any manner of equivocation or mental reservation directly or indirectly so help you God and by the contents of this book.            11 So he kisses the book, etc."

From the catechism, Sloan 1us.

(Q.) " What is a jxst and perfect or just and lawful Lodge ? "

(A.) " A just and perfect Lodge is two Interprintices, two Fellow Crafts, and two Masters, more or fewer, the more the merrier, the fewer the better cheer, but if need require five will serve ; that is two Interprintices, two Fellow Crafts, and one blaster, on the highest hill or lowest valley of the world without the crow of a cock or the bark of a dog."

(Q.) '1 What were you sworn by? " (A.) " By God and the square."

* Gould, vol. iv., p. 317.

336     OLD ENGLISH DOCUMENTS AND M&4:

THE MANUSCRIPT OF HENRY Vl.*

Cei°tayne Qwestyons wyth Arasi»e~'s to tlte same, contemn yng the 111ystei,y of 111aconvye : Wl'yte-wne by the IIancle of Ii7inge Heiwye, the S'ixtlie of the X cone, ctnd faylef0lye copyed by me, ~761m. Leylands, Antiquavius, by the COMMctnele of his IIiylanes.~e.

They be as followthe Q. What mote ytt be?

A. Ytt beeth the skylle of nature, the understondynge of the myghte that ys hereynne and its ,oadrye werekynges; sonderlyche, the skylle of rectenyng" of Nvaiglites, and metynges, and the tree nianere of faconuyge all thynges for nianne's use, headlye, dwellynges, and buyldunges of alle kinds, and alle odher thynges that snake gudde to inanne.

Q. Where dyd ytt begynne ?

A. Ytt dyd begynne with the ffyrste menue yn the este, which were before the ffyrste menne of the Nveste, and comynge westlye, ytt bathe broglit herivythe alle cornfortes to the Nvyld and comfortlesse.

Q. Who did brynge ytt Nvestlye ?

A. The Venetians whop, beynge grate merchaundes, comed ffyrste ffrome the este yin Venetia, ffor the commedytye of marchauudysynge bey the redde and myddllonde see.,.

Q. RoNve comde ytt yn Engelonde ?

A. Peter Gower, a Grecian, journeyedde ffer kunnynge yn Egypte, and yn Syria, and yn everyche land whereas the Venetians hadde plaintedde Maconry e, and wynnage entrance yn al lodges of Maconnes, he lerned inuche, and re tournedde and woned yn Grec.ia Magna waclisynge, and becommynge a myglitye Nvyseacre, and gratelyglie renowned, and here he framed a grate lodge at Groton and maked manye Maconnes, whereffrome, yn processe of tyme, the arte passed yn Engelonde.

Q. Do the MaCCOnes descouer here artes unto odhers ?

A. Peter GoNver, wbenne lie journeyedde to lernne, was ffyrste made, and anonne techedde; evenne so shulde all odhers -beyn recht.          Natheless Macounes hauthe alweys yn everyche tyme from tyme to tyme communicatedde *See Fort, pp. 417, 418 ; Mitchell, p. 174.

OLD ENGLISH DOCUMENTS AND MSS.           337

to rnanky nde soche of her secretted as generally the myghte be usefulle ; they hauthe keped bache soche allein as shulde be harntfulle yff they commed yn euy lle hannded, odor soche as ne myghte be helpynge wythouten the techynges to be joytiedde herwythe in the lodge,, odor soche as do bynde the frered more strong lyche together, bey the proffyte, and cominodyte commynge to the confrerie herfromme.

Q. Whatte arts haythe the Maconnes techedde mankynde ?

A. The arts agricultura, arehitectura, astronnonmia, yeometria, numeres, musica, poesis, kyrnistrye, governmente, and relygry onne.

Q. Howe comme the Maconnes more teachers than odher menne ?

A. The hemselfe hauthe allein in arts of fyndynge neue artes, whyche artes the ffyrste Macconnes receued from Godde; by the whyche they fynde the wharre artes hem plesethe, and the treu way of techynge the same. Whatte odher menne doethe ffynde out, ys oullche bey- channce, and herefore byt lytel I tro.

Q. Whatte doebe the Maconnes concele and hyde ?

A. They concelethe the art of ffyndynge neue artes and thatt ys for here own proffyte, and preise ; they concelethe the art of kepynge secrettes, thatt soe the worlde mayeth uothinge concele from them.  They concelethe the art of wmidemverckyuge, and of fore say inge thynges to comme, that so they same artes may not be usedde of the wyckedde to an euylle end; they also concele the arts of chaunges, the wey of wynnynge the facultye of Abrac, the skylle of becommynge gude and parfyghte wythouten the holpynges of fere and hope; and the universalle longage of Maconnes.

Q. Wylle teche me thay same artes ?

A. Ye shalle be techedde yff ye be worthye, and be able to lerne. Q. Dothe alle Maconnes kunne more than odher menne ?

A. Not so.       Thay onlyche hauthe recht, and occaysonnee more then odher menne to kunue, butt many doeth fale y n capacity, and manye more doeth want industrye, thatt y s perneccessarye for the gaynynge all kunnynge.

Q. Are Maconnes gudder menne then odhers ?

A. Some Maconnes are not vertuous as some odher menne ; but yn the moste, they be more gudde than they would be yf they war not Maconnes. Q. II,th Maconnes love eidher odher myghtylye as beeth sayde ?

338     OLD ENGLISH DOCUMENTS AND MSS.

A. Yea veryche, and yt may not odherwise be; for gude menne, and true, kennynge eidher odher to be socher, doeth alweys love the more as thay be more gadde.

Here endthe the questyonnes and awnsweres.

A letter from Mr. John Locke to the Right Honorable Thomas, Earl of Pembroke, concerning the foregoing old manuscript

May 6th, 1696.

Mr LORD : I have at length, by the help of Mr. Collins, procured a copy of that MS. in the Bodleian library, which you were so curious to see; and in obedience to your Lordship's commands, I herewith send it to you.

The MS., of rvhich this is a copy, appears to be about one hundred and sixty years old; yet (as your Lordship will observe by the title) it is itself a copy of one yet more ancient by about one hundred; for the original is said to be the handwriting of King Henry VT

-Tam, YIy Lord, your Lordship's most ob't and most humble servant, JOHN L O CKE.

LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL OLD CHARGES, ETC.

1. Halliwell, book form, late fourteenth century. 2. Cooke, book, early fifteenth century.

3. Lansdowne, ordinary MS., sixteenth century.

3a. Melrose, No. 1, form and material not known, date, 1581. 4. Grand Lodge, roll, 1583.

5. York, No. 1, roll, seventeenth century.

6 and 7. Wilson, ordinary MS., seventeenth century. 8. Ignio Jones, book (folio MS.), 1607.

9. Wood, book, 1610.

10. York, No. 3, roll, 1636.

11. Harleian, 1,942, ordinary MS., seventeenth century. 12. Harleian, 2,054, ordinary MS., seventeenth century. 13. Sloane, 3,848, ordinary MS., 1646.

14. Sloane, 3,329, ordinary MS., 1659.

14x. Lechmere, roll, late seventeenth century.

THE CHARGES AND REGULATIONS OF 1723.            339

15. Buchanan, roll, seventeenth century. 16. Kilwinning, lodge record, 1675.

17. Atcheson Haven, lodge record, 1666. 18. Aberdeen, lodge record, 1670. .

19. Melrose, No. 2, lodge record, 1674. 20. Hope, roll, seventeenth century.

21. York, No. 5, roll, seventeenth century. 22. York, No. 6, roll, seventeenth century. 22a. Colne, No. 1, roll, late seventeenth century. 23. Antiquity, roll and lodge record, 1686.

24. Supreme Council, roll, 1686. 25. York, No. 4, roll, 1693.

25a. Colne, No. 2, roll, early eighteenth century. 26. Alnwick, lodge record, 1701.

27. York, No. 2, roll, 1704.

28. Scarborough, roll (?), 1705. 29. Papworth, roll, 1714.

30. Gateshead, lodge record, 1730. 31. Rawlinson, ordinary MS., 1730. 31a. Harris, roll, eighteenth century.

Nos. 1, 2, and 6, of these MSS. are vellum, ordinary MS.; Nos. 4, 5, 9, 10, 14, 15, 20, 22, 23, 24, 27, and 31, are parchment ; the rest are paper.

THE PRINCIPLES OF FREE MASONRY

AS SET FORTH IN THE

CHARGES AND REGULATIONS

OF THAT MOST ANCIENT AND RIGHT WORSHIPFUL FRATERNITY, PROMULGATED

IN GRAND LODGE AT LONDON, JAN. 177 1723.*

THE CHARGES OF A FREE MASON,

Extracted froin the ancient Records of Lodges beyond Sea, and of those in England, Scotland, and Ireland, for the use of the Lodges in London, to be read at the making of New Brethren, or when the Master shall order it.

* Gould, vol. iv., pp. 288, 289.

340     THE CHARGES AND REGULATIONS OF 1723.

THE GENERAL HEADS, Viz.

I.          Of God and Religion.

II.          Of the Civil Magistrate Supreme and Subordinate. III. Of Lodges.

IV. Of Masters, Wardens, Fellows, and Apprentices. V.  Of the Management of the Craft in Working. VI. Of Behaviour, viz.:

1. In the Lodge while Constituted.

2. After the Lodge is over and the Brethren not gone.

3. When Brethren meet without Strangers, but not in a Lodge. 4. In Presence of Strangers not Masons.

o. At Home and in the Neighbourhood. 6. Towards a Strange Brother.

I.          Concerning God and Religion.

A Mason is oblig'd, by his Tenure, to obey the moral Law; and if he rightly understands the art, he will never be a stupid Atheist, nor an irreligious Libertine. But though in ancient Times Masons were cbarg'd in every Country to be of the Religion of that Country or Nation, whatever it was, yet'tis now thought more expedient only to oblige them to that Religion in which all Men agree, leaving their particular Opinions to themselves; that is, to be good Men and true, or Men of Honour and Honesty, by whatever Denominations or Persuasions they may be distinguish'd; whereby Masonry becomes the Centre of Union, and the Means of conciliating true Friendship among Persons that must have remain'd at a perpetual Distance.

II.          Of the Civil Magistrate AS~iipreme and Subordinate.

A Mason is a peaceable Subject to the Civil Powers, wherever he resides or works, and is never to be concern'd in Plots and Conspiracies against the I            Peace and Welfare of the Nation, nor to behave himself undutifully to inferior Magistrates; for as Masonry bath been always injured by War, Bloodshed, and Confusion, so ancient Kings and Princes have been much dispos'd to encourage the Craftsmen, because of their Peaceableness and Loyalty,

THE CHARGES AND REGULATIONS OF 17.23.           341

whereby they practically answer'd the Cavils of their Adversaries, and promoted the Honour of the Fraternity, who ever flourish'd in Times of Peace. So that if a Brother should be a Rebel against the State, he is not to bp couutenanc'd in his Rebellion, however he may be pitied as an unhappy Man; and, if convicted of no other Crime, though the loyal Brotherhood must and ought to disown his Rebellion, and give no Umbrage or Ground of political Jealousy to the Government for the time being; they cannot expel him from the Lodge, and his Relation to it remains indefeasible.

111.    Of Lodges.

A Lodge is a place where Masons assemble and work: Hence that Assembly, or duly organiz'd Society of Masons, is call'd a Lodge, and every Broth. er ought to belong to one, and to be subject to its By-Laws and the General Regulations.      It is either particular or general, and will be best understood by attending it, and by the Regulations of the General or Grand Lodge hitherto annex'd.      In ancient Time,-, no Master or Fellow could be absent from it, especially when warn'd to appear at it, without incurring a severe Censure, until it appeared to the Master and Wardens that pure necessity hindei'd him.

The Persons admitted Members of a Lodge must be good and true Men, free-born, and of mature and discreet Age, no Bondmen, no Women, no im. moral or scandalous Men, but of good Report.

IV. Of Masters, Wardens, Fellows, and Apprentices.

All Preferment among Masons is grounded upon real Worth and personal Merit only: . . . . Therefore, no Master or Warden is chosen by Seniority, but for his Merit.

Only Candidatev may know, that no Master should take an Apprentice, unless he be a perfect Youth, having no Maim or Defect in his Body, that may render hire uncapable of learning the Art, and of being made a Brother, and then a Fellow-Craft in due Time,, even after he has served such a term of years as the Custom of the Country directs; and that he should be de-

342     THE CHARGES AND REGULATIONS OF 1723.

scended of honest Parents; that so, when otherwise qualify'd, he may arrive to the Honour of being the Warden, and then the Master of the Lodge, the Grand Warden, and at length the Grand Master of all the Lodges, according to his Merit.

No Brother can be a Warden until he has pass'd the part of a FellowCraft; nor a Master until he has acted as a Warden, nor Grand Warden until he has been Master of a Lodge, nor Grand faster unless he has been a Fel low-Craft before his Election, who is also to be nobly born, or a Gentleman of the best Fashion, or some eminent Scholar, or some curious Architect, or other Artist, descended of honest Parents, and who is of singular great Merit in the Opinion of the-Loclyes.

And for the better, and easier, and more honourable Discharge of his Office, the Grand Master has a Power to chuse his own Deputy Grand Master, who must be then, or must leave been formerly, the Master of a particular Lodge, and has tl)e Privilege of acting whatever the Grand Master, his Principal, should act, unless the said Principal be present, or interpose his Authority by a Letter.

These Rulers and Governors, supreme and subordinate, of the ancient Lodge, are to be obey'd in their respective Stations by all the Brethren, according to the old Charges and Regulations, with all Humility, Reverence, Love, and Alacrity.        -

V.        Of the Management of the Craft i1a Working.

All Masons shall work honestly on working Days, that they may live creditably on holy Days; and the time appointed by the Law of the Land, or confirm'd by Custom, shall be observ'd.

The most expert of the Fellow-Craftsmen shall be chosen or appointed the 3laster, or Overseer of the Lord's Work; who is to be call'd Master by those that work under him.  The Craftsmen are to avoid all ill Language and to call each other by no disobliging Name, but Brother or Fellow; and to behave themselves courteously within and without the Lodge.

None. shall discover Envy at the Prosperity of a Brother, nor supplant him, or put him out of his Work, if he be capable to finish the same; for no

s

THE CHARGES AND REG ULATI01VS OF 17,23.        343

Man can finish another's Work so much to the Lord's Profit, unless he be thoroughly acquainted with the Designs and Draughts of him that began it. When a Fellow-Craftsman is chosen Warden of the Work under the Master, he shall be true both to Master and Fellows, shall carefully oversee the Work in the Master's absence to the Lord's Profit; and his Brethren shall obey him.

All Masons employ'd, shall meekly receive their Wages without Murmuring or Mutiny, and not desert the Master till the Work is finish'd.

A younger Brother shall be instructed in working, to prevent spoiling the Materials for want of Judgment, and for encreasing and continuing of broth. erly love.

All the Tools used in working shall be approved by the Grand Lodge.

No Labourer shall be 'employ'd in the proper Work of Masonry; nor shall Free 1Vasons work with those that are not free, without an urgent Necessity; nor shall they teach Labourers and unaccepted Masons, as they should teach a Brother or Fellow.

VI.        Of Behaviour.

1. IN THE LODGE WHILE CONSTITUTED.

You are not to hold private Committees, or separate Conversation, without Leave from the Master, nor to talk of any thing impertinent or unseemly, nor interrupt the Master or Wardens, or any Brother speaking to the Master Nor behave yourself ludicrously or jestingly while the Lodge is engaged in what is serious and soleuin ; nor use any unbecoming Language upon any Pretence whatsoever; but to pay due Reverence to your Master, Wardens, and Fellows, and put them to worship.

If any Complaint be brought, the Brother found guilty shall stand to the Award and Determination of the Lodge, who are the proper and competent Judges of all such Controversies (unless you carry it by Appeal to the Grand Lodge), and to whom they ought to be referr'd, unless a Lord's Work be hinder'd the mean while, in which Case a particular Reference may be made; but you must never go to Law about what concerneth Masonry, without an absolute Necessity apparent to the Lodge.

344     THE CHARGES AND REGULATIONS OF 1723.

2. BEHAVIOUR AFTER THE LODGE IS OVER AND THE BRETHREN NOT GONE.

You may enjoy yourselves with innocent Mirth, treating one another according to Ability, but avoiding all Excess, or forcing any Brother to eat or drink beyond his Inclination, or hindering him from going when his Occasions call him, or doing or saying anything offensive, or that may forbid an easy and free Conversation ; for that would blast our Harmony, and Jefeat our laudable Purposes. Therefore no private Piques or Quarrels must be brought within the Door of the Lodge, far less any Quarrels about Religion, or Nations, or State Policy, we being only, as Masons, of the Religion above-mention'd ; we are also of all Nations, Tongues, Kindreds, and Languages, and are resolv'd against all Politicks, as what never yet conduc'd to the Welfare of the Lodge, nor ever will.       This Charge has been always strictly enjoin'd and observ'd ; but especially ever since the Reformation in Britain, or the Dissent and Secession of these Nations from the Communion of Rome.

BEHAVIOUR WHEN BRETHREN MEET WITHOUT STRANGERS, BUT NOT IN A LODGE FORMED.

You are to salute one another in a courteous manner, as you will be instructed, calling each other Brother, freely giving mutual Instruction as shall be thought expedient, without being overseen or overheard, and without en croaching upon each other, or derogating from that Respect which is due to any Brother, were he not a Mason: For though all Masons are as Brethren upon the same Level, yet Masonry takes no Honour from a Man that lie had before; nay rather it adds to his Honour, especially if he has deserv'd well of the Brotherhood, who must give Honour to whom it is due, and avoid ill Manners.

4. BEHAVIOUR IN PRESENCE OF STRANGERS NOT MASONS.

You shall be cautious in your Words and Carriage, that the most penetrating Stranger shall not be able to discover or find out what is not proper to be intimated; and sometimes you shall divert a Discourse, and manage it prudently for the Honour of the worshipful Fraternity.

THE CHARGES AND REGULATIONS OF 1723.            345

BEHAVIOUR AT HOME AND IN YOUR NEIGHBOURHOOD.

You are to act as becomes a moral and wise Man; particularly, not to let your Family, Friends, and Neighl;ours know the Concerns of the Lodge, &c. but wisely to consult your own Honour, and that of the ancient Brotherhood, for Reasons not to be mention'd here. You must also consult your Health, by not continuing together too late, or too long from home, after Lodge Hours are past; and by avoiding of Gluttony or Drunkenness, that your Families be not neglected or injured, nor you disabled from working.

6. BEHAVIOUR TOWARDS A STRANGE BROTHER.

You are cautiously to examine him, in such a Method as Prudence shall direct you, that you may not be impos'd upon by an ignorant false Pretender, whom you are to reject with Contempt and Derision, and beware of giving him any Hints of Knowledge.

But if you discover him to be a true and genuine Brother, you are to respect him accordingly; and if he is in want, you must relieve him if you can, or else direct him how he may be reliev'd ; You must employ him some Days, or else recommend him to be ernploy'd.     But you are not charged to do beyond your Ability, only to prefer a poor Brother, that is a good Man and true, before any other poor People in the same Circumstance.

Finally, All these Charges you are to observe, and also those that shall be communicated to you in another way; cultivating Brotherly Love, the Foundation and Capestone, the Cement and Glory of this ancient Fraternity, avoiding all Wrangling and Quarrelling, all Slander and Backbiting, nor perinitting others to slander any honest Brother, but defending his Character, and doing him all good Offices, as far as is consistent with your Honour and Safety, and no farther. And if any of them do you Injury, you must apply to your own or his Lodge; and from thence you may appeal to the Grand Lodge at the Quarterly Communication, and from thence to the annual Grand Lodge, as has been the ancient laudable Conduct of our Forefather°s in every Nation; never taldng a legal Course but when the Case cannot be otherwise decided, and patiently listning to the honest and friendly Advice of Master and Fellows, when they would prevent your going to Law with Strangers, or

346

THE CHANGES AND -REG UIATIONS OF 1723.

would excite you to put a speedy Period to all Law Suits, that so you may mind the Affair of Masonry with the more Alacrity and Success; but with respect to Brothers or Fellows at Law, the Master and Brethren should kindly offer their Mediation, which ought to be thankfully submitted to by the contending Brethren ; and if that Submission is impracticable, they must however carry on their Process, or Law-Suit, kithout Wrath and Rancor (not in the common way), saying or doing nothing which may hinder Brotherly Love and good Offices to be renew'd and coutinli'd ; that all may see the benign Influence of Masonry, as all true Masons have done from the Beginning of the World, and will do to the End of Time.

GENERAL REGULATIONS,

Compiled first by Mr. George Payne, Anno 1720, when he was Grand Master, and approved by the Grand Lodge on St. John Baptist's Day, Anno 1721, at Stationer's Hall, London; when the most noble Prince John Duke of Montagu was unanimously chosen our Grand Master fir the year ensuing; who chose John Beal, M. D., his Deputy Grand Master; and Mr. Josiah Villenealu and Mr. Thomas Morris, Jun, were chosen by the Lodge Grand Wardens. And now, by the Command of our said Right Worshipful Grand Master Montagu, the author of this book has compar'd them with, and reduc'd them to, the ancient Records and immemorial Usages of the Fraternity, and digested them into this new Method, with several proper Explications, for the Use of the Lodges in and about London and Westminster.

I.          The Grand Maaer, or his Deputy, bath Authority and Right, not only to be present in any true Lodge, but also to preside wherever he is, with the Master of the Lodge on his Left hand, and to order his Grand War. dens to attend him, who are not to act in particular Lodges As Wardens, but in his Presence, and at his Command; because there the Grand Master may command the Wardens of that Lodge, or any other Brethren he pleaseth, to attend and act as his Wardens pro tempore.

II.          The blaster of a particular Lodge has the Right and Authority of congregating the Members of his Lodge at pleasure, upon any Emergency or Occurrence, as well as to appoint the time and place of- their usual forming

THE CHARGE'S AND REGULATIONS OF 1723.           347

And in case of Sickness, Death, or necessary Absence of the Master, the senior Warden shall act as Master pro tempore, if no Brother is present who has been Master of that Lodge before; for in that Case the absent Master's Authority reverts to the last Master then present ; though he cannot act until the said senior Warden has once congregated the Lodge, or in his Absence the junior Warden.

III.         The Master of each particular Lodge, or one of the Wardens, or some other Brother by his Order, shall keep a Book containing their By-Laws, the Names of their Members, with a List of all the Lodges in Town, and the usual Times and Places of their forming, and all their Transactions that are proper to be written.

IV.        No Lodge shall make more than Five new Brethren at one Time, nor any Man under the Age of Twenty-five, who must be also his own Master; unless by a Dispensation from the Grand Master or his Deputy.

V.        hjp man can be made or admitted a member of a particular Lodge, without previous notice one ~Voathbefore given to the said Lodge, in order to make due Enquiry into the Reputation and Capacity of the Candidate; unless by the Dispen.satioza aforesaid,.

VI.        But no Man can be enter'd a Brother in any particular Lodge, or admitted to be a Member thereof, without the unanimous Consent of all the Members of that Lodge then present when the Candidate is propos'd, and their Consent is formally ask'd by the Master; and they are to signify their Consent or Dissent in their own prudent way, either virtually or in form, but with Unanimity; Nor is this inherent Privilege subject to a Dispensation; because the Members of a particular Lodge are the best Judges of it; and if a fractious Member should be imposed on them, it might spoil their Harmony, or hinder their Freedom; or even break and disperse the Lodge; which ought to be avoided by all good and true Brethren.

VIT.     Every new Brother at his making is decently to cloath the Lodge, that is, all the Brethren present, and to deposite something for the Relief of indigent and decay'd Brethren, as the Candidate shall think fit to bestow, over and above the small Allowance stated by the By-Laws of that particular Lodge; which Charity shall be lodg'd with the Master or Wardens, or t': Cashier, if the Members think fit to chase one.

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THE CHARGES AND REGULATIONS OF 1723.

And the Candidate shall also solemnly promise to submit to the Constitutions, the Charges, and Regulations, and to such other good Usages as shall be intimated to them in Time and Place convenient.

VIII.      No Set or Number of Brethren shall withdraw or separate themselves from the Lodge in which they were made Brethren, or were afterwards admitted Members, unless the Lodge becomes too numerous; nor even then, without a Dispensation from the Grand Master or his Deputy : and when they are thus separated, they must either immediately join themselves to such other Lodge as they shall like best, with the unanimous Consent of that other Lodge to which they go (as above regulated), or else they must obtain the Grand Master's Warrant to join in forming a new Lodge.

If any Set or Number of Masons shall take upon themselves to form a Lodge without the Grand Master's Warrant, the regular Lodges are not to countenance them, nor own them as fair Brethren and duly form'd, nor ap prove of their Acts and Deeds; but must treat them as Rebels, until they humble themselves, as the Grand Master shall in his Prudence direct, and until he approve of them by his Warrant, which must be signify'd to the other Lodges, as the Custom is when a new Lodge is to be register'd in the List of Lodges.

IX.        But if any Brother so far misbehave himself as to render his Lodge uneasy, he shall be twice duly admonish'd by the Master or Wardens in a form'd Lodge; and if he will not refrain his Imprudence, and obediently sub mit to the Advice of the Brethren, and reform what gives them Offence, he shall be dealt with according to the By-Laws of that particular Lodge, or else in such a Maciner as the Quarterly Communication shall in their great Prudence think fit; for which a new Regulation may be afterwards made.

X. The Majority of every particular Lodge, when congregated, shall have the Privilege of giving Instructions to their Master and Wardens, before the assembling of the grand Chapter, or Lodge, at the three Quarterly Com munications hereafter mention'd, and of the Annual Grand Lodge too; because their Master and Wardens are their Representatives, and are supposed to speak their Mind.

XI. All particular Lodges possible; in order to which, and

are to observe the same Usages as much as for cultivating a good Understanding among

THE CHARGES AND REGULATIONS OF 1723.            349

Free Masons, some Members out of every Lodge shall be deputed to visit the other Lodges as often as shall be thought convenient.

XII.       The Grand Lodge consists of, and is form'd by, the Masters and Wardens of all the regular particular Lodges upon Record, with the Grand blaster at their Head, and his Deputy on his Left-hand, and the Grand Wardens in their proper Places.; and must have a Quarterly Communication about Michaelmas, Christmas, and Lady-Day, in some convenient Place, as the Grand Master shall appoint, where no Brother shall be present, Nvho is not at that time a member thereof, without a Dispensation; and while he stays,. he shall not be allowed to vote, nor even give his Opinion, without Leave of the Grand Lodge ask'd and given, or unless it be duly ask'd and given, or unless it be duly ask'd by the said Lodge.

All Matters are to be determiu'd in the (errand Lodge by a Majority of Votes, each Member having one Vote, and the Grand Master having two Votes, unless the said Lodge leave any particular thing to the Determination of the Grand Master for the sake of Expedition.

XIII.      At the said Quarterly Communication, all Matters that concern the Fraternity in general, or particular Lodges, or single Brethren, are quietly, sedately, and maturely to be discours'd of and transacted: Apprentices must be admitted Masters and Fellow-Craft only here, unless by a Dispensation. Here also all Differences, that cannot be made up and accommodated privately, nor by a particular Lodge, are to be seriously considered and decided And if any Brother thinks himself aggrieved by the Decision of this Board, he may appeal to the annual Grand Lodge next ensuing, and leave his Appeal in Writing with the Grand Master, or his Deputy, or the Grand Wardens.

Here also the blaster or the Wardens of each particular Lodge shall bring and produce a List of such Members as have been made, or even admitted in their particular Lodges since the last Communication of the Grand Lodge And there shall be a Book kept by the Grand Master, or his Deputy, or rather by some Brother whom the Grand Lodge shall appoint for Secretary, wherein shall be recorded all the Lodges, with their usual Times and Places of forming, and the Names of all the Members of each Lodge; and all the Alfairs of the Grand Lodge that are proper to be written.

They shall also consider of the most prudent and effectual Methods of col-

THE CHARGES AND REGULATIONS OF 1723.

letting and disposing of what Money shall be given to, or lodged with theirs in Charity, towards the Relief only of any true Brother fallen into Poverty or Decay, but of none else; But every particular Lodge shall dispose of their own Charity for poor Brethren, according to their own By-Laws, until it be agreed by all the Lodges (in a new Regulation) to carry in the Charity collected by them to the Grand Lodge, at the Quarterly or Annual Communica. tion, in order to make a common Stock of it, for the more handsome Relief of poor Brethren.

They shall also appoint a Treasurer, a Brother of good worldly Substance, who shall be a Nlember of the Grand Lodge by virtue of his office, and shall be always present, and have Power to move to the Grand Lodge any

thing, especially what concerns his Office. To him shall be committed all Money rais'd for Charity, or for any other Use of the Grand Lodge, which he shall write down in a Book, with the respective Ends and Uses for which the several Sums are intended ; and shall expend or disburse the same by such a certain Order sign'd, as the Grand Lodge shall afterwards agree to in a new Regulation: But he shall not vote in chusing a Grand Master or Wardens

though in every other Transaction.  As in like manner the Secretary shall be a Member of the Grand Lodge by virtue of his Office, and vote in everything except in chusing a Grand Master or Wardens.

Tile Treasurer and Secretary shall have each a Clerk, who must be a Brother and Fellow-Craft, but never must be a Member of the Grand Lodge, nor speak without being alloNv'd or desir'd.

The Grand Master, or his Deputy, shall always command the Treasurer and Secretary, with their Clerks and Books, in order to see how matters go on, and to know what is expedient to be done upon any emergent Occasion.

Another Brother (who must be a Fellow-Craft) should be appointed to look after the Door of the Grand Lodge ; but shall be no member of it.

But these Offices may be farther explain'd by a new Regulation, when the Necessity and Expediency of them may more appear than at present to the Fraternity,

XIV.     If at any Grand Lodge, stated or occasional, quarterly or annual, the Grand Master and his Deputy should be both absent, then the present Master of a Lodge, that has been the longest a Free Mason, shall take the

THE CHARGES AND REG ULATIOIVS OF 1723.          351

Chair, and preside as Grand Master pro tempore; and shall be vested with all his Power and Honour for the time; provided there is no Brother present that has been Grand Master formerly, or Deputy Grand Master; for the last Grand Master present, or else the last Deputy present, should always of right take place in the Absence of the present Grand Master and his Deputy.

XV.      In the Grand Lodge none can act as Wardens but the Grand Wardens themselves, if present; and if absent, the Grand Master, or the Person who presides in his Place, shall order Private Wardens to act as Grand War dens pro tempore, whose Places are to be supply'd by two Fellow-Craft of the same Lodge, call'd forth to act, or sent thither by the particular Master thereof ; or if by him omitted, then they shall be call'd by the Grand Master, that so the Grand Lodge may be always compleat.

XVI.     The Grand Wardens, or any others, are first to advise with the Deputy about the Affairs of the Lodge or of the Brethren, and not to apply to the Grand Master without the Knowledge of the Deputy, unless lie refuse his Concurrence in any certain necessary Affair; in which Case, or in case of any Difference between the Deputy and the Grand Wardens, or other Brethren, both Parties are to go by Concert to the Grand Master, who can easily decide the Controversy and make up the Difference by virtue of his great Authority.

The Grand Master should receive no Intimation of Business concerning Masonry, but from his Deputy first, except in such certain Cases as his Worship can well judge of ; for if the Application to the Grand Master be irregu lar, he can easily order the Grand Wardens, or any other Brethren thus ap. plying, to wait upon his Deputy, who is to prepare the Business speedily; and to lay it orderly before his Worship.

XVII.    No Grand Master, Deputy Grand Master, Grand Wardens, Treasurer, Secretary, or whoever acts for them, or in their stead pro tempore, can at the same time be the Master or Warden of a particular Lodge; but as soon as any of them has honourably discharg'd his Grand Office, he returns to that Post or Station in his particular Lodge, from. which he was call'd to officiate above.

XVIII.   If the Deputy Grand Master be sick, or necessarily absent, the Grand Master may chuse any Fellow-Craft he pleases to be his Deputy pro

352     THE CHARGES AND REGULATIONS OF 1723.

teinpore :        But he that is chosen Deputy at the Grand Lodge, and the Grand Wardens too, cannot be dischag'd without the Cause fairly appear to the Majority of the Grand Lodge; and the Grand Master, if lie is uneasy, may call a Grand Lodge on purpose to lay the Cause before them, and to have their Advice and Concurrence : In which case, the Majority of the Grand Lodge, if they cannot reconcile the Master and his Deputy or his Wardens, are to concur in allowing the Master to discharge his said Deputy or his said Wardens, and to chuse another Deputy immediately; and the said Grand Lodge shall chuse other Wardens in that Case, that Harmony and Peace may be preserv'd.

XIX.     If the Grand Master should abuse his Power, and render himself unworthy of the Obedience and Subjection of the Lodges, he shall be treated in a way and manner to be agreed upon in a new Regulation; because hitherto the ancient Fraternity have had no occasion for it, their former Grand Masters having all behaved themselves worthy of that honourable Office. XX.         The Grand-Master with his Deputy and Wardens, shall (at least once) go round, and visit all the Lodges about Town during his Mastership.

XXI.     If the Grand Master die during his Mastership, or by Sickness, or by being beyond Sea, or any other way should be render'd uncapable of discharging his Office, the Deputy, or in his Absence, the Senior Grand War den, or in his Absence the Junior, or in his Absence any three present Masters of Lodges, shall join to congregate the Grand Lodge immediately, to advise together upon that Emergency, and to send two of their Number to invite the last Grand Master to resume his office, which now in course reverts to him; or if lie refuse, then the next last, and so backward : But if no former Grand Master can be found, then the Deputy shall act as Principal, until an. other is chosen; or if there be no Deputy, then the oldest Master.

XXII.    The Brethren of all the Lodges in and about London and Westminster, shall meet at an Annual Communication and Feast, in some convenient Place, on St. John Baptist's Day, or else on St. John Evangelist's Day, as the Grand Lodge shall think fit by a new Regulation, having of late Years met on St. John Baptist's Day: Provided,

The Majority of the Masters and Wardens, with the Gran:i Master, his Deputy and Wardens, agree at their Quarterly Communication, t1:i-e Months

1'HE CHARGES A A I) REG ULA ZYONS OF 1723.       353

before, that there shall be a Feast, an(l a General Communication of all the Brethren: For if either the Grand Master, or the Majority of the particular Masters, are against it, it must be dropt for that Time.

But whether there shall be a Feast for all the Brethren, or not, yet the Grand Lodge must inoet in some convenient Place annually on St. John's Day ; or if it be Sunday, then on the next Day, in order to chuse every Year a ne\v Grand Master, Deputy, and Warden.

NYIII.    If it be thought expedient, and the Grand Master, with the Majority of the Masters and Wardens, agree to hold a Grand Feast, according to the ancient laudable Custom of Masons, then the Grand Wardens shall have the care of preparing the Tickets, seal'd with the Grand Master's Seal, of disposing of the Tickets, of receiving the Money for the Tickets, of buying the Materials of the Feast, of finding out a proper and convenient Place to feast in ; and of every other thing that concerns the Entertainment.

But that the Work may not be too burthensome to the two Grand Wardens, and that all ANIatters may be expeditiously and safely managed, the Grand Master, or his Deputy, shall have power to nominate and appoint a certain Number of Stewards, as his Worship shall think fit, to act in concert with the two Grand Wardens; all things relating to the Feast being decided amongst them by a Majority of Voices; except the Grand Master or his Deputy interpose by a particular Direction or Appointment.

YNIV.   The Wardens and Stewards shall, in due time, wait upon the Grand Master, or his Deputy, for Directions and Orders about the Premisses; but if his Worship and his Deputy are sick, or necessarily absent, they shall call together the Masters and Wardens of Lodges to meet on purpose for their Advice and Orders; or else they may take the Matter wholly upon themselves, and do the best they can.

The Grand Wardens and the Stewards are to account for all the money they receive, or expend, to the Grand Lodge, after Dinner, or when the Grand Lodge shall think fit to receive their Accounts.

If the Grand Master pleases, he may in due time summon all the Masters and Wardens of the Lodges to consult with them about ordering the Grand Feast, and about any Emergency or accidental thing relating thereunto, that may require Advice ; or else to take it upon himself altogether.

354     THE CHARGES AND -REG UIATIONS OF 1723.

XXV. The Masters of Lodges shall each appoint one experiene'd and discreet Fellow-Craft of his Lodge, to compose a Committee, consisting of one from every Lodge, who shall meet to receive, in a convenient Apartment, every Person that brings a Ticket, and shall have Power to discourse him, if they think fit, in order to admit him, or debar him, as they shall see cause; Provided they send no Man away before they have acquainted all the Brethren within Doors with the Reasons thereof, to avoid mistakes; that so no true Brother may be debarr' d, nor a false Brother, or mere Pretender, admitted. This Committee must meet very early on St. John's Day at the Place, even before any Persons come with Tickets.

XXVI.  The Grand Master shall appoint two or more trusty Brethren to be Porters, or Door-keepers, who are also to be early at the Place, for some good Reasons; and who are to be at the Command of the Committee.

XXVII. The Grand Wardens, or the Stewards, shall appoint beforehand such a Number of Brethren to serve at Table as they think fit and proper for that Work; and they may advise with the Masters and Wardens of Lodges about the most proper Persons, if they please, or may take in such by their Recommendation; for none are to serve that Day, but free and accepted Ma. sons, that the Communication may be free and harmonious.

XXVIII. All the Members of the Grand Lodge must be at the Place long before Dinner, with the Grand Master or his Deputy at their Head, who shall retire, and fort. themselves.         And this is done in order,

1.         To receive any Appeals duly lodg'd, as above regulated, that the Ap. pellant may be heard, and the Affair may be amicably decided before Dinner, if possible; but if it cannot, it must be delay'd till after the new Grand Mas ter is elected; and if it cannot be decided after Dinner, it may be delay'd, and referr'd to a particular Committee, that shall quietly adjust it, and make Report to the next Quarterly Communication, that Brotherly love may be preserv'd.

2.         To prevent any Difference or Disgust which may be feared to aritze that Day; that no Interruption may be given to the Harmony and Pleasure of the Grand Feast.

3.         To consult about whatever concerns the Decency and Decorum of the J

THE CHARGES AND REGULATIONS OF 1723.            355

Grand Assembly, and to prevent all Indecency and ill Manners, the Assembly being promiscuous.

4.         To receive and consider of any good Motion, or any momentous and important Affair that shall be brought from the particular Lodges, by their Representatives, the several Masters and Wardens.

XXIX.  After these things are discuss'd, the Grand Master and his Deputy, the Grand Wardens, or the Stewards, the Secretary, the Treasurer, the Clerks, and every other Person, shall withdraw, and leave the Masters and Wardens of the particular Lodes alone, in order to consult amicably about electing a new Grand Master, or continuing the present, if they have not done it the Day before; and if they are unanimous for continuing the present Grand Master, his Worship shall be call'd in, and. humbly desir'd to do the Fraternity the Honour of ruling them for the Year ensuing: And after dinner it will be known whether he accepts of it or not: For it should not be discovered but by the Election itself.

XXX.   Then the Masters and Wardens, and all the Brethren, may converse promiscuously, or as they please to sort together, until the Dinner is coming in, when every Brother takes his Seat at Table.

XXXI.  Some time after Dinner the Grand Lodge is form'd, not in Retirement, but in the Presence of all the Brethren, who yet are not Mernbers of it, and must not therefore speak until they are desir'd and allow'd.

XXXII. If the Grand Master of last Year has consented with the Master and Wardens in private, before Dinner, to continue for the Year ensuing; then one of the Grand Lodge, deputed for that purpose, shall represent to all the Brethren his Worship's good Government, &c. And turning to him, shall in the Name of the Grand Lodge, humbly request him to do the Fraternity the great Honour (if nobly born, if not) the great Kindness of continuing to be their Grand Master for the Year ensuing. And his Worship declaring his Consent by a Bow or a Speech, as he pleases, the said deputed Member of the Grand Lodge shall proclaim him Grand Master, and all the Members of the Lodge shall salute him in due Form.       And all the Brethren shall for a few Minutes have leave to declare their Satisfaction, Pleasure, and Congratulation.

XXXIII. But if either the Master and Wardens have not in private,

~G       THE CHARGES AND REG ULATIO-AIS OF 1723.

this Day before Diner, nor the Day before, desir'd the last Grand Master to continue in the Mastership another Year; or if lie, when desir'd, has not consented : Then,

The last Grand Master shall nominate his Successor for the Year ensuing, who, if unanimously approv'd by the Grand Lodge, and if there present, shall be proclairn'd, saluted, and congratulated the new Grand Master as above hinted, and immediately install'd by the last Grand Master, according to Usage.

XXXIV.           But if that Nomination is not unanimously approv'd, the new Grand Master shall be chosen immediately by Ballot, every Master and Warden writing his Man's Name, and the last Grand Master writing his Man':, Name too; and the Man, whose name the last Grand 11aster shall first tale out, casually or by chance, shall be Grand Master for the Year ensuing; and if present, lie shall be proclaim'd, saluted, and congratulated, as above hinted, and forthwith install'd by the last Grand Master, according to Usage.

XXXV.            The last Grand Master thus continued, or the New Grand Master thin installed, shall next nominate and appoint his Deputy- Grand Master, either the last or a new one, who shall be also declar'd, saluted, and congratulated as above hinted.

The Grand Master shall also nominate the new Grand Wardens, and if unanimously approv'd by the Grand Lodge, shall be declar'd, saluted, and congratulated, as above hinted ; but if not, they shall be chosen by Ballot, in the same way as the Grand Master: As the Wardens of private Lodges are also to be chosen by Ballot in each Lodge, if the Members thereof do not agree to their Master's Nomination.

XXXVI. But if the Brother, whom the present Grand Master shall nominate for his Successor, or whom the majority of the Grand Lodge shall happen to chuse by Ballot, is, by Sickness or other necessary Occasion, absent from the Grand Feast, he cannot be proclaim'd the New Grand Master, unless the old Grand Master, or some of the Masters and Wardens of the Grand Lodge can vouch, upon the Honour of a Brother, that the said Person, so nominated or chosen, will readily accept of the said Office; in which case the old Grand Master shall act as Proxy, and shall nominate the Deputy and

THE CHARGES AND REGULATIONS OF' 1723.

357

*Wardens in his Name, and in his Name also receive the usual Honours, Homage, and Congratulation.

XXXVII. Then the Grand Master shall allow any Brother, FellowCraft, or Apprentice to speak, directing his Discourse to his Worship; or to make any Motion for the good of the Fraternity, which shall be either imme diately consider'd and finish'd, or else referr'd to the Consideration of the Grand Lodge at their next Communication, stated or occasional. When that is over,

XXXVIII.          The Grand Master or his Deputy, or some Brother appointed by him, sliall harangue all the Brethren, and give diem good Advice: And lastly, after some other Transactions, that cannot be written in any Language, the Brethren may go away or stay longer, as they please.

XXXIX.           Every Annual Grand Lodge has an inherent Power and Authority to make new Regulations, or to alter these, for the real Benefit of this ancient Fraternity: Provided always that the old Land-Marks be carefully preserv'd, and that such Alterations and new Regulations be proposed and agreed to at the third Quarterly Communication preceding the Annual Grand Feast; and that they be offered also to the Perusal of all the Brethren before Dinner, in writing, even of the youngest Apprentice; the Approbation and Consent of the Majority of all the Brethren present being absolutely necessary to make the same binding and obligatory ; which must, after Dinner, and after the new Grand Master is install'd, be solemnly desir'd ; as it was desir'd and obtain'd for these Regulations, when propos'd by the Grand Lodge, to about 150 Brethren, on St. John Baptist's Day, 1721.

POSTSCRIPT.

Here follows the Manner of constituting a New Lodge, as practis'd by his Grace the Duke of Wharton, the present Right Worshipful Grand Master, according to the ancient Usages of Masons.

A new Lodge, for avoiding many Irre(Tularities, should be solemnly constituted by the Grand Master, with his Deputy and Wardens; or in the Grand Master's Absence, the Deputy shall act for his Worship, and shall chuse some Master of a Lodge to assist hire; or in case the Deputy is absent,

858     THE CHARGES A-Y-D REGULATIONS OF 1'723.

the Grand Master shall call forth some Master of a Lodge to act as Deputy pro tempore.

The Candidates, or the new Master and Wardens, being yet among the Fellow-Craft, the Grand Master shall asl< his Deputy if he has examin'd them, and finds the Candidate Master well skill'd in the noble Science and the royal Art, and duly instructed in our Mysteries, &c.

And the Deputy answering in the affirmative, he shall (by the Grand Master's Order) take the Candidate from among his Fellows, and present him to the Grand Master; saying, Right worshipful Grand Master, the Brethren here desire to be form'd into a new Lodge ; and I present this my worthy Brother to be their Master, whom I know to be of good Morals and great Skill, true and trusty, and a Lover of the whole Fraternity, wheresoever dispersed, over the Face of the Earth.

Then the Grand Master, placing the Candidate on his left Hand, having ask'd and obtain'd the unanimous Consent of all the Brethren, shall say: I constitute and form these good Brethren into a new Lodge, and appoint you the Master of it, not doubting of your Capacity and Care to preserve the Cement of the Lodge, &c., with some other Expressions that are proper and useful on that Occasion, but not proper to be written.

Upon this the Deputy shall rehearse the Charges of a Master, and the Grand Master shall ask the Candidate, saying, Do you submit to these Charges, as Masters have done in all ages ? And the Candidate signifying his cordial Submission thereunto, the Grand Master shall, by certain significant Ceremonies and ancient Usages, install him, and present him with the Constitutions, the Lodge-Book, and the Instruments of his Office, not all together, but one after another; and after each of them, the Grand Master, or his Deputy, shall rehearse the short and pithy Charge that is suitable to the thing presented.

After this, the Members of this new Lodge, bowing all together to the Grand Master, shall return his Worship Thanks, and immediately do their Homage to their new Master, and signify their Promise of Subjection and Obedience to him by the usual Congratulation.'

The Deputy and the Grand Wardens, and any other Brethren present, that are not Members of this new Lodge, shall next congratulate the new

THE CHARGES AND REGULATIONS OF 1723.            359

Master; and he shall return his becoming Acknowledgments to the Grand Master first, and to the rest in their Order.

Then the Grand Master desires the new Master to enter immediately upon the Exercise of his Office, in chusing his Wardens: And the new Master calling forth two Fellow-Craft, presents them to the Grand Master for his Approbation, and to the new Lodge for their Consent. And that being granted,

The senior or junior Grand Warden, or some Brother for him, shall rehearse the Charges of Wardens; and the Candidates being solemnly ask'd by the new Master, shall signify their Submission thereunto.

Upon which the new Master, presenting them with the Instruments of their Office, shall, in due Form, install them in their proper Places; and the Brethren of that new Lodge shall signify their Obedience to the new Wardens by the usual Congratulation.

And this Lodge being thus compleatly constituted, shall be register'd in the Grand Master's Book, and by his Order notify'd to the other Lodges.

APPROBATION.

Whereas by the Confusions occasion'd in the Saxon, Danish, and Norman Wars, the Records of Masons have been much vitiated, the Free Masons of England twice thought it necessary to correct their Constitutions, Charges, and Regulations; first in the Reign of King Athelstan the Saxon, and long after in the Reign of King Edward IV. the Norman : And Whereas the old Constitutions in England have been much interpolated, mangled, and miserably corrupted, not only with false Spelling, but even with many false Facts and gross Errors in History and Chronology, through Length of Time, and the Ignorance of Transcribers, in the dark illiterate Ages, before the Revival of Geometry and ancient Architecture, to the great Offence of all the learned and judicious Brethren, whereby also the Ignorant have been deceiv'd.

And our late Worthy Grand Master, his Grace the Duke of Montagu, having order'd the Author to peruse, correct, and digest, into a new and better Method, the History, Charges, and Regulations of the ancient Fraternity; He has accordingly examin'd several Copies from Italy and Scotland, and

360     THE CHARGES AND REGULATIONS OF 1723.

sundry Parts of England, and from thence (tho' in many Things erroneous), and from. several other ancient Records of Masons, he has drawn forth the above written new Constitutions, with the Charges and General Regulations. And the Author, having submitted the whole to the Perusal and Corrections of the late and present Deputy Grand Masters, and of other learned Brethren, and also of the Masters and Wardens of particular Lodges at their Quarterly Communication : He (lid regularly deliver them to the late Grand Master himself, the said Duke of Montagu, for his Examination, Correction, and Ap. probation ; and His Grace, by the Advice of several Brethren, order'd the same to be handsomely printed for the use of the Lodges, though they were not quite ready for the Press during his Mastership.

Therefore, We, the present Grand Master of the Riglit Worshipful and most ancient Fraternity of Free and accepted Masons, the Deputy Grand Master, the Grand War(lens, the Masters and Wardens of particular Lodges (with the Consent of the Brethren and Fellows in and about the Cities of London and Westminster) having also perused this performance, Do join our laudable Predecessors in our solemn Approbation thereof, as what We believe Will fully answer the End proposed; all the valuable Things of the old Records being retain'd, the Errors in History and Chronology corrected, the false Statements and the improper Words omitted, and the whole digested in a new and better Method.

And we ordain That these be receiv'd in every particular Lodge under our Cognizance, as the only Constitutions of Free and Accepted Masons amongst us, to be read at the malting of new Brethren, or when the Master shall think fit; and which the new Brethren shall peruse before they are made.

PHILIP, DUKE of WHAxrorr, Grand Master.

J. T. I)ESAGULIEns, LL.D. and F.R.S., Deputy Grand Master.

JOSHUA Ti11ISON, ( ~°a~zd Wcxrdens. WILLIAP-c HAWKINS,

And the Masters and Wardens of particular Lodges, viz.:

1. Thomas Morris, Sen., 3laster ,    John Bristow, Abraham Abbot, Warden"~.

IL Richard Hail, Master; Philip Wolverston, John Doyer, Wardens.

THE CHARGES AND REGULATIONS OF 1723.            361

111. John Turner, Master; Anthony Sayer, Edward Cale, Wardens.

IV. Mr. George Payne, Master; Stephen Hall, M.D., Francis Sorrell, Esq., IITcc;°~le~as.

V. Mr. Math. Birkhead, Master; Francis Baily, Nicholas Abraham, Wa-rdeas.

VI.        William Read, Master; John Glover, Robert Cordell, Wardens.

VII.       Henry Branson, 11ctster ; Henry Lug, John Townshend, Wardens.

VIII.      , plaster; Jonathan Sisson, John Shipton, TYar°dens.

IX.        George Owen, N1.D., Master; 'man Bowen, John Heath, Wardens.

X.        , Master'. John Lubton, Richard Smith, Wardens.

XI. Francis, Earl of Dalkeith, Master; Captain Andrew Robinson, Colonel Thomas Inwood, IFardens.

XII. John Beal, M.D. and F.R.S., 1l1aster; Edward Pawlet, Esq., Charles More, Esq., Wardens.

XIII.      Thomas Morris, jun., Master; Joseph Ridler, John Clark, Warders.

XIV.     Thomas Robbe, Esq., Master; Thomas Grave, Bray Lane, IVardens.

XV.      Mr. John Shepherd, J1aster; John Senex, John Bucler, Wardens.

XVI.     John Georges, Esq., Master; Robert Gray, Esq., Charles Grymes, Esq., Wardens.

XVII.    James Anderson, A,M., the Author of this Book, Master; Gwinn Vanglran, Esq., Walter Greenwood, Esq., Wardens.

XVI II.  Thomas Harbin, Master; William Attley, John Saxon, Wardens.

XIX.     Robert Capell, Jlaster ; Isaac Mansfield, William Bly, Wardens.

XX.      John Gorman, 3laster; Charles Garey, Edward Morphey, Wardens.

ANCIENT LANDMARKS.

The Ancient Landmarks of Free Masonry are I.    Belief in the existence of God.

II. Secrecy.

III. The modes of recognition-signs, grips, and words.

362     FREE JIASONR Y IN IRELAND.

IV.        Must congregate in regular Lodges.

V.        Lodges must be tiled.

VI.        Lodges must have a Book of the Law.

VI I. Qualifications of Candidates; must be Sound, mentally and physi. cally ; Free Born, of lawful Age and well recommended.

VIII. Secret ballot.

IX.        Division into three degrees: E. A.; F. C., and M. M.

X.        Legend of the third degree.

XI.        Gen'l gov't by a Grand Master.

XII.       Govt of Lodges by a Master and two Wardens. XIII. Right of appeal to the Grand Lodge.

XIV. Right of representation in Grand Lodge. XV.            Visitors must be vouched for, or examined.

XVI. Prerogatives of Grand Master to preside over any Assembly of the Craft. and to grant dispensations.

XVII. That Masonic instruction is a right and a duty of Masons.

FREE MASONRY IN IRELAND.

ALTHOUGH Free Masonry Nvas introduced into this country in, or before, 1720, yet the earliest minutes of the Irish Craft are found in the "Munster Records," comprising the proceedings of a " Grand Lodge " and Lodge, dating from the year 1726.

MINUTES OF THE GRAND LODGE OF MUNSTER, 1726-33.

,,At an assembly and meeting of the Grand Lodge for the Province of Munster, at the house of MI. Herbert Phaire, in Cork. on St. John's Day, being the 27th day of December Ano Dm. 1726. The Hon"',. James O'Brien, Esgr,, by unanimous Consent elected Grand Master for the ensueing yeare ; Spriugett Penn, Esgr,, appointed by the Grand Master as his Deputy.

" WALTER GOOLD, Gent,.,

TEIOMm RIGOS, Gent,.,      appointed Grand Wardens." ~

* Gould, vol. v., pp. 28-35.

FREE XASONR Y IN IRELAND.     363

" S : JONs Dav, Decembr 27th, 1727.

°° At a meeting of the Rt. Worshipful the Grand Lodge of Free Masons for the Province of Munster, at the house of Herbert Pliair, in the City of Corke, on the above day, the Grand Master and the Deputy Grand Master not being present, Will"' Lane, Master of the Lodge of Corke, being the oldest Master present, acted as Grand Master pro teinpore.

°° It appearing to the Grand Lodge that severall Lodges within this Province have neglected to pay their attendance w", is highly resented, in order to prevent the like for the future, and punish such as shall not conform themselves to their duty : It is agreed unanimously that for the future no excuse shall be taken from the Masters and Wardens of any Lodge for their nonattendance unless a suffict. Dumber appear, or that they send, at the time of such excuse, the sum of twenty-three shill. sta., to be disposed of as the Grand Lodge shall direct ; the number deem'd sufct. to be not less than three. It is further resolv'd that the Master and Wardens who have absented themselves on this day doe and are hereby obliged to pay the like sum of 23s., to be dispos'd of as aforsd, except such as have justly excus'd y-selves :         And it is recommended to the Grand Master for the time being, that when he shall appoint any Master of a Lodge, that such Master sliall oblige and promise for himself and Wardens that they comply with the aforemention'd rule, and moreover, that every Master and his Wardens shall require as many of his Lodge as he possible can assure himself can have no just reason for absenting themselves to attend at ye Grand Lodge.     And further, it is resolved that this Rule be read or recited to all Maste, and Wardens at their election or nomination.

'° Ordered that these regulations be recommended to the several Lodges within our precincts.

" Ordered that the Deputy Grand Warden of this R`. Worshipfull Lodge, in their names, doe return thanks to The'. Rigs, Esq., for his exelent speech in ye opening this Grand Lodge, and for all other his former service.

" Ordered that MI. The,. Wallis, sec'. deputy Grand Warden, doe attend and open our next Grand Lodge.

" Ordered that this Grand Lodge be adjourned to y, next St. John's day, at this House of Brother Herbert Phair.

°' W'. LANE, p. tempe, G. M. Txoa. RIGGS,           G. W. Txos. WALLS,

JA. CRooKE, Treasurer and Secretary." (And six others without Titles.)

'i St. John's Day, June 24, 1728.

`° At a meeting of the Rt. Worshipfull ye Grand Lodge of Free Masons for the Province of Munster, at ye House of Bro : Herbert Phair, in ye City of Corke, on y, above day, The Honble. James O'Bryan was unanimously elected Grand Mastr. Robt. Long field, Esq., appoint-

364

FREE MASONIR Y I1V IRELAND.

ed'by the Grand Mast. as his Deputy.         Samuel Knowles, Esq., and Mr. Thos. Wallis appointed Grand Wardens.

" Ordd. that Mr. John Wallis and Mr. St. George Van Lain be suspended from this Lodge for their Contempt offer" this Rt. Worship full Grand Lodge this day in refusing attendance thou-h regularly summond, and appearing after%vard before

sitting ; and that they, before they be recd. again, doe make of their behaviour, and to pay, each of them, two British Lodge for y' benefit of y' poore Brethren.

ye windows at y' time of their a proper publick acknowledgmt Crowns to ye Treasurer of G1.

" THO'. WALLIS, SAM' NOLERS,

G. W.

JA. O'BRYEN, G. 111.

RRoBT. LONGFIELD, D. G. M."

" St. JOHN's Day, June 24, 1730.

" At y' Grand Lodge held at Bror. Phaire's this day, Col. W"'. Maynard was by a mous Consent of ye Brethren then present Elected Grand 1Haster for y' ensuing year, & 112'. Tho'. Riggs elected Deputy Grand Master, W"'. Gallaway and Jo". Gamble, Esq'',, Grand Wardens ; Mr. Sam". Atkins, Secretary to s''. Lodge.

unani

"THo'. WALLIS, G. M. pro temp. ADAM NEWMAN, G. AV.

JAMES CROOKE, pro temp., G. W."

" Ordered that this Grand Lodge be adjourned Day, wh. will be in y' year 1731.

to Bro'.

Phaire's on St. John ye Baptist's

" THO'. RIGGs, D. G. M. W'. GALWEY, G. W. JOHN GAMBLE, G. W."

" ST. JoHN's DAY, June 24th, 1730.

"Humble supplication being inade from some Brethern at Waterford to have Warrant from our Grand Lodge for assembling & holding Regular Lodges there, according to ancient Costome of 'Masonry ; it is agreed y' Petition shall be received from s'. Brethern to be approved and granted as they shall skew themselves Qualified at our nest Grand Lodge."

" The like application from some Brethern

tion.

at Clonmell, y' like order for their approba

1731.-" At a Grand Lodge held the 24"' Day of June at Mr. Herbert Phaire's, Sa. Grand Lodge was adjourned to Monday, the 9"' Day of Aug`. 1731.

"W'. GALwry, Mastn"

" At a Grand Lodge held at Mr. Herbert Phaire's, Monday the 9th Day of August 1731, by unanimous Consent the Rt. Honble. James Lord Baron of Kingston was elected Grand Master.

"W'. GALWEY, Mast'."

FRET. 1VASONR Y IN IRELAND.  36:i

" August the 9"', 1731.-1W. Adam Newman appointed Depty. Grand M'., Jonas Morris and W"'. Newenham, Esq"., Grand Wardens, by the R`. Worshipful the Grand Master, the R`. Hon"'. James Lord Baron of Kingston, w" the unanimous approbation of the Brethern then attendiug his Lordship at the Grand Lodge.

" KINGSTON, G. M."

" ST. JOHN'S DAY, June 24th, 1732.-A Grand Lodge was held on said clay at Broth'. Phairs, when said Lodge was adjourn'd to the 25tli of July next, and it is unanimously agreed y° all such members as are duly served and wont attend, y` they shall pay y' fine of five shillings and five pennce, or to be admonished or expold for s''. misdemeanor.

" ADAM NEWMAN, D. G. M.

W". GArWEY, Mast'. of y' Lodge."

" June 23, 1733.-At u consultation held for adjourning the Grand Lodge, St. John's Day happning on Sunday, the Grand Lodge was accordinly adjourn'd to Monday, the 25th inst. " AD". NEWMAN, D. G. M."

The Grand Lodge was again adjourned to July 266, and further adjourned to October 3, the order being signed as before. There are no further minutes of this Grand Lodge, but the following Regulations are given, though of anterior date by over three years

GENERAL REGULATIONS MADE AT A GRAND LODGE HELD IN CORKE ON

ST. JOHN Y1 EVANGELIST'S DAY, 1728.

"THE HON"'. JAMES O'BRYEN, ESQ''., GRAND MAST". .

,,In clue Honour, Respect and obedience to ye Right Worshipfull the Grand Master, that his Worship may be properly attended for the more Solemn and proper holding our Grand Lodge on St. John the Baptist's day, annually, for ever, and for y' propagating, exerting, and exercising Brotherly Love and affection as becometh true Masons, and that our ancient Regularity, Unanimity, and Universality may in Lawdable and usual manner be preserv'd according to immemorial usage of our most ancient and Rc Worshipful Society, the following Regulatious are agreed to.

1. " That every Brother who shall be Mast{. or Warden of a Lodge, shall appear and attend, and shall allso prevail with and oblige as many of ye Brethren of his Lodge as can, to attend Y' Grand Lodge.

2. "Every constituted Lodge, if the Master and Wardens thereof cannot attend, shall send at least five of y' BretherD to attend the Grand Lodge.

F,966

FREE HASONR Y IN IRELAND.

3. " That every Master of a Lodge shall give timely Notice in writing to ye Master of the Lodge where Y' Grand Lodge is to be held, eight days before y' Grand Lodge, what number of Brethern will appear from his Lodge at the Grand Lodge.

4. " That if it shou'd happ'n that y' Master and Wardens or Five of ye Bretllern of any Lodge shou'd not be able to attend at y" Grand Lodge, then such Lodge so failing shall send y' sum of twenty and three shill: to be paid to the Grand Mast'. or his Deputy.

5. " That all & singular yn Brethern of such Lodges where the Grand Lodge shall be held, shall attend such Grand Lodge, or tile person absenting to pay

6. "That these Regulations be duly entered in ye Books the Master, Wardens, and all y' Brethern of such Lodge, and Brother, care be taken that he sign such Regulations.

7. " That an exact Duplicate of these Regulations sign'd by the Master and Wardens and all the Bretllern be delivered with convenient speed to the R`. Worshipful Grand Master, of each Lodge.

8. " That every new Brother who has not sign'd such Duplicate before it be deliver'd to the Grand Master, shall be oblig'd to attend at the next Grand Lodge which shall be held after his admission, there to sign such Duplicate.

9. " That no person pretending to be a Mason shall be considered as such within y' precincts of our Grand Lodge, or deem'd duly matriculated into ye Society of Freemasons until be Math subscribed in some Lodge to then regulatns., and oblig'd himself to sign y' before mentioned Duplicate, at wch time he Sall be furnish'd with proper means to convince ye authentick Brethern y` he has duly complyed.

10. "That the Master and Wardens of each Lodge take care that their Lodge be furnish'd with the Constitution, printed in London in ,y. year of Masonry 5723, Anno Dom. 1723, Intitled the Constitution of Free Masons, containing the History, Charges, Regulations, &c., of THAT MOST ANCIENT AND RT. WORSHIPFULL FRATERNITY.

" To due and full observance of the foregoing Regulations we, the subscribers, do Solemnly, Strictly, & Religiously, on our obligations as Masons, hereby oblige ourselves this Twentyseventh clay of December, in the year of Masonry 5728, and Anno Dm. 1728.

The foregoing Regulations and forin of obligation were read and approved by ye Grand Master and Grand Lodge afore mentioned, & ord'd to be observ'd as ya original Warrant under Y' Grand Master's hand, and attested by all the Brethern then present, which Warrant is deposited with y' other records of this Lodge of Cork.

" THO'. WALLIS, G. W. THOMAS GORDON, HIGNETT KEELING, THos. RIGGs,

(And ten other Brethren.)

a British Crown.

of each Lodge, and sign'd by that at y- making of any new

FRAN,. HEALY, Mast. JAMES CROO%E,

Wardens."

FREE MASONRY IN IRELAND.

367

MINUTES OF THE LODGE. "December Y, 8th, 1726.

In a meeting of this Lodge this day at Mr. Herbert Phaires, it was unanimously agreed that Mr. Tho'. Holld., a poor Brother, be every Lodge night a constant attend" of this Lodge, and that every night he so attends a brittish crown be allow'd him for y, relief of his distress'd Family.            "Mast'. SPRINGETT PENN."

" Wardens,     The above named Thomas Holland missbehaveing himself at the Grand

THOMAS GORDON.            Lodge held on St. John's Rty, the 27` of Decembr, 1726, Order'd the

THOMAS RiGGs.      above order continue no longer in force.

" D. G. Master, SPRINGER PENN."

Passing the entry of February, we come to that of " Novembr 20th, 1727.

" By an ord' in writing from the Honble. James O'Bryan, Esq., our present Grand Mast°., to us, directed for the convening a Lodge to choose Mastr. and Wardens for the Worshipful` Lode of Freemasons in Corke, wee having accordingly conven'd a sufficient Lodge at the House of Brother Herbert Pair on this day, proceeded to the election, and then and there Wm. Lane, Esq., was duly chosn Mast'. of s°. Lodge, and the Honble. Sr John Dickson Hamman, Knt. Barnt., and Mr. Thos. Wallis were duly chosn Wardens.

" THOS. GORDON.  FRANS FOOK.

" At the same time M'. James Crooke, Jun'., was chosen Treasur' and Secretary to said Lodge. " W. LANE, Master,

JA'. DICKSON HAMAN,      Wardens."

Tao'. WALLIs,            J

The following is signed by thirty-three brethren

" We who have hereunto subscribed do resolve & oblige ourselves as Masons to meet on the first Monday of every month at the House of Bro' Phaire (or such convenient place as shall be appointed) for the holding of a Lodge in a Brotherly or Friendly manner.   Each j member of the Lodge being absent to pay thirteen pence.

"Dated 22nd August, 1728."

'° December the Second, 1728.

" The yeare of the Master & Wardens being expired the twentieth of last month, it was this day agreed to in a proper Lodge of the Worshipfull ffraternity of ffreemasons in the City of Corke assembled at the house of Brother Herbert Phaire, that ffrancis Healy, of the said City, Merchant, be elected to serve as Master, and James Crooke, Junr., and Joseph Collies, Merchants, be Wardens of the said ffraternity for the ensuing yeare, in the Room and place of the late Master and Wardens, which was consented & agreed to Nemine Contradicente.

"FRAs. HEALY, Mastr.         WM. LANE, late Mr.

Jo. COLLINS,            Wardens.       THos. WALLIS, G.W.

ROOKE, Junr. ~        JOHN FLoWER."

368     FREE MA SONR Y IN IRELAND.

Passing the minutes of March 13, 1728, and January, 1729, the following are the next in order

" CORK, Monday the first Day of March, 173,.

"At a Lodge held by adjournment this day for the election of Master and Wardens for the Lodge of Cork, by unaminous Consent W"'. Gallway, Esq., was chosen Master, M'. Abraham Dickson and M'. Septs. Peacock, Wardens, for the year ensuing.

" W'. ()rALWEY,         Master.           THe. WALLIS, late Mr. ABRA" DicKSON, Wardens.       THO'. RIGGs, D. G. M. JOHN GAMBLE, G. W."

" CORK, 12th Au-t. 1731.

" Att a Lodge held at Bro. Phairs, W"'. Newerliam, Esq., appeared and acted as Mast'., y" Mast'. being absent, and only one Warden, at which time Thomas Evans, Rowland Bateman, William Armstrong, and George Bateman, Esq's., were admitted Enter'd Prentices."

The only other entry which is preserved, begins on the reverse of the leaf containing the first part of the Regulations of 1728, and concludes oil the next page after the Grand Lodge record of June 24, 1728, and is to the following effect

"CORK, June the 21, 1749.

" At a Lodge held at brother Hignett Keelings on the day above written, the Master and Wardens being present, Mr. Will"'. Bridges was Rec" Enter prentice, and did then and there perform the Requisite Due.

°` FRAM` COOKS, Mastr.

HERBERT PHAIRE, HIGT. KEELING, THOS. RELY.

S v. GEORGE VAN LAWEN. JOHN HART, M. D."

Wardens.

TN BRIEF

In 1726 Col. James O'Brien was elected Grand Master, and Springett Penn Deputy Grand Master.

In 1728 O'Brien was still Grand Master, and Robert Longfield Deputy Grand Master. General Regulations made at a Grand Lodge at Cork this year. 1729. Col. William Maynard was Grand Master, and Thomas Riggs Deputy Grand Master.           In this year the Grand Lodge of Ireland laid the cornerstone of the Parliament House, Dublin.

In 1731 the Right Hon. James King, Lord Kingston, was elected and

-VOTES FROM A UTHORITIES-ENGLAND.        369

installed Grand Master of Ireland, having been Grand Master of England the preceding year.

In 1733 Lord Kingston was re-elected Grand Master, and Lord Viscount Nitterville Deputy Grand Master.

1738.  The Grand Lodge established a Committee of Charity.

11 The General Regulations of the Free and Accepted Masons in the King. door of Ireland, pursuant to the English Constitutions," were approved of and agreed upon by the Grand Lodge in Dublin, on the 24th June, 1741. Tullamore, Grand Master.

1751.  In this year the Book of the Irish Constitutions was published by Edward Pratt.

In 1838 there was a notable Masonic celebration in Dublin by the brethren of St. Patrick's Lodge, No. 50. The principal object of this fte was to honor the Countess of Mulgrave, and it was graced by over a thousand guests, comprising many of the most fashionable and distinguished members of I)ublin society. The entertainment was given at the Rotunda. Soon after the arrival of the Viceroy and the Countess of Mulgrave and suite, a procession was formed to conduct the distinguished guests to the rooms where re. freshments awaited them, the rooms being beautifully decorated with Masonic banners, etc., and brilliantly illuminated.

All accounts represent this as being the most magnificent as well as one of the most agreeable entertainments that ever occurred in Dublin.

NOTES FROM AUTHORITIES.

1.         In Shropshire there is a hill bearing evidence of ancient fortifications, and where tradition says that a great battle took place.

2.         That the corporation of builders were established in Britain as early as 52 B.C. is shown by the inscription on a tubular stone found at Chichester in 1725, on

icled the fact that a temple to Minerva and another to Neptune had been erected at that place. Another notice of the presence of the Roman Colleges in Britain at an early period is a votive tablet on which those Craftsmen allude to the safety of Claudius C)esar's family, also to the dedication of a temple to Neptune and Minerva.         A learned antiquary has decided that this

which was chron-

* Mitchell, vol. i., pp. 336-342.

370     NOTES FROM A UTHORITIES-ENGLAND.

stone is the oldest memorial of the Romans in Britain hitherto discovered.      See Gould, vol. i., p. 38.

3.         No sooner was the Roman conquest of Britain begun, and a modicum of territory ob

tained, than we find a collegium in our own civitates Regnorum ; a collegium faborum.          And this was while Claudius was still Emperor.   The colleges of course multiplied and spread throughout our islands, remaining during the whole of the imperial rule, and surviving, with our provincial ancestors, the various barbarian conquests.            Gould, vol. i., p. 37.

4.         H. C. Coote, in Romans of Britain, p. 440,' says that the Romans of Britain survived all the barbarian conquests, and that they retained their own law, with its own procedure and police ; their own lands, with the tenures and obligations appertaining to them ; their own cities and municipal government, their Christianity and private colleges.

5.         And in another place, comparing the internal working of the colleges, cutlorum dei, with the Guilds established in London, Cambridge, and Exeter, composed of gentlemen, he concludes thus : "These coincidences, which cannot be attributed to imitation or mere copy ing, demonstrates the absolute identity of the guild of England with the collegium of Rome and of Roman Britain."           Gould, vol. i., p. 43.

6.         Lappenberg, speaking of the Roman corporations, says : " This form of social unions, as well as the hereditary obligations under which the trades were conducted, was propagated in Britain, and was the original germ of those guilds which became so influential in Europe some centuries after the cessation of the Roman dominion."    History of England Under the Anglo-Saxon Kings, by B. Thorpe, vol. i., p. 36 ; also Gould, vol. i., p. 37.

7.         When the Anglo-Saxons arrived in Britain they found the colleges in full play, and they left the Romans at liberty to continue them.   The name guild, by which they were afterward known, was due to the contributions upon which the colleges had from time to time subsisted. See History of Freemasonry, by Gould, p. 38.

8.         From early in this century the Roman Empire was agitated by rivals for the throne ; and in several such cases Britain not only afforded the pretenders an asylum but the means of advocating their claims.            Among these claimants was Carrausius.

9.         St. Alban, the first Martyr of Britain, was born at Verulam, in the third century, and after long living as a heathen, was converted to Christianity, but put to death at the commencement of Diocletian's persecution of the Christians. His anniversary is celebrated on June 22d. The town of St. Albans, which bears his name, is believed to stand on the site of his birth place or the scene of his martyrdom.  Chambers's Encyclopaedia, vol. i., p. 165, Student's Ed.

10.       Caledonians, the name given by the Romans to the people of North Britain.    They were afterward known as Picts, and were joined by the Scoti, or Scots, from the north of Ireland.

1

NOTES FROM A UTHORITIES-ENGLAND.         371

11.       No two of the 'TNISS. were exactly alike, though there is a substantial agreement between them all, and evidently they had a common origin, just as they were designed to serve a common purpose.  It is probable that each lodge, prior to the last century, bad one of these " Old Charges" among its effects, which was read to an apprentice on his introduction to the craft.           Gould, vol. i., p. 59.

12.       During the eleventh and twelfth centuries, the Society of Constructors, or Free Masons, had become established on a solid basis, and began to exercise a wide-spread and salutary influence upon the architecture of Europe.

At this epoch the Free Masons formed a numerous and powerful corporation, and architecture, together with many other arts, at this time passed from the monasteries into the possession of lay architects, organized into fraternities of Masons. Fort, Early History and Antiquities of Free Masonry, pp. 73, 74.

13.       It is worthy of remark, and perhaps here is the most proper place to make it, that Masonry conforms to the practice of the Egyptians, in prohibiting to slaves a participation of its mystic rites.          It excludes all, also, who possess any bodily defect.

The Levites, among the Jews, were subjected to the same rigid discipline ; no one who had the least bodily blemish could be admitted into the sacerdotal order.

This circumstance alone is a strong proof of the ancient origin of the Masonic order. Mysteries, p. 137.

14. The author of The Master Key to the Door of Freemasonry has judiciously remarked, " That the word ` free ' was added to masonry by the society, because none but the freeborn was admitted into it; " and for a very obvious reason, for there could be no safety in confiding secrets to slaves which might at any time be extorted from them by their masters. Besides, this was in conformity with the rule established in the Egyptian Mysteries. My steries, p. 258.

15.       In his survey of the cities of London and Westminster, Seymour gives the date of the incorporation of the Masons company at about 1410, and acids: " They having been called Free Masons, a Fraternity of great account, who having been honored by several Kings ; and very many of the nobility and gentry being of their Society." Gould, vol. iii., p. 154.

16.       In 1421, at Catterick Church, a " lucre " of four rooms is specified as having to be made for the Masons.         In 1426 the Masons engaged to build Walberswick steeple, were to be provided with "howl" to eat, drink, work, and sleep in, and to " make mete in," i.e., fitting or convenient.          As I have shown, these lodges were formerly thatched, but one properly " tiled "

was to be provided at the expense of some parishes in Suffolk.            In 1432, a " luge " was erected in the cemetery at Durham.            And 1541, Thomas Phillips, Freemasm7, and John Petit, covenanted " To set up and fully finish " Coventry Cross, and at their own Charge " to prepare, find and make a house or lodge for Masons to work in during the time of making the

372     NOTES FROM A UTHORITIES-ENGLAND.

same cross." Various customs of trade are mentioned in the manuscript constitutions of the latter date.            Gould, vol. ii., p. 304.

17. In a work entitled The Display of Heraldry, by John Guillim, it is stated that the company of Masons, being otherwise termed freemasons, of ancient standing and good reckoning, by means of affable and kind meetings, divers times did frequent this mutual assembly in the time of King Henry VI., in the twelfth year of his reign, 1434.         Mysteries, p. 253.

18. "The conclusion forces itself irresistibly upon the mind of every candid and intelligent person that there existed in London, in 1709, and for a long time before, a society known as Freemasons, having certain distinct modes of recognition, and as the proof of it is to be found, not in the assertion of Masonic writers and historians, but in a standard work unaccompanied by,explanation, because it needed none then, as it needs none now, and is one of these sure and infallible guide marks whence the materials for truthful history are taken, and by which its veracity is tested." J. L. Lewis, Masonic Eclectic, vol. i.

19. In his Early History of Free Masonry, Halliwell, quoting Aubrey, says : " ° This May the 18th being Monday 1692, after Rogation Sunday, is a great convention at St. Paul's Church of the Fraternity of the adopted Masons, where Sir Christopher Wren is to be adopted a brother and Sir Henry Goodric of the Tower and divers others."

The Postboy, March 2 to March 5, 1723, has the following: " London, March 5, this evening the corpse of that worthy Free Mason, Sir Christopher Wren, Knight, is to be interred under the Dome of St. Paul's Cathedral." A similar announcement appeared in the British Journal, March 9th, viz., 11 Sir Christopher Wren, that worthy Free Mason, was splendidly interred in St. Paul's'Church on Tuesday night last."

20. As it is by the term Speculative that Free Masonry is distinguished from ancient Operative Masonry, light concerning the word will be of interest in this connection. In Web. ster's definition of the word we find the following : "Involving or formed by speculation; ideal ; theoretical ; inquisitive." And its masonic import will appear from the following quotations from Lord Bacon and others. Bacon, speaking of philosophy, says : "These be the two parts of natural philosophy, the inquisition of causes, and the production of effects; speculative and operative."

Worsop, speaking of a learned Craftsman, says : "He understandeth Arithmetike Geometric, and Prospective, both speculatively and practically, singularly well." In the Lexicon Technicorum it is stated that " Geometry is usually divided into speculative and practicle."

21. '° Although, for convenience sake, the year 1717 is made to marke the epoch of authentic, i.e., officially credited Masonic history, the existence in England of a widely diffused system of freemasonry in the first half of the seventeenth century is demonstrable, whence we shall be justified in concluding that for its period of origin in South Britain, a far higher antiquity may be claimed and conceded."  Gould, vol. iii., p. 2.

NOTE.1~ FROM A UTRORITIES-ENGLAND.      373

22. "Speculative Masonry has perpetuated intact for centuries that which has come down from the very twilight of time. In passing through the various nationalities which have successively fallen to decay, this brotherhood has survived, and through the long line of ages continued to guard the relies of a remote antiquity."       Fort, Early History and Antiquities, p. 184.

23. During his second term of office as Grand Master, Payne compiled the General Regulations, which were afterward finally arranged and published by Dr. Anderson, in 1723. He continued an active member of the Grand Lodge until 1754, on April 27th of which year he was appointed a member of the committee to revise the " Constitution " (afterward brought out by Entick in 1756). According to the 'Minutes of the Grand Lodge he was present there for the last time in the following 'November.

It is certain that upon Anderson, rather than either Payne or Desaguliers, devolved the leading role in the consolidation of the Grand Lodge of England.      Gould, vol. iv., pp. 348-356

24. The earliest book of '° Constitutions " was published by Dr. James Anderson, conformably with the directions of the Grand Lodge, to which body it was submitted in print on Jan. 17, 1723, and finally approved.            It was the joint production of Anderson, Desaguliers, and the antiquary, George Payne, the two last named of whom had filled the office of Grand Master. Payne compiled the " Regulations " which constitute the chief feature of the work ;     Desaguliers wrote the preface, and Anderson digested the subject matter.            Gould, vol. iii., p. 7.

25.       It is called the Quarterly Communication, because it should meet quarterly according -to ancient usage.            When the Grand Master is present it is a lodge in Ample Form : otherwise in Due Form, yet having the same authority with Ainple Form.

26.       Then followed the more important changes in the Constitutions, known as those of 1738 ; those emanated from a representation made to the Grand Lodge by Dr. Anderson, on February 24, 1735. The subject went to a committee, was reported, and resulted in a new edition of the Constitutions published in 1738, and which have been regarded as the basis of Ma sonic History, whether in or out of the Craft.            Thus became firmly established the first Grand Governing Power of the Masonic Fraternity.

27.       °° There was a great Lodge or ancient Society of the Free Masons held last week at the Horn Tavern, in Palace Yard ; at which were present the Earl of Dalkeith, their Grand Master, the Deputy Grand Master, the Duke of Richmond, and several other persons of quality, at which time the Lord Carmichael, Colonel Carpenter, Sir Thomas Pendergast, Colonel Paget, and Colonel Saunderson, were accepted Free Masons, and went Home in their leather Aprons and Gloves."       Gould, vol. iv., p. 342.

THE SCHISM, 1747-52.

28. It appears to me that the summary erasures of lodges for non-attendance at the Quarterly Communications, and for not " Paying in their Charity," was one of the leading causes of the schism, which, as before esuressed, I think must have taken place during the presidency

374     NOTES FROM A UTHORITIES-ENGLAND

 

of Lord Byron. In the ten years, speaking roundly, commencing June 24, 1742, and ending November 30, 1752, no less than forty-five lodges, or about a third of the total of those meet ing in the metropolis, were struck out of the list.  Gould, iv., p. 398.

29. Of Laurence Dermott, the first Grand Secretary of the Seceders, it may be said, without erring on the side of panegyric, that he was the most remarkable Mason that ever existed. As Grand Secretary, and later as Deputy Grand Master, he was simply the life and soul of the body with which he was so closely associated.            He was also its historian, and to the influence of his writings must be attributed, in a great measure, the marvellous success of the schism.

 

The epithets of "Ancient and Modern " applied by Dermott to the usages of his own and of the older society respectively, produced a really wonderful result.   Gould, iv., p. 435.

30. Dermott, referring to the Moderns, said : "As they differ in matters of Masonry, so they did in matters of calumny ; for while some were charging me with forgery, others said that I was so illiterate as not to know how to write my name. But what may appear more strange is, that some insisted that I had neither father nor mother, but that I grew up spontaneously in the corner of a potato garden in Ireland." Gould, vol. iv., p. 437.

 

374

 

 

375

 

 

CHAPTER IX

 

ANCIENT YORK, ENGLAND.-EPITOME OF ITS MASONIC HISTORY

 

This was the Chief Town of one of the Native Tribes when the Romans Landed in Britain.-Remodelled by the Colleges of Builders.-Several Roman Enipcrors Resided here when Visiting the Island.-TIte First English Parliament was Held in this City.-Ding Edwin, Athelstan and Edmund.-Tragic Fate of the Latter.-Die City was the Scene of the First General Assembly of 1Yasons ever Convened, and it has Held a Conspicuous Place in Masonic History since the Tcnth Century.

Tins ancient city is situated. at the junction of the rivers Ouse and Foss, in the north of England, and has a population of 45,000.

'           At the time of the Roman invasion, 55 B.C., it was one of the chief towns of the Brigantes, the most numerous and powerful of the British tribes.          In A.D. 79, Agricola established a Roman station here, and named it Eboracum. During the Roman occupation of Britain, York was a city of the first impor. tance.            Hadrian lived here, and Constantine Chlorus, the father of Constan.

tine the Great, died here.     When the Roman emperors visited the province, York was the place of their residence.      King Edwin resided at Audley, five miles from York. Subsequently it became the capital of Northumbria. Here also the first English Parliament was held by Henry II., in 1160.

The Masonic interest in this ancient city lies in the tradition that a Gen. eral Assembly of the craft was held here under the patronage of King Athelstan, A.D. 926, and a document was adopted and promulgated known as the Charter of York.*

As considerable confusion exists concerning King Athelstan and Prince Edwin--the latter having been made to take a prominent part in the calling; * Notes 4, 5, 7, 8, and 9, pp. 393, 394; Woodford, Old Charges, British Freemasons, p. xiv;

Mackey, p. 95.

376     ANCIENT YORK, ENGLAND.

of this noted assembly-a brief sketch of the lives of each will assist in rendering the subject intelligible.

Edwin was born in 586, and after passing through various vicissitudes he ascended the throne in 617. He was pre-eminent among contemporary Anglo-Saxon kings for militar y genius, statesinanship, and for his promotion of the builder's art.          He employed the craft in building a church, and on other works in York.            So inflexible was his administration of justice, that in his reign a. woman or child might carry anywhere a purse of gold without danger of robbery-high commendation in those days of almost unbridled rapine.

In the eleventh year of his reign Edwin and his nobles embraced Christianity, and were baptized, and thereafter he became the most powerful prince in England. He subdued a part of Wales, and his power extended north to the Lothians. He fell in battle at Hatfield Chase in 634.*

Athelstan, the grandson of Alfred the Great, was born A.D. 895, and was the first Saxon monarch who took the title of King of England. He was crowned at Kingston-upon-Thames in 925, and seems to have possessed great ambition and great talents.        It is supposed that his design was to unite under his sway the entire island of Britain.   His resources, however, were not equal to the undertaking, and he had to content himself with the acquisition of portions of Cornwall and Wales.  On the death of Sigtric, King of Northumbria, who married one of his daughters, Athelstan took possession of his dominions. This excited the alarm and animosity of the neighboring states, and a league, composed of Welch, Scotch, and Irish, was formed against the English king for the purpose of placing Aulaff, the son of Sigtric, on his father's throne. A fierce and decisive battle was fought at Brunenburg, in which the allies were utterly defeated, and which became famous in Saxon song.         After this, the reputation of Athelstan spread to the Continent.    His sisters married into the Royal families of France and Germany, and he himself enjoyed the greatest influence and consideration.

Athelstan was liberal in his ideas, like his grandfather, Alfred the Great; he was a promoter of civilization: patronized learning, built many churches and monasteries, and encouraged the translation of the Scriptures.            He also

*Notes 1, 2, and 3, p. 393; Hume, vol. i., pp. 34-37; Chambers, vol. iv., pp. 737-739; Mackey, p. 241; Hughan, pp. 113-165.

i

ANCIENT YORK, THE CHARTER. 377

gave charters to several Masonic Guilds, and otherwise encouraged them.     In his reign the " Frithgildan," free guild or sodalities, were incorporated by law. Athelstan died A.D. 941, and was succeeded by Edmund, who after reign ing five years, came to a singular and tragic death.       While solemnizing a festival in Gloucester he was astonished to see Leolf, a noted robber whom he had banished, coolly enter the hall where he himself had dined and take a seat at the table with his attendants.   Enraged at such presumption, he sprang upon him and seized him by the hair, when the robber gave him a thrust with his dagger that killed him.*

Therefore, as Athelstan was succeeded by Edmund, and there being no respectable authority who will stand sponsor for Prince Edwin as son of Athelstan, the Edwin of Masonic history will have to be relegated to the domain of myths; and for Edwin, substitute Edmund.

The only real Edwin who, as Prince or King, figured in early English h