The Builder Magazine
August 1920 - Volume VI - Number 8
MEMORIALS TO GREAT MEN WHO WERE MASONS
GEO. W. BAIRD, P.M., DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
THRILLING poem on Paul Revere's ride has made him an inspiring figure in the
War of the Revolution, and his timely act is still fresh in the memory of
every unhyphenated American boy. Any effort to add to his memorable ride would
be like trying to paint the lily.
Revere was born in Boston in 1735, of Huguenot descent, and he died there in
1818, his remains being laid away in the Granary Burying Ground.
learned the trade of his father, that of a goldsmith, at which he became
proficient, but he amplified this by taking up and perfecting the trade of a
coppersmith and the art of engraving. At that time a man was as proud of his
trade as of a college degree, and these vied with each other for supremacy.
Revere had passed the point where the mechanic ended and the artist began.
fashioned an urn of gold, not more than three inches in height, now in the
possession of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, in which is contained a lock
of the hair of George Washington. When the writer saw Past Grand Master
Charles T. Gallagher, in the Temple at Philadelphia, hold it aloft and call it
a "precious urn containing a precious treasure," he was struck with its
beauty, the priceless treasure it contained and the tense interest and silence
of the two thousand Masons present. The gifted and eloquent Gallagher could
have made anything interesting, but when he held that urn in his delicate
white hand and pronounced the words the fame of Paul Revere was raised far
above the drastic ride.
served as Lieutenant of Artillery in the Colonial Army and was stationed at
Fort Edwards, near Lake George. He was one of those engaged in the destruction
of the Tea in the Boston Harbor, and he carried the information to New York
and Philadelphia that they might be prepared.
General Gage prepared an expedition to destroy the military stores of the
colony at Concord, Warren, at 10 o'clock at night dispatched Willian Daws
through Roxbury to Lexington, and Revere, by way of Charlestown, to give
notice of the event. Revere got ahead of the orders of General Gage to prevent
any American from passing, and so was able to give the alarm from house to
engraver Paul Revere had no peer in his day. He engraved a print emblematic of
the repeal of the Stamp Act, which was very popular. He also engraved one
called "the seventeen rescinders" which was equally popular. In 1770 he
published an engraving called "The Boston Massacre."
refused to serve on a jury because the Parliament had made the judge
independent of the jury. In all his acts Revere seemed to be independent and
Revere was Grand Master of Freemasons from December 12, 1794, until December
27, 1797. He was a de facto Mason, rarely missing a communication of his
lodge. He was initiated in St. Andrews Lodge in 1760, and raised in 1761,
serving as Warden in 1764 and Master in 1770.
the Grand Lodge as Junior Grand Warden, Senior Grand Warden and Grand Master.
memorial is simple - a plinthe, a die and a cap. The lettering shows all that
is necessary. The little monument is of a design and of a stone that wil defy
the tooth of time.
DUDLEY WRIGHT, ENGLAND
tell us that there never has been a woman Freemason. Perhaps that is true.
This question has been called to the attention of the able scholar and devoted
Mason who contributes this article. Can Freemasonry enlarge its borders to
include women or must they forever remain outside the pale? If they are to be
made Masons in literal truth in what way can we reorganize the ritual so as to
eliminate certain features which might prove embarassing to them? If they
cannot be admitted into full membership in what way can the spirit and
teachings of this ancient Fraternity be made available to them? Since
Freemasonry began to be this has been a moot question; it is still. It will
be for years to come. It is a theme of perrennial interest. For this reason
we are very glad indeed to give to our readers the reasoned and mature
judgments of a scholar who has every right to speak oik this interesting
SOCIETIES have always held a fascination for both sexes, despite the
fallacious belief that women cannot keep a secret. Women have, however, from
time immemorial been rigidly excluded from the ranks of orthodox 'Freemasonry,
although, as will be see in these pagesc the barriers have been broken down on
more than one occasion. The first Book of Constitutions of the Grand Lodge of
England, published in 1723, expressly stipulated that no woman should be
admitted as a member of a Masonic lodge.
of history show that in past ages women had their own seeret societies. In
some instances the mere man was excluded as rigorously as woman is excluded
from modern Freemasonry. In others men were admitted on equal or almost equal
terms with the sterner sex.
Eleusinian Mysteries were introduced by Esmolpus in B.C. 1356, and were
founded in honor of Ceres and Prosperine, and any one violating the oath taken
on admission and revealing the secrets to the un-initiated was punished with
death. The same punishment was meted out to uninitiated intruders at the
ceremonies. Both sexes were eligible for initiation and there was no age
his History of Rome records a female Order in the fourth century. It was
customary for the Roman ladies annually to celebrate in the house, either of
the Consol or Praetor, certain rites and ceremonies in honor of a goddess. In
what the adoration consisted, as no man was ever permitted to be present or
even to be made acquainted with the nature or tendency of the function, it is
impossible to say. At the appointed time the vestals came, and, so cautious
were they as to privacy, that the house was carefully searched, all male
animals were turned out of doors and even statues and pictures of men were
covered with thick opaque veils. The Romans punished with death any man found
present at the Assembly. Pompeia, the wife of Caesar, schemed for her lover,
Clodius, to be present at one of these gatherings, but he was detected and,
Pompeia's share in the deception being discovered, she was divorced by Caesar
as the consequence of her action.
regard to the androgynous societies, L'Abbe Clavel in his History of
Freemasonry and Similar Societies, Ancient and Modern, published in 1842, says
that Freemasons "embraced these Societies with enthusiasm as a practical means
of giving to their wives and daughters some share of the pleasures which they
themselves enjoyed in their mystical assemblies. And this, at least, may be
said of them, that they practiced with commendable fidelity and diligence, the
greatest of the Masonic virtues, and that the banquets and balls which always
formed an important part of their ceremonial were distinguished by numerous
acts of charity." Androgynous Masonry also included certain degrees, among
which may be mentioned the "Heroine of Jericho," which appears to be the most
ancient, for which the wives and daughters of Royal Arch Masons only were
eligible; the "Ark and Dove"; "The Mason's Daughter"; "The Good Samaritan";
"The Maids of Jerusalem"; and "The Mason's Wife," which was conferred on the
wives, daughters, sisters and mothers of Masons. These were practiced mainly
in the United States of America. There is also evidence that women in days
gone by were admitted into the Order of Knights Templer.
question as to whether or not women should be admitted into the ranks of
orthodox Freemasonry is not discussed. As one proud to acknowledge obedience
to the Constitutons of the United Grand Lodge of England which, by its
Constitutions has decreed that they shall not, any discussion on this point
would be unbecoming.
origin of Adoptive Masonry is placed generally in the seventeenth century, and
its author is named as the widow of Charles I of England, daughter of Henry
IV, and sister of Louis XIII of France. After the death of Charles I, she was
proclaimed "the protectress of the children of the widow," Freemasons in those
days being known as "the children of the widow." She is said to have formed a
society of women to whom she communicated certain signs and passwords.
in Russia, Catherine the Czarina obtained from Peter the Great permission to
found the Order of St. Catherine, an Order of Knighthood for women only, of
which she was proclaimed Grand Mistress. This was a quasi-Masonic body.
eighteenth century there were four Grand Mistresses of the Order of St. John
of Jerusalem, which was an emanation of early Masonry. They were the Princess
of Rochelle in Italy, the Countess of Maille and the Princess of Latour in
France, and the Duchess of Wissembourg in Germany. The Chevalier Cesar Moreau
states with assurance that Adoptive Masonry is of French origin. "What other
people," he says, "could have raised this beautiful monument of national
gallantry to a sex who, in the East, are subjected to the most humiliating
dependence; who, in Spain, are guarded in living sepulchres, namely, the
convents; while, in Italy, this admirable half of humanity is in the same
position; and, in Russia, the husband receives from the father-in-law, with
his wife, the right of flogging her at his pleasure? The French know too well
how to appreciate the numberless merits of this charming sex, to allow
themselves to be influenced by any other nation in the happiness of proving to
women that they are at all times their idols, from youth to age."
date of the establishment of Adoptive Masonry in France may be placed as 1775,
when, according to M. Boubee, who is sometimes called "the father of French
Masonry," the French ladies, not wishing to remain indifferent to the good
done by Freemasons, wished to form Lodges of Adoption so as more efficaciously
to exercise charity and goodness.
the Grand Orient of France did not sympathize with the formation of these
Lodges of Adoption, and for some time withheld its sanction but eventually
consented to take the oversight on the express condition that each assembly
should be presided over by the Master of a regular Masonic lodge. Immediately
several ladies of distinction became active members and propagators, among the
number being the Duchess of Chartres, the Duchess of Bourbon, the Princess of
Lambelle, the Countess of Polignac, the Countess of Choiseul-Gouffier, and the
Marchioness of Coutebonne.
March, 1775, the Marquis de Saisseval, assisted by several distinguished
brethren, formed the Lodge of Candour under the Constitution of the Grand
Orient of France. Fourteen days afterwards - on 25th March, 1775 - this lodge
gave a fete d'adoption, when the Duchess of Chartres, wife of the Grand Master
of the Grand Orient, was present. There was also present the Duchess of
Bourbon, who then consented to accept the position of Grand Mistress of
Adoptive Masonry. Her installation took place on the following May, in the
Lodge of St. Anthony, in Paris, when the Duke of Chartres presided in his
capacity as Grand Master. Nearly a thousand persons, the elite of French
society, are said to have assisted at this function.
Adoptive Rite consisted of four degrees - Apprentice, Companion, Mistress and
Perfect Mistress. The first degree was purely symbolical and introductory,
intended rather to improve the mind than to convey any definite idea of the
institution. The second degree depicted the scene of the temptation in Eden,
and the Companion was reminded in a lecture of the penalty incurred by the
Fall. The third degree alluded to the Tower of Babel and the confusion of
tongues as a symbol of a badly-regulated lodge, while Jacob's ladder was
introduced as a moral lesson of order and harmony. The fourth degree, that of
Perfect Mistress, represented Moses and Aaron, their wives, and the sons of
Aaron. The ceremonies referred to the passage of the Red Sea by the
Israelites, and the degree was said to symbolize the passage of man from the
world of change and discord to a pure land of rest and peace. The officers of
a Lodge of Adoption consisted of Grand Master, Grand Mistress, Orator,
Inspector, Inspectress, Depositor, Depositrix, Conductor and Conductress. The
sash and collar were blue, with a gold trowel suspended. The Grand Master,
Grand Mistress, and the principal officers were provided with gavels, and each
member was clothed with a plain white apron and white gloves. The brethren,
as distinct from the sisters, wore in addition to the ordinary regalia, each a
sword and a gold ladder of five rounds - this latter being the Jewel of
Adoptive Masonry. The business of each lodge was conducted by the sisters,
the brethren being looked upon only as assistants. Different descriptive
hangings were provided for the various degrees. In the first degree, four
curtains divided the room into four sections. The west represented Europe;
the east, Asia; the south, Africa; and the north, America. Two thrones were
erected in the east for the Grand Master and Grand Mistress; before them was
placed an altar, while to their right and left were placed eight statues
representing Wisdom, Prudence, Strength, Temperance, Honor, Charity, Justice
and Truth. The members sat in two rows, to light and left, at right angles to
the two presiding officers - the brethren, armed with their swords, in the
back row, and the sisters in the front row.
Adoptive Lodges found many opportunities for the practice of beneficence, in
which, particularly, they excelled. The records of the Adoptive Lodge of
Candour show that frequently collections were made for the poor and
distressed. In 1777, the Duchess of Bourbon presided at a meeting of this
lodge when there was a collection for a brave soldier of the Anjou regiment
who had thrown himself into the frozen Rhone and rescued two drowning
children. In 1779, through the agency of members of this lodge, a poor
nobleman, without profession or resources, obtained from the King a pension
and a lieutenancy. This lodge was disbanded in 1780, in consequence of Court
movements. The Quadruple Lodge of the "Nine Sisters" was another prominent
Adoptive lodge, which held several fetes for philanthropic purposes. In 1780,
a lodge of Adoptan was formed by the Lodge "Social Contract" to celebrate the
convalescence of the Grand Master, the Duke of Chartres. This lodge had for
its first Master, the Abbe Bertolio, who was assisted by the Princess of
Lamballe as Grand Mistress. Among the initiates of this lodge were the
Viscountess of Afrey, the Viscountess of Narbonne, and the Countess of Maille.
In common with many others this lodge was broken up by the Revolution.
Masonry was seized upon by the comprehensive mind of the first Napoleon as a
means to consolidate his power, and it rose into favor again on the
re-establishment of the Empire. In 1805, the unfortunate Empress Josephine
was installed Grand Mistress of the Loge Imperiale d'Adoption des Francs
Chevaliers at Strasbourg, when she initiated one of her ladies of honor,
Madame F. de Canisy. M. Boubee says that at no period in the history of
Adoptive Masonry was there so brilliant a gathering. It was the first
occasion on which French Masonry had been honored by the presence of a
modified manner Adoptive Masonry still exists, but it has not flourished under
the Republic, and its operations have been confined mainly to France. It has
been rejected with a contempt amounting almost to indignation, by the Grand
Lodges of the United Kingdom and the Overseas Dominions. The Ancient and
Primitive Rite - a body not in communication with the United Grand Lodge of
England, and now almost obsolete - has the power to confer the Adoptive
Degrees, but does not exercise it.
George Oliver, the author of Revelations of a Square, gives an interesting
account of a visit he paid to a lodge of Adoption in Paris in 1808:
ceremonies are conducted with the utmost decorum. We are, of course, totally
ignorant of the dark room, as none but females are admitted to that penetralia
and the preparations are conducted only by females; but when they are
completed, and the trials come on, the novice is conducted through the process
by a lady and gentleman together.
special occasion it was thought that the candidate did not possess sufficient
fortitude to endure the trials, and she was warned that if she had any doubts
as to her power of endurance she had the opportunity of withdrawing. However,
she indicated that she was quite willing to proceed, and she was accordingly
conducted through the usual trials of fortitude, and endured them with the
courage of a martyr, and even at last, when placed on the summit of the
symbolic mountain, and told she must cast herself down thence into the abyss
below, where she saw a double row of bright steel spikes, long and sharp.
They were real, substantial spikes, and she would have been killed if impaled
was given to throw herself down, and with a suppressed shriek she made the
required plunge. So unexpectedly sudden was her obedience that the guide, who
had charge of the machinery, was scarcely allowed time to touch the spring
before she fell recumbent at the bottom of the abyss. The machinery is so
contrived that at the very moment when the final leap is made the scene
changes to an Elysium of green fields and shady trees, bubbling fountains and
purling streams, and beneath the velvet herbage is placed a bed of the softest
down, to receive the fair body of the exhausted novice as she falls. In the
present instance the lady fainted, and lay for a time without motion, but was
soon restored and tranquillised by the application of essences and perfumes,
and the soft and soothing influence of delicious music.
afterwards introduced into the lodge, her constancy was rewarded by witnessing
and forming a part of the most beautiful and captivating scenes I ever
ADOPTIVE MASONRY The following Ritual of Adoptive Masonry is translated, for
the first time, from a French document issued in 1783:
wanting in the Order of Freemasonry the pleasure of the company of the fair
sex, the members of which are always an ornament to the most reputable
societies. Adoptive Masonry enables brethren to cure this signal favor.
DECORATION OF THE LODGE
Apprentices' Carpet, on which is traced a diagram of the lodge, is placed in
the centre of the temple. On it is placed the Noah's Ark, floating on the
waters; the Tower of Babel; and Jacob's Ladder. Behind the Grand Inspector is
placed a table covered with a black cloth, on which a skeleton is laid.
Behind the Grand Master, a little above his head, stands the Destroying Angel,
holding a naked sword in his right hand and an iron chain in his left hand.
By the side of the Grand Master are two stools, on each of which is placed a
pan filled with rope ends, spirits of wine, and salt, wherewith to make a
flame. These pans are sometimes placed on stools in the centre of the
temple. By the, side of the table which is behind the Grand Inspector are
placed two brethren, wearing masks which cause them to look repulsive; their
hats are fixed firmly on their heads and each holds a torch lighted by means
of powdered sulphur and refined pitch.
ARRANGEMENT OF THE LODGE
President of the lodge is addressed as Grand Master. He wears suspended from
his neck a blue or black cord, from the bottom of which hangs a small trowel.
He wears his hat in lodge, holds a naked sword in his left hand and a trowel
in his right. Each brother also carries a naked sword in order to form the
arch of steel, referred to later on in the Ritual. The Grand Inspector is
placed in the west of the lodge, but, unlike the Grand Master, does not wear
his hat. The brethren also remain with heads uncovered throughout the
proceedings, but the sisters have their heads covered. The Grand Inspector
wears a blue cord round his neck, from which is suspended a small hammer. The
brethren and sisters arrange themselves in oblong form around the lodge, each
wearing a white apron and having a small trowel suspended from a blue ribbon
which is worn around the neck.
FOR THE OPENING OF THE LODGE
Master: "Brethren and sisters, assist me to open this lodge of Apprenticed
words are repeated, first by the Sister Inspector and then by the Brother
Master: "Sister Inspector, what is the first duty of a Mason?" Response: "To
see that the lodge is properly tyled to prevent the admission of the
Master: "Then, my dear sister, assure yourself that this has been done."
Inspector: "Brother Inspector, will you see that the lodge is properly tyled
and report to me?"
report having been given)
Inspector: "Grand Master, the Brother Inspector reports that the lodge is
Master: "Are you an Apprenticed Mason?"
Inspector: "I believe so."
Master: "If you believe it, why are you not certain?"
Inspector: "Because an Apprentice is certain of nothing."
Master: "What is the duty of a Mason?"
Inspector: "To listen, to obey, to work, and to be silent."
Master: "At what time do Masons begin to work?"
Inspector: "At the moment of awakening."
Master: "What time is it now?"
Inspector: "The moment for awakening and the hour for working."
Master gives five raps on the pedestal and says:
and Brother Inspectors, give warning to the brethren and sisters in your
neighborhoods that this is the moment for awakening and the hour for working
and that I am about to open a lodge of Apprenticed Masons."
injunction having been obeyed by these officers, the Grand Master gives a
further five raps with his trowel on the pedestal and says:
brethren and sisters, I declare this lodge of Apprenticed Adoptive Masons open
in the name of T.G.A.O.T.U., in the names of our lawful superiors, and in the
name of this respectable assembly."
formula having been repeated by the two Inspectors, all the brethren and
sisters give the sign of Jacob's Ladder, clap their hands five times, and
repeat five times the word "Vivant." CEREMONY OF THE FIRST DEGREE INITIATION
essential that all ladies who present themselves for initiation should be in
good health, of good repute, and that one of the brethren of the lodge should
give a guarantee of fitness.
candidate must, on admission to the precincts of the temple, be placed in a
darkened room, which must not be illuminated with more than one faint light,
and in which a skull shall be placed in such a position that the candidate
cannot fail to observe it. She is waited upon by the last admitted initiate,
who asks her if it is of her own free will and after mature reflection that
she seeks admission into an Order of such high repute. This question being
answered satisfactorily she asks her if she is in good health, because she
will pass through some very trying experiences, which, however, will not be in
any way improper or revolting to the most virtuous person.
candidate is then told, as the first test of her discretion, to remain in the
darkened room and not to attempt to leave. The door is then closed upon her
and she is left to her own reflections for a time.
sister returns after an interval, when she urges the candidate to exhibit much
firmness. The left garter of the candidate is removed and replaced by a blue
ribbon of a yard and a quarter in length. Her right cuff and glove are also
removed. Her money, jewels, and trinkets are taken from her, and she is
informed that they will be given or sold for the benefit of the poor. The
candidate is then blindfolded, told to place her trust in God, and she is
conducted to the door of the temple, on which she is told to give five raps.
is opened by the Brother Inspector, who asks the question: "Who knocks?"
of Ceremonies: "An unenlightened who seeks to be adopted by us."
of the temple is closed and the request, made through the Director of
Ceremonies, is repeated to the Grand Master, who requests the Sister Inspector
to ask the candidate for her name, age, religion, occupation, and the name of
her guarantor; and to inform the candidate of the qualifications essential for
Sister Inspector, on her return to the temple, gives these particulars to the
Grand Master, who asks the brother who stands as sponsor if he knows the
candidate well and if he believes she has the necessary dispositions for
admittance into the Order.
Satisfactory assurances in this regard having been given, the Grand Master
and sisters, do you consent to the adoption of Madame (or Mademoiselle)
N-----? Do any object?"
answer is unanimously in the affirmative, the Grand Master says:
Inspector, give admission to the candidate."
candidate, accompanied by the Director of Ceremonies and her guide, then
enters and is placed in front of the Grand Master, who addresses her upon the
objects of the Order into which she seeks admission. At the conclusion of the
Oration he asks her:
(or Mademoiselle), What is your desire?" Response: "To be initiated as a
Master: "What opinion have you formed of Masonry? Tell me frankly your opinion
of the Order."
to this question is given by the candidate in her own words.
Master: "Are you willing to pass through the ceremonies, both moral and
physical, which are a necessary condition to admission: reflect well, because
there is still the opportunity for you to retire, should you so desire; but in
another moment it will be too late."
Candidate: "I am."
Master: "Are you willing to make a sacrifice of your jewels for the benefit of
Candidate: "I am."
Master: "Are you willing to submit to trials by fire, water, and blood?"
Candidate: "I am."
Master then directs the Brother Inspector to conduct the candidate on the five
mysterious journeys. At the end of each journey the Grand Master asks the
Brother Inspector if he has observed any trembling on the part of the
candidate, and at the termination of the fifth journey, the Grand Master says:
still persist in your desire: the trials to follow are more severe?"
Candidate: "I do."
Master: "Brother Inspector, cause the candidate to advance five steps under
the arch of steel."
to form this arch of steel all the brethren kneel on the floor of the lodge,
raising their swords.
having been done, the Grand Master says:
Inspector, cause the candidate to pass through the trial by fire."
candidate is then conducted twice round the lighted braziers.
Master: "Cause her to purify herself by passing through the water."
candidate is then told to wash her hands.
Master: "Do you still persist in your request?"
Candidate: "I do."
Master: "Will you sign this declaration in your blood?"
Candidate: "I will."
Master: "Brother Surgeon, do your duty."
is here made for mercy, which is granted by the Grand Master.
Master: "If it is still your wish to continue, listen to the words of the
ON THE INITIATION OF APPRENTICES
born with the instinct of charity and fellowship engraven in his heart; the
seeds of these two qualities are sown by the paternal favor of the Creator,
and man in practicing these precepts before understanding the utility and
necessity of a bond which mitigates the severity of our condition, sows
flowers on the thorny path of our life. The first feeling of man on leaving
the hands of his Creator must, undoubtedly, be that of His existence. So long
as he is alone his heart has no other view; but so soon as he has beholden
that charming creature which loving, powerful Nature has framed to be his
companion, the germs of beneficence are developed; he forgets, so to speak,
his existence and abandons the love of himself in order to transfer it to her
who waits on his pleasure.
foundations of society were therefore laid in the Garden of Eden, and it was
in that delightful sojourn, the asylum of virtue, innocence and peace that
beneficence and all the other sociable virtues were practiced in an their
purity by our first parents, for so long as they were both contented with
their strength, thinking only of enjoying the sweet fruits of their union,
their happiness was without bitterness and they enjoyed in their hearts the
ineffable blessings of terrestrial felicity. Unhappily evil approached very
closely to the happiness. Adam and Eve were the first to discover, though too
late, this sorrowful truth, by transmitting to their posterity the bitter
fruits of their disobedience, curiosity, and weakness. Their hearts, like
Noah's Ark, floating at the mercy of the winds on the waters of the abyss,
which covered the surface of the earth, yielded with like ease to any
impression. Society and pride, sustained by all the other passions, ever
since then have triumphed over obedience and direction, which have no other
support than weakness, and plunge our happiness into humiliation and misery.
allegory of the Fall of Man through weakness and curiosity, you can trace,
Madame, in a striking and forcible manner in the sad condition of our
degeneration, but we offer, at the same time, the means of reparation, which,
though it may depend on our feeble nature, are the means we find assembled in
this Order or admitted under the emblems which we discover when we look
closely, and of which I will give you the explanation.
first of all, Madame, in this lodge of Apprentices, the Ark of Noah, the Tower
of Babel, and the Ladder of Jacob, drawn in picture. The Ark of Noah
represents the heart of man, the eternal play-thing of the passions, like the
ark floating on the waters of the Deluge; and we learn that we ought so to
fortify our souls by the precepts of virtue that in the midst of this tempest
we may, like Noah and his family, be saved from shipwreck. The Tower of Babel
is the emblem of the pride of man, who desires to oppose his weakness to the
eternal decrees of Providence, and who, for the fruits of his labors, will
reap only shame and confusion, from which he is not able to guard himself
except by presenting the prudent heart which is the characteristic of a
Mason. On the other side of the picture you will see a ladder, the meaning of
which may seem to be quite mysterious. It teaches us that the means of
arrival at true happiness, like to that of which Jacob dreammed and which is
represented by the steps, ought to be grounded on the love of God and
neighbor, just as the steps of the ladder rise upwards and connect earth with
heaven. All these things are secured by the practice of caution, strength,
constancy, and the precepts of Masonry.
are, Madame, the mysteries to which I would today call your attention.
will call to mind with the sweetest emotion this solemn day on which you were
initiated, through our feeble ministrations into the most sublime and
reputable Order of Masonry. May you, Madame, spend happy days with those who,
like you, ask great favors from T.G.A.O.T.U. and may you taste a succession of
pleasures as intense and as pure as those which we shall experience every time
that we call you by the beloved name of sister.
Address being ended an acclamation is made.
Master: "Madame, the pleasing things which you have heard have, no doubt,
encouraged you to request that you may be received amongst us. If that is
your desire, approach."
candidate is then brought to the pedestal, where she kneels.
Master: "Destroying angel, bring the chain which you reserve for incautious
Masons of both sexes. Madame, I am compelled to attach this chain to you in
order that you may recall unceasingly that which you have promised. You wish
to be admitted into a most reputable Order in which there is nothing contrary
to religion, to the State, or to virtue. The firmness which you have
displayed in the trials which you have undergone, the probity which you have
shown, and your known virtue are sure guarantees to us of your manner of
thinking: perfect this good work and be persuaded that repentance will never
attend your attempt.
your hand, Madame, upon this Book of Truth, and repeat after me the following
Obligation which will bind you forever to the most ancient and most reputable
Order in the world.
.............. promise, on my word of honor, in the presence of T.G.A.O.T.U.
and of this respectable assembly faithfully to guard, conceal, and retain in
my heart the secrets of Masons and of Adoptive Masonry; moreover, to listen,
to obey, to work, and to keep silent, under the penalty of being struck with
the sword of the Destroying Angel, and of being despised and disgraced. May
my mind by its virtues be rendered worthy of so reputable a Society. I
promise, moreover, and undertake to sleep this night with the garter of the
Order, as T.G.A. shall help me."
Obligation taken, the Grand Master rises and touches the initiate with the
trowel on the right eye, the right ear, the nose, the mouth, and the breast,
power which I have received from this respectable lodge, I receive you as an
Director of Ceremonies then takes away the chain. The Grand Master gives a
rap on the pedestal with his trowel, and all the brethren take their swords in
Master: "Brother Director of Ceremonies, conduct the newly initiated sister to
a convenient spot where she may receive her reward."
has been done, he says:
you ask sister, because it is with true pleasure that I address you by the
term 'sister' instead of that of 'madame'? "
"To see the light." Grand Master: "Brother Director of Ceremonies, You will
give her the fifth rap. Brethren and sisters to order."
Master then gives five raps with his trowel and the Director of Ceremonies
restores the candidate to light by taking off the bandagey her face being
turned towards the skeleton.
Master: "Look with horror on her condition, the result of sin. Consider what
she has been, what she is, and what she will become."
juncture the two brethren with the repulsive masks come and stand on either
side of the skeleton, their torches being aflame.
Master: "Leave her to make serious reflections upon her present state so that
she may pass from death to life."
moment the two brethren turn her sharply round to face the East, so that she
may see the splendor of the lodge. All the brethren are holding their swords
in their hands, the points being directed towards the newly-initiated.
Master: "Sister, all these swords which you see are drawn in your defense, if
ever you should have cause for their assistance. Approach, sister, to receive
the insignia of the Order."
Brother Inspector then leads her by five steps to the Grand Master.
Master: "Brethren and sisters, you have been witnesses of the great
cautiousness of our newly-initiated sister."
Master takes from underneath the pedestal (or altar, as it is known) a crown
of flowers, which he places on the head of the initiate, as a reward for her
discretion. He then hands her the apron of the Order, saying:
to remind you of the candor which as a Mason you must have."
hands her the gloves, saying:
whiteness of these gloves, which are intended for you, indicate what should be
the purity of your actions."
gives her a pair of men's gloves, saying:
respectable lodge has asked me to hand you these gloves in order that you may
pass them on as a present to the Mason whom you esteem most highly."
hands to her the garter of the Order, saying:
garder is of white skin and has written on it in letters of gold: VIRTUE,
Master: "Sister Inspector, take away the blue ribbon and fasten the garter in
Master then gives the Initiate the kiss of association.
Master: "We have for our mutual recognition two signs and two passwords. The
two words are Feix, Feax, which signify 'Academy' or 'School of Virtue.' The
password which we adopt for mutual recognition is 'Etamie.' It signifies
'Amity.' for we know that amity which has virtue for its base leads to true
Director of Ceremonies then introduce's the initiate to the brethren and
sisters present. When this has been done and she has been tested in the
passwords and grips by the Grand Master, her money and jewels are returned to
her by the Grand Master, who says:
sister, we deprived you of all metals and trinkets, because they are the
emblems of vices. You sacrificed them, but the lodge is content with your
submission and have charged me to return them to you, exhorting you to employ
them in good works and above all in the relief of your brethren and sisters
who may be in want."
Master: "Brother Director of Ceremonies, conduct the sister to the West in
order that she may listen to the Instruction."
INSTRUCTION OF AN APPRENTICE
Master: "What is the first care of a Mason7"
"To see that the lodge is properly tyled."
Master: "Are you an Apprenticed Mason?"
"I believe so."
Master: "Why do you not say that you are sure?"
"Because an Apprentice is sure of nothing."
Master: "What is the duty of all Masons?"
"To obey, to work, and to be silent."
Master: "Where were you admitted?"
"In a place inaccessible to the uninitiated."
Master: "How do you know that you are an Apprenticed Mason?"
"By that which all the most reputable Masons have?" Grand Master: "What is it
that the most reputable have?"
"Two signs and two passwords."
Master: "Give me the signs."
Master: "What is the significance of this sign?"
"The Ladder of Jacob."
Master: "Whither does this ladder lead?"
Master: "How do you respond to the first sign?"
"By a second which consist of bringing the thumb and little finger to the
Master: "Give me the pass-words."
"Give me the first and I will give you the second."
Master: "What is the meaning of these two words?"
"They form one only and mean an Academy or School of Virtue.
Master: "What is this school?"
Master: "How were you received?"
"By five knocks."
Master: "How were you introduced into the lodge?"
"In order that I might learn that before I attained to the sublime mysteries
it was necessary to overcome curiosity and that I might learn the ignorance of
the uninitiated when speaking of our mysteries."
Master: "How did you gain access to our mysteries?" Answer: "Through an arch
of iron and steel."
Master: "What did this arch represent?"
"The strength and stability of the Order."
Master: "How did you obtain access to a lodge?"
"By knocking five times on the entrance-door."
Master: "Where were you received?"
"Between the Tower of Babel and the Ladder of Jacob and at the foot of Noah's
Master: "What does this Tower of Babel represent? "
"The pride of the children of the earth which we can overcome by presenting a
cautious mind, which is the characteristic of all true Masons"
Master: "What does the Ladder of Jacob represent?"
"This ladder is very mysterious: the two sides represent the love of God and
our neighbor, and the steps symbolize the virtues secured by a beautiful
Master: "What does the Ark of Noah represent?"
"The heart of man agitated by his passions, as the Ark was swayed by the
waters of the Deluge."
Master: "What quality ought we to bring to the lodge?"
"A horror of vice and a love of virtue."
Master: "What do you call those who are not Masons?"
Master: "How do you treat those who are not Masons but who are worthy to be
"All virtuous men and women are our friends but we only recognize men and
women who are Masons as our brethren and sisters."
Master: "To what ought we to apply ourselves?"
"To the purification of our morals."
Master: "What is the duty of all Masons?"
"To listen, to obey, to work, and to be silent."
Master: "What is that you hear?"
"The explanation of our mysteries."
Master: "What is the quality of our obedience?"
"Free and voluntary."
Master: "What is the aim of our work?"
"To make us useful and agreeable to our brethren and sisters."
Master: "In what are you silent?"
"In the mysteries of Freemasonry."
Master: "Why were you introduced by five raps?"
"To bring to our remembrance the five points of Masonry, which are the love of
our neighbor, the desire of meriting the esteem of our brethren and sisters,
the wish to oblige them, cautiousness, and obedience."
Master: "What is the password?"
which signifies amity in order to teach us that amity is the basis of virtue
and leads to true felicity."
CLOSING A LODGE
Master: "At what time do we close the lodge?"
"At the hour to rest."
Master: "What time is it now?"
"It is the hour to rest."
Master: "Brother Inspector and Sister Inspector, ask the brethren in your
neighborhood if they have aught to propose for the benefit of the Order."
command having been obeyed a collection is made for the benefit of the poor
and distressed. This custom is never omitted, each one contributing according
to his or her ability.
Master: "Brother Inspector and Sister Inspector, advise the brethren and
sisters in your respective neighborhoods that seeing it is the time to rest,
the hour for ceasing to work has arrived."
Master then gives the command for the brethren to stand to order and each
brother takes his sword in his hand.
Master: "Brethren and sisters, we have listened, we have obeyed, we have
worked, and we are silent; since this is the hour to rest, the lodge is
words are repeated by the two Inspectors; the usual signs and acclamations are
given and each one says five times "Vivant."
OPENING A LODGE
Master: "At what time do Masons begin work?"
"At the moment of awakening."
Master: "What is the duty of a Mason?"
"To see that the lodge is properly tyled."
Master: "Sister Inspector, command the Brother Inspector to see that this duty
being done, the Brother Inspoetor says: "Grand Master, the lodge is properly
Master: "What time is it?" Answer: "The time for awakening and the hour for
Master: "Sister and Brother Inspectors, inform the brethren and sisters in
your respective neighborhoods that this is the time for awakening and the hour
being done the Grand Master gives five raps with his trowel and says:
and Sisters, in the name of T.G.A.O.T.U.; in the name of our recognized
superiors; and by the power invested in me by this assembly, I declare this
Lodge of Apprenticed Adoptive Masons open."
Sister and Brother Inspectors also give five raps with their trowels and say:
and sisters, this lodge of Apprenticed Adoptive Masons is open."
signal from the Grand Master all the brethren and sisters give the sign of
Jacob's Ladder and the acclamation by saying five times "Vivant."
Master: "Sister Inspector, are you a Mason?"
"I believe so."
Master: "If you believe it, why are you not sure?"
"Because an Apprentice is not sure of anything."
Master: "What is the duty of a Mason?"
To listen, to obey, to work, and to be silent."
Master: "For the first proof of your obedience, Sister Inspector and Brother
Inspector, request the brethren and sisters in your respective neighborhoods
to trim their lamps for a ceremony I propose to carry out."
words are repeated by the Sister and Brother Inspectors who, when all the
lamps are trimmed, reply:
all the lamps are trimmed."
Master then gives the call to order. The brethren and sisters stand when the
Grand Master gives the command to work, by saying:
your right hand to the lamp; raise the lamp, blow the lamp; Quicker; Blow out
(NOTE.-This is the formula adopted also at the drinking of toasts, the
drinking of wine being known as the trimming of the lamp. In the days when
this ritual was in vogue it was customary always to honor five toasts at the
banquets which followed the lodge meetings. The first was the King and Royal
Family; the second, that of the Sister Duchess of Bourbon, the Grand Mistress
and the Officers of the Grand Lodge; the third that of the Grand Master of the
lodge; the fourth, that of the sister and brother Inspectors; and the fifth,
that of the Initiates. Sometimes toasts were added for the visitors and
sisters and brethren in distress.)
Masonry found its way into Italy and the following description of an
initiation ceremony appeared in an Italian paper Correspondence, published in
Rome in 1862:
room hung with black was raised a table covered with black cloth; on the table
was a skull and above it was a lamp, which shed a funereal light. Eight
personages: a venerable Grand Master, a venerable Grand Mistress, a Brother
Orator, dressed as a Capuchin, a Brother Inspector, a Sister Inspectress,
Brother and Sister Depositaries, and a Sister Introductress. These dignitaries
wore on their breasts each a wide violet ribbon, to which was suspended a
little gold trowel. The Grand Master held a hammer which served as his
sceptre and marched at the side of the Grand Mistress, elevated to the rank of
horrorable companion. The brothers and sisters of the lodge all wore the
mystical apron and white gloves. A novice was to be introduced. The Grand
Master struck his hands together five times and solemnly asked one of the
dignitaries: 'What are the duties of a Masonic aspirant?' The answer was:
'Obedience, labor, silence.' The Brother Orator then took the novice by the
hand and conducted her to a dark room, where, having bandaged her eyes, he
read her a homily on virtue and charity. When the bandage was removed she
found herself surrounded by the brothers in a circle, their swords crossed
over her head. After another homily, pronounced this time by the Grand
Master, he asked her if she had well reflected before entering a Society which
was unknown to her, and then, after mutual explanations, the proselyte
repeated the formula of the oath: 'I swear and promise to keep faithfully in
my heart all the secrets of Freemasonry and engage to do so under the penalty
of being cut in pieces by the sword of the exterminating angel.' The Grand
Master then showed her the sign by which the brothers and sisters recognized
each other, and gave her the password of the Order. Then, taking the sister
by the hand, he respectfully gave her five kisses of peace and handed her an
apron and a pair of gloves."
de la liberte, of which Moses was claimed to be the founder, admitted both men
and women. The members wore in their button holes a chain with a jewel
representing the two tables of the Law, but, instead of the ten commandments,
the jewel had two wings to signify Freedom, with the motto "Virtue dirigit
alas." On the other side was an "M" for Moses and the date 6743. The
commandment "Thou shalt not commit adultery" is said to have been purposely
omitted from their decalogue.
COMBINATION OF THE SQUARE AND COMPASSES
It is the
almost universal custom in these United States to arrange the Square and
Compasses, when used as seals or as illustrations, in the following form: The
Compasses are extended and laid upon the arms of the Square. Within the
extended Compasses is placed the letter "G." I suppose that letter, in that
combination, is intended to be the initial letter of the word God, and not of
Geometry. The intended symbolism, if indeed any symbolism is meant, is not
known to this writer.
not the custom in foreign lands, nor was it the custom of the days when that
combination began to be made as seals of the lodges. In all the illustrations
of this combination of the Square and Compasses made by foreign lodges I have
not found the "G" combination. The All-seeing Eye is the most usual, though
the globe, the sun, or some other special device or letter are frequently
found. It is also frequently found that nothing is inserted between the
symbolism of the combination, with the All-seeing Eye inserted, is quite
plain, going back to the older Mysteries. The Square, referring to the earth,
and hence to the earthly in man, viz.: his passions and appetites, which are
represented by the two arms of the Square, is dominated by the two arms of the
Compasses, which refer to the heavens, and hence to the spiritual in man, his
reason and the moral sense; symbolizing that through the light of Freemasonry
we have subjected our passions and appetites to the control of our reason and
our moral sense. The All-seeing Eye symbolizes that oversight of Almighty God
necessary to maintain that domination of the spiritual over the earthly, or
is an instructive symbolism in the way we introduce the letter "G" perhaps it
is by using the "G" in the same way as is suggested for the use of the
All-seeing Eye. The "G" being used as the initial of two words is liable to be
misunderstood, while the eye could not be misinterpreted.
- Geo. C.
TEMPERATURE OF THE LODGE
Suggested by Brother Geo. L. Schoonover
L. B. MITCHELL, MICHIGAN
the heart-beat of the lodge today
above the old-time normal way?
not in a fevered mood beguile
that make them so much less worth while?
in haste to see that they are o'er
hurries up its work upon the floor.
temperature seems feverish today,
corners cuts and hastens on its way,-
it so speeds up the work in hand
is lost of its conception grand.
hurrying world seems to sidestep the Art,
to be, of it, the ruling part.
as yet, these ways do not appeal;
when it was all so really real;
those who may come into the fold
that so appealed unto the old.
And so we
find the Craft exposed today
that hurts the heart of Masonry.
KNIGHT TEMPARLY IN IRELAND
JULIUS F. SACHSE, GRAND LIBRARIAN, PENNSYLVANIA
from "History of Masonic Knights Templar of Pennsylvania," by permission of
R.’.W.’. Bro. John S. Sell, Grand
Master of Masons in Pennsylvania.
EARLIEST documentary evidence in the Archives of the Grand Lodge of
Pennsylvania, showing the existence of Modern or Masonic Templary in
connection with Craft Masonry is found in the Irish Craft Certificates and the
Masonic History of Ireland.
middle of the eighteenth century innumerable new and fanciful degrees and
fantastic rites were invented and attempts were made to engraft them upon the
primitive stock of Speculative Masonry, which had been evolved out of the
Operative Gilds. (1) Most of these degrees had their origin in France; none of
these so-called Ramsay rites, (2) however, seem to have been adopted in
the middle of the century, there appears to have arisen a desire among Irish
Freemasons to strengthen the correlation of Christianity and Freemasonry, an
origin for the organization of the Craft was sought in the medieval orders of
Christian chivalry. Among the multiplicity of such orders, two stood forth
conspicuously challenging the fond admiration of the Masonic enthusiast, the
Knight Hospitallers and the Knights Templar.
of the latter order was chosen and a suitable ritual for conferring the order
was evolved. The probable cause for this selection was that during the Reign
of Henry II, the Grand Master of the Knights Templar superintended the Gild of
Operative Masons, and employed them in building their Temple in Fleet Street,
London, A. D. 1135. Masonry continued under the patronage of the order until
the year 1199. (3)
Arch had been conferred in Ireland by the Blue lodges under their Craft
Warrants for some years. So when Templary was authorized, it was at once
adopted by the Irish lodges, both civil and military.
universal the adoption of the Royal Arch and Templar degrees became among the
Craft lodges of Ireland is shown by the Francis C. Crossle collection of
ancient Irish seals, in the Museum of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania.
not all of the Irish lodges had different or separate seals for the Symbolic
or Craft, Royal Arch and Templar degrees. Thus in the Crossle Collection (4)
we have no less than 259 seals representing 118 Irish lodges. One hundred of
these had a seal for each degree, viz.: Craft, Royal Arch and Knight Templar,
thus showing that in the early days all the higher degrees were invariably
conferred under the sole authority of a Craft Warrant, "the only limit to
conferring of them being the possession among the members of a brother capable
of working the ceremonies." (5)
earliest evidence of both Royal Arch Masonry and Templary in Ireland is
without doubt shown by the seals - both Royal Arch and Templar now in the
Crossle collection, in the Museum of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania of Craft
Lodge No. 205, Irish Constitution, originally attached to General Blakeney's
Regiment of Foot, subsequently the 35th Regiment of the Line, 1749 - 1790. (6)
These seals together with the Royal Arch Banner of the lodge, bearing the
inscription "THE WONDEROUS ARCH IN YONDER VAULTED SKY, OUR MIGHTY KEYSTONE,
THE ALL SEEING EYE 7, Feby. 1749 Anno Laotomiae 5749 Lodge No. 205" appear to
be proof that Templary was practiced in Ireland as early as the beginning of
the second half of the eighteenth century, by this Military lodge working
under its Irish Warrant.
Lodge No. 205 accompanied the regiment in its ordinary course until 1790, when
the Warrant - that is the original Military Warrant, not a fresh one under the
same number - was transferred to Moy in the County of Tyrone, August 3, 1790.
Arch Banner of Lodge No. 205 was found together with some of the Craft
implements of Lodge No. 205, of which the three-cornered gavel and the Senior
and Junior Wardens' truncheons are now in the Museum of the Grand Lodge of
Knight Templar Banner of Lodge No. 465 also stationed at Moy, Tyrone County,
was found at the same time by Brother William Tait of Belfast in an old
building at or near Moy early in the year 1913. Brother Tait's researches
further show that meetings of Lodges 205 and 465 were held at Crew, a hamlet
outside of Moy proper. (8)
Templar Banner of Lodge No. 465 is one of the most interesting relics of Irish
Templary. The banner is painted on both sides, the inscriptions so far as can
be made out on the obverse reads "CREW 2d FEBY 1769 ANNO LAOTOMIAE 1769 Lodge
465," on the three steps approaching the lodge "CHARITAS SPES FIDAS."
center of the banner there is a building with a pediment resting upon pillars
below which are two cherubim over an open doorway; above the building is seen
the sun, moon and stars, while at the sides are the various craft implements
including the jewels of the Master, Past Master, Treasurer and Secretary.
reverse of the banner is patterned after the Royal Arch Banner of Lodge No.
205, having the same inscription in the circle. From the keystone in the
middle of the arch is suspended the five pointed star with the letter "G" in
the center; below the arch there are three lines:
RE [X] I [SRAEL]
[RAM] RE [X] TY [RE]
[RAM] A [BIFF]
the columns there is an equilateral triangle upon which are the twelve burning
tapers. In the center of the triangle is a coffin with skull and bones and the
words "MEMENTO MORI AMEN." Beside the coffin there are an incense vase,
baldric with sevenpointed star and a cock.
fields between columns and triangle there is (left) the ark and trowel,
(right) paschal lamb and a serpent; outside of both columns is the crucifix
and other emblems.
think is the first instance where the Templar triangle was publicly shown with
the lighted tapers. It, however, appears upon several of the early Irish
Templar Seals in our collection.
use of these banners was at the celebration of St. John's Day, both the
festival of St. John the Baptist and that of St. John the Evangelist being
religiously observed by the Irish Craft lodges in those early days, when the
brethren paraded to church with music and their banners, where they heard a
sermon appropriate to the occasion, after which they returned to the lodge
room for refreshment. (9) Photographs of the above banners are in our library
seals in the Crossle Collection it appears that there was an order or degree
above but concurrent with that of the Temple as conferred in the Craft lodges
of Ireland. This organization was known as "THE UNION BAND OF - KNIGHT TEMPLAR
PRIESTS." There is, however, no record that this degree was ever introduced in
"Priestly Order" as it was commonly called according to Brother Crossle in his
History of Newry Lodge, XVIII, Newry, (10) in former days was pretty generally
worked all over the northeast coast of Ireland. No definite records of this
organization or degree have thus far been found during the present
investigation. The question naturally arises whether it was not an
organization similar to that of "Melchizedek" of the present day which is
composed of Past High Priests of the Royal Arch Chapter. From the seals of the
"Priestly Order" it would appear that there were seven degrees in this order
each having its own seal. That the order was strictly Christian and
Trinitarian is evident from the emblems in the large seal of the "Priestly
Band." In our Crossle Collection of Irish Craft Seals we have evidence that at
least fifteen Craft lodges (11) that conferred the Temple also had the
mottoes on the seven smaller seals read: No. 1, "LET TRUTH"; No. 2, "STAND";
No. 3, "THOUGH THE"; No. 4, "UNIVERSE"; No. 5, "SHOULD"; No. 6, "SINK INTO";
No. 7, ''RUINS.'' (12) This order was established in the latter part of the
eighteenth century, and so far as the investigations of the late Brother
Francis C. Crossle go, the County of Down seems to have been its headquarters
in Ireland. (13) Each center of this branch of Freemasonry was known as a
Union Band of Knight Templar Priests and its working was generally carried out
under the sanction of two or more neighboring Craft lodges.
to the same authority each Union Band was governed by a president and seven
masters, each of whom had his seal, that of the president being much larger
than those of the masters. Each master in his absence, was permitted to
appoint a proxy, whose authority to act was the production of his seal, and no
document or certificate issuing from the band was perfect without the
impression of the eight seals of the President and his seven masters. All
candidates for the degree of Knight Templar Priest were obliged to produce
evidence of having already received the Craft, Royal Arch, and Knight Templar
degrees, in addition to being "recommended by two members of the band who are
'To answer for his being a regular or ordinary member of a' regular lodge, and
for his moral character."
proof of the Irish origin of Masonic Knights Templary is a footnote to a
Templar Poem in Laurence Dermott's Belfast Edition of the Ahiman Rezon of
1795, (15) wherein it is stated that at "Fethard, in the County Tipperary, was
the First Town in Ireland, where Knights Templars were made."
evidence of early Irish Craft Templary in the Grand Lodge Collection are
NAME OF THE MOST HOLY GLORIOUS AND UNDIVIDED TRINITY FATHER, SON, & HOLY
Captn GENL. &c &c &c., of the General Assembly of Knights Templars and Knights
of Malta do hereby Certify that the Bearer Our Faithful True and Well beloved
Br Sir Adam Rice was by us Dubb'd Knight of that most Holy Invincible and
Magnanimous Order of Knights Templars the true and faithful soldier of JESUS
CHRIST as also of the order of St. John of Jerusalem now Knights of Malta he
having with our Honour and Fortitude, justly supported the amazing Trials
attending his admission and as such We recommend him to all Br Knights
Templars and Knights of Malta on the Face of the Globe. Given under our hands
and Seal of our Lodge and General Encampment Held in Newry under the sanction
of a Warrant No. 706 and of the order of Knight Templars.
the Order of Malta 921
Ark and Mark Masonry 3791
Arch Masonry 4138
the Law, Found 2415
Campbell C. Gl
Cassidy, G. A'
NAME OF YE MOST HOLY GLORIOUS & UNDIVIDED TRINITY FATHER SON & HOLY GHOST.
Captain General &c &c &c of the Grand Assembly of KNIGHTS TEMPLARS & KNIGHTS
OF MALTA Held in Trillick & on the Registry of Ireland - Do hereby Certify
That the BEARER Hereof Our Truly Beloved Br Sr Robt Brown was by us Dubb'd
KNIGHT of that Most Holy Invincible & Magnanimous Ordr of KNIGHTS TEMPLARS Ye
True & Faithful Soldier of JESUS CHRIST as also the Saints of JERUSALEM now
KNIGHTS OF MALTA he having with Due Honour & Fortitude Justly Supported.
Amazing Trials of skill & Valour Attending his admission & as such WE Him
recommend to all True & Faithful Brs Srs. KNIGHTS TEMPLARS around the GLOBE.
Given undr our hands & Seal of General Assembly held in Trillick In the County
of Tyrone This 20th day of May 1795 & of Masonry 5795 & of the Ordr of KNIGHTS
TEMPLARS 3795 & of the Ordr of Malta 675
GAULT G. W a-n
G W a-n
NAME OF TEIE MOST HOLY MOST GLORIOUS AND UNDIVIDED TRINITY FATEIER, SON AND
HOLY GHOST. (18)
CAPTAIN GENERAL &c of the general Assembly of SIRS KNIGHTS TEMPLARS and
KNIGHTS OF MALTA held under the Sanction of LODGE No. 835 at Douglass Bridge
in the County of TYRONE on the Regestry of Ireland SO CERTIFY that the Bearer
hereof our trusty true and well beloved Br Sir Wm Arthur was by us dubed a
Knight of that most holy glorious and magnanimous order of Sir Knights
Templars and Knights of Malta the true and faithful Soldier of JESUS CHRIST he
having with honour Justly supported the amazing Trials of skill and valure
attending his admission We therefore now recommend him as such to all Sir
KNIGHTS TEMPLARS and KNIGHTS OF MALTA round the GLOBE.
under our hands and Seal of our Genl Assembly this 9th day of June 1798
CHRISTOPHER DICKY, C. General
Litle G. W.
Pollock, D. G.W.
NAME OF TIIE MOST HOLY & UNDIVIDED TRINITY FATHER SON & HOLY GHOST AMEN. (19)
undernamed Presiding Chiefs over A Magnanimous and Invincible Encampment of
that Most Holy Noble and Christian order of Sir Knight Templars held in Raffry
under the Sanction of Raffry True Blue Lodge No. 649, held under the Grand
Registry of IRELAND
Certify That our Worthy and Faithful Brother and Constituted Friend SIR SAMUEL
JAMISON the bearer hereof after having passed the EXCELLENT SUPER EXCELLENT
ROYAL ARCH DEGREES OF MASONIC ORDERS was DUBBED INITIATED and Confirmed in all
the rules Ceremonies and Mysteries of that Most Holy Noble and Christian order
of HIGH KNIGHT TEMPLARS in A GRAND ENCAMPMENT and was initiated into the
Several degrees of ARK MARK and WRESTLE and since his instruction therein he
has discharged the relative duties of A Sir Knights Companion with affection
and Integrity having with much EXCELLENT SKILL FORTITUDE AND VALOR Previously
withstood and resisted Various trials and Temptations preparatory, to his
admission and as such.
recommend to all faithful Brethren of the KNIGHT TEMPLAR order and all ARK
MARK and WRESTLE MASON round the globe.
under our hands and Seal of our KNIGHT TEMPLAR Encampment in our Lodge Room in
Raffry, Parish of Killimky, County of DOWN, IRELAND.
day of April A.D. 1811 A.L. 5811 of Kt Templars 698
Casbey, Gr. Master
Thomson G Senr Warden No. 649
McBride G Junior Warden - Raffry
Snoddon Grand Secretary
ANOTHER AS I HAVE LOVED YOU EVEN UNTO THE END, (20)
GAPTAIN GENERAL &e &e &e of AN Incampment of Knight Templars held in
Poyntzpass under the sanition of No. 52 held under the Grand Lodge of Ireland,
do hereby certify the bearer Sir Richard Andreu was subsequently dubbed, an
Night and likewise Tud the Red Cross and after having withstood with skill and
valure the amazing trials attending his admission and as such we recommend him
to all Red Cross and Sir Knight Templars round the Globe Given under our hands
and seal of our Lodge this 3rd Day
of April 1822 and of Knight Tempplars 665 years.
HALL, F. G.G.
RICHMOND S. C. G.
WHITE H. P.
LOVE & UNITY NO. 845. (21)
name of the Most Holy Glorious and undivided Trinity Father Son & Holy Ghost
Captain General &c High Priest and Grand Marshal of the Grand Encampment and
assembly of Sir Knight Templars and Knights of Malta held under sanction of
the above Lodge, on Registry of the Grand Lodge of Ireland, DO. CERTIFY That
our Trusty and well beloved brother
Galbraith has been by us initiated into the most Holy and Glorious orders
Dubb'd Sir Knight of the Most Holy orders of Sir Knight Templar Mediterranean
passman and Knight of Malta.
and faithful soldier of our Lord JESUS CHRIST, HE having with great skill
fortitude and valour Justly supported the amazing trials attending his
admission and as such WE HIM recommend to all true and faithful Knights in the
under our hands & seal of our Grand Encampment at Belfast this 7 day of June
Knight Templars 709 nine
Knights of Malta 303 three
Nully C.G. G.M, G.A. G.G. S.B.
Mugeean, Grand Scribe.
As to the
actual Ritual used in conferring the order of the Temple by the Irish Craft
lodges, nothing is definitely known to a certainty except that it was strictly
a trinitarian degree, wherein the belief in the Holy Trinity was the chief
feature. This is shown by a copy of the certificate engraved by Quin, Belfast,
1822, (22) viz.:
NAME OF THE MOST HOLY AND UNDIVIDED TRINITY; AMEN GLORY TO GOD IN THE HIGHEST
SON AND HOLY GHOST
GENERAL & GRAND MASTERS
excellent and superexcellent
ARCH CHAPTER &
Assembly of Knights Templars under the sanction of the Lodge of Love & Unity
Lodge No. 645 on the Registry of IRELAND Do hereby Certify that Our dearly
beloved Brother the Worshipful Sir JOHN GALBRAITH after having duly Passed the
Chair of the aforesaid LODGE was made an excellent Superexcellent & ROYAL ARCH
MASON & Subsequently dubbed him a KNIGHT of the most noble and Right
Worshipful Order of KNIGHTS TEMPLARS KNIGHTS OF MALTA AND KNIGHTS OF THE RED
CROSS, We have also Expounded unto him all the Secrets of the MEDITERRANEAN
PASSES. He having through the whole ceremony, Given us the strongest proofs of
his Skill Fortitude and Valour during the amazing & Mysterious TRIALS
attending his admission
grant unto him all those privileges which from the time immemorial have
belonged & now of right appertain to those of our ORDERS not doubting but he
will be permitted to Reap & Enjoy the Same with all our DEAR and excellent
Companions wheresoever dispersed we therefore GREET WELL all our Worthy
BRETHREN KNIGHTS COMPANIONS of the above illustrious Orders throughout the
universe TO accept of him as such and to take him under their Brotherly Care
and PROTECTION Given under our ano the Seal of our ENCAMPMENT hereunto
appended at BELFAST this 19 day of June in the year of our Lord 1826 of Light
5826 R.A. 4826
KELLY High Priest
REILLY Capn General
GALBRAITH, 2nd Grand Master
above Certificates it appears that, beside the Degrees of Knights Templar, St.
John of Jerusalem and Malta, there were conferred by the Irish Craft lodges
the Ark, Mark, Wrestle, Red Cross and Mediterranean Pass.
perusing these certificates it will be seen that particular stress is laid in
the beginning of all upon a belief in an undivided Trinity; also that the
Conclaves in which the order was conferred, were variously known by different
names, such as "General Assembly," "Grand Encampment," etc.
Nor do we
find any strict regularity in the presiding officers. Thus where one is signed
by the "Captain General," "Grand Master" and "Grand A" (?), another by the
"Captain General" and two "Grand Wardens," "Captain General," "Grand Warden"
and "Deputy Grand Warden," "Grand Master," "Grand Senior Warden," "Grand
Junior Warden," "High Priest," and lastly one signed by "Captain General,"
"Grand Marshall," "Grand A," "Grand G" and S. B. (standard Bearer ?) .
As to the
Templar Ritual used by these Craft lodges little or nothing is known, except
that brethren of the Royal Arch and Templar degrees wore aprons edged with
ribbons of blue, red and black.
efforts have been spared to obtain a specimen of one of these Ancient Craft
Templar Aprons, which are exceedingly rare; Frater W. Redfern Kelly, a Knight
Grand Cross of the Order of the Temple in Ireland, one of the highest Templar
authorities, in a letter to the writer, states, with respect to your latter
communication relative to the old "Irish Craft Aprons," which show the three
colors Blue, Red and Black: "I may state that these old Aprons were supposed
to be quite rare; were of purely fanciful pattern, and were adopted without
any Craft or other authority by such brethren as felt so disposed, and who had
received the three degrees of Craft, Royal Arch and High Knight Templar.
three colors, so worn, were never at any time (so far as is known) officially
recognized by the Craft lodges, as authorized to be worn in connection with
Symbolic Masonry. They were simply tolerated, in those good old
'happy-go-lucky' times, when regular Craft Warrants were quite unknown."
Museum Collection we have however an aprons showing the Craft, Royal Arch and
Templar colors and emblems. This Craft Apron, made of lambskin, bound with
light blue silk ribbon, is decorated with hand-painted symbolic emblems.
top over all is the All-Seeing Eye, then we have the Bridge of the
Mediterranean Pass and the Templar Tent, below on either side are Craft and
Royal Arch emblems. In the center are two large columns surmounted
respectively by the sun, moon and seven stars; between the columns is the
tessellated pavement in red and black indicative that the wearer had received
the Royal Arch and Templar degrees.
interesting relic of former days belonged to our late Brother Samuel H.
Perkins, a member of Columbia Lodge, No. 91, St. John's Encampment, No. 4,
E.G.M., 1829-30, and who during years 1839-40 was R. W. Grand Master of
evidences that this apron was made in Philadelphia, as on one of the pediments
we have the legend of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, viz.: "SILENCE AND
surmise is correct, it is another evidence of the Irish influence lingering in
the development of Masonic Knight Templary in Pennsylvania during the early
years of the nineteenth century.
Quatuor Coronati Transactions," Volume XXVI, p. 145.
Chevalier Ramsay (Andrew Michael Ramsay) was a Scotchman, born at Ayr about
1680; toward the middle of the eighteenth century, we find him in France,
where he developed as an inventor of Masonic Degrees, as well as a founder of
a Masonic Rite. For a hundred years and more the stock histories of
Freemasonry have vied with each other in ascribing to the Chevalier Andrew
Michael Ramsay, the introduction of the higher degrees, and notably of Masonic
Knight Templars. - f. "A.Q.C. Transactions," Volume XXVI, p. 60; "The History
of Freemasonry," by Robert Freke Gould, London, 1887, Volume III, p. 77.
"Illustrations of Masonry," by William Preston, First American edition,
Portsmouth, 1804, p. 137.
Francis Clements Crossle, of Trevor Hill, Newry, Ireland, was one of the
highest Masonic authorities in Ireland. He served as secretary to the
Provincial Grand Lodge of Down from 1888 to 1901, when he was raised to the
position of R.W. Deputy Provincial Grand Master by the Duke of Connaught; he
was appointed Grand Superintendent of Royal Arch Masonry in Ireland. He was
also a Past Preceptor of the PTewry Preceptory of Knights Templar and was
exalted to the position of P.G.K.C. For many years he used his spare time in
the investigation of Masonic history and archaeological investigations.
works are "A History of Freemasonry in the Province of Down," "The Three
Veterans," "A History of St. Patrick's Lodge, No. 77," and of "Newry Lodge,
antiquarian researches he collected impressions from seals of all of the
Ancient Irish Craft lodges that could be reached. This valuable collection he
presented some years ago to the writer, and it is now in the Museum of the
Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania.
Dr. Crossle died at his home on Trevor Hill, Newry, October 15, 1910. Nos.
4001-4060, Trays Nos. 18-21.
"History of Nelson Masonic Lodge, No. XVIII, Newry, Ireland," by Francis C.
Crossle, Newry, 1909.
Transactions." Volume XXVI, p. 148.
Crossle, before quoted, p. 37.
Lodges No. 333, 336, 662, 888, 443, 211, 521, 675, 891, 822, 732, 257, 915,
923. In Crossle's collection.
"Three Masonic Veterans," by Francis C. Crossle, Newry, 1897, p. 6.
Ibid., p. 6.
Ibid., p. 7.
Volume 277, Archives of Grand Lodge of
Pennsylvania, p. 183.
Certificate No. 2240, Tray 45, Archives of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania.
Certificate No. 6628, Tray 45, Archives of the Grand Lodge
Certificate No. 6631, Tray 45, Archives of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania.
Certificate No. 6629, Tray 45, Archives of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania.
Certificate No. 2284, Tray 45, Archives of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania.
Certificate No. 2258, Tray 45, Archives of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania.
Certificate No. 2241, Tray 45, Archives of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania.
Size of certificate 15 1/2 x 11 1/2. Engraved by J. Quin, Belfast, 1822.
Museum Collection, No. 1005, Tray 216.
COMMITTEE ON PATRIOTIC SERVICE OF THE GRAND LODGE OF NORTH DAKOTA
Committee on Patriotic Service submits the following report, which embodies
among other things those portions of the Grand Secretary's report dealing with
public education which were referred to this Committee.
re-affirm the principles for which Masonry has stood in the past, among which
we deem of fundamental importance democracy in government, equality in
education and justice to all.
in America today many forces operating, directly or indirectly, to undermine
and destroy our system of government and free institutions. Whereas we
emphatically advocate progress and growth by the natural process of evolution,
yet we more emphatically denounce the doctrines of radical revolution. We have
no sympathy with those who would supplant our orderly government with anarchy
and chaos, "red" socialism, or any new and untried Utopian scheme.
our ends and preserve for ourselves and posterity those priceless blessings of
liberty and free government ordained and established by our forefathers and
paid for in life-blood and treasure, we deem it essential that Masonry, but
more especially the Grand Lodge of North Dakota, commit itself to the
promulgation of the following propositions, namely:
That the Stars and Stripes marks the high tide in the ideals of mankind, and
we would therefore urgently advocate the passage of a law which would prohibit
under heavy penalty all display of emblems other than Old Glory, whose purpose
is to swerve the loyalty of our citizens from the true principles of
That "this government is based upon a loyal and intelligent citizenship, and
therefore it must control the agencies which train that citizenship, i.e., the
elementary public school." To do this effectively, it is necessary that the
English language as spoken by Americans be the sole medium of instruction in
much prefer the elimination of the private and parochial elementary schools
since the one makes for class distinction and the other for religious
intolerance; but if such elimination is found inexpedient at this time, we
recommend that such schools be under the close supervision of the public
school officials of the state and nation, and that they be compelled to
maintain the same standards required of the public schools.
In connection with this supervision, it is the sense of this body that the
just and lawfully constituted powers of the State Department of Education be
returned to the official duly elected by the voters of the state for their
order that the standards of education in this state may be raised to the
highest possible degree of efficiency, and, further, recognizing the present
problem of teacher shortage and the low standard of preparation of teachers to
be in the last analysis one of economics, we favor, first, a higher standard
of qualifications, and, second, a compensation of teachers commensurate with
the maintenance of this standard, and recommend the passage of whatever
appropriate legislation that may be necessary to accomplish these ends.
most heartily approve the action of the Grand Lodge at its annual
communication in organizing corps of Masonic Minute Men in the constituent
lodges, and recommend the retention of these forces for the purposes
heretofore avowed of creating among Masons a greater interest not only in
Masonry, but also in the proper solution of the social and political questions
which confront us as a people today.
adopted by Grand Lodge. June 17th. 1920.
Liberty dwells there is my country. - Franklin.
VIEWPOINT OF WORLDS FREEMASONRY
F. DE P. RODRIGUEZ
COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN CORRESPONDENCE, CUBA
Report of the Committee on Correspondence of the Grand Lodge of Cuba is given
to readers of TIIE BUILDER in advance of its publication in the Cuban Grand
Lodge Proceedings. We feel sure that our members will find it of peculiar
WE ARE in
Lent, (1) the hurrahs and hosannas, the palms and the festivities remind us of
the triumphs of new ideas even more than of the martyrdom of the Nazarene.
Everything invites to meditation and rest, a full and sincere repentance
cleanses the souls of the most indurate; faults must be overcome.
thing happens to society; reports and messages are spontaneous confessions by
means of which those obliged to present them very often pronounce a mea culpa
before their audiences and, notwithstanding the good faith involved in
submitting to the critic the laudatory or defe'ctive deeds, socially speaking
a true amendment is always supposed to come from us Masons, more than from
other persons, especially when we remember that the mission of Freemasonry in
the modern world is the task of redemption.
always grand, divine, necessary, and who can excel us not only in loving and
desiring it, but also in preaching and applying it, praising with fruition its
arrival among friends and foes? For that reason those who suffer the most to
obtain it, those who sacrifice themselves the most to secure it, know best how
much it is worth, and excel most in glorifying it, in singing its praises, in
pretending to perpetuate it, offering on its behalf the palms and hurrahs
which in times past belonged only to those who gained the material victory and
today are common property, starting always with the greatest loser.
and, on her behalf, her Grand Lodge, have been in this case the forerunners.
The week included between the twenty-third and thirtieth of June, 1919, was of
such immense joy to London Masons, on account of the Celebration of Peace and
the entertainment afforded their guests, that it has no equal in history.
English-speaking Grand Lodges were invited, the Grand Masters and Grand
Secretaries accepting the invitation becoming the special guests of the United
Grand Lodge of England while attending the ceremonies. Representatives of most
of the Grand Lodges of the United States, Canada and Australia attended and,
by the strangest of coincidences, nearly all of the American visitors crossed
the ocean on board the Mauretania, sister ship of the ill-fated Lusitania. The
kindness shown and the banquets offered culminated in a mammoth Communication
held, not in the Temple in Great Queen Street - that was too small - but in
Royal Albert Hall, beautifully decorated with bunting and flags, which
comfortably sheltered that day 8,500 Masons, presided over by the Pro Grand
Master, Lord Ampthill, the Grand Master, the Duke of Connaught, being unable
to attend on account of sickness. How satisfied our brethren must have been
when together with "God Save the King" and "The Star Spangled Banner" the
exclamation "Pax Vobis" reached also the most distant places of the earth.
the grandest act the world has ever seen in matters Masonic, but not the
greatest that could have been seen. How much better would it have been if,
together with those beautiful and patriotic hymns, other national hymns were
heard, as La Brabaconne, La Marseillaise, Garibaldi, and even the most humble
of all, the Bayamo Hymn, (2) which, proceeding from af small nation, is not
less grand or not less worthy, since for it blood was shed and many lives were
lost. Let them tell us if it is not true that "to die for the country is to
live," (3) living, as we do live, only to have our flag floating glorious and
proud in order to keep close to us that peace so anxiously coveted.
went to war ostensibly to defend the rights of a very small
non-English-speaking nation; the armies of the entente were led to victory
under the unique direction of a non-English-speaking General. And even Cuba,
this microscopical grain of sand in the Carribean Sea, where English is not
spoken by her people, contributed to the cause of the Allies (a fact still
ignored by many) among other things by giving them special prices on her
sugar, amounting to a gift of $160,000,000. When England, during war times
(1917) celebrated the two-hundredth anniversary of her Grand Lodge, all the
non-English-speaking Grand Lodges immediately congratulated her, and, even
more, celebrated at home, each of us, so important an event. We could have
declined the advantages of the lodging, as we eat little and drink much less,
we could have been satisfied with the warmth which, like that offered by the
hen to her chicks, the mother owes to all her children.
* * *
always entertained the most firm belief that the progress which marked the
nineteenth century, and even the present one, has been international and, of
course, with no relation whatever to political or ethnological limits, and
much less to those of philological order; but nevertheless, as this is
somewhat theoretical, when we arrived at practical facts we found that
education, universally considered, has intensified the devotion for the
language, the ideals and even the aspirations of the various nations. As a
proof of this we can refer to our North American friends.
generally known the influence that European immigrants has had in the
neighboring Union. Immense groups of Teutons, Slavs, Irish Cents, Magyars and
Italians were admitted to the country by wholesale; many of them forming
afterwards special colonies which were never reached by the national language,
and several not even by hygiene. Matters continued long in that way; the cries
of alarm from Tangier, Agadir and Serajevo, in crossing the Atlantic, reached
there so attenuated by the immense waves of the ocean that but little
attention was paid to them. The legislators, protected by the historical
phrases of Washington that tended to separate his country from European
complications, gave themselves up to the dulce far niente. But truth
triumphed, and the moment arrived when the immense waves were of no avail and
they had to be crossed in haste in order to revindicate universal
civilization, trampled upon, scorned and threatened with extinction. Alas,
when the bugle sounded, calling to arms, no matter whether its thrilling notes
were heard in those half-foreign colonies, the commanding voices were not so,
because given in the official language of the country extensive groups in
Wisconsin, Illinois and even in New York did not understand them, a great
number of the concerned being American citizens nevertheless. Reaction
immediately set in and desperate measures were immediately adopted; at the
same time the military drill and the most pure English had to be taught the
recruits as they were proficient in neither. The case was so original that
once the American movement was started it reached as far as the Masonic
lodges, since whole districts in Milwaukee, Chicago and even in the eighth,
ninth and tenth districts of New York, and some particular lodges elsewhere,
performed their Masonic work in their respective native languages.
American nation entering the war, Teutonic sympathy, which was most common
before, turned over, and the father, the brother or the son whose relatives
had perished upon the banks of the Marne, or on the Somme, at Chateau Thierry
or in the Belleau Wood began to resent hearing the notes of the German
language. What to do? The example of England, where in similar cases the
German brethren, to avoid friction, were asked to absent themselves from the
lodges as long as the war lasted, was not heeded. Instead, force was appealed
to. The principal Grand Lodges, New York and Illinois at the head, required
from all their lodges the exclusive use of the English language in their
of Grand Master Farmer, of New York, are worthy of being noted:
done," he says, "not because the Masons of this jurisdiction bear any
antipathy or ill will toward brethren who speak a language other than our own,
not in the spirit of denunciation of foreigners or foreign language, not
because we doubt any man's loyalty or integrity; but it was issued simply and
solely because I believe we, as Masons, should do our part for the United
States. Nations have been disrupted by differences in languages. Differences
in languages have caused more wars than differences in religion; more
unhappiness than all other causes combined. Any other language will offer the
part of view of the foreigner, and we must not entertain any other objective
than the American spirit."
with that. We believe the measure perfectly legal and anyone at liberty to
adopt it in his locality; but there is something to say against it. It is not
equitable. It is all right that the native or naturalized citizen of a country
should speak the official language of that country, but the foreigner, the
diplomat, or any other resident who for many reasons does not lawfully belong
to the country protecting him, is our guest, and all nations on earth should
try their best to have him live comfortably in the place where he is a visitor
as long as he does not trespass the laws. Such persons, we believe, do not
deserve to be deprived of the use of their own language, as neither can they
be deprived of their ideals nor of remembering or loving their native land.
Why was a measure caused by a reprisal to the Teuton extended to thousands of
Allies who communicate in the same church as Americans ?
who has for a shorter or longer period resided outside of his own country
knows how his heart beats when he hears spoken a few words of his native
tongue. How one expands himself when another countryman is heard speaking. He
seems to have changed his residence to another world, to have returned home,
especially if he is an exile or an emigrant. Fraternity and La Universal
Lodges (4) will no longer be the meeting places of Cubans and
Spanish-Americans, and perhaps to Cervantes (5) and Dr. Felix Varela (6)
Lodges will happen the same thing if Louisiana and Florida are contaminated by
New York and Illinois.
goes a little further yet. The forced measures which in these cases apply also
to the allied brothers could also bring retaliation. What would our brethren
of the Hudson shores think if any foreign Grand Lodge, imitating them, would
prohibit the use of the English language in their English-speaking lodges? I
do not know how other people think on this matter, but as to Cuba I believe I
express the ideas of my companions in assuring the English-speaking brethren
who live among us that no variation will take place. Let everyone speak his
own language, let all of them maintain in our country the usages and manners
peculiar to their own country. For them our arms will always be wide open, our
halls also. We shall not break the laws of hospitality. As the Russian proverb
says: "My friends' friends are my friends too." Let our American residents
follow their proper labor, keeping in mind that "some day not far off these
orders will be revoked, they are the result of patriotic exaltation the same
with Latins as with Anglo-Saxons."
* * *
results of the world war need to be studied more; it is France, the nation,
that knocks at our doors. "Are we friends, or not?" they ask of those whom
they received as brothers and rescuers when as they crossed the seas,
remembering La Fayette by declaring "Here we are!" The question of the
recognition of the Grand Orient of France has not yet been resolved by us, but
this will not forbid us presenting before our companions the status of that
question was purely dogmatic when England laid it on the board in 1877 - it
was nearly forgotten when the first step in Brest of the American soldiers, in
1918, revived it. Western soldiers were received with wreaths and flowers;
France is always France and always courteous and polite; none has gone further
than she, the struggle between the heart and old ideas was readily begun; from
then to this day, in the short space of two years, the Fraternity in North
America has greatly agitated in that way. Results are evident, and if we
remember that the majority of Grand Lodges in the United States meet only once
a year and that general usage prescribes a motion to be presented at one
Communication and acted upon at the next after hearing the report of the
respective committee, we ought not to be surprised at the result. Eight Grand
Lodges have already recognized the Grand Orient, fifteen the Grand Lodge of
France, and two the Independent Grand Lodge - twenty-five in all. Six Grand
Lodges have granted to their members the right to visit the Grand Orient, nine
the Grand Lodge, six the Independent Grand Lodge, and six all French Bodies.
Twenty-three are not yet in amity with any of the French Grand Bodies, while
only one has granted the right to visit the French Bodies and denied to French
Masons the right to visit its Grand Lodge.
evolutions remind us of Sir Edward Grey's doings when he tried to impose his
criterion on the London Conference; by his lack of opportunity he did not
avoid the second Balkan war which he hastened with the treaty of Bucharest;
Albania and Macedonia continued to be the bone of contention of Slavs, Greeks
and others, and the debacle came very soon.
time to look forward. Our Albania and Macedonia are now the extension of
French liberalism which does not accept discrimination in the religious and
philosophic ideas of its members. When Voltaire could sit as a Mason next to
Franklin in the Lodge of the Nine Sisters in Paris, any other man can be a
Mason. Who is to blame for what happens in the American Masonic field which,
as the snowball, grows by moments? Let everyone examine his own conscience.
* * *
continue with the consequences of the war. Although it is ended, our
compromises are still extant. It is no secret to anyone, the enormous defeat
inflicted to American Masonry by the terrible blows of the Roman Catholic
authorities in that country. Masonry did not make her benefits felt in the
field of war. That was a glorious deed for the Tumultys, the Fosdicks and near
of kin. In our last report we noticed it and even announced the formation in
Iowa of the Masonic Service Association to eliminate the deficiencies of the
American Masonic system. The coveted solidarity has been attained, the new
Association progresses satisfactorily, having been accepted by nearly all of
the Grand Lodges of the country. This was to be expected, as in that nation
nothing is left half-done; but what has surprised many is that besides the
purely philanthropic ideas, the Society has qualified as a most opportune one
and, together with economic betterments, they are working in another way.
Their by-laws and their organization are excellent, but it is their platform
which pleases us the most. Here are some interesting points:
recast the ideals of government on the basis of the recognition and execution
of our duties toward others, rather than as at present in our rights as
against others; the basing of civilization on declarations of dependence,
instead of on declarations of independence; on altruism instead of
combat destructive tendencies and agencies seeking to undermine and destroy
free institutions, by teaching constructively the true principles and
functions of government and civilization.
arouse the conscience of every individual Mason to the necessity for his own
practical application of Masonic principles to his activities in life,
governmental, social, business and otherwise."
you think of that, now ? Were we right or not when two years ago we started
sociological studies in our lodges ? Then and even now we believed that
Masonry plays a most important part in the coming reconstruction of the world.
* * *
persons still believe that the League of Nations, now in vogue, is perhaps
Utopian, and that it will not be practicable. This may be so, so far as some
minor details are concerned, but taken as a whole some benefit will result -
as a proof of this a League of Masons is already talked of. The idea came from
Sir Alfred Robbins. Hear the initial paragraph of its exposition:
has come when the ideal must be our lighthouse to guide us toward the real;
not to disclose our divergences but to point the way to a still closer union.
Let there be harmonious unity in all essentials, divergence in all
unessentials, and in all things let us act in a spirit of charity.... May we
find ways of knowing each other better, of better appreciating our various
methods, ideas, realizations of the same; for the first condition of
friendship is to clear away all mutual ignorance. Whilst statesmen strive to
set on foot the League of Nations, let us strive to set up a League of
Freemasons among ourselves and those brethren with whom we have always been in
agreement on all matters of principle and practice."
it proper to here record some fundamental principles of sociology:
"Institutions with great difficulty cross over the frontiers of nations, the
opportune moment for it has to be waited for, when a sufficiently prepared
people should ask for it, it is necessary then to prepare characters that
fundamental ideals should spring in them."
present moment is opportune; the nation in this sense is the Masonic
fraternity, preparation is already possessed, the exposer is Sir Alfred
Robbins who, although he has addressed his call only to the brethren of his
own race residing on this side of the sea, we suppose it is extended to "all
with whom he has always been in agreement on all matters of principle and
practice," and we believe too that this call, unlike that of the Peace
Celebration, will not be confined to his English-speaking fellows because then
the League would be incomplete and accordingly non-effective and would
prove, besides, the
expressions "Brotherhood of Man" and "Fatherhood of God" so common in Masonic
rituals, to be farcical.
In olden times nations took hold of smaller ones simply to
exploit them. Today democracy reigns, the former exercise their influence upon
the latter for the purpose of upholding their rights, exercising over them not
a sovereignty but a tutelage. Shall an International Grand Lodge come out of
this proposition of a Masonic League, so opportunely presented? We shall
perhaps see it, we highly desire it. Think it over carefully, whoever is
certain in sustaining that Masonry unites and never disintegrates.
* * *
It seems that Masonic rapproachement will be carried on this
year in an unusual way, perhaps on account of past reverses. We like Masonic
Congresses, union is proclaimed in them and the regularity of their components
shines in them in a clear and effectual manner.
Two Congresses will be held this year. The first, called for
September 20th, in Rome, will not be so important, because the event to be
commemorated will be the attainment of Italian unity - a local affair which
will surely interfere with the present division of Italian Masonry. The second
Congress, although decided upon for this Fall, will probably not be held until
next Spring. It will assume greater importance, and will not be circumscribed
to any special race or local Masonry. It will take place in Switzerland and
judging from the preparations the results may be beneficial. According to the
announcement sent out, the occasion must not be deferred, even if nothing more
than an exchange of ideas is to be obtained. The initial paragraph of the
the past years of war we frequently considered whether or not it was our
mission to invite the brothers of all countries to participate in a convention
for the purpose of bringing them into closer relations with one another, but
after due consideration we felt convinced that the proper time had not yet
arrived, and that this wish coald be realized only after the cessation of the
bloody strife. Now the war is ended. Nations are beginning to resume their
relations. The broken threads of manifold skeins of destiny are to be
repaired. In this work qf reconstruction Freemasonry must not continue its
attitude of waiting. It must no longer remain idle. For is not Freemasonry the
one organization that is best qualified to further conciliation between the
peoples and, by means of personal contact among its members, to aid in the
advancement of Masonic ideas?"
In 1921 there will be held a Congress of Supreme Councils of
the A. & A. S. R. at Lausanne, Switzerland, which should be most beneficial to
members of that Rite.
* * *
Allow me, brethren, before finishing this report, leaving
modesty aside, to applaud and congratulate you for the compliments and good
words spoken of Cuban Masonry by sister Grand Lodges. We have, it seems, lived
in a garden, and are no longer the lonesome Masons of past times. The spirits
of Cassard, Castro and Almeida (7) care for us and perhaps try to keep our
friends abroad well posted in our doings, that they may be appreciated when
better known; the seed sown half a century ago is already producing
well-seasoned fruits of which we ought to make good use.
But of all the praises lavished upon us none have gone so high
as those coming from our, in past times, antagonistic sister, Illinois, the
Grand Lodge which kept us waiting many years without considering us worthy of
her friendship; she does not confine herself to the printing of excerpts from
our reports as others do, and with an unlimited sincerity when reviewing our
Report on Correspondence, says:
Report of the Committee on Foreign Correspondence is printed in full because
it is unique and it mirrors the fraternity of the world as it is viewed by one
who is working out Masonry, as he understands it, on the distant island of
And printed in full it is. Not a letter is added nor taken from
it. That, my dear brethren, is a victory for you, since I in this case have
been but your mouthpiece; the trumpet of fame that has made the deeds, the
tenacity and the perseverance of Cuban Masons reach the far-off lands. Accept
my congratulations for it; with them goes my full soul, my best wishes and the
good hope I have that among the faults that our institution may have, as a
human society that it is, glories are found too, glories necessarily produced
by the continued labor of the Masonic workman. Permit me to compare this
victory of ours to another victory, that won on the banks of the Marne a short
time ago which fully changed the destinies of Europe, to both of which applies
the brief allocution addressed to his army by General Joffre, the modern
Fabius, the grandpapa of his countrymen. If you substitute it in terms, days
and places, you will therein find yourselves:
battle that has lasted five days has ended with a victory. We have
successfully recuperated a most vigorous offensive. All of you, officers and
soldiers, have answered nobly to the call. The country owes you much."
Annual Communication of the Grand Lodge of Cuba was held late in March.
Cuban National Anthem.
of the Cuban National Anthem.
two Spanish-speaking lodges of New York City.
Spanish-speaking lodge of New Orleans.
Spanish-speaking lodge of Key West, Florida.
most prominent Cuban Masons.
sublime teachings of Masonry are not simply our idealization, but a
realization, and it is the ambition of every true Mason so to live that his
brother man may see in him a living witness to this one great Masonic truth -
the greatest possible usefulness is the highest law of Masonic life. No man
is worthy of its name who is content to absorb its sunshine and yet
shed no ray of light or warmth upon his fellow man. - Rev. William Wallace
Youngson, Grand Orator, Oregon.
No man is
so foolish but he may sometimes give another good counsel, and no man so wise
that he may not easily err if he takes no other counsel than his own. He that
is taught only by himself has a fool for a master. - Ben Jonson.
not say, Every man is the architect of his own fortune; but let us say, Every
man is the architect of his own character. - G.D. Boardman.
DAYS OF JOHN PAUL JONES
GILBERT PATTEN BROWN, NEW JERSEY
of station is the one quality ever commendable in the life of a great man. It
is noticeably lacking in many leading men in our present civilization. Honesty
of purpose is one of the many things that go to make up round character.
but two of the many virtues possessed by the patriot upon whom the author will
touch briefly in his days of the warrior's glory, his honors and his declining
hamlet of Kirkbean, Leith, Scotland, was born on July 6th, 1747, one who was
destined to play an important part in the world's progress. John Paul was the
son of a poor gardner. At twelve years of age he made a voyage to Virginia,
and another in 1773. His brother, who had been adopted by a planter in that
State, had recently died. The old Virginia farmer had so loved the Paul boy
that he had given him his name.
connection of our hero with Freemasonry is unique and interesting. The records
of St. Bernard Lodge No. 122, Kilwinning, Scotland, under the date of Nov. 27,
1770, read that "Captain John Paul of the Brig 'John'" was "entered and
passed" upon that date. He was proposed by Brother James Smith who signed his
name under the following language: "I do attest the petitioner to be a good
man and a person whom I have no doubt will in due time become a worthy
Paul was at the time in the African slave trade. The Brig "John" was a "flash
packet" as we sailors used to say. His application for the degrees appears in
his own hand writing and is worthy of more than a passing notice for its good
English, well timed philosophy and honesty of purpose. It is as follows:
Worshipful, the Master, Wardens and Permanent Brethren of Free and Accepted
Masons of the Lodge of St. Bernard held at Kirkcudbright. The petition of John
Paul, Commander of the 'John' of Kirkendal, humbly sheweth - that your
petitioner, for a considerable time past, hath entertained a strong and
sincere regard for your most noble, honourable, and ancient Society of Free
and Accepted Masons, but hitherto not meeting with reasonable opportunity, do
now most humbly crave the benefit of receiving and admitting me into your
Fraternity as an Entered Apprentice, promising, assuring and engaging to you
that I shall in all rules and orders of your Lodge be most obsequient and
observant. That I shall in all things deport, behave, and act answerable to
the laws and instructions of the lodge, and in every thing to which I may be
able liable, promising faithful obedience. The complyance of you, Right
Worshipful Wardens and rest of the Brethren, will singularly oblige and very
much honour, Right Worshipful, your most humble petitioner and most humble
application would in these days call the attention of the most critical of
philosophers. Even such Masons as the diplomat, Benjamin Franklin, the tender
Robert Burns, the scholarly Voltaire, the patriotic Thomas Paine, the honest
Henry Clay, or the prudent Thomas Jefferson, could have found a fitting lesson
in candor and the spirit of universal brotherhood in this application of a
humble Scottish sea captain at the ebb of British despotism in the new world.
There in the old "fore and aft," square rigger days nearly all sea Captains
were Masons, and the deep water John Paul wished to be as good as any other
man on the "quarter deck" of either merchant ship or a line of battle frigate.
is known as the home of the world's purest Masonry, and it was here that one
of the cleanest minded men of the great American Revolution received his first
light in Masonry.
narrator is indebted to Past Grand Master Charles Theodore Gallagher of
Massachusetts for the Masonic data here used. The spirit of liberty was in the
air in the thirteen colonies, and in a day John Paul, the young sea captain,
became John Paul Jones, the champion of freedom. We next see him in
Philadelphia. His appearance pleases every patriot except John Adams. "Give me
a ship and I will strike a blow for liberty," said the young sailor, and upon
meeting the members of Continental Congress he found himself among his
brethren in Freemasonry. Hancock, Bartlett, Paine, Witherspoon, Whipple,
Jefferson, Clark, Rush, Lee, Thornton, Hooper and Franklin were his friends.
In 1777 we find him at Portsmouth, N. H., fitting out the "Ranger." While at
Portsmouth he attended church on Sunday, kept an eye on the affairs of the
Colonies and soon showed the world what real sea fighting was. At that place
he became associated with Captain Elijah Hall. Captain Jones chose Hall as
first lieutenant of the "Ranger." The first anniversary of the signing of the
Declaration of Independence was celebrated by the local Masonic lodge by
making Captain Hall a Mason. "May you ever abide by its lessons," said Jones
to Hall. "My men for the 'Ranger'," said Captain Jones, "shall be the picked
sons of New England."
more than probable that Captain Jones visited St. John's Lodge No. 1 of
Portsmouth while there fitting out the "Ranger," as his chief associates in
that place were active members of this the second oldest lodge in New England.
In more than a score of places do the records read "and visiting brethren."
Sometimes the secretary would use the initials "V. B." While at Portsmouth he
was the lion of society. His brethren in the Craft, Commodore Abraham Whipple,
John Manley, Samuel Tucker and Edward Preble - New England Masons and active
in the War of the Revolution, held him in high esteem.
"Ranger" did invaluable service. Victory after victory crowned Jones' name.
Upon arriving in Paris upon one celebrated victory he was honored. The "Lodge
of Nine Sisters" of Paris, of which Franklin was Senior Warden, elected the
hero of the seas to active membership. In open lodge that evening Captain
Jones said, "Brethren, this is the proudest moment of my life." It was truly a
"gathering of the gods" - the great men of Paris were present. Scientist and
peasant, Catholic and Protestant - all members of the world's most
cosmopolitan Masonic lodge greeted the greatest of naval warriors upon that
sublime and august occasion. Several Jesuit priests, members of the lodge of
the Nine Sisters and other French lodges, were present in clerical garb. The
handsome, modest and God-loving John Paul Jones greeted them all with a heart
free from bigotry and a welcome hand to all right thinkers.
honor conferred upon him was by Louis XVI, who knighted him for his victory
over the Serapis, making him a Chevalier of the Royal Order of Military Merit,
and giving him a gold mounted sword, both unusual honors. Congress was large
of heart but small of means and it thanked him.
honors it is hard to say which Jones appreciated the more. He was proud of the
title "American," but his tastes made the attentions of the polished society
of France highly congenial.
of his fame, Paul Jones, the Knight, had quite as many difficulties to
surmount as had young John Paul, the Scottish sailor lad from the banks of the
took his prize into the Dutch port at the Texel, after the great fight off
Flamborough Head (Sept. 23, 1779), he was denounced by the British Minister to
Holland as a pirate. In the contest covering several weeks Paul Jones showed
himself as much a diplomat as the British Minister, and managed to keep his
ships in port until a favorable opportunity came for him to escape, which he
did in a gale that drove the British fleet that was watching him off the
was deprived of command of the captured Serapis, on which his heart was set.
She was claimed as a King's prize, because the ship in which he made the
capture, the Bon Homme Richard, had been given him by Louis.
a hard blow to Jones, but he bore it with fortitude. He next expected to
command the Alliance, from which the mad Landais had fired on him in the
battle with the Serapis. Here again fate thwarted him. Arthur Lee, who had
been one of the American Commissioners to France, plotted for Landais to
retain the Alliance, contrary to Dr. Franklin's orders, and Landais sailed in
her to America, only to be arrested by his own officers on the voyage as
delayed in Europe, exchanging prisoners and looking out for the prize money
due him and his men, until late in 1780, when he came to the United States in
the matter of his prizes was settled the war was over. His last important
command, therefore, was the one that had brought so much glory to the flag,
that of the old Bonne Homme Richard. He was on active duty five years and five
contentions for his prizes called him to Norway, to Denmark and to Holland,
where for many months he acted the part of an admiralty lawyer combined with
that of a diplomat. This work occupied him until he entered the service of
Catherine of Russia, a chapter in his career little understood, but entirely
to his credit. The Empress conferred upon him the rank of Rear Admiral.
Foreign ambassadors and nobles thronged his residence.
been claimed that he "abandoned the American service," but this was unjust
criticism. Until his death he considered himself an American naval officer,
subject to the call of his country.
with Jones as a lover in his last days that the student of history lingers. He
was knighted June 28, 1780. At this period of his career he was the idol of
the best society in Paris, the lion of the hour in the most fashionable
drawing-rooms, the best-dressed and the wittiest man in every assemblage he
graced. He was then 33 years old. What a picture was his, handsome and brave a
bachelor before the society of France. Widows courted him by the score. The
slight defects of character in Jones sprang from his want of early education.
The name of Paul Jones was upon the lips of all France.
time he met a girl of 20, the winsome Aimee de Telison. She was a daughter of
Louis XVI. