The Builder Magazine
July 1916 - Volume II - Number 7
OF "OLD GLORY" THE OLDEST FLAG
BY BRO. JNO. W. BARRY, IOWA
WE Masons who teach so
continuously and so much by symbols, point with a pride truly laudable to the
part of Masonry in establishing the greatest symbol known among nations--the
stars and stripes now so fondly called "Old Glory."
At its entrance it was
received on the sharp points of many instruments, but being borne by those
taught to yield their lives rather than their honor, it passed all
obstructions and was finally raised and "in triumph it will wave o'er the land
of the free so long as it is the home of the brave."
While most of the Masons were
united in opposing their king's claim of "a divine right to govern wrong," yet
some of them were on the king's side, but for the most part they moved to
Canada, so that in general while every patriot was not a Mason, yet every
Mason was a patriot. These Canadians from the States had long memories which
served to promote and prolong a greater enmity toward us by Canada than had
ever been evinced by England, greatly retarding the benign influence of the
Masonic tie. Even to this day our Canadian brothers esteem it an honor that
their ancestors refused to turn "traitor" and with us a Revolutionary ancestor
is a birth mark of distinction--yet the mellowing of time has brought a
kindlier note and "God save the King" and "America" are chanted to the same
tune, and Old Glory is honored now by the descendants of its bitterest foes at
its entrance in 1776.
THE ENTRANCE OF"OLD GLORY"
First will be given the story
of the flag from the standpoint of the patriot - just as our fathers fought to
establish it. Then will follow some of the things done by those who met upon
the level and fought on the square.
Truly our flag came from
"darkness to light" and many facts about its earlier history can never be
known. The patriot cause in 1776 was worked out in the very shadow of the
firing squad and the gallows. It was no jest but a most serious remark of
Franklin that if they did not hang together they most certainly would hang
separately. In Congress, therefore, the secrecy of Masonry, in which so many
of them were initiates, was strictly enjoined on every member.
THE SECRET PACT
The "Secret Pact" (1) was a
commandment in Congress to which every member was required to subscribe:
Resolved that every member of
this Congress consider himself under the ties of virtue, honor and love of his
country not to divulge directly or indirectly any matter or thing agitated or
debated in Congress before the same shall have been determined, without leave
of the Congress; nor any matter or thing determined in Congress which a
majority shall order to be kept secret, and that if any member shall violate
the agreement, he shall be expelled this Congress and deemed an enemy to the
liberties of America and liable to be treated as such and that every member
signify his consent to this agreement by signing the same.
The names include the leaders
of the time--many of them the very makers of America. In keeping with the
spirit of the famous "Pact," the secretary of Congress, Charles Thompson, made
a record of only those doings requiring it. So the wonder is not that we have
so few facts touching some matters but rather that we have any.
WASHINGTON GIVES THE BRITISH
On January 1, 1776, the New
Constitutional army was organized and a "Union flag" was raised. In writing to
his secretary, Joseph Reed, at Philadelphia Washington said referring to this
flag and the king's speech spurning the petition of Congress:
"The speech I send you. A
volume of them was sent out by the Boston gentry, and farcical enough, we gave
great joy to them (red coats, I mean) without knowing or intending it, for on
that day, the day which gave being to our new Army, but before the
proclamation came to hand we had hoisted the Union Flag in compliment to the
United Coionies. But behold, it was received in Boston as a token of the deep
impression the speech had made on us, and as a signal of submission. So we
learn by a person out of Boston last night. By this time I presume they think
it strange that we have not made a formal surrender of our lines...."
What sort of a flag could
this have been ?
THE ONLY CONTEMPORARY DRAWING
OF WASHINGTON'S FIRST FLAG
Benson J. Lossing, who was a
most eminent American Historian, in preparing his history of General Philip
Schuylel, found among the general's papers, this drawing in colors--the only
one known to exist of the new flag used by the Americans in 1776. As none of
their flags are preserved to us, this drawing is a most important link in the
Benson J. Lossing says: (2)
"Why the hoisting of the Union Flag in compliment to the colonies should have
been received by the British as "signal of submission," was a question
historians could not answer until 1855, when the writer of this work
discovered among the papers of General Philip Schuyler a drawing of the Royal
Savage with the Union flag at its mast-head." The sloop and flag are here
shown in No. 1. The drawing is endorsed in the writing of Gen. Schuyler as
"Captain Wynkoop's schooner on Lake Champlain," it being one of a small fleet
under command of Arnold, assembled by Schuyler to oppose the British advance
from Canada. Here you see the only contemporaneous drawing of the flag like
the one raised by Washington at Cambridge. From the colored drawing of the
Royal Savage flag plus the disjointed references in contemporaneous prints,
the flag Washington raised to the "joy" of the enemy is found to be one and
the same and is shown in No. 3 and is known as the Cambridge flag. The exact
counterpart of the flag of India.
THE FLAG WASHINGTON RAISED AT
It is often stated that the
Cambridge flag was the work of a Committee from Congress--but such claim rests
on inferences only. 'Tis true Congress did send a committee composed of
Benjamin Franklin, Benjamin Harrison and Thomas Lynch to confer with
Washington at Cambridge. This committee arrived Oct. 16, 1775, and remained in
conference with Washington and leading patriots about a week. The minutes of
the committee's proceedings are on file in the Department of State,
Washington, D. C., together with a letter in the writing of Franklin and
signed by all the committee. Lloyd Balderston of Ridgway, Pa., (3) has
recently examined these documents carefully. The letter was written to John
Hancock, president of Congress, and fully described all the committee had
done. But there is nothing in the minutes or in the letter giving the remotest
intimation regarding a flag of any kind. How these flags came to be or who
made them is unknown but since 1855, Lossing says, we know why they were taken
as indicating submission. The answer is to be found in a well known flag of
THE ENGLISH EAST INDIA
It is the flag of the English
East India Company which practically owned India, subject only to the English
king and not until Sept. 1, 1858, were its regal powers surrendered. This
Company maintained a large army of its own as well as ships of commerce and of
war. It had the right to make war and peace "in all heathen nations" and
administered all laws--civil and criminal. No. 4 shows its flag in 1704, the
13 red and white stripes referring to India and St. George's Cross to England.
It was reproduced by Rear-Admiral George Henry Preble in his monumental work
of 800 pages on the United States flag. He takes it from a work called "The
Present State of the Universe" by J. Beaumont, 4th edition, published in
London, 1704. (4) At the time, 1704, the cross of St. George was the flag of
England and the 13 stripes of alternate red and white the badge of her loyal
East India Company, whose tea was used by St. Andrew's Lodge in its now famous
Ocean Tea Party at Boston in 1773. There were slight changes in the union of
the flag of India, following the changes in the flag of England until 1858
when India became a crown colony. These changes will be more readily
understood in connection with Figure 5 which is St. George's Cross. This Cross
was the flag of England until her union with Scotland in 1707. Then No. 5 was
united with No. 6, St. Andrew's Cross, which at that time was the flag of
Scotland, making No. 7 the union flag of England known as the King's Colors.
So after 1707, the King's Colol s took the place of St. George's Cross in the
flag of the English East India Company, making it the exact counterpart of the
Royal Savage flag and Washington's Cambridge flag. In 1801 No. 4, Figure 8,
St. Patrick's Cross, then the flag of Ireland, was united with No. 7, the
King's Colors, making No. 9, the flag of England since 1801.
Again the flag of the English
East India Company changed its "union" to accord with the flag of England. (5)
The word "union" in connection with flags refers to any device in the upper
staff corner, indicating a union of government--as of England and Scotland in
The King's speech had just
been sent out and its stern tone was expected to overawe the rebels, whose
many flags--several to each colony--were known and dubbed by the English,
"rebel rags." Naturally they were all looked upon as the emblems of traitors
but when (6) the "Union flag" raised by Washington was seen, many of the
English troops being fresh from India, it was at once recognized as the
distinctive flag of a loyal English colony, and it gave them joy and an
indication of "submission." Truly Washington might have signaled them
thus:--"However natural this supposition may be to you, yet it is erroneous,"
for to the honor of those "embattled farmers" be it said that Washington then
and there proceeded to give the most daring knockout blow in the annals of
war. Truly that which he proposed, he performed, for without powder and under
the very guns of the English fleet and army, he disbanded one army and
organized another and on March 17, 1776, forced the British to evacuate Boston
and flee in terror from that flag which scarce two months ago, they had hailed
as a flag of submission. Verily, that "supposition was erroneous."
Following his success at
Boston, Washington was called to Philadelphia to confer with Congress. He
arrived on May 22 and returned to the Army on June 5, and was not again in
Philadelphia until August 2, 1777. During the time Washington was in
Philadelphia the only official mention yet discovered of flags of any kind is
in a post-script of his letter under date of May 28, 1776, to Major General
Putnam, as follows:
"P. S. I desire you'll speak
to the several Col's and hurry them to get their colours done." The "colours"
of a regiment may be very different from the flag of the country--and again
might be the same.
There is no other mention of
flags in anything official or semi-official until Saturday, June 14, 1777,
almost a year after the Declaration of Independence when Congress without
previous discussion, resolution or committee report, recorded the "entrance"
of Old Glory.
ORIGINAL JOURNAL OF CONGRESS
Page 243 of the original
journal of Congress is shown in No. 10 reproduced from a photograph. (7) That
it may be the more easily read we reprint the flag resolution together with
the John Paul Jones resolutions immediately following it, as if giving a
reason for adopting the flag on this particular day. First the secretary,
Charles Thompson, wrote, "Resolved, That the flag of the United states consist
of." Then he erased "consist of" and wrote above "be distinguished," and
changed "of" to "by." Finally he deleted the wolds "distinguished by," making
the resolution read as follows:
"Resolved, That the Flag of
the United States be 13 stripes alternate red and white, that the Union be 13
stars white in a blue field representing a new constellation."
Immediately following is the
resolution appointing John Paul Jones to command the Ranger, as follows:
"The Council of the state of
Massachusetts bay having represented by letter to the president of Congress
that Capt. John Roach sometime since appointed to command the continental ship
of war the Ranger is a person of doubtful character and ought not to be
intrusted with such a command. Therefore
Resolved that Captain John
Roach be suspended until the Navy Board for the eastern department shall have
inquired fully into his character and reported thereon to the Marine
Resolved that Captain John
Paul Jones be appointed to command the said ship Ranger.
Resolved that William Whipple
esq. member of Congress, and of the Marine committee, John Langdon Esq.
continental agent and the said capt John Paul Jones be authorized to appoint
the lieutenant and other commissioned and warrant officers necessary for the
said ship and that blank commissions . ."-- the resolution is finished on the
next page of the Journal of Congress.
CONGRESS GIVING OFFICIAL
SANCTION TO A FLAG IN ACTUAL USE
The papers of the day took no
notice of the adoption of a flag by Congress--not until August was the fact
even mentioned. So September 3, 1777, the flag resolution appeared over the
signature of Charles Thompson, the secretary. Again April 23, 1783, AFTER,
PEACE had been secured, Congress caused the flag resolution over the signature
of secretary Thompson to be republished in the Pennsylvania Gazette,
REQUESTING OTHER PAPERS TO COPY. (8)
From the total lack of
interest in the public prints of the time, it would seem that the resolution
of Congress was merely to give official recognition to a flag already familiar
and in use. Why it was done June 14, 1777, instead of Sonle other day appears
in the resolution immediately following appointing Bro. John Paul Jones to the
command of the Ranger which actually carried "Old Glory" clear around England
and right into her harbors.
Avery says, (9) "After the
Declaration of Independence, the British "union" was removed from the colors
of the new nation." True he does not say WHEN the British "union" was removed,
but after the Declaration, there was EVERY REASON why the King's Colors should
NOT be on the American flag. Indeed the resohltion itself is a proof that the
flag being adopted was actually before Congress and too familiar to need
detailed description, as to the arrangement of the stripes, whether the top
and bottom stripes should be red or white, whether there should be 7 red or
only 6, or as to the arrangement of the stars, or as to whether there should
be stars or some other device in the staff CORNER or in some other part of the
flag. It seems reasonable to conclude that Jones appointed to the Ranger and
about to make his renowned voyage, needed all AUTHORIZED flag, and Congress
adopted one in actual use but there is no official record of any kind except
that above given.
WHO MADE THE FLAG CONGRESS
In No. 11 is shown the flag
adopted by Congress-- the flag signaling the entrance of a new nation, "a new
constellation," June 14, 1777.
Whence the idea and who made
George Canby's work on The
Evolution of thc American Flag, shows with reasonable conclusiveness that when
Washington was in Philadelphia just before the Declaration of Independence, he
with Robert Morris and George Ross, members of Congress, called at a little
upholstering shop in Arch street. This was run by Betsy Ross, whose husband,
John Ross, had been killed a shirt time before while in the service of his
country. He was the nephew of George Ross, member of Congress, who now with
Robert Morris brings Washington to one of the most expert needle women in
Philadelphia--and who up to 1827 continued to make flags for the United
states--a fact which makes it seem all the more probable that she really did
make the first one, an honor never claimed by any one else.
In No. 12 is shown the little
upholstering shop where Betsy Ross made flags for the U.S. from June, 1776, to
1827 when she retired and her daughter Clarissa Sidney Wilson, continued to
make flags until 1857 when she moved to Fort Madison, Iowa. So for 81 years
flags for the U. S. were made in this house now preserved by a patriotic
association as a shrine of American liberty. A large proportion of the money
to buy the Flag House and maintain it for posterity as a shrine of American
liberty in the city of "brotherly love," was obtained by 10 cent
subscriptions. A copy of Weisgerber's famous painting was given to each
subscriber. The picture is shown in No. 13, in which the painter agreeably to
an artist's license has reversed the historic fact and instead of showing
Washington ordering the flag to be made, he shows him, with Robert Morris and
George Ross, inspecting the finished work. The picture of Betsy Ross is built
up as a composite from photographs of her four daughters, there being no
actual picture of her--so far as known. The event here shown took place
between May 22 and June 5, 1776, during Washington's stay in Philadelphia,
about a year hefore the flag resolution. Washington was not in Philadelphia
again until Aug. 2, 1777, almost 2 months after the resolution of June 14th.
The event is based on the sworn testimony of the four daughters of Betsy Ross,
who had helped her in the work and as before stated Clarissa carried on the
business herself after the death of her mother.
As further corroboration, in
the Pennsylvania Archives" is an order dated May 29, 1777, "paying Elizabeth
Ross fourteen pounds twelve shillings two pence for making ships colours." lf
this payment was as slow as usual the chances are the work had been done long
before. It is true that "ships colours" might not be stars and stripes, but it
is also true that at this time there was no reason for making any other than
our own Old Glory for "ship's colours." It is also suggested that "ships
colours" might have been state flags but the fact is Pennsylvania had no state
flag then and not until Oct. 9, 1799. So this record in fact does corroborate
the Betsy Ross incident. Use before official adoption June 11, 1777.
"OLD GLORY" JAN. 3, 1777--
THE TESTIMONY OF WASHINGTON'S AID
Col. John Trumbull's
reputation as an historical painter is world wide and rests on his FIDELITY to
As he himself says, "Every
minute article of dress, down to the buttons and spurs, were calefully painted
from the different objects," (12) Col. Trumbull was present in command of his
Company at Bunkel Hill and he fought as Washington's aid at Trenton and
Princeton, taking active part in the battles. He is therefore a competent
witness. But before giving his testimony as to the early use of the stars and
stripes, let us show a sample of his accuracy in related events.
In his "Bunker Hill," (Fig.
11) note the Pine Tree flag opposing the King's colors. Joseph Warren is down
just below the gun of John Knowlton who is one who had just shot at Pitcairn
seen falling into the arms of his son under the King's colors. At the extreme
right is Sam Salem the negro who also has shot at Pitcairn. The Americans were
particularly incensed - at Pitcairn for many things and recently because in
stirring a glass of grog with his finger had said that in that way he would
stir the blood of the Yankees. But particular attention is called to the
Again in his "Burgoyne,"
(Fig. 15) the troops are arranged in accord with historic fact--Gates
receiving the surrendered sword of Burgoyne and returning it in compliment to
the bravery of a vanquished foe, and all is accul ate "to the buttons on the
In his "Yorktown," (Fig. 16)
is again the accuracy of a camera--the French on the left with their flag of
white silk, the Americans on the right, Washington at their head and the stars
and stripes above him. Between the lines the English marched in new uniforms
but with colors cased and drums beating an Old English march--"The World
Turned Upside Down." In the center General Lincoln receives from Gen. O'Hara
the sword of Cornwallis in token of his surrender, and leturns it to him in
token of Washington's generosity. No. 17 (Color Plate) is Trumbull's story of
the battle of Princeton, being a direct photograph from the original. In his
"Bunker Hill," "Burgoyne" and "Cornwallis," the scenes are everywhere admitted
as correct and because of their correctness Congress paid Trumbull $32,000 for
them. At Bunker Hill, Trumbull took an active part, and at Princeton was aid
to Washington. Surely Trumbull should know what flag he was fighting under and
he shows "Old Glory" and this on Jan. 3, 1777. This was six months before its
official adoption by Congress. But in his "Bunker Hill," he does not show "Old
Glory" because it was not there and he is recording the facts. Why shall we
not give his "Princeton" the same credit for accuracy, so freely accorded his
"Bunker Hill" and other productions? Further, Trumbull is corroborated by
another eye witess who was in "Trenton" a week before, and also in active
FIRST BATTLE OF OLD GLORY
DEC. 26, 7776--TESTIMONY OF A COMPANY COMMANDER
Charles Wilson Peale was a
soldier, painter and Mason. He commanded a company at that awful Crossing of
the Delaware, Dec. 26, 1776, and was actively engaged in the far famed Battle
of Trenton. He is presumed to know what flag his company carried and therefore
a competent witness. His picture, "Washington at Trenton," (Fig. 18) gives his
testimony as to he flag used. Here it is, secured by direct photograph after
long and patient effort. The painting now protected by a glass front hangs at
the head of the grand stair case in the Senate wing of the Capitol at Washgton.
This drawing was made in 1779
only two years after the event, and many years later Titian R. Peale, his son,
said in a letter quoted by both Preble and Canby:- "I have just had time to
visit the Smithsonian Institute to see the portrait of Washington painted by
my father, C.W. Peale, after the battle of Trenton. It is marked in his
handwriting 1779. The flag represented is a blue field with white stars
arranged in a circle. I don't know THAT I ever heard my father speak of that
flag, but the trophies at Washington's feet I know he painted from the flags
then captured, and which were left with him for the purpose. He was always
very particular in matters of historic record in his pictures; the service
sword in that picture is an instance and probably caused its acceptance by
Congress. . . I have no other authority, but feel assured that the flag was
the flag of our army at that time, 1779. My father commanded a company at the
battles of Germantown, Trenton, Princeton, and Monmouth, and was a soldier as
well as a painter, and I am sure, represented the flag then in use, not a
regimental flag, but one to mark the new republic."
Therefore when the stars and
stripes received their baptism of blood at Trenton, Dec. 26, 1776, and a week
later at Princeton, one can easily understand why Congress adopted it on June
14, 1777, in a resolution of only thirty words--less than the limit of a day
message at ordinary telegraph rates.
To sum up, first, the record
shows that Washingon on his own initiative and authority raised the Cambridge
flag of 13 stripes with the King's colors in its union. Second, though there
be no actual record, yet the weight of evidence indicates that Washington
again on his own INITIATIVE and authority ordered the stars and stripes to be
made; and that he used the stars and stripes at the battles of Trenton and
Princeton and on other occasions, and that Congress in the flag resolution of
June 14, 1777, gave official recognition, for the first time, to the flag so
used and constituted it the flag of the United States. Further each state
holding itself to be a "sovereign independent commonwealth" and in most cases
having a flag of its own, a variety of flags continued to be used, so that
even after peace had been secured in 1783, Congress had the flag resolution
republished over the signature of its secretary and requested all papers to
copy. How essentially necessary such re-publication really was is evidenced by
the fact that the "Board of War" did not know in 1779 a flag had been adopted.
However this is not so strange for even now one Congress often shows culpable
ignorance of what a previous Congress had done.
(1) Journal of American
History, Vol 2, p. 235
(2) Vide page 1432, Vol. II
Cyclopedia of U. S. History
(3) Vide Evolution of The
American Flag, Canby & Baldbrston.
(4) Vide Preble p. 220.
(5) Vide Preble p. 221
showing a cut of the English East India Company's flag in 1834, with the 13
stripes and the present flag of England in its "union."
(6) Vide Preble p. 193
(7) Vide Canby's Evolution of
the American Flag.
(8) Vide Canby's Evolution of
the American Flag
(9) Vide Avery Vol. 6, p. 68.
(10) Vide Canby's Evolution
of the American Flag
(11) Vide 2d Series Vol. I,
(12) Vide Washington Irving's
Washington Vol. IV, p. 327.
(13) Vide Avery's History of
the United States Vol. 5.
(To be Continued)
Frederick LeRoy Sargent
(The following is a
translation of Beranger's "La Sainte Alliance
des Peuples." The original,
written in 1818 to celebrate the
evacuation of French
territory, is quoted in the Nation of Dec. 23,
1915, for its early use of
the expression "place in the sun.")
Peace have I seen descending
on the world;
Peace, strewing gold, and
flowers, and corn.
The air was calm, War's
blood-stained banners furled,
And drowsy, sullen thunders
Peace said: "O peoples of
Belgian, Russian, and
In holy alliance your hatreds
Equals in valor, shake hands
Mortals, a burden of hate
hath wearied you.
Call not vain troubled sleep
a victory won!
Portion the limited land, to
each his due,
That each can so enjoy his
place in the sun.
So long as ye are yoked to
the chariot of power,
True happiness afar behind
Peoples of Europe, sanctify
Equals in justice, shake
ERNST AND FALK
(TRANSLATED FROM THE GERMAN
OF G.E. LESSING (1778) BY LOUIS BLOCK,
PAST GRAND MASTER OF MASONS
(Last year Past Grand Master
Block translated the first two of the five Discourses which make up the famous
little Masonic classic, "Ernst and Falk," by Lessing. (The Builder, Vol- 1,
pp. 20, 59). Owing to illness, and the pressure of business which piled up
high during the interlude, he was unable to finish the work. Herewith we
present the Third Discourse, to appreciate which the reader must needs turn
back to the first two. As a preface to the first two Discourses we gave a
brief sketch of Lessing and his work, for a fuller account of whom the reader
is referred to a delightful little book on "The Life and Writings of Lessing,"
by T. W. Rolleston, in the Great Writers series. While it makes scant
reference to the Masonic life of Lessing, it is a fine estimate and record of
his noble and fruitful life.)
Ernst--You have eluded me all
day in the crush of the company. But I have followed you into your bed room.
Falk--Had you something so
important to tell me? The day has tired me of ordinary conversation.
E.--You mock my curiosity.
E.--Which you this morning
knew how to arouse in such a masterly way.
F.--What did we talk about
E.--About the Free-Masons.
F.--Well? I surely did not
betray their secret in the rush and whirl?
E.--That which you said could
not be betrayed ?
E.--Now I must confess that
sets me at rest again.
E.--But you did tell me
something about the FreeMasons that was unexpected by me, that astonished me,
that made me think.
F.--What was that?
E.--O, don't torment me
!--you certainly remember.
F.--Yes it comes back to me
by degrees. That was what made you so absent-minded all day long among your
lady and gentlemen friends?
E.--That was it! And I cannot
go to sleep unless you answer me at least one more question.
F.--That depends upon what
the question may be.
E.--How can you prove to me,
or at least make it seem probable, that the Masons really have such great and
F.--Did I speak to you about
their objects? I did not know it. On the contrary seeing that you could form
no conception at all of the real activity of the Free-Masons, I simply called
your attention to one matter in which much may yet occur concerning which the
minds of our statesmen have as yet not even dreamed. Perhaps the Free-Masons
are working at that. Or perhaps at--Just to take away your prejudice that all
sites worthy of buildings had already been discovered and occupied, that all
the needed structures had already been distributed among the workmen required
for the task.
E.--Turn and twist about now
as you will. It is enough that from your speeches I have now come to think of
the Free-Masons as people who have voluntarily taken it upon themselves to
strive against the inevitable evils of the state.
F.--That conception can at
least do the Free-Masons no harm. Stick to it! Only get it right! Mix nothing
in it that does not belong in it ! The inevitable evils of the State!--Not
this state, nor that state. Not the inevitable evils, which--a certain
constitution having been once adopted--must necessarily result from that
adopted constitution. With these the Free-Mason never concerns himself, at
least not as a Free-Mason. The alleviation and culing of these he leaves to
the citizen who may deal with them according to his insight, his courage, and,
at his peril. Evils of a far different kind and of a higher character form the
field of his activity.
E.--That I have very clearly
grasped.--Not the evils that make discontented citizens but those evils
without which even the most fortunate citizen could not exist.
F.--Right! To strive
against--how do you put it?-- to strive against these.
F.--That is saying a little
too much. To work against them ? To do away with them wholly ? That cannot be,
for along with them one would at the same time destroy the state itself. They
must not even be suddenly called to the attention of those who have as yet no
intimation of them. At most, to stimulate a perception of them from afar, to
foster its growth, to transplant the young sprout, to cultivate it and make it
blossom--can here be called striving against these evils. Do you see now why I
said, that although the Free-Masons had long been active that still centuries
might pass away without their being able to say: this have we done ?
E.--And now I also understand
the second feature of the problem-- good deeds which shall make good deeds
F.--'Tis well--now go and
study those evils and learn to know them all and weigh their influences one
upon the other and be assured that this study will reveal things to you which
in days of depression will appear to be most disheartening and
incomprehensible exceptions to providence and virtue. This revelation, this
enlightenment will make you peaceful and happy-- even without your being
called a Free-Mason.
E.--You lay so much stress on
this being called.
F.--Because one can be
something without being called it.
E.--That's good ! I
understand--but to get back to my question, which I must but clothe in a
little different form. Now that I do know the evils against which Free-Masonry
F.--You know them ?
E.--Did you not name them for
me yourself ?
F.--I named a few as
instances. Just a few of those which are apparent even to the most
short-sighted eye, just a few of the most unquestionable, the most
far-reaching. But how many are there not still remaining which although they
are not so clear, so unquestionable and so all inclusive are never the less no
less certain, none the less inevitable.
E.--Then let me confine my
question to only those parts which you have yourself named for me. How can you
show me that the Free-Masons have really given their attention to these? You
are silent? You are thinking it over?
F.--Assuredly not over what
answer I should make to this question!- -but I do not know what reasons you
may have for putting this question.
E.--And you will answer my
question if I tell you the reasons that prompt it?
F.--That I promise you.
E.--I know and distrust your
E.--I feared you might sell
me your speculations for facts.
F.--Much obliged !
E.--Does that offend you ?
F.--Rather must I thank you
for calling that "ingenuity" which you might have called something far
E.--Certainly not; on the
contrary I know how easily the clever man deceives himself, how easily he
suspects and attributes to other people plans and intentions of which they had
never even thought.
F.--But, upon what does one
base his idea of the plans and intentions of others? Surely upon their own
actions alone ?
E.--Upon what else? And here
I come again to my question--From what single unquestionable act of the
Free-Masons may we conclude that it is but one of Free-Masonry's objects
through itself and in itself to do away with that division and disunion which
you have said states and governments make inevitable among men ?
F.--And that without
detriment to these states and governments. E.--So much the better ! It is not
even necessary that there should be actions from which this might be
concluded. Just so long as there are certain peculiarities or oddities which
point to it or arise out of it. You must have begun with some such in making
your supposition, assuming that your system was only hypothetical.
E.--Your distrust still shows
itself. But I trust it will disappear when I bring home to your consciousness
one of the fundamental principles of Free-Masonry
E.--And which may that be?
F.--One of which they have
never made a secret. One according to which they have always acted beforethe
eyes of the whole world.
E.--And that is ?
F.--That is to welcome into
their order every worthy man of fitting disposition without regard to his
nationality, his creed, or his social station.
fundamental principle takes for granted the existence of men who have risen
above such divisions, rather than those who intend to create them. For nitre
must be in the air before it can deposit itself upon the walls in the form of
E.--O, yes !
F.--And why should not the
Free-Masons here call to their service the common ruse ? That is, to pursue a
part of one's secret objects quite openly in order that Mistrust, which always
suspects something different from what it sees, may be led astray.
E.--And why not ?
F.--Why should not the
artist, who can make silver, deal in old broken silver so as to arouse less
suspicion that he could make it?
F.--Ernst! Did you hear me?
You answer as in a dream, I believe.
F.--No, friend ! But I have
enough, enough for tonight. Early tomorrow morning I return to the city.
F.--Already ? Why so soon ?
E.--You know me and ask ? How
much longer will your water-cure take?
F.--I only began it day
E.--Then I shall see you
again before you finish it. Farewell !
F.--Good-night. Farewell !
BY WAY OF INFORMATION
The spark had kindled. Ernst
went and became a Free-Mason. What he found there forms the subject of a
fourth and fifth discourse with which the road divides.
Character is the warp of
ancestry and the woof of environment woven by the power of will on the loom of
--J. F. N.
A human being may lack eyes
and be none the poorer in character; a human being may lack hands and be none
the poorer in character; but whenever in life a person lacks any great
emotion, that person is poorer in everything.
--James Lane Allen. A
PATIENCE AND PERSEVERANCE
BY BRO. O.D. STREET, ALABAMA
AMONG the modest and homely
virtues taught by Masonry are Patience and Perseverance. It is largely because
Masonry emphasizes the modest and the homely which gives it its wonderful
staying powers. Let us then for a moment consider these two, because, as a
rule, we are forgetful of the great part they play in the achievements of the
Our ritual says, "Time,
patience and perseverance accomplish all things." Or to state it conversely
but just as truly, "Without time, patience and perseverance is nothing
accomplished that is accomplished."
We stand in the presence of a
great painting or piece of statuary. We are wont to think of it as having
sprung in a moment of inspiration from the hands and brain of the artist. We
forget the years of patient study and practice and the seasons of hardships
and the hours of disappointment which beset him before he could even attempt
such a work. We do not know of the ruined stones or spoiled canvasses which
preceded the finished product.
We view a splendid edifice,
designed with wisdom, erected in strength, and adorned with beauty. It looks
like some super-human mind might have dreamed it into being. But who can
estimate the hours of toil spent in preparation by the architect who planned
it, the engineer who calculated the weight and thrust of its roof and walls,
the artist who adorned it, and the masons who built it? We do not see the
apparent confusion and disorder which attended its erection, the multitude of
discordant sounds, the moving to and fro, the humble hod-carrier trudging up
and down with brick and mortar and stone, the rubbish and the dirt. We can
never know the number of designs on the trestle-board drawn, redrawn, then
destroyed, and drawn again. Some of our greatest edifices consumed not only
years but a whole generation; a few of them, several generations.
We sit beneath the eloquent
words and the musical voice of the orator; it all seems so easy. We did not
know him when his tongue stammered and his words came ill-chosen and
haltingly. We did not witness the bitter failures, the moments of
irresolution, not to say despair, the renewed determination and the long
struggle that followed.
We read the works of a great
writer. He says things so much like we feel that we would have said them
ourselves. The thoughts flow so naturally and the conclusions are so obvious
we wonder why it had not occurred to us to write this very book. It seems so
simple we are sure we could do it. But let us try it even after we have read
the book. The right word does not come to us, we gradually become conscious
that we use half a dozen words to express a thought which he expresses better
in one. The order of our thoughts soon becomes like a defeated army in
retreat, baggage, artillery, infantry, and cavalry all jumbled together. We
throw down the pen in disgust consoling ourselves with the belief that the
writer has accomplished this thing through an inspiration of genius. We don't
know the number of manuscripts he had rejected at the beginning. We do not see
him poring over the dictionary and the thesaurus, the lists of synonyms and
antonyms, seeking for words and noting their nice distinctions of meaning. We
were sound asleep perhaps when he was burning the "midnight lamp," hands
weary, blotting and blurring, interlining and erasing, and finally burning his
We are dazzled by the
brilliance of the achievements of a great general; his armies disappear for a
time and then reappear in a most unexpected manner at the most unexpected
places as if by magic, spreading destruction, confusion, and terror among his
enemies. We can see so little of how it is done we think surely here is a
God-given power, an inherent talent which required no training. We would
change this opinion if we could only see him in the subordinate capacities
faithfully, thoroughly, and expeditiously discharging his lowly duties,
possibly for many years before he was even entrusted with responsible command.
We forget that he reached his high station by regular promotion for being able
to do quickly and well a small and humble thing outside of the spotlight of
In all these instances, as
probably in all others if we only knew the whole truth, it is time, patience,
and perseverance that has wrought such great results. It has required years,
often a life-time; sometimes several life-times. First there was preparation,
then effort, next failure, then renewed effort, finally success.
The years of preparation
demanded Patience; most persons cannot endure this apparent waste of time.
They are impatient to try their luck in a profession or in business. We are
not speaking of the indolent; we are speaking of those filled with zeal and a
commendable enterprise. They rush in without preparation or only half
prepared. The majority fail and retire from the race; they merely struggle for
existence the rest of their lives. If some seem to succeed in a measure, rest
assured their success is much less than it might have been with proper
Some have the Patience
necessary to get them through the preparatory stage. With high hopes and
promising prospects they enter life feeling that they cannot fail. In an evil
hour misfortune overtakes them and failure results. The majority never rise
from this experience to try again; they lack Perseverance.
The few, however, learn from
the past; nothing daunted, they rally for another effort. As often as fail,
they try again. One with this full measure of Perseverance is sure to succeed
if life only holds out. And if life fails he succeeds nevertheless; thus
conquer his fears and doubts of the future is a great moral victory for which
reward will come in the next, if not in this life.
Patience, which waits for
results, and Perseverance, which unceasingly strives to produce them, working
in unison can not ultimately fail.
What a volume of truth, we
exclaim, in these few simple, familiar words of our ritual ! Could the young
initiate only grasp this truth fully before it is too late, it would be worth
to him many fold all the time, effort, cmd money bestowed by him upon the
I AM FRATERNITY
I am the Supreme Architect in
the City of Life. Human hearts are the sites whereon I build noble, strong,
I am the symbol of
sovereignty; yet multitudes find me a commoner. The handgrasp expresses the
diality of my nature. Love, charity, gentleness of word, kindness--these are
worldly missionaries. Through altruistic relationships, pity for the
distressed, unwavering loyalty in every human crisis, I speak to those who
know me not.
I am often disguised in the
co-operation which causes fraternal ties of fellowship. My affectionate regard
for the interests of everyone identifies me a universal benefactor.
I teach individuals to act in
terms of mutual concession, generous judgment, and sympathetic forebearance. I
unlock the sacred portals of the lodge room and reign therein with kingly
dignity. The marts of competitive trade court my superiority. I am a master
force wherever people assemble to foster higher principles. I acknowledge that
service is the measure of greatness and that through me men become sublime in
I am the message bealer of
good will; the courier who relays the Gospel of Brotherhood; the moving spirit
in every enterprise which champions man-to-man ennoblement and makes society
more neighborly. Great men unconsciously write my biography--
I AM FRATERNITY.
--Louis Varnum Woulfe.
Within my heart some hopes
Like captive bilds, that flit
Yet beat against their prison
And long to mount on loftier
I dare not set the door ajar,
For well I know if once they
My heart an empty cage would
And all life's music, hushed
--Alice Lewis Cook.
THE SONG OF THE BUILDERS
As the first faint flush of
the morning glow
Falls full on a sleeping
While the curtain of night is
And the banner of stars is
The morning march of the
Regins as the sun waves its
Sturdy and strong, they march
To the step of the Builder's
We shoulder our tools and
And fill our lungs with the
fresh, new day;
To the hammer's ring, our
song we sing,
For the joy of work is a
So merrily ho! for every blow
Of the Builder's arm makes
the city grow.
From "War Rhymes and Peace
By Frank Adams Mitchell.
Perhaps the most searching
poem of the war is one entitled "Five Souls," written by an obscure bank clerk
heretofore unknown in the realm of letters. In this poem the spirits of a
Pole, an Austrian, a Tyrolese, a Frenchman, a native of Lorraine, and a
Scotchman, having been torn from their bodies on battle fields, chant us back
the same refrain:
I gave my life for
freedom--this I know:
For those who bade me fight
had told me so.
The Fuller sisters of
England, now singing in America, have adapted these lines to an impressive
musical movement from Beethoven. In a quiet midnight after listening to the
song there came to me an additional stanza, a chorus of the "Five Souls,"
after they were touched by the higher knowledge which has reached them in "the
house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens."
On God's eternal hills we now
Our broken homes with wives
and children dear.
That we were brothers then,
as now, 'tis clear.
For war is hate and leaves
the world forlorn.
We lost our lives through
error, now we know:
For love supernal, it doth
teach us so.
--Jenkin Lloyd Jones.
THE MEANING OF INITIATION
BY BRO. FRANK C. HIGGINS, NEW
(More than once we have
called attention, editorially and otherwise, to the admirable work of Brother
Frank C. Higgins, of the Magian Society, New York, in his department of
Masonic Research in the Masonic Standard. At first it began as a column of
inquiry and answer dealing with the Deeper Problems of the meaning of Masonry,
but it grew, most happily, into a series of systematic studies, or
lessons--Masonry, as Brother Higgins conceives it, being the perpetuation
among us, albeit little understood, of the ancient philosophy of Cosmic
Harmony which, among the Hebrews, traced everything to the great Jehovah; at
once a religious and a scientific pursuit, conducted along mathematical,
geometrical and astronomical lines. In this field Brother Higgins is a master,
and comes nearer than anyone With whose work we are acquainted, making the
treasures of that rich but difflcult culture intelligible to the average
reader. In order to call attention again to his researches, and also to
express the hope that they may be gathered into permanent form, we venture to
reproduce two brief sections of his series of studies dealing with the meaning
of initiation. This Society keeps an open and responsive heart toward all its
fellow-workers, glad and grateful for any one who toils to make our great and
many-sided Masonry more intelligible and effective.--The Editor).
In all ancient rites and
mysteries the participants in which were received by initiation, the greatest
care was always exercised with respect to certain details, which if not
properly carried out might mar or invalidate the entire ceremony.
The true significance of all
initiation has ever been that of a spiritual rebirth. The sacred Agrouchada of
the Hindus says, "The first birth is merely the advent into material life; the
second birth is the entrance to a spiritual life."
The newly initiated into the
first degree of Brahmanism was called douidja, which means "twice born." The
very word initiate indicates that the candidate is at least symbolically in
the same situation as if he had had no previous existence. He is to be ushered
into an altogether new world.
In ancient initiations the
extremity of humility was expressed by the rent garments of contrition for
past offenses in the life about to be blotted out, the bosom offered to the
executinner's sword, and the attitude of a captive.
PREPARING THE CANDIDATE
The most curious custom
perhaps had to do with what might be termed the complete preparation of the
candidate against the influences that had affected his previous career. During
the multitude of centuries in the course of which astrology was thought to
play the strongest part in human affairs, every circumstance affecting the
welfare of humanity was deemed to have its rise in one or another of the
planets, or perhaps in a lucky or evil combination of several. The science of
medicine rose entirely from this curious belief in planetary affinities. The
ancient physician diagnosed his patient's malady according to the diseases
listed under the latter's unlucky stars and tried to cure it by application of
substances designated as governed by those planets favorable to him. The same
idea governed the individual with reference to articles carried upon his
person. The superstitious carried various charms and amulets intended to draw
favorable planetary influences to his aid, and was just as careful to avoid
substance that might produce a contrary effect.
In the ordering of the
candidate for initiation into the ancient mysteries this belief played an
important part. The candidate might carry upon his person nothing that would
invite the attention of occult planetary powers through the mysterious tie
that bound them to terrestrial objects.
The lists of plants, flowers,
minerals, metals, and other things that were subject to these mysterious
influences were long and complicated. Gold linked him with the sun which
incited to the besetting sin of intellectual pride; silver drew upon him the
fickle qualities of the moon; copper, sacred to Venus, provoked lust, and
iron, the metal of Mars, quarrelsomeness; tin, tyranny and oppression, the
qualities of Jupiter; lead, sloth and indolence, belonging to Saturn; while
mercury or quicksilver was responsible for dishonesty and covetousness.
Therefore a key or a coin, and above all a sword, was likely to bring
confusion upon the whole mysterious operation of regeneration.
Above all were enjoined upon
the candidate the three sacred virtues, which by the Jain sects in India are
still called "the three jewels," represented by three circles, "right belief,"
"right knowledge," and "right conduct." In order to reach the spiritual plane,
in which the soul is entirely freed from the bonds of matter, these were the
chief necessities, and the person who clung to them would certainly go higher
until he reached the state of liberation.
THREE REGULAR STEPS
To the ancient candidate were
also recommended "the three successive steps which open the soul to free and
unobstructed activity and communication on both the psychic and the spiritual
planes." The first was to still the ego and empty the mind of every bias and
standard of self and sense. The second consisted, when this passive state had
been induced, in fixing and holding the attention upon the specific object
about which the truth was desired.
Thirdly, the foregoing two
steps having been taken, the individual was to stand firmly and persistently
in the receptive and listening attitude for the immediate revelation of the
truth, in the full expectation of getting it. This receptive state and
expectant attitude opened the consciousness to "the psychic vibrations that
write unerringly their story on the receptive mind."
WHOM DOES THE CANDIDATE
Within the simple and easily
formulated problem asked in the heading is contained the sublimest of all
secrets, which various of the higher degrees have sought to answer, each in
its own way. It involves the intimate application of all the symbolic degrees
to the initiate himself, without which they are as empty as air.
In all the ancient mysteries
a character was asumed by the candidate, and as the candidates were any and
the character depicted always the same, it must have represented something
essentially common to all alike. Furthermore, the precise similarity of the
experiences to which each individual candidate was subjected argued the
identical lesson in all cases.
Examination of all available
detail, especially the sacred writings of many races, confirms us in the
conviction that this universal character was but an allegorical representation
of the ego or "self," engaged in the warfare of which it has been said that
the victor is greater than he who taketh a city" and emerging a conqueror in
the very instant of apparent defeat. We receive our earliest concrete
presentation of such a character in the celebrated document known as the
Egyptian Book of the Dead, the Bible of the builders of the Pyramids,
fragments of which are found wrapped in the cloths of almost every mummy.
THE PILGRIM SOUL
The Book of the Dead presents
the wanderings of a departed soul through the underworld to the council of the
gods, who were to listen to its accusers, give heed to its defenders, and
finally weigh its accumulated good deeds in the scales against the feather
symbol of "truth." The name of this character is given as Ani the Scribe. It
finally transpired that this name was equivalent to the Latin term ego,
meaning the "I Am" or "self" in man. This leads to what was perhaps the
greatest and most important of all secret teachings of the ancient world, one
that has become so obscured by the confusion of its many dramatic
representations with real historical characters,--that most clear and careful
labor is required to trace the main ideas from age to age and people to
people, in order to show that they are fundamentally everywhere exactly the
There is no difficulty
whatever in recognizing the self-conscious principle in every man as being an
actual spark of the infinite self-consciousness precipitated into material
existence, through the labyrinth of which it is compelled to strive in
ceaseless search for the Master's Word, the secret of its being and immortal
destiny. If this idea of the struggle of a divine and immortal soul, weighed
down with the burden of matter and assailed at every turn by foes that
symbolize the continual transformations of matter from "life" to "death" and
"death" to "life," be taken as the vital principle of every drama of
regeneration, from the "Book of the Dead" to John Bunyan's "Pilgrim Progress,"
we too shall have progressed a long way upon the road to understanding that of
THE PILOT STAR
The beautiful star that is
the chief emblem of the Royal Arch degree, besides being the sacred symbol of
Israel, has had no other meaning during the thousands of years from the most
ancient Brahmanism to the Temple of today. Even when called "the United Seal
of Vishnu and Siva," the "Immortal" and the "Mortal," or "Fire" the symbol of
Spirit, and "Water" the symbol of Matter, it represented the same idea, that
of the "Self Conqueror," the Perfect Man, who had learned the subjugation of
human passions and perfection in attitude toward God and fellow man. Thus the
uppointing triangle stood for the ascent of matter into spirit which is
typified by the phrase "resurrection of the body," and the down-pointing
triangle the descent of spirit into matter, and the complete star represents
the immortal being fitted to dwell in "that house not built with hands,
eternal in the heavens."
WHAT DID YOU DO ?
Did you give him a lift? He's
a brother of man,
And bearing about all the
burden he can.
Did you give him a smile ? He
was downcast and blue,
And the smile would have
helped him to battle it through.
Did you give him your hand?
He was slipping down hill,
And the world, so I fancied,
was using him ill.
Did you give him a word ? Did
you show him the road.
Or did you just let him go on
with his load?
Did you help him along? He's
a sinner like you,
But the grasp of your hahd
might have carried him through.
Did you give him good cheer ?
Just a word and a smile
Were what he most needed that
last weary mile.
Do you know what he bore in
that burden of cares
That is every man's load and
that sympathy shares ?
Did you try to find out what
he needed from you,
Or did you just leave him to
battle it through ?
Do you know what it means to
be losing the fight,
When a lift just in time
might set everything right?
Do you know what it
means--just the clasp of a hand,
When a man's borne about all
a man ought to stand ?
Did you ask what it was--why
the quivering lip,
And the glistening tears down
the pale cheeks that slip ?
Were you brother of his when
the time came to be?
Did you offer to help him or
didn't you see ?
Don't you know it's the part
of a brother of man,
To find what the grief is and
help when you can?
Did you stop when he asked
you to give him a lift,
Or were you so busy you left
him to shift?
Oh, I know what you
meant--what you say may be true--
But the test of your manhood
is, What did you DO?
Did you reach out a hand ?
Did you find him the road,
Or did you just let him go by
with his load ?
--Bro. J. W. Foley, P.G.M.,
LODGE FURNISHINGS AND DEGREES
BY BRO. H.R. EVANS, LITT. D.
33D HON., WASHINGTON, D.C.
"We 'ad'nt good regalia and
our Lodge was old and bare,
But we knew the Ancient
Landmarks, and we kept 'em to a hair."
Kipling: Mother Lodge.
MAN is first made a Mason in
his heart, after that the Lodge takes hold of him and does the rest. In
Rudyard Kipling's Mother Lodge there was no regalia to speak of and the loom
was old and bare, but good work was accomplished because the members knew the
ancient landmarks and observed them in the spirit as well as the letter of the
law. I have seen the degrees of Craft Masonry worked in an old barn, a box for
an altar, with three sputtering tallow candles stuck in cleft sticks doing
duty for the three lesser lights. And yet, the ritual of the degrees was
impressively presented. The glorious creations of Master Will Shakespeare's
intellect were acted in barn-like structures, without curtain or scenery, but
the Elizabethan audiences were not critical; imagination supplied what was
lacking in dramatic mise-en-scene. Perhaps it is well not to rely too much on
scenic effects, lest you dull the imagination of the spectator. There is a new
school of scenic artists--Russian and German --that paints broadly and
impressimistically; indicating a palace, for example, by a column or two, or a
doorway heavily curtained, etc. Too great attention to scenic detail does
distract the attention from the actor to the scenery. You often hear people
say, when speaking of some dramatic production: "O the scenery was wonderful;
such magnificence, such realism !" Never a word about the participants in the
play. They might as well have been puppets pulled by strings. Now I believe
that a happy medium can be struck between an overplus of scenery and a woeful
lack of the same; likewise with the costumes of the actors. The Masonic
degrees, from Entered Apprentice to Sublime Prince of the Royal Secret (32d)
are dramas, and should be so regarded by Masons. They should be properly
costumed and presented with appropriate scenic effects, if the lodge funds
permit. But a happy limit should be reached in this regard, lest the
imagination be dulled. The tendency in the West has been to make a theatre of
the Scottish Rite Cathedral. I have had the pleasure of witnessing some very
fine degrees in the Western country where everything was elaborately staged,
the Brethren being seated in auditorium and galleries just like people at a
show. I do not desire to be hypercritical, but the effect on me has been
peculiar. I have always felt that I was not in a Masonic Temple but in a
theatre; that I was not a part of the affair but a mere spectator. In a Blue
Lodge I never had this feeling, because there was no stage, everything was
done on the floor; I was an actual participant in the degree. I must confess
that I prefer floor work, and yet there are some degrees of the Scottish Rite
that appear better on a stage than on the floor of the Cathedral. Perhaps a
happy combination of floor and stage is the solution of the problem. In
out-door scenes the stage is the thing. It certainly requires a plethora of
imagination to conjure up a rock-bound sea coast in a carpeted and
well-upholstered lodge. But for interior scenes the lodge room should suffice
and the act consummated therein. I do not think that the spectators--the
class, for instance--should occupy the entire floor space of the lodge. That
space should be reserved for the actors in the Masonic drama. I have seen the
31d of the Rite worked both on the stage and on the floor, and have long ago
come to the conclusion that the floor is the proper place to present it. When
acted on the lodge floor, it comes home to you in a wonderfully impressive
manner. You feel that you are indeed that poor mummy from Memphis at the Court
of the Divine Osiris. The imagination is stirred to its very depths. But in an
exclusively stage presentation the imagination has nothing to work on; does
not participate in the scene, as it were. It all seems unreal, the mere shadow
of a shade, soon forgotten when the curtain closes in.
In Mobile, Alabama, the 31d
is regarded particularly as a floor degree, and some remarkable effects of a
spectacular nature are obtained that are awe-inspiring, very simple means
being utilized to bring them about. In fact, the Consistory of Mobile has no
stage, does not believe in one, and yet puts on all the degrees of the Rite in
a manner most impressive. Several of the newly-built cathedrals of the
Scottish Rite in the Southwest have followed the Mobile idea.
In Brother Rosenbaum's
jurisdiction, at Little Rock, Ark., the stage is the thing to catch the
conscience of the--I was going to say "king," to complete the Shakespearean
quotation, but will change it to "Brethren." I do not believe there is a
consistory in the United States where the Scottish Rite degrees are so
splendidly presented as in Little Rock, the old home of Albert Pike. If the
shade of Pike ever visits this earth, it must rejoice in the degrees as
presented by the Brethren in Arkansas. Brother Rosenbaum is a past master of
mise-en-scene. No one who has witnessed the rendition of the Rose-Croix
degree, at Little Rock, will ever forget it. But after all is said, I prefer
floor work; the more the better. It is only the personal preference of one
man, however, and I do not consider myself an expert in things dramatic. I
always want to feel that I am an integral part of the Masonic drama, and not a
mere spectator. This I do in the Blue Lodge, but not always in the Scottish
Rite Cathedral. But as I said before, the happy medium is perhaps the stage
With this idea in view, how
should the room be furnished? I should say, first of all, that the apartment
where the degrees are given, should be fashioned after an ancient
temple--partly Jewish, partly Egyptian for Solomon's Temple partook of both
features. The ceiling might be painted to represent the zodiac. The principal
symbols of the Rite should be painted upon medallions around the walls, or
upon the proscenium arch. This would do away with the use of a lantern. The
stage of course should be equipped for the presentation of all out-door
scenes, with the proper lighting effects. The Masonic altar should never be on
the stage, but in its regular place in the lodge room. It should, however, be
portable, so as to clear the room of all furniture when big floor work was
required. There should be no opera-chairs on the main floor. The furniture
should correspond with the architecture of the room. Robes of blue, brown,
black, etc., might be provided for all Brethren seated on the main floor as
spectators. It would give a bit of realism to the scene. I believe this is
done in some jurisdictions, and consider it very effective.
I can anticipate one
criticism from the Brethren to my views, namely: If you fashion the auditorium
after an Oriental temple, where does the Templar idea come in? The Scottish
Rite is built upon the Templar theory of Freemasonry. The room should
represent a gothic chamber in keeping with the meeting place of Knights
Templars--those who went to protect pilgrims to the Holy Sepulchre and came
back from the Orient embued with the esoteric philosophy of the East; the
secret enemies of the Roman hierarchy. Well, perhaps, the criticism is
deserved, but as there are more Oriental degrees worked in the Rite than any
other, it comes expedient to build the auditorium after the ancient temple
type of architecture.
As regards the architecture
of a Scottish Rite Cathedral, I rejoice in the building of the Consistory at
Meridian, Mississippi, a picture of which is contained in the New Age
Magazine, for July, 1915. It is an Egyptian Temple, so modernized as to admit
light into its rooms without destroying that weird effect peculiar to this
style of architecture. I consider it a little gem. But here, the carping
critic will insinuate: "Why Egyptian?--and not Gothic? It is a cathedral,
don't you know!" Well, Mr. Critic, I throw up the sponge! If you want to pin
me down to a mere technicality, I have nothing more to say. But the Egyptian
temple for mine--with its mysterious sphinxes flanking the entrance, its
painted pillars with lotus capitals, its--! I might expatiate forever on this
theme without satisfying anybody except myself. Cathedral let it be, if you
prefer the Gothic to the Egyptian type, and are a stickler for mere words. I
have seen the degrees of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite worked in all
kinds of places and in all kinds of ways; but I shall never forget the Rose
Croix degree at Little Rock; the 31d at St. Louis (I have never seen the
Mobile presentation); the 14d at Wichita; the 15d in my own beloved Consistory
at Washington, D. C.; and the Master Mason's degree, at Guthrie. Gentlemen, I
thank you !
By Bro. Rob Morris
(Frequently recited at
presentation of trowel to candidate)
The Perfect Ashlars, duly set
Within the Walls, need mortar
A cement mixed with ancient
And tempered at the Builder's
With this each crevice is
Each flaw and crack securely
And all the blocks within
United in one perfect mass!
Fol this the Trowel's use is
It makes the work secure and
Secure, that storms may not
Even, that Beauty's lines may
It is the proof of Mason's
Rightly to do the Trowel's
The rest is all reduced to
But this must come from God's
own school !
We build the "House not made
Our Master, from Celestial
Points out the plan, the
blocks, the place,
And bids us build in strength
From quarries' store we
choose the rock,
We shape and smooth the
And placing it upon the wall,
Humbly the Master's blessing
But there is yet a work
To fix the true and polished
The Master's blessings will
Upon a loose, disjointed
Exposed to ravages of time,
It cannot have the mark
That age and honor did bestow
Upon the FANE on sion's brow.
Brothers, true Builders of
Would you become one perfect
That all the blasts which
time can move
Shall only strengthen you in
Would you, as Life's swift
sands shall run,
Build up the Temple here
That Death's worst onset it
And you eternal wages have?
Then fix in love's cement the
Study and act the Trowel's
Strive in the Compass' span
And mutual concessions give!
Daily your prayers and alms
As yonder light doth clearly
And walking by the Plummet
In God your hope, in God your
THE RITES OF FREEMASONRY
BY BRO. J.L. CARSON, VIRGINIA
MASONIC students are prepared
to accept the fact that at one time and another there have been over one
hundred Rites, and at least fifteen hundred Degrees or grades connected
directly and indirectly with Freemasonry. Many of these were, of course,
quasi-Masonic, their names and origins being now almost unknown, and their
history if it was known would be worthless except so far as it might interest
the Masonic antiquarian. If it were possible to list all these known and
unknown rites and degrees, they would fill quite a large volume, and after all
serve no good purpose as many, indeed most of them, were the outcome of
childishness, if not worse.
To the Brethren who have only
recently joined our Fraternity, the following short resume of the more
important of the Masonic Rites may be interesting and perhaps instructive. If
it proves to be so, then the object of this paper will have been accomplished.
Our newly raised Brother
seeking for Masonic light, naturally asks us what is a Rite? How many degrees
make a Rite? To what Rite do I belong or do I belong to any? All perfectly
natural questions, and worthy of our reply.
A Rite in Freemasonry is a
collection of grades or degrees, always founded on the First three, the
Entered Apprentice, the Fellow Craft, and the Master Mason. All the various
Rites except the York and English Rites begin their systems with the Fourth
degree, some claiming as many as ninety-six degrees.
I will try and give our
inquiring Brother a few pointers about the best known of these Rites, so that
he may recognize which of them he already belongs to, and decide which Rite
will be most acceptable to the Masonic Jurisdiction in which he resides, and
govern himself accordingly.
THE YORK RITE
was the oldest and first
established Masonic Rite, consisting of the Entered Apprentice, Fellow Craft,
and Master Mason degrees. When Dunckerley dismembered or disrupted the third
degree about 1770, he destroyed the identity of this Rite, and as that portion
he took from it has never been restored, this Rite therefore does not now
exist. It never had any connection with the Grand Lodge of all England, or the
York Grand Lodge as it was called, but represented the working of the Premier
Grand Lodge established or revived in 1717, and for fifty years after this
Why this Rite got the name of
York who can tell? It was and is an unmeaning term, but the name has been so
generally used by those in high places, it is no wonder the young craftsman
THE ENGLISH RITE,
as laid down in the Articles
of the Union in 1813, is as follows: "It is declared and pronounced that pure
ancient Masonry consists of three degrees, and no more, viz: those of the
Entered Apprentice, the Fellow Craft, and the Master Mason, including the
Supreme Order of the Holy Royal Arch. But this article is not intended to
prevent any Lodge or Chapter from holding a meeting in any of the degrees of
the Orders of Chivalry, according to the constitutions of the said orders."
Thus the English Rite rests upon the three symbolic degrees, but makes the
Royal Arch the completion of the Masonic edifice.
THE IRISH RITE
If the Irish had a "boat of
their own at the time of the flood" they could not rest without a Masonic Rite
of their own, and they have,--to my mind it is the most complete, useful and
best regulated Rite in existence today. Like all other Rites it is based on
the First Three degrees, followed by the Past Master, Mark Master, Royal Arch,
and Knight Templar, and all these various degrees stand for. These degrees
must be taken in the order named before the Prince Masons degree is conferred;
this brings us into the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite at the 18d,
followed by the Knight of the Sun 28d, Knight K. H. 30d, Commanders
Inquisitors Grand Inspectors 31d, Prince of the Royal Secret 32d, Supreme
Council 33d. There are less than four hundred Prince Masons 18d in Ireland;
The one Council of the 28d is limited to thirty-five subscribing members; The
College of Philosophical Masons 30d consists of thirty subscribing members;
The Tribunal of the 31d is limited to twenty-one; and the Consistory 32d
cannot have over sixteen members in addition to the nine members of the
Supreme Council 33d.
THE AMERICAN RITE
or York Rite as it is
commonly though erroneously called, is peculiar to the United states of
America, and the term American Rite is perfectly applicable. It confers under
the Royal Arch Chapter the Mark Master 4d, Past Master 5d, Most Excellent
Master 6d, Holy Royal Arch 7d. The Council takes care of Royal Master 8d,
Select Master 9d, Super Excellent Master 10d, while the Knight Red Cross 11d,
Knight Templar 12d, and Knight of Malta 13d are taken care of by the
THE ANCIENT AND ACCEPTED
A brother in good standing in
his Blue Lodge may elect to take the degrees of this rite, which does not of
course include any of the degrees of the American Rite, and is administered by
bodies of the Thirty Third degree, called Supreme Councils. This Rite is today
more widely extended than all the others put together, no other Rite being
worked to any very great extent the United states, Canada, Great Britain, the
Latin countries of Europe and South America. This Rite takes care of the
degrees from the
4d to 14d in Lodges of
Perfection. 15d to 18d in Chapters of Rose Croix. 19d to 30d in Councils of
Knights K. H. 31d and 32d in Consistories of M. R. S.
and 33d Supreme Council, of
which there are but two in the United States.
This Rite came to us from
Europe between the years 1783 and 1801, as the origin of the Rite is a subject
of much controversy. We will "nick it at that" as a good old Brother used to
say when he wanted an argument stopped in the Lodge. The word "Scottish" the
name of this Rite is a misnomer, as none of the degrees ever originated in the
"Land O Bibles Kirks and Haggis." It is claimed, however, that amongst its
founders were Scotch exiles in France, followers of the Pretender, who
introduced the word Scottish in order to make the degrees more attractive and
acceptable to the Jacobite party resident there.
Our aspiring Brother will
take notice that the degrees of the various Rites are not interchangeable,
when he has taken all the degrees of the American Rite he is no further on his
way to the 33d; if he elected to take the degrees of the A. & A. S. R. first,
he would still have to come back to the American Rite to reach the Commandery.
THE RITE OF MEMPHIS
"The Egyptian Masonic Rite of
Memphis" or the "Ancient Egyptian Rite of Freemasonry" is to be found working
in several States. It claims to be international, educational, and practical,
its influence exerted on behalf of Freedom, Equality, and Brotherhood. It was
revived in France as the Rite of Memphis in 1814, and introduced into this
country by M. De Negre in 1856. It consists of ninety-six degrees, the 96d
being called he Sovereign Sublime Magi. In 1852 its Lodges were closed in
France, in 1862 they were acknowledged by the Grand Orient and revived. Most
of its Lodges, however, abandoned it to join the Modern French Rite. It gets
its name from the Legend that an Egyptian Sage Ormus, converted in A.D. 46,
introduced the secrets of the Egyptian Mysteries into Europe, claiming that
these secrets are incorporated in the degrees of the Rite.
THE RITE OF MIZRAM
This Rite has a grand body of
its own in France. It was founded in Milan 1805, and introduced into France in
1814. Its ninety degrees are divided into Seventeen classes. It once had, and
may yet have, a Supreme Council in America with a small following; its
teachings and Masonry cannot be too highly appreciated. Over one hundred years
ago this rite was popular in Great Britain, particularly in Ireland, but it is
unknown there now.
THE ANCIENT AND PRIMITIVE
as brought to France by S.
Honis in 1814. Introduced into America 1856, and to England from America 1873.
Its degrees were reduced from ninety-five to thirty three in 1865, when an
effort was made to popularize it. It was practically a revival of the Rite of
Memphis, and has a small following in England and Scotland where the late
Brother John Yarker was the head and guiding spirit.
THE FRENCH RITE
or Modern French Rite founded
in 1786 by the Grand Orient of France, has seven degrees, 4d Elect, 5d Scotch
Master, 6d Knight of the East, 7d Rose Croix. It is largely practiced in
France and Brazil. It was formerly worked in the state of Louisiana more or
THE ANCIENT REFORMED RITE
Established in 1783 is still
practiced by the Grand Lodge of Holland, and the Grand Orient of Sweden.
THE RITE OF PERFECTION
had twenty-five degrees and
was established by De Bonneville in 1754. It was also known as the "Chapter of
Clermont," so named after a Jesuit College in France where a lot of political
scheming was carried on in the stuart Cause--this rite was pretty closely
identified with the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite in its earliest days.
THE RITE OF RAMSEY
or the Rite de Bullion
consists of six degrees and was founded about 1728 or later, by Chevalier
Michael Andrew Ramsey, a Scotch gentleman of great ability, culture and
travel. With other wearers of the "White Cockade" he was exiled in France, and
if all said of him be true, and as Paddy said "the half of the lies told of
him were not true," the word "Scottish" in most of the higher grades might be
laid at his footstool, as well as half a dozen Rites and half a hundred
The old clock stands on the
Clicking the seconds with
And as we listen it sounds to
As clear as if another one
Pointing the hours with
And a forward move at every
It measures this changing
life of man's
As that one refrain we hear
Through all the days of our
sorrow and mirth
Time swings along with its
And though we live long on
the face of the earth
Why ever wish back the years
that have fled.
Time weakens our form and
lays it aside
Regardless of what we have or
There's nothing in time that
will ever abide,
But this we have left to make
--Arthur B. Rugg, Minn.
THE EARLY DAYS -- HISTORY VS.
BY BRO. MELVIN M. JOHNSON, G.
The article by Brother Mazyck
of South Carolina in the March Builder calls for reply mainly because of the
prominence which The Builder gave it. He avers that there is naught but
tradition to rely upon that there was any Grand Lodge in Massachusetts prior
to 1750 when our contemporaneous records begin. He asserts "unhesitatingly * *
* that Solomon's Lodge No. 1, of Charleston, S.C., is the oldest Masonic body
in the Western Hemisphere, the Record of whose establishment is absolutely
unassailable." He rests this invulnerability on an article in the South
Carolina Gazette, Number 144, published October 30, 1736, containing an
account of a Lodge meeting the night before.
I do not intend to weary your
readers with an argument as to the position of Massachusetts. Those who are
interested will kindly examine the printed Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of
Massachusetts for 1914, pages 243 to 288 inclusive, where may be found
citations of authority for every statement made in my series of articles last
year in The Builder upon The Establishment and Early Days of Masonry in
Now to demolish Bro. Mazyck's
"unassailable" position with one shot. For the present purpose let us grant
(though it is not the case) that a newspaper article is the best evidence;
better than official records, original documents, contemporaneous letters, or
inscriptions upon ancient tombstones. If Bro. Mazyck wants a newspaper article
here it is for him.
The Boston Gazette, No. 743,
published April 1, 1734, (copies of which may be found in the Boston Public
Library, and in the Congressional Library), contains the following item, viz:
"On Friday evening last at Mr,
Lutwytche's long Room in King street was held a Grand Lodge of the Ancient and
Honorable Society of Free and Accepted Masons, where His Excellency Governor
Belcher and a Considerable Number of the Fraternity were present." This is two
years and nearly six months earlier than the article quoted from the South
Carolina Gazette. Bro. Mazyck's reply will be awaited with interest.
Having given publicity to
certain gross charges by innuendo, you can not in fairness fail to allow a
brief further comment. To the insinuations in Bro. Mazyck's article that the
Grand Lodge of Massachusetts has "faked" the tombstone of Henry Price, now in
the Boston Temple, we respectfully reply that opposite page 285 in the
Proceedings of our Grand Lodge for 1871, will be found a photograph of that
tombstone as it formerly stood on the Price lot in the cemetery in Townsend,
Mass. On page 53 of our Proceedings for 1857, you will find the statement of
the then Grand Master M. W. John T. Heard, that on September 29, 1857, he
visited the graveyard, saw the gravestone with its familiar epitaph, and
consequently recommended that a monument be erected to take its place. A full
account of this visit, including a copy of the inscription upon the
gravestone, will be found in volume XVII of Moore's Freemason's Magazine, page
11, published in 1857. Then by turning to the Proceedings of the Grand Lodge
of Massachusetts for June 21, 1888, (pages 82 to 101), will be found an
account of the dedication of the new monument. In those Proceedings and in the
Commemorative Service of June 26, 1888, (pages 102 to 179 inclusive), will be
found all the details covering the removal of the old gravestone to the Temple
in Boston. Then will be seen, to use our Brother's own language, "just why or
when it was removed from the cemetery."
To the innuendoes that Grand
Secretary Pelham forged the copy of the Henry Price Commission of 1733 which
opens the volume of our Grand Lodge records; that Provincial Grand Master
Price deliberately falsified when he made, over his own signature, the
statement that he had been appointed Provincial Grand Master in 1733 and had
founded his Grand Lodge on July 30th of that year; that the Grand Master,
Deputy Grand Master, Grand Secretary, and Master, Senior Warden, and Junior
Warden of the First Lodge in Boston, also told what was deliberately false
when on September 1, 1736, they wrote the Lodge Glasgow Kilwinning that the
First Lodge in Boston had been Constituted by Right Worshipful Brother Henry
Price, Provincial Grand Master, in 1733; and that all other similar things are
vague, uncertain, guesswork, and tradition, we beg to reply that if Bro.
Mazyck will kindly come to the Grand Master's office in the Temple in Boston,
we will show him a copy of Henry Price's Commission, made in the handwriting
of Francis Beteilhe who was Secretary of the First Lodge in Boston at least as
early as 1736, and who was the business partner of Henry Price. We shall be
glad also to show him, in the handwriting of Bro. Beteilhe, hitherto
unpublished memoranda, among them being a record of the "By-Laws or
Regulations," dated "O'ber 24th, 1733," and amendments thereto dated March 12,
1734, et seq. These came into the possession of the Grand Lodge on March 8,
We shall also be glad to show
an entry in the handwriting of Brother Berteilhe, Grand Secretary, following
his account of the Celebration of the Festival of St. John the Evangelist,
Dec. 27th, 1735, reading as follows:--"About this time sundry Brethren going
to South Carolina met with some Masons in Charlestown who thereupon went to
work, from which sprung Masonry in those parts." This may, to say the least,
explain how it was that there happened to be a Lodge in Charleston, S.C., to
form a public procession in the Fall of 1736.
It is about time that
slanderous and scandalous statements by way of insinuation and innuendo should
cease, particularly in a Masonic discussion. No one should complain of fair
and square arguments straight from the shoulder, whether given or taken. Any
member of the Fraternity should be ready to acknowledge error. No Masonic
historian should make use of unfounded insinuations or innuendoes.
In my articles in The
Builder, the statement was made that on Saint John the Baptist's Day in 1737,
in Boston, occurred the first public procession of the Fraternity in America,
Governor Belcher being in the line. That statement was made upon authority of
the Boston Gazette, No. 911, published June 27, 1737. The entire article reads
"Friday last being the Feast
of St. John the Baptist, the annual Meeting of the Free and Accepted Masons,
they accordingly met. The right worshipful Mr. Robert Thomlinson, G. M.,
nominated and appointed his grand Officers for the Year ensuing, viz: Mr. Hugh
Daniel, D.G.M., Mr. Thomas Moffatt (Doctor of Medicines) S.G.W., Mr. John
Osborne, J.G.W., Mr. Benjamin Hallowell, G.T., Mr. Francis Beteillie, G.S.,
after which the Society attended the G.M. in Procession to his Excellency
Governor Belcher, & from thence the Governor was attended by the G.M. and the
Brotherhood to the Royal Exchange Tavern in King-Street, where they had an
elegant Entertainment. It being the first Procession in America, they appeared
in the proper Badges of their Order, some Gold, the rest Silver. The
Procession was closed by the Grand Wardens."
Practically the same
statement was made by the Saint James Evening Post, published in London,
August 20, 1737.
Bro. Mazyck quotes a
paragraph from the South Carolina Gazette published May 28, 1737, to the
effect that on the Thursday night preceding, the Fraternity "came to the Play
House about 7 o'clock, in the usual Manner, and made a very decent and solemn
This was a month earlier than
the procession in Boston. I have no doubt that his quotation is correct and is
true. I gladly admit that there was a procession of Masons (though not of a
Lodge or Grand Lodge, as such) in Charleston, South Carolina, earlier than any
other known procession of Masons in America, the Saint James Evening Post and
the Boston Gazette to the contrary notwithstanding. It, however, is by no
means clear that the Masons in South Carolina went to the theatre clothed in
aprons or badges or other regalia. There is nothing in the South Carolina
Gazette from which we are authorized definitely to conclude, or even
justifiably to infer, that regalia was worn. Had it been worn, the regalia
would, particularly at that day, have caused comment as it did in the Boston
and London papers. Moreover, it is natural that the Fraternity should appear
in full regalia when the Grand Lodge turned out to escort their Brother, the
Governor, to the celebration of the Festival of St. John the Baptist. It is
not expected, nowadays at least, to see the Fraternity march through the
public streets in full regalia to attend the theatre. It would rather seem
that "the usual manner" meant no more than in procession, perhaps left in
front, as many of our Lodges attend divine service, in order but not in
regalia. While, therefore we may gladly accord the earliest known American
procession of Masons to South Carolina, it is open to us still to suggest that
they went to a theatre merely as members, in a procession, and not officially
as an open Lodge. That being true, the Boston Gazette and the London Post of
1737 may have recorded the first procession in America of Masons congregated
as a Lodge.
Brother Mazyck, before giving
us his newspaper quotations, says that I "thresh the old straw with great
energy." Unfortunately that has to be done for the sake of truth, when
Brethren now and then "unhesitatingly" present such "absolutely
unimpeachable," "incontestable," "unassailable" arguments "far removed from
any possibility of doubt and utterly beyond any contradiction."
We have to dispose of such
claims one by one as they appear.
Up to date many have been
heralded as equally infallible and all have proven equally fallible. Under the
light of examination they have all lost their solidity like ice under the sun
of a Spring noon.
We have had to meet the Rhode
Island "dilapidated document" of 1656 or 1658, which the Grand Lodge of Rhode
Island refused to father and which, in fact, never existed.
We have had to meet the "John
Moore letter" of 1715 which, likewise, never existed.
We have had to meet the
Daniel Coxe claim of 1730; although it is now universally admitted that he
never exercised his deputation.
We have had to meet the
apocryphal "Liber A" claim from Pennsylvania; although if there ever was a "Liber
A," no one pretends it will if found prove anything which Massachusetts does
not admit (any more than does "Liber B.")
We have had to meet the
"Henry Bell letter" claim of 1730; although that claim was simply a fraud as
Pennsylvania now admits. And now we had to put a quietus upon a 1736 claim
from South Carolina, founded upon good evidence, but which, ostrich-like,
buries its head in its own newspaper that it may not see the Boston Gazette of
We are not infallible in
Massachusetts. We prefer not to use superlative adjectives in describing our
claims. From some attic or cellar or other depositary may come forth definite
evidence, hitherto unknown, to shed light for or against our present position.
But until it does, (if ever, and we believe never) Massachusetts will remain
secure in its position as the Premier Grand Lodge of the Western Hemisphere,
and all the unbiased Masonic world will continue to acclaim Henry Price to be,
as he said himself, the Founder of Duly Constituted Masonry in America.
(Chas. Hanson Towne.)
They have triumphed who have
They have passed the porches
Leading from the Home of
To the splendid lawns of
They have gone on that far
Leading to their new abode,
And from the curtained
Watch their going wistfully.
Ah ! that turn, that glimpse
! That last
Wondering where their feet
have passed !
They have read new meanings,
Who have found the open way.
Now they know that hill and
Far beyond our mortal ken;
And they know why winter
To April; why Youth burns
With all its dreams that go
Why men falter, and yet
Why the Autumn grieves and
Underneath the brooding
Why the grass, with punctual
Comes in Spring our eyes to
And white dawn succeeds white
And the moon shines on and
They have left our House of
Faring to the bournes of
Grieve not for them; rather
"They are victors on the way;
They have won, for they have
The bright secrets of the
And they gained the deep
Hearing life's strange
In the race across the days
They are victors; their's the
Their's the glory and the
They have triumphed--having
LABORARE EST ORARE
Not solely on our Sabbath
We render service fair;
For duties done go up like
And kindly thought is prayer.
By Alfred Noyes.
A thousand creeds and
A thousand warring social
A thousand new moralities,
And twenty thousand thousand
Each on his own anarchic way,
From the old order breaking
Our ruined world desires, you
License, once more, not
But ah, beneath the
When storm and change are on
How quietly the tides come
And how the depths of
And we who march toward a
Destroying only to fulfil
The law, the law of that
Which moves beneath your
We, that like foemen meet the
Because we bring the future,
We only fight to achieve at
A great reunion with our foe;
Reunion in the truths that
When all our wars are rolled
Reunion of the heart and hand
And of the prayers wherewith
Reunion in the common needs,
The common strivings of
Reunion of our warring creeds
In the one God that dwells
Forward !--what use in idle
Forward, O warriors of the
There will be breaking up of
When the new morning makes us
In radium there is said to be
a virtue which enables it to affect
adjacent objects with its own
properties, and to turn them, for a
time, and for certain
purposes, into things of the same nature as
itself. Certain human
personalities have a similar virtue.
Ordeal by Battle, F. S.
WASHINGTON IN HIS OWN TIME
BY BRO. SAMUEL BULLARD, 1790
(By the kindness of Brother
C.M. Schenck, of Denver, Colorado, we present herewith a contemporary estimate
of Washington, being an excerpt from "An Almanack, for the Year of the
Christian Aera 1790, by Samuel Bullard, Boston. Printed and Sold by John W.
Folsom, No. 30 Union street; sold also by most of the Town and Country
Booksellers." Added thereto is a poem F. Plumer, "a citizen of the World,"
from the same edition of the Almanack, albeit composed in 1782. It is more
interesting than important, written in a high-flown manner, with many
allusions to mythology--after the style affected in that day--but it recalls
the spirit of the time. A copy of this Almanack is now in possession of Mrs.
C.M. Schenck, of Denver. The extract takes us back for a brief moment, into
the age in which Washington lived, and shows that the estimate of his
character was then very much what it is today. As the editor of the Almanack
said, "We cannot entertain a doubt of its being agreeable to all of our kind
of Readers."--The Editor.)
As the following is a Sketch
of the Life and Character of our American Fabius, we cannot entertain a doubt
of its being agreeable to all our kind Readers. As this Gentleman always
refused to accept of any pecuniary appointment for his public services, no
salary was annexed by Congress to his important command, and he only drew
weekly for the expenses of his public table, and other necessary demands.
General Washington, having
never been in Europe, could not possibly have seen much military service when
the armies of Britain were sent to subdue the Americans; yet still, for a
variety of reasons he was by much the most proper man on the continent, and
probably anywhere else, to be placed at the head of an American army. The very
high estimation he stood in for integrity and honor, his engaging in the cause
of his country from sentiment and conviction of her wrongs, his moderation in
politics, his extensive property, and his approved abilities as a Commander,
were motives which necessarily obliged the choice of America, to fall upon
That nature had given General
Washington extraordinary talents, will hardly be controverted by his most
bitter enemies. Having been early actuated with a warm passion to serve his
country in the military line, he has greatly improved his talents, by
unwearied industry, a close application to the best writers upon tactics, and
by more than common method and exactness. In reality, when it comes to be
considered, that at first he only headed a body of men entirely unacquainted
with military discipline or operations, somewhat ungovernable in temper, and
who at best could only be styled an alert and good militia, acting under very
short enlistments, unclothed, unaccoutred, and at all times very ill supplied
with ammunition and artillery; and that with such an army he withstood the
ravages and progress of near 40,000 veteran troops plentifully provided with
every necessary article, commanded by the bravest officers in Europe,
supported by a very powerful navy, which effectually prevented all movements
by water; when all this comes to be impartially considered, we can venture to
pronounce, that General Washington may be regarded as one of the greatest
military ornaments of the present age.
General Washington is now in
the 58th year of his age; having completed his fifty-seventh on the 11th of
February last, as it appears by the "Federal Calendar," that truly worthy and
brave Veteran was born in the year 1732. He is a tall, well made man, rather
large boned, and has a tolerable genteel address; his features are manly and
bold; his eyes of a bluish cast, and very lively; his hair a deep brown; his
face rather long, and marked with small-pox; his complexion sun-burnt, and
without much color, and his countenance sensible, composed and thoughtful.
There is a remarkable air of dignity about him, with a striking degree of
gracefulness; he has an excellent understanding, without much quickness; is
strictly just, vigilant and generous; an affectionate husband, a faithful
friend, a father to the deserving soldier; gentle in his manner, in temper
rather reserved; a total stranger to religious prejudices, which have so often
excited Christians of one denomination to cut the throats of those of another;
in his morals he is irreproachable, and was never known to exceed the bounds
of the most rigid temperance. In a word, all his friends and acquaintances
universally allow, that no man ever united in his own person a more perfect
alliance of the virtues of the Philosopher with the talents of a General;
candor, sincerity, affability, and simplicity, seem to be the striking
features of his character, until an occasion offers of displaying the most
determined Bravery and Independence of spirit.
A POEM, on Geo.
Washington.--Composed in 1782, but never before published.--By F. Plumer, a
citizen of the World; also from "An Almanack," by Samuel Bullard, 1791.
Come all ye powers that e'er
sent by Jove,
Did the great fancy of an
To chant the praises of
The Hero of the times of
Come all ye powers that e'er
did Virgil aid,
To sing of Aeneas and the
wars he made;
To paint the Hero in the
To chant his honor and
advance his praise;
Attend me while in feeble
strains I try
To lisp of one whose fam'd
above the sky;
A greater than the conquering
Great Washington's the Man,
whose fame I'd sing.
Rejoice ye Dryades, O
Exult ye forests, and ye
The time, the great, the
glorious time is near,
When ye shall cease the noise
of war to hear;
When barb'rous Britons shall
their butchering cease,
When war and discord shall
give way to Peace;
When Washington shall be
With victory and with
conqueror's laurels crown'd.
Ceres be glad, our verdant
fields shall be
From all destroyers, from
arm'd Britons free;
Men's guns and pistols shall
be turn'd to hoes,
And swords instead of men
shall clip the rose;
Our Nymphs and Swains beneath
the cooling shade,
Shall on the springing grass
and herbs be laid,
And feast on fruit, while of
no foes afraid.
Sons of Columbia give your
hours to play,
No more we are the subjects
No more the Sons of Justice
in the earth,
Can doubt our prized
For thro' the world the
tidings have been spread,
How Columbia's Sons have
fought, and how been led;
Our General's spirit
spreading wide and far,
Hath rous'd the nations in
the East to war;
Hath given spirit to
And almost 'mongst the Dutch
Inspir'd by Washington, great
And hurl'd destruction all
around his foes;
Shew'd them the power of an
When rous'd by Justice to
loud war's alarm.
Sons of Nemesis thro' the
And sing your joy in clear
and manly voice,
Columbia's numerous Race are
No more oppress'd by British
Our Hero's fame shall thro'
the world be rung,
His deeds shall in heroic
verse be sung,
And loud be chanted by both
old and young.
The mortals of this age shall
And make his fame thro' all
our regions ring;
Ten hundred thousand millions
yet to come,
Shall on this Shore the
pleasing theme resume;
Fathers to children shall
with joy declare,
The glory that he's gain'd in
deeds of war.
Nor shall ye cease to hear
the cheerful sound,
While suns and other shining
worlds are found.
Much sooner shall great
Phoebus cease the skies
To illuminate, the gay
Than Bards or Muses cease to
Washington's glory to th'
Apollo and the Muses thus
And thus the great, th'
immortal Gods decree.
Wind puffs up empty bladders;
We can be more clever than
one, but not more clever than all.
A man who is proud of small
things shows that small things are great to him.
--Madame de Girardin.
The rose does not bloom
without thorns. True; but would that the thorns did not outlive the rose !
A man will be what his most
cherished feelings are. If he encourage a noble generosity, every feeling will
be enriched by it; if he nurse bitter thoughts his own spirit will absorb the
--Henry Ward Beecher.
WASHINGTON AND LINCOLN
Unlike in certain qualities,
our two supreme Americans were not unlike in their supreme achievements. There
was no structural difference in the work they did; it was all of a piece. By
the scale of a hemisphere they shaped their designs; but their work was larger
than a hemisphere. Look upon it now as it lies spread out before you in the
white light of world-wide criticism; it is of as noble dimensions as
civilization itself. It matches the achievements of Alexander and Caesar,
Charlemagne and Alfred, simon de Montfort and Cromwell. Nay, it is greater by
as much as America, in prospect certainly, is greater than Greece or Rome,
France or England. Europe herself admits the fact. The Iron Duke, speaking for
the Old World, says: "I esteem Washington as perhaps the noblest character of
modern times--possibly of all time." And an Italian scholar, spokesman for a
world old before England was born, offers this stirring panegyric: "Lincoln
stood higher in my estimation and love than all the Alexanders and Caesars who
have reddened the pages of history with their brilliant exploits."
--Review of Reviews.
Behold the Builder! Here he
By many labors perfected. By
And sacrifice, he's won,
The place he merits. Grave
He labors now to plan and to
Before the shadows cover up
His edifice, awaiting all the
The coming of the Master to
Thus future ages and that
That finds the lost, that
brings to light the true,
Shall vindicate the soul that
strives for right
Whate'er may be the obstacle.
To do That faithfully is all
that God requires;
To see His Face fulfils all
--H. W. Ticknor, Florida.
THE LAMB-SKIN, OR WHITE
Of honest toil the humble
Yet by the Ancient Craft to
And splendid raised ! No
Of knight or monarch, bright
on breast or brow,--
Star, Cross or Garter,--can
like thee endow
The wearer with pure honor!
Of Innocence,--thou Lamb-skin
Apron ! Light
Breaks on the darkened eyes,
and teaches how
Thou must be worthily worn,
when thou'rt bestowed.
True to thy glorious precepts
may I stand,
Upright and just, however
life may test!
For, if I wear thee spotless
on the road,
When next I have thee at the
I may deserve thee, spotless,
o'er my breast.
--A. F. Van Bibber, Maryland.
QUESTIONS ON THE STORY OF
BY THE CINCINNATI MASONIC
85. Who placed Masonic principles in our cradle of
86. Where can Masonry be traced? When did it come
to our shores and by whom was it nurtured? 111-2.
87. What has always been required of anyone who
seeks admission into a lodge? Page 81.
88. In what year did the Grand Master of Knights
Templar go to Paris at the bidding of the Pope with lots of wealth and by whom
and why was he and his party put to torture and death? Page 65.
89. Who was Wm. Morgan? 41.
90. What degrees of Masonry is it known he
received and what was his character? Page 41.
91. What led to Wm. Morgan's attempted exposure of
Freemasonry and what object did he have in view? Whom did he consult and who
was his partner? 42-1.
92. What was the nature of Wm. Morgan's so-called
93. Was an attempt made to discover the missing
man Morgan and apprehend his captors? If so by whom? 43-2.
94. What is said of Wm. Morgan's disappearance?
95. In what State was an Anti-Masonic political
party formed and what was the cause and result? Page 46.
96. Where and when were Masons excluded from
Churches and their children from the schools? Page 46.
97. What action did Ex-President of the United
States John Quincy Adams take in the political persecution of Freemasonry
during the William Morgan affair? 47-1.
98. What claim was made during the Anti-Masonic
political campaign, more than a year after the Wm. Morgan disappearance,
relative to the finding of the body of a drowned man? 44-1. What was the
result of the second inquest? 44-2.
99. What mysteries existed in the times of
antiquity, and what is said of Freemasonry in reference to them? 9-2.
100. When and by whom were the Dionysian Mysteries
introduced in Greece? 104.
101. When did the Ionic migration occur? What
resulted therefrom? 104.
102. Who were the Dionysiacs of Ionia? In what did
they resemble the Fraternity of Freemasons? 105.
103. What is the present status of Masonry? What
is its present condition in the United States? 111-1 111-2.
104. What is Masonry as an Institution, where does
it exist and what are its claims? 111-2.
105. Does history furnish a parallel to Masonry?
106. What is said of the Negro Chapters of Royal
Arch, Negro Commanderies of Knights Templar, and Negro Scottish Rite Masonry?
107. Have the colored Grand Lodges been
recognized? What stand did the Grand Lodge of Ohio take against the Colored
Grand Lodge of Ohio in 1876? 72-1.
108. What is said of the first negroes to be made
Freemasons, and the record of their lodges and grand lodges? 72-1.
109. What is said of Liberia and Negro Masonry?
110. What is Freemasonry? 52-1. Has the Origin,
purpose and history of this most ancient, famous, enduring and cosmopolitan of
all the world's secret organizations, been investigated, discussed and
speculated upon? 52. With what results? 52-53.
111. In what year in England did we lay aside our
operative character and become purely a moral and benevolent organization?
112. What is claimed to be the true origin of
Masonry? 101-1. 102-1.
113. Who were the Phoenicians? 102-1.
114. Originally who only were admitted into
115. How were the questions "Where did Masonry
begin" and "Who did bring it Westerly" answered in the beginning of the 15th
century in England? How were these answers predicated? 101-1.
116. How does the intelligent Mason value
117. How can Masonry be rightly estimated and by
whom valued? 100-1.
118. Upon what basis should Masters and Wardens be
119. How should the officers of a lodge be obeyed
in their respective stations? 83-2.
120. What is said of the Masonic Manuscript of
121. Of what does Freemasonry consist? And what is
the foundation of same? 60-1.
122. What is said of the Origin, Purpose and
History of Freemasonry? 52-1.
123. When was the first crude constitution and
regulations written? 53-1.
124. What do other learned authors believe of the
existence of Freemasonry? And upon what do they base their claim? 53-1.
125. What discovery gives evidence to prove
Masonry existed 100 years before Christ and where now in the U. S. is such
126. Why is it reasonable that Masonry should be
transmitted through organized bodies of intelligent and reverend men from the
time of Solomon? 54-1.
(The Builder is an open forum
for free and fraternal discussion. Each of its contributors writes under his
own name, and is responsible for his own opinions. Believing that a unity of
spirit is better than a uniformity of opinion, the Research Society, as such,
does not champion any one school of Masonic thought as over against another;
but offers to all alike a medium for fellowship and instruction, leaving each
to stand or fall by its own merits.)
WITH deep sorrow and a keen sense of personal
loss, we must now make record of the death of Brother Chetwode Crawley, Grand
Treasurer of Ireland, one of the noblest men, as he was one of the finest
Masonic scholars, of his generation. Ripe in years, rich in honors, radiant in
faith, he passed away at his home in Dublin at the age of seventy-two, to
receive the reward of an honorable character and a well-spent life. He held
that the Landmarks of Masonry are the Fatherhood of God, the Brotherhood of
Man and the Golden Rule, and these were also the landmarks of his life and
Brother Crawley was born November 15th, 1843, and
was educated at Trinity College, Dublin, from which he was graduated with
first Class Honors. Initiated into the mysteries of Freemasonry in 1873, in
the Scientific Lodge, Dublin, he early devoted his talents to the service of
the Order. He was the founder of the Chetwode Crawley Lodge, No. 395, Dublin,
named in his honor. Indeed, he received, as he deserved, almost every honor
within the gift of any Masonic body in Ireland, in recognition of his personal
worth and his distinguished service to the cause of Masonic scholarship and
research. There is hardly a question of general Masonic interest upon which he
has not written, and always with the accuracy, industry and fine precision of
a real scholar joined with a singular lucidity of style.
Irish Masonry, however, was his particular field,
as witness his three stately volumes of "Caementaria Hibernica," which remain
as an imposing monument to his memory and a treasure house for the Craft. He
became a member in 1887 of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge, of London, in the
transactions of which much of his best work as a Masonic student is to be
found, and we wish there might be a collection of those essays in a volume, as
was done in the case of Brother Gould. Like Brother Gould, he was one of the
first to greet the founding of this Society, sending us his blessing in a
gracious letter, in these words:
"Let me begin by expressing my deep satisfaction
that the Grand Lodge of Iowa has extended its sanction to Masonic Research by
the appointment of so influential and capable a committee. The adoption of
such a plan by any Grand Lodge would have secured warm approval from all
Brethren concerned for the welfare of the Craft, but there is a peculiar
fitness in its adoption by the Grand Lodge of Iowa. For more than a
generation, we have been accustomed to see the Grand Lodge of Iowa leading the
van in the cultivation of the literature of Freemasonry."
Again and again, even during his illness, he sent us words of
cheer across the sea, assuring us of his sympathy and regretting that he was
not able to
the pages of The Builder. Nor could he realize how much it meant to the young
men who founded this Society to have the encouragement and blessing of so
noble a scholar, so accomplished a Mason. Old as it is, there is always
something new about death, the more so when one so honored and beloved
vanishes into its soft and fascinating darkness. But no shadow can obscure the
light of so pure a man, so true a Mason, so gracious a friend - a gentleman of
the old school, exquisite in his grace of courtesy, skilled in the fine art of
brotherliness, and so winning in his simple dignity and beauty of soul.
"And now on tired eyes
There softly lies
The stillest of all
* * *
Accordingly, "on St. John's Baptist's Day, in the
3d year of King George 1, A. D. 1717, the Assembly and Feast of the Free and
Accepted Masons was held in the aforesaid Goose and Gridiron Ale-house": so
runs the record of the date and organization of the Mother Grand Lodge of
modern Masonry. Quickly the flying months will bring us to the two-hundredth
anniversary of that historic event, and we may well begin to bethink ourselves
as to how that memorable date can best be celebrated. Already thoughtful
Masons have it in mind to make that historic mile-stone the beginning, if
possible, of a new era not only in the annals, but also in the influence and
efficiency of Masonry in the world. As witness these words from a letter:
"Before long we shall have two million Master
Masons in the United States; in twenty years, twice that number. Yet not one
in ten of that number has any real or profound interest in Masonry, if one may
judge by the fact that so few read any Masonic journal or literature, and that
scarcely one in ten attends ritualistic work once a year, even when banquets
are used as nubbins to toll them in. Am I wrong ? If so, how much wrong ? How
may we cure this condition ? Next year, 1917 is the two hundredth anniversary
of the founding, or revival, of the Grand Lodge system. And yet after two
hundred years the Tyler-Keystone prays, "God, give us men," and a past Grand
Master of Illinois in the Illinois Freemason says that nine-tenths of the time
of the Grand Lodge is spent on 'perfunctory bunk.' Neither of them seems to
understand what the matter is.
What could be plainer! There is no organized
Masonic purpose in the United States, no concerted and well-planned movement
in behalf of a more efficient and influential Masonry. None, at least, now
being interpreted to the Craft. Is it not high time that our Masonic press
started a campaign - better still, a crusade - to develop personal interest
and Lodge efficiency? Much could be done by 1917 to prepare the way for a
distinctive celebration of that great anniversary, not by formal ceremonies
which have no vitality of Purpose, but by opening a new Masonic era to which
Masons may look back, two hundred years from now, with admiration and
Why may not 1917 be characterized as the birthday of An
Efficient Masonic Purpose ? I am anxiously waiting to see what you have to say
about 1917. I am sure it will not satisfy your soul to hold a banquet
somewhere, with perfunctory 'bunkers' in attendance, applauding ourselves on
membership, amount of money invested, antiquity, and the like of that. No, the
low degree of Masonic efficiency does not justify Masonic rhapsody in 1917.
Such a day and date call for greater Purpose and a
efficient organization to carry it out!"
With all of which we fully and heartily agree,
except with what is surely too high an estimate of the percentage of Masons
who have no real or profound interest in the Order. No matter; as a token of
what is astir in the minds of thoughtful Masons as they look forward toward
the celebration of a great and epochmaking event in our history, this letter
is as valuable as it is pointedly pertinent. If adversity was the trial of
Masonry in days agone, prosperity it its chief peril today. Often one fears
that the many noble and beautiful Masonic temples now a-building, so perfect
in design and appointment, may actually symbolize what we should the most
dread. Prestige, power, esteem, numbers - have these made us better Masons
than our fathers were in the days when the order was in disfavor, and it
required some courage to join it?
Therefore, we ask our readers to discuss the
question raised by the above letter in a frank and free manner. What should
that memorable anniversary mean to the Mason of today ? How can we most truly
and appropriately celebrate it? Which is only another way of asking, what
should Masonry mean in these new and strange times in which we live? What can
it do? How can it best fulfill its benign mission ? What part should it have
in the reconstruction of the world after the stupendous disaster of war? Not
only what, but how? Here is food for thought, deep and searching thought, the
while we recall the days of old.
* * *
When this issue of The Builder reaches its readers
ye editor expects to be in England, as the guest of the historic City Temple
of London; returning the middle or last of August, if the Subs do not waylay
him enroute and the Zeps do not blow him up while he is there. He hopes to
meet many of our fellow-workers on the other side, and to come into closer
touch with English Freemasonry, of which he will have something to say when he
returns. Meantime, no member of the Society need hesitate to write to The
Builder or its editor, sending a question or a contribution, as personal
letters will be forwarded and the editorial work will be left in skillful
hands. Brother Clegg, of Ohio, will write the editorials for the September
issue, by which time we hope to be back with many things to tell our Brethren
on this side. The journey is at once a holiday and a kind of ambassadorship,
in the small, of fraternal goodwill in behalf of closer fellowship - with
whatever else the hidden future may have and hold in its mystery.
* * *
The second article in the series of studies of
Masonic Social Service will be found most interesting, telling, as it does, of
the work of the Scottish Rite Home for Crippled Children, in Atlanta, Georgia.
No man can read it without feeling a lump climb up in his throat, at sight and
thought of little bodies twisted and awry, but he will rejoice that Masonry is
finding new and rich fields of service to humanity. It will be followed by an
article giving the story and describing the working of the Masonic Employment
Bureau movement, which will be equally interesting in another way.
* * *
Most earnestly do we hope that the series of
articles dealing with the Origin of Templarism, which have been running for
the last six months in the Toronto Freemason, may find their way into
permanent form. They are worthy of wide reading and long study, and we
congratulate the Freemason on the publication of so valuable a series of
* * *
There should be no need to call attention to the
study of "The Oldest Flag," by Brother John W. Barry of the Iowa Research
Committee, which begins in this issue. It is one of the finest, as it is
surely one of the most interesting and important, studies which the Socicty
has so far presented.
A CREED FOR THE CRAFT
I. Thou shalt not make unto thyself any
pretentious graven image of the Masonic faith, nor bow down thereto, for
Freemasonry is more than the blazonry of big buttons or the ballast of weighty
watch charms. Yea, the true Mason may lose his lapel label yet cares he not;
lo, is it not with him blown into the glass for keeps? Therefore, my son, be
thou wise and right speedily thereunto get next.
II. Thou shalt not take the name of Freemason in
vain, nor fail to live up to it.
III. Remember the Lodge night and show up thereon.
IV. Honor thy Mother Lodge that the stranger from
afar off may envy thy Masonic home.
V. Thou shalt not kill the cheery prospect ahead;
therefore, help thou the good work along and block not the game.
VI. Thou shalt not commit buffoonery as Steward
nor lack dignity as Master.
VII. Thou shalt not steal away thy brother's
pleasure, neither dilute thou his due joys.
VIII. Thou shalt not bear falsehood nor grouch
against any of thy brethren.
IX. Thou shalt not covet another's lodge. Get
X. Thou shalt not be other than brotherly - making
friends by being one.
- R.I. Clegg, Ohio.
SCOTTISH RITE DOCUMENTS
ONCE again the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania has put
the Craft under abiding obligations by its publication, in a stately volume,
of a series of ancient Scottish Rite documents found in the archives of its
Library. Its title is as follows: - "Ancient Documents Relating to the Ancient
Scottish Rite, with annotations by Julius F. Sachse, Librarian, Philadelphia."
It is printed by permission of Brother J. Henry Williams, Grand Master of
Masons in Pennsylvania, who remarks in the foreword: "The Masonic student may
have his own individual opinion of the origin, growth and development of the
present system guiding the Craft, but all men can meet upon the common level
of search for the facts upon which the opinion may be based; and it is because
of the desire to aid the searcher for truth that the volume of Scottish Rite
History has my approval."
There is no need to say that this volume is edited
with accuracy and care, with fine judgment and taste - all the work of
Brother Sachse is after that manner - and it is a valuable contribution to
Scottish Rite history; albeit little light is thrown upon certain questions
which have long vexed students of that story. A picture of Moses Hays serves
as a frontispiece, and a very good account of that useful man is found further
on, together with Morin, Francken and others, who were pioneers of the Rite in
this country. There is, however, no intimation as to whether any of these men
had ever gone beyond the Rite of Perfection. So that, speaking of the fact, it
is a documented story of the introduction of the Rite of Perfection into
America - the Scottish Rite, if by that we mean - as we should - thirty-three
degrees, came later. Ye editor was taken to task, somewhat superciliously, as
he thought, a month or so ago for stating the fact which these venerable
parchments abundantly confirm.
No matter; the outstanding fact in these old
records, here reproduced in fac-simile, text, and translation, is that the
Rite of Perfection was brought to this land by men of the Hebrew race and
faith. Hays, Morin, Francken, were all of that ancient people, and to the men
of that faith is due the credit of having planted on these shores a Rite to
which they have been so loyal through all the years. The oldest document here
preserved - believed to be "the most ancient authenticated Scottish Rite
document known" - is a certificate issued to Ossonde Verriere, a planter in
St. Domingo, date October 26th, 1764, by Stephen Morin. It was found, as if by
chance, among a lot of old, musty, yellow and long forgotten papers in the
archives of the Library of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania.
Incidentally, of course, Brother Sachse finds it
handy to remark that "Philadelphia has been acknowledged to be the mother city
of Symbolic Free-Masonry in the Western World"; and he now puts in a claim for
the City of Brotherly Love as the actual center where “Perfect and Sublime"
Masonry was revived on these shores, as witness a Patent issued to one Abraham
Forst, dated April 4th, 1781, at Philadelphia, signed by Moses Hays. It is
also interesting to note that this document did not profess to give any
authority over the three degrees of Blue Masonry, but confined itself to the
Royal Arch and the Sublime Degrees as alone being within its jurisdiction.
This is the more significant when we remember the subsequent misunderstanding,
to name it mildly, in regard to this very matter, and the resignation by the
Scottish Rite of the first three degrees of Craft Masonry.
The next document is of peculiar interest, being
the "Minute Book for the Lodge of Grand Elect Perfect and Sublime Masons, in
the city of Philadelphia, 25th June, 1789," which ends abruptly with the
meeting of Feb. 21st, 1789. Of this body we read: "Next to the Grand Lodges of
Pennsylvania and Massachusetts, this Lodge was the most important Masonic
organization in America, as it was through its membership that the Sublime
Rite was introduced into the different States, and which now know as the
Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, is spread over the whole United States."
Here again the names are all Hebrew, at least until the abrupt ending of the
minutes in 1789: that it continued in existence after that date is known from
other records. How firmly its members believed that Frederick of Prussia was
the Grand Commander of the Order, is shown by the fact that they wrote a
letter to him in November, 1785. No reply was received, the King at that time
being ill and soon to die. Nothing daunted, two years later Solomon Bush was
appointed to visit Frederick in Berlin.
As has been said, this old minute book comes to an
abrupt close, and thereby hangs a mystery. At the next to the last meeting the
secretary, Duplessis, stated that Brother Prevost had requested from him and
taken away the Book containing to Sublime Degrees and the Seal. Further there
is no document to show that Prevost authorized Duplessis to make this demand,
nor by what authority he acted. The request of the Lodge that the Book and the
Seal be returned was unheeded. By what right such a demand was made on the
secretary and complied with by him, if true, is an unsolved problem, as is the
reason and authority for not returning the Book and Seal. One would give much
to know what lay back of this mystery.
Space does not permit us to go into further detail, much as we
are tempted to do so. Taken as a whole, the volume is a notable addition to
the store of Scottish Rite lore, and the Grand
Lodge of Pennsylvania is to be congratulated upon giving it to the Craft in so
sumptuous a style.
* * *
A new edition of the "Master Mason's Handbook," by
Brother F. J. W. Crowe, is most welcome, and we are glad to see that the
original introduction by the late Brother Hughan is retained, as it should be.
First published twenty-five years ago, this little volume has served, and will
still serve, a useful purpose, as is shown by the demand for it which requires
a fifth edition. The march of time brings many changes in the Means and
methods of Masonry, even though its principles remain intact, and this little
book, so carefully prepared and simple in style, still answers many questions
for the beginner in Masonic affairs. Those who are absorbed only in matters of
ceremonial will find that it makes many things, little understood,
intelligible, and perchance a reading of it will lure them further into the
meanings of Masonry. Commendation of such a book is superfluous.
ARTICLES 0F INTEREST
Masonry and World
Reconstruction. Masonic Standard.
Freemasonry in South America,
by R.W. Hornsby. American Freemason.
The Golden Age of Masonry, by
W. R. Hervey. Tyler-Keystone.
The Proper Uses of Titles, by
G. M. Moulton. Tyler-Keystone.
James Buchanan, by G. P.
Brown. Masonic Monthly.
Antiquity of Masonry, by C.
M. Perkins. Masonic Herald.
How Frederick the Great
Became a Mason, by O. Lang. New England Craftsman.
The Hope of the Scottish
Rite, by B. S. Grosscup. The New Age.
The Means and the End, by J.
G. Gibson. London Freemason.
* * *
Address, by L. A. Watres,
Grand Master Pennsylvania.
The Lincoln Life-mask, by H.
The College of the Pioneers,
by Thomas H. Macbride.
* * *
Ancient Documents of the
Scottish Rite, edited by J. F. Sachse, Philadelphia.
Personal Recollections of
Lincoln, by H. B. Rankin, Introduction by Ye Editor. Putnam's Sons, New York.
The Meaning of Personal Life,
by Newman Smyth. Scribner's Sons. $2.00.
Ordeal by Battle, by F. S.
Oliver. Macmillan Co. $1.50.
Things a Mason Should Know,
by F. J. W. Crowe. G. Kenning, London. $1.00
Master Mason's Handbook, by
F. J. W. Crowe. G. Kenning, London. $1.00.
The Gospel of Goodwill, by W.
D. Hyde. Macmillan Co. $1.50.
American Public Health
Protection, by H. B. Hemenway. Bobbs Merrill Co., Indianapolis. $1.25.
THE QUESTION BOX
"THE VALLEY OF SHADOWS"
Brother Newton: - As a student of the Civil War
period, will you tell me what in your opinion is the greatest book which that
period has produced - I mean as interpreting its spiritual meaning? - H.L.P.
Well, it would be hard for any book to stand
alongside "The Valley of the Shadows," by Francis Grierson - a most remarkable
volume by a most remarkable man, who is a poet, a musician, an essayist whose
pages exhibit a singular blend of sagacity and prophecy. It is the nearest
approach to an epic we have yet had of our Civil War, displaying the oncoming
of that cataclysm with wonderful vividness, intensity and solemnity; painting
with a large brush on a large canvas, and dealing with the unseen but
seemingly almighty influences which moved events at that time.
* * *
Seems to me that your
discussion of the Dionysiac Artificers in The Builders is rather hazy, and
that the chain is rather weak at that point. Perhaps I am wrong, but so I felt
while reading the book, which I very much enjoyed. - R. G. C.
The first part of The
Builders, as was distinctly stated, has to do with the hints and prophecies of
Masonry, and in the nature of the case is less definite than other sections.
But the Dionysiacs are not a myth; they are the first order of architects, of
which we have record, who were a secret order practicing the rites of the
Mysteries. For example, Professor Robinson writes: "We know that the
Dionysiacs of Ionia were a great corporation of architects and engineers, who
undertook, and even monopolized, the building of temples and stadia, precisely
as the fraternity of Freemasons monopolized the bullding of cathedrals and
conventional churches in the Middle Ages. Indeed, the
Dionysiacs resembled in
many respects the mystic fraternity now called Freemasons. They allowed no
strangers to interfere in their employment; they recognized each other by
signs and tokens; they professed certain mysterious doctrines under the
tutelage of Bacchus, (Bacchus represents the sun, which is the outward symbol
of the One God, so that the worship of the Dionysiacs resolved itself into the
worship of the One God) to whom they built a magnificent temple as Teos, where
they celebrated his mysteries at solemn festivals, and they called all other
men profanes, because not admitted to these mysteries." Article on the Arch in
"Brewster's Edinburgh Encyclopedia."
* * *
LECTURES ON MASONRY
Some years ago I found in the
library of an old Virginia Mason a book entitled "Ancient Craft Masonry
Revealed in Religion, Fifteen Lectures," by Charles Scott. I obtained this old
book and read it. Thinking it might be of some service to you, I write to ask
if you would like to see it. No book, except the Bible ever gave me more light
on religion. - Miss L. K. Lewis.
We are familiar with the work
of Brother Scott, who was Grand Master, we believe, of the Grand Lodge of
Mississippi in 1850, and his work, so deeply spiritual, deserves all the kind
words here said about it. Many have found in Masonry more light on religion
than they have been able to find anywhere else perhaps because Masonry puts
aside the non-essentials about which there have been so many debates, and goes
at once and always to the vital and fundamental realities that underlie and
transfigure our human life. Also, the book to which Miss Lewis refers makes it
plain that Masonry meant very much to the Masons of the olden time, and it
surely should not mean less to us.
* * *
CHRIST AND MASONRY
Will you please give me some light in regard to
whether a Master Mason must believe in the Divinity of Jesus Christ, and the
inspiration of every part of the Protestant Bible, in order to continue in
good standing? - C.G.H.
Most certainly not. To make such dogmas tests of
Masonic fellowship and standing would be to violate the fundamental law and
principle of Freemasonry, and turn it into a sect. Those who suggest such a
thing know not what they do. They would destroy Masonry, by making it only one
more factor in a world of factional feud, one more atom in the agglomeration
of sectarian confusion. The fact that the Bible lies open upon our altar does
not commit the Order, or any member of it, to any dogma of inspiration, much
less to the dogma suggested in the above question. Masonry is content to open
the Bible - and an open Bible means much - and leave each man free to
interpret it as his own heart dictates, and instructs him to allow all his
Brethren to do the same without question and without cavil. Many Masons are
Christians, but Masonry is not distinctively Christian either in its teaching
or in its basis of fellowship - though a Christian man has a right to
interpret its symbols from his point of view, as a Hebrew or a Hindu may
interpret them from other points of view. It stands for Freedom, Friendship
and Fraternity among men.
* * *
THE OBLONG SQUARE
Dear Brother: - When the candidate is told that he
thus makes an oblong square, what he is really forming is the ark cross. We
know that the ark cross is symbolic of the Supreme Being as a self-created,
all-creating being combining in His person a triune being at once Father,
Mother, and Son. I take the view that he is so placed when making his
declaration, signifying his belief accordingly, and that that was the ancient
intention. When he takes three steps he is further asserting that belief.
Shortly put I take the view that he takes his stand on that belief. I should
like to hear other Brethren more learned on the historical side of the Craft
discuss this question
Ernest E. Murray, Montana.
* * *
THE TEMPLE OF MELEKARTHA
Some days ago I bought from an old book store an
old book published in London in 1831, entitled "The Temple of Melekartha." The
name of the author is not given, and I would like to know who wrote it and
why. I found it quite interesting. - W.S.B.
The book was written by Isaac Taylor, Jr., a very
prolific writer of that day, son of another Isaac Taylor, a line engraver of
London. Many of his volumes were very highly esteemed at that period and
nearly all the foremost British Reviews published articles of importance about
his work. At the present time his thought is antiquated, and his books have
gone glimmering down the stream of things that were - lost in that vast limbo
of books which aimed high but missed the sure, authentic note that sings
* * *
Will you tell me whether the Jewish people at the
time of Jesus practiced polygamy? I have had quite a discussion of this
question of late, and opinion seems divided. Perhaps you can settle it. -
Unfortunately the authorities are also divided.
For example, Callichan, in his work on "Women Under Polygamy," (pp. 292-3 )
says: "There is no doubt that the earlier Christian teachers were much
perplexed by the errant desires of their converts and disciples. Polygamy had
a strong hold upon the Jewish inhabitants of Palestine and the Eastern alien
proselytes. It was impossible to extirpate so ancient a practice in a few
years." So also Dr. Shailer Mathews in his "History of the New Testament Times
in Palestine," (p. 163) in which he says that polygamy was practiced to some
extent at the time of Jesus, but chiefly by the very wealthy. On the other
side, Abrahams in his "Jewish Life in the Middle Ages," thinks that monogamy
had become a settled custom among the Jews at the time when Jesus lived and
* * *
QUEEN OF SHEBA
According to the Bible account the visit of the Queen of
Sheba to King Solomon occurred some
thirteen years after the
dedication of the Temple, and I am a
little puzzled by the fact
that in the ceremonial of the Most
Excellent Master's degree she
is associated with Solomon at the time of the dedication. Help! - W.J.L.
Our Brother has an erroneous view of the nature of
Masonic degrees, if he thinks that they are supposed to follow chronologically
the facts of history in the order given in the Bible. Not so. Nor were they
intended to do so. They are but a memorial subsequently established, for
purposes of symbolical teaching, of events in connection with the temple, its
building and its dedication, as well as its destruction and its rebuilding. It
is by no means necessary, for the purpose intented, to make the visit of the
Queen of Sheba contemporary with the dedication. (See "The Book of the
Chapter," by Mackey, p. 78; also essay on "King Solomon and the Queen of
Sheba," by F.J.W. Crowe, Transactions of Quatuor Coronati Lodge, Vol 19, p.
* * *
By the kindness of Brother Hutchings, of Montana,
we have received a picture reproduced from an old print of a Masonic Parade of
some sort, on which is written "St John’s Lodge, Clerkenwell, London, April
27th, 1742." The print is owned by Brother Herbert Chatterton, but neither he
nor Brother Hutchings has been able to make out just what kind of a procession
it is. Fortunately a larger and completer print of the same parade is to be
found in the Library of the Grand Lodge of Iowa, showing the whole procession,
whereas that of the print owned by Brother Chatterton shows only a part - the
part in which a Donkey is seen acting as Grand Master, riding in a carriage
attended by much dignity. Enter Apprentices, Fellowcrafts, Master Masons, all
are made utterly ridiculous in this oldtime procession. It is an interesting
and valuable print, a reminiscence of the Mock Masonry which had quite a vogue
in the early days shortly after the organization of the Grand Lodge of
England, and this was no doubt one reason why the Grand Lodge gave up public
processions. We should be glad to have some Member of the Society - why not
Brother Hutchings or Brother Chatterton? - make a little study of that
movement, giving the facts and also the causes back of the ridicule of the
order. They will find a clue, and much more than a clue, in the essays of
Brother Crawley, entitled "Mock Masonry in the Eighteenth Century,"
Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge, Vol. 18, p. 129, also p. 217.
* * *
RITUAL AND COLOR
Brother Editor: -I am interested in two questions
and would like to make a study of them, if you will refer me to materials. One
is the growth of the ritual, and the other is the place and meaning of colors
in Masonry. Can you put me on track of something to read along these lines? -
These are interesting questions, but rather difficult. We are
shortly to publish articles dealing with both of the topics you have in mind,
but (1) if you have access to the transactions of the Coronati Lodge, you will
find a very fine essay on “Colors in Freemasonry," by Brother F.J.W. Crowe, at
19, p. 112), and another on
"Masonic Blue," by Brother Crawley, (Vol. 23, p. 309). (2) And in the same set
of volumes, so valuable to
the student, may be found a delightful study of "The Evolution of the Masonic
Ritual," by the late Brother E.L. Hawkins. (Vol. 26, pp. 6‑21). The earlier
volumes of the Transactions are hardly to be had at any price, but those here
referred to belong to later issues and are not so difficult to obtain.
* * *
Three Brethren have asked for information about Findel, the
Masonic historian. Not much is known about him. He was born in Germany in
1828, and was initiated into Freemasonry in 1856 at Bayreuth. He published his
"History of Freemasonry,” in German, in 1861. An English translation was made
in 1865, but no one seems to know who did it. The preface
by Charles van Dalen, dated
November, 1865, refers to the translator as “a descendent of two dignitaries
of the Grand Lodge of England, now residing in Berlin." In the Freemason's
Magazine, May 16th, 1863, appeared "The Constitutions of the Masons of
Strasburg, from Findel’s History of Masonry, translated, by permission of the
author, by C.M. The "Constitutions," as printed, contained paragraphs not to
be found in the Findel History published in London in 1869. In the
meantime an American edition of Findel appeared, but no one now seems to know
by whom it was translated. There ought to be some way to clear these questions
up. At any rate, the Findel history was one of the earliest, if not the very
first, attempt to write Masonic history as the history of other institutions
is written - carefully, critically, accurately, separating legend from fact,
and producing documents; and as such it was a great step forward toward real
Moreover, as Brother Findel died on Nov. 23rd, 1905, there ought to be some
one who could give us more of the details of his life, together with an
appreciation of his services to the fraternity. This Society will welcome such
a contribution at any time, from any source.
* * *
JACHIN AND BOAZ
Can you advise me from what source, by what authority, the
following statement, or quotation, is taken: "In strength will I establish
this mine (or my) house and kingdom forever." In
our jurisdiction (Arizona) the
above statement is used in the lecture given by the Senior Deacon in the
second section of the Second Degree, in connection with the explanation
of the two Brazen Pillars. I have made considerable research to ascertain the
source of the quotation, but have been unable to find it, and shall be very
glad to have any light on the subject. - C.W.
There is no such sentence in the Bible, so far as
we are able to discover. We take it to be a statement made after the manner of
Bible speech, using the meanings of the words Jachin and Boaz, the first
meaning "He shall establish," and the second "In it is strength." As such it
is true to the meaning of the Bible, (1 Kings 7:21) a legitimate paraphrase,
and to all intents a quotation.
* * *
ROYAL ARCH HISTORY
Brother Editor: - Now you "have done gone and done
it.” You got us to take up the study of Arch Masonry, and here we are "all
balled up," unable to tell when, where, or by whom the Royal Arch Degree
began. It is "up to you" to pull us out of the hole. - W.E.S.
This has long been a vexed question, and still
remains obscure. We think the late Brother Woodford, author of "Kenning's
Cyclopedia," hit the truth when he said that, originally the Royal Arch degree
was a part of the Master's Degree, an that Lawrence Dermott, Grand Secretary
of the Grand Lodge of Ancients, conceived the idea of elaborating it into a
separate degree the better to attract members to his Grand Lodge, and so
cripple the Grand Lodge of Moderns - this being at the time of their bitter
schism, before 1813. Which thing he also did and it worked to the disadvantage
of the Moderns; so much so that the Moderns appointed Thomas Dunckerley -
called "the Father of Masonic Knight Templarism" - to do the same thing in
that jurisdiction. In doing so he took the word which, it is held, originally
belonged to the Master Degree and transferred it to the Royal Arch Degree. As
to date, Brother Hughan thought "that in view of all the surroundings, it is
not unsafe to venture to ascribe the introduction of Royal Arch Masonry at
1737-1740." (The English Rite.) Oliver and Mackey both concur, substantially,
in this conclusion both as to date and as to the "mutilation" of the Master
Degree. The earliest known mention of the degree in a contemporary record is
found in an account of a meeting of a Lodge (No. 21) at Youghal, in Ireland,
in 1743, when the members walked in procession, and the Master was preceded by
"the Royal Arch carried by two Excellent Masons." The next mention is in
Dassigny's "Serious Enquiry," published in 1744, in which we are told that in
York "is held an assembly of Masons, under the title of Royal Arch Masons,
who, as their qualifications and excellencies are superior to others, receive
a larger pay than working Masons." (Concise Cyclopedia, by Hawkins). At the
time of the Lodge of Reconciliation, in 1813, it was well established, and it
was agreed that the Royal Arch degree should be accepted as a part of "pure
ancient Masonry." ( Book of Constitutions, Art. 1.) And this was wise, not
only in behalf of harmony, but also because the Degree is obviously an
exposition of old Craft Masonry, and deserves the honor and influence which it
enjoys. (See the discussion of the origin of the Royal Arch, by Brother Gould,
in his "Essays on Freemasonry," and particularly "The English Rite, by Hughan.)
* * *
Dear Brother Newton: - In the February issue of
The Builder, I note an article by Bro. Geo. W. Baird, P.G.M. District of
Columbia, on John Marshall, in which he states, "But for a fact, during that
time John Marshall was particularly active in Freemasonry, being Deputy Grand
Master in 1792, and Grand Master in 1793 and 1794."
I do not doubt the historical accurateness of this statement,
but there is one matter which has come to my attention, which, in views of the
fact that we, as a Craft, are seeking true Light and in absolute honesty to
ourselves, and the Brethren, causes me to doubt
the advisability of placing much emphasis on John Marshall as a Mason, even
though "so great a man brought us great credit and honor."
The reason for my doubt is
found on pp. 97 to 102, inclusive of "Political and Economic Doctrines of John
Marshall," by John Edward Oster. (The Neale Publishing Co., N. Y.) This book
is composed largely of collected letters of Marshall. That you may not be
inconvenienced any more than necessary, in answering my question, I enclose a
copy of these pages.
I should like to know what
the general opinion of Masonic scholars is, concerning the authenticity of
these letters, and whether Marshall really did repudiate Masonry, as he seems
to have done. If these letters are authentic, I think we should not confer
upon Marshall the honor of being classed as one of our foremost Brethren, even
though in return we acquire some glory and dignity. But candor and honesty
should compel us to state the regrettable truth - that though he may have once
been a good Mason, he allowed himself to be led astray by the stories and
charges against our institution, then so prevalent, and allowed his unusually
capable and judicial mind to pronounce judgment, for once, without knowledge
of the facts.
Even though I should like to
believe that that great patriot and pre-eminent jurist was an ardent
enthusiastic Mason until his death, I do not see how to avoid these letters,
and I shall appreciate a statement from you or Bro. Baird.
Sincerely and fraternally
Wm. R. James, Arkans
(Owing to the illness of
Brother Baird, to whom we referred this letter and its enclosures, the reply
has been delayed. Happily he has recovered in a measure, and while not yet
equal to hard work, he has sent us the results of his investigations, of which
we make use. It is no wonder that Brother James, finding these alleged letters
in a book, should ask to know if they are authentic; for, as he says, if
Marshall renounced Masonry, we do not wish to count him among our leaders. We
are grateful to Brother James for bringing the matter up once more, as it
gives opportunity to show, for the benefit of our younger Brethren, the arts
of falsification practiced by the anti-Masonic fanatics, as well as to set
forth the facts in regard to John Marshall. This has been done many times
before, but lies are hard to kill - like cats, they have nine lives - and we
must break their heads anew whenever they appear. Precisely the same kind of
lies were told about Washington, in the effort to show that if he was ever a
Mason at all, he threw it aside as a worthless toy, unworthy of notice. To
that end his letters were garbled, others were forged out right - or out wrong
- and the pack of falsehoods thus concocted was industriously scattered to the
four winds to poison and pervert the public mind. Fortunately the publication
of the facts, including the Masonic correspondence of Washington, settles the
question once for all, leaving not even a hook on which to hang the old,
weather-beaten, worn-out lies of olden time.
It now remains to do the same
thing in respect of John Marshall. Of the two alleged letters in question, it
should be said, first, that neither of them has ever been exhibited in
manuscript or even in fac-simile, and if they are genuine it is high time they
show themselves for inspection. Second, the first letter bears the legend, "A
gentleman from Norfolk County, Mass., presented the following letter," etc.
What gentleman? Why not produce the name? A letter cited as being in the
possession of a “gentleman" not named is unworthy of notice. It is manifestly
a forgery on the face of it. Moreover, it is not written in the style of
Marshall, and has no trace of his hand. It is a lie out of whole cloth, like
many others invented by the fertile minds of passion-clouded men who did not
hesitate to stoop to any device to serve their infamous ends. Third, the
second letter is pronounced by Past Grand Master Eggleston, of Virginia, a
forgery of like kind. We are disposed to think that this letter, if written by
Marshall, has been doctored - as was done in the case of the letters of
Washington - until it amounts to a forgery. Marshall was too high a man to
have written such a letter, as it stands, even if his political life depended
on a renunciation of Masonry. He was incapable of such an act.
In the second letter Marshall
is made to say that he had not been a member of a Masonic Lodge for forty
years, wheras the records show that he had been Grand Master of the Grand
Lodge of Virginia during that time! But what did such falsifiers care about
records and facts? Fanatics at best, liars at worst, their solitary aim was to
belittle and defame the Masonic fraternity. Politicians and clergymen -
Protestant clergymen, let it be added - worked hand in hand to destroy the
order, and they are still at it. Even today there are two such organizations,
one in Chicago and the other in Boston, who circulate these old forgeries and
falsehoods, as if they had not been exploded times without number. Now what
are the facts? Grand Master M.M. Johnson, of Massachusetts, in an address at
the Feast of St. John, last December, went into the matter thoroughly, and we
can do no better than reproduce hiss findings, in which he gives his sources
of information, as is his habit. He spoke in part as follows:
"It is reported that Marshall was made a Mason in 1777 in St.
John's Regimental Lodge (a military lodge chartered by the Provincial Grand
Lodge of New York in July, 1775), but that in 1783, after removing to
Richmond, he took membership in Richmond Lodge, No. 13 (now No. 10), chartered
in 1780 by the Grand Lodge of Virginia. The original records of this Lodge
from 1780 to 1789 are lost, but in 1785 Marshall's name appears on its roll of
members, containing one hundred and six names, filed with the Grand Lodge. We
also know that he was present at a meeting of the Lodge, August 18 1785,
convened for the purpose of laying the Corner-stone of the State Capitol. I
cannot find when, if ever, he was Master of a Lodge but in 1786 he was
appointed by Grand Master Edmund Randolph as his Deputy Grand Master. He
again in 1792. At some unknown time he ceased to be a member of Richmond Lodge
(changed to No. 10 in 1787) and in July, 1792, was one of the unsuccessful
petitioners for a new Lodge. October 19, 1792, he was "again" elected a member
of No. 10 and was chosen to represent it in Grand Lodge. For years he served
as one of the Trustees of the Masonic Hall built by this Lodge, the first
Masonic body in this country to build such a hall.
"He was Grand Master from October 28, 1793, to
November 23, 1795. Upon his retirement, the following resolution was adopted:
" 'Resolved, That the Grand Lodge are truly
sensible of the great attention of our late Grand Master, John Marshall, to
the duties of Masonry, and that they entertain a high sense of the wisdom
displayed by him in the discharge of the duties of his office and, as a token
of their entire approbation of his conduct, do direct the Grand Treasurer to
procure and present him with an elegant Past Master's jewel.'
"On October 30, 1824, by request of the Worshipful
Master, Marshall was introduced and presided as Master of Richmond Lodge at a
festival occasion called in honor of General La Fayette who paid the Lodge a
fraternal visit and was sumptuously entertained.
"In 1734, the Grand Lodge of Virginia undertook
the establishment of a school for the purpose of educating the orphan children
of Master Masons, and Marshall was the first Trustee of the school named by
the Grand Lodge in its petition for incorporation. He held this position as
Trustee at the time of his death. By the records of Lodge No. 19 and from
other sources we are informed that on July 9, 1835, our Brother Marshall's
body was interred with Masonic Honors.
"For facts concerning the personal and Masonic life of John
Marshall I rely particularly upon the Discourse upon the Life, Character and
Services of the Hon. John Marshall, LL.D., Chief Justice of the United States
of America, pronounced on October 15, 1835, at the request of the Suffolk
County Bar (Massachusetts), by Judge Joseph Story, LL.D.; the Records of the
Grand Lodge of Virginia, the History of Richmond Lodge, No. 10, by Rev. David
K. Walthall, Ph.D.,
published in 1909; and the memorial volume published by the United States
Government in 1884, reporting the exercises at the ceremony of the unveiling
of the statue of John Marshall in front of the capitol, Washinglon, on May 10,
* * *
THE SWORD OF FREDERICK
(From "New York and The War with Spain"; New York
(State) Historian's Report, 1903, pp. 5-9, sent by Brother Isaac H. Vrooman,
For years more or less discussion has occurred
over the history of the sword in the State Library in Albany that originally
was bequeathed by will by General Washington, to a relative. A legend has
drifted along from source unknown in effect that Baron Steuben brought the
sword from Frederick the Great and presented it to George Washington with a
message from the "oldest general in the world to the greatest." In the winter
of 1902 when Prince Henry of Prussia, brother of Emperor William, visited
Albany the sword was placed on exhibition in the Executive Chamber and was
handed by Governor Odell to the distinguished caller. Prince Henry drew the
sword from the scabbard and vainly scrutinized it for a mark of identification
to establish the place where the weapon was manufactured. It is needless to
say that all marks had been obliterated by constant polishing; even the color
of the scabbard had been changed from its original color white to green. Those
conversant with the subject have averred that from its general appearance the
sword was made at Solingen, but whether it was a present from the greatest
soldier Prussia ever produced, is open to more or less skepticism. In the
attempt to determine the authenticity of the sword under date of March 27,
1902, a letter was sent to the Hon. Andrew D. White, United States Embassy,
Berlin, Germany, which read:
"State Historian's Office, Albany, N. Y.
March 27th, 1902.
Hon. Andrew D. White, United
States Embassy, Berlin, Germany:
Sir: - As you no doubt
have seen, considerable discussion has
been raised in certain of our American newspapers, over the question whether
Frederick the Great really gave to General Washington the sword now on
exhibition in the State Library in this city. There is no direct proof to
sustain the position that Frederick the Great actually presented it, or that
he did not. The sword is supposed to have been received by Washington
At the suggestion of several persons, among whom is included
Mr. Charles R. Miller, editor of the New York Times, I write to ask if it be
possible to institute an investigation among either the financial or
diplomatic archives, in order that this discussed and uncertain question may
be settled for all time. I am well aware of the difficulties that even the
American Ambassador may encounter in the prosecution of this investigation,
but I do not know of a happier time than the present to carry
it to a fulfillment if it be possible.
Prince Henry handled the sword, which had been brought from the
State Library to the Executive Chamber, and
vain for the name of the city where it was constructed.
I have the honor to forward you several newspaper
clippings in regard to the sword.
With assurances of the highest esteem, believe me
Yours very respectfully,
(Signed) HUGH HASTINGS
In reply the subjoined was
received on May 3, 1902:
"Embassy of the United States of America,
Berlin April 22, 1902.
Hugh Hastings, Esq., Albany,
My dear Sir: - Returning to Berlin, I open your
letter of March 27. It would give me pleasure to be of use in the way you
suggest; but, with the time at my disposal and various duties pressing upon
me, and in view of the intricacy and difficulty such an investigation as that
proposed, I should not feel at liberty to undertake it without special
instructions from the Department of State.
Should any American scholar of proper standing be properly
accredited here for the purpose, it would give me pleasure to introduce him in
the right quarters and to do what I can to make
his quest successful.
I remain, dear Sir,
Very respectfully yours,
(Signed) AND. D. WHITE
In the meantime the Hon. John B. Jackson, who was
the Secretary of the American Embassy and at that time Charge d'Affairs, in
the absence of Mr. White, had sent the following:
"Embassy of the United States of America, Berlin
April 7, 1902.
Hon. Hugh Hastings, State
Historian, Capitol, Albany, New York:
Sir: - In the absence of Ambassador White, who is
in Italy on leave, I have to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the
27th ultimo, and to inform you that I have at once requested the German
Foreign Office to cause an investigation to be made for the purpose of
ascertaining whether or not Frederick the Great ever presented a sword to
General Washington. I shall gladly inform you as to the nature of any reply
which may be made to this request.
I am, Sir, Your obedient servant,
(Signed) JOHN B. JACKSON,
The then German Minister in Washington, Doctor A. von Hollenben,
was interested in the subject and was presented through this office with
enlarged photographs of the sword and its reputed history. Up to the present
time nothing has been heard from Dr. von Hollenben's investigation. Under date
of June 26, 1902, Mr. Jackson, whose efforts to co-operate with this
Department in establishing the identity of the sword were worthy of all
commendation, transmitted the accompanying
"Embassy of the United States of America, Berlin,
June 26, 1902.
Hon. Hugh Hastings, State Historian, Capitol,
Albany, New York
Sir:- Referring to previous correspondence I have
now to inform you of the receipt of a note from the German Foreign Office, in
which it is stated that with regard to the "angeregte Frage einer Schenkung
Friedrichs des Grossen an den General Washington eingehende Ermittelungen in
den Koniglich Preussischen Staatsarchiven angeordnet worden sind, diese indess
bisher zu einem befriedigenden Ergebniss nicht gefuhrt haben.” Translation -
("question submitted of a presentation by Frederick the Great to General
Washington, searching investigation in the Royal Prussian State-archives has
been ordered, this so far to a satisfactory result has not led.")
Hoping that the Prussian authorities may still be
able to find out something positive with regard to the reported gift, I am,
Your obedient servant
(Signed) JOHN B. JACKSON
Sec'y of Embassy."
Under date of September 23, 1902, Mr. Jackson
wrote as follows:
"Embassy of the United States
of America, Berlin,
September 23, 1902.
Hon. Hugh Hastings, State Historian, Capitol,
Albany, New York:
Sir:- Referring to my letter to you of June 26th
last, M. No. 4425, I have now to inform you that, to my regret, the Foreign
Office states that no record can be found of the matter in question, - the
presentation of a sword to General Washington, by Frederick the Great of
Prussia. Consequently, I am afraid that the tradition that such was the case,
was not founded on fact.
I am, Sir, Your obedient servant,
(Signed) JOHN B. JACKSON,
Sec'y of Embassy.''
And in the language of diplomacy the episode was
* * *
MAKING MASONS AT SIGHT
My dear Bro. Newton: - I wish to add my word to
the "Making Masons at Sight" controversy that you seem to invite.
The Constitution of the Grand Lodge of Florida
says (Art. VI, Sec. 4) that the Grand Master "can grant dispensations for new
Lodges.... He can make a Mason at sight; but he must be made in a body of a
regularly constituted Lodge, and by trial of the ballot. He can grant
And I find in "The Masonic Text-Book of
Tennessee," "printed by order of the Grand Lodge 1883," p. 322, among the
powers belonging to the Grand Master, "The right to make Masons at sight,
under the restrictions prescribed in the Landmarks," and it is said to be an
inherent prerogative. The Landmark referred to is given on p. 241, "The
prerogative of the Grand Master..... to make Masons at sight, in a regular
Lodge, by the consent thereof . . ." This Landmark is also given in Mackey's
list of twenty-five (cf. his Encyclopedia of Freemasonry, sub voce).
Mackey argues in favor of the prerogative by
saying that a Grand Master has the power to open a lodge by dispensation, and
by dispensation he may permit the accumulation of degrees, or the conferring
of the degrees per saltem, to use an ecclesiastical term for a corresponding
situation. His full argument may be seen in the work above cited, under the
word "Sight, Making Masons at."
From these, and other considerations it seems to
me that the Grand Master, in acting for the best interests of the Craft, and
with the testimonial of the Craft as to the worthiness and qualification of
the candidate, may dispense with whatever regulations he deems best to omit,
taking care not to violate any other landmark, either ritual or ceremonial.
But I quite agree that such procedure should not ordinarily be practiced.
Now, however, here is a consideration. The Square,
we are told, is dedicated to the Master, and the Compasses to the Craft.
Possibly the relative positions of these in the Master's degree might argue
that the Master, though he be Grand Master, cannot go too far in creating a
member of the Craft. But this little piece of symbolism may be a separate
point of argument.
I am, as ever,
H. W. Ticknor, Florida.
* * *
AN UPRIGHT MASON
Dear Brother Newton: - I have read with much
interest the April issue of "The Builder." Among the various communications I
wish to confirm the view of Brother C. C. Hunt, Iowa, in his remarks on "The
Oblong Square." The phrase was current at the opening of the 19th century, in
this country, to describe a rectangle with one set of parallel lines somewhat
longer than the other set.
Caleb Atwater, in his "Descriptions of the
Antiquities of Ohio," 1820, (on pages 137-8), inserts a letter written to him
by Dr. S. P. Hildreth, of Marietta, Ohio, on June 8, 1819. He was writing
regarding the fortifications of Marietta, and says: "On the outside of the
parapet, near the OBLONG SQUARE, l picked up a considerable number of
fragments of ancient potter's ware." This term then was current in the western
country as early as 1819 and must have been a term in current use eastward for
considerable time prior to 1819. Which tends to confirm the view taken by
In regard to the communication, "An Upright
Mason," I was very much in the same predicament as Brother Gayle, Iowa, over
your explanation. And I regard your explanation in this April number as still
more disappointing. I have always been satisfied that the system practiced in
Pennsylvania regarding the preparation of the candidate for the several
degrees is logically more in line with ancient Masonry than in some other
jurisdictions. Having brought a candidate to light he is never again blinded.
He has received light in Masonry and though his sight may be untrained and
inexperienced yet it is light. In Ohio we take from the novitiate that which
we so gladly gave him at the altar in the Entered Apprentice Degree. It is
depriving him of that which is his of right. Also, in all jurisdictions, I
believe, we place the candidate in the northeast corner of the room and assure
him he is an upright Mason. Here, Pennsylvania again can instruct other
jurisdictions. Objections can be made without reasons up to the point where
the novitiate comes to light as an EA but ever after can be estopped in his
Masonic progress only by a trial after charges have been preferred.
There is no doubt that it was due to the popular
movement in the second decade of the 19th Century, at Baltimore, that work was
taken from the EA Degree and placed in the the MM Degree. Up to that time all
EAs heard the transactions of the lodge, though they may have been debarred
from a vote on the same. When a candidate has once pressed the threshold of
Masonry he has changed his relations forever. Brother Waite in his Lecture
this month has beautifully demonstrated that point. Will you not take another
look at the question and grant to our EA brethren their Masonic right?
Charles F. Irwin, Ohio.
* * *
THE GREAT WHITE PLAGUE
Dear Sir and Brother: - While I fear that I am getting a little
out of line of the work of the Research Society; yet there is a matter that I
would like to bring to your attention. We all acknowledge the duties that we
owe each other as members of the Masonic Fraternity, and most especially do we
look after the widows and orphans of deceased brothers. So much so that we
have builded homes for these orphans and widows (in which I believe I am right
in saying that Kentucky took the lead), and consider it our most sacred duty
to support and maintain. Now the question that I have in mind is this: Can we
not establish a Sanatorium for Masonic Brothers who are afflicted, or at least
in the first stages of tuberculosis ? Such an institution could be made a
national affair, and let the Brothers all over the U.S.A. get the benefit of
same. There are many thousand in the United States who belong to our Order,
and if they would just contribute the sum of One Dollar each, and many will
contribute freely to such an enterprise, a large sum could soon be raised, and
a National Masonic Tubercular Sanatorium could become a reality. I think I am
right in saying that the Masonic Fraternity has no institution of this kind at
the present time. As the great slogan of the present is Preparedness
Conservation, would we not be doing a great work if we prepare such an
institution and conserve the many brethren who annually fall as victims of the
great White Plague?
Gilbert Adams, Jr., Kentucky.
THE LAND IS BRIGHT
Say not, the struggle naught
The labor and the wounds are
The enemy faints not, nor
And as things have been, they
If hopes are dupes, fears may
It may be, in yon smoke
Your comrades chase e'en now
And, but for you, possess the
For while the tired waves,
Seem here no painful inch to
Far back, through creeks and
Comes silent, flooding in,
And not by eastern windows
When daylight comes, comes in
In front, the sun climbs
slow, how slowly,
But westward, look, the land
- Arthur H. Clough.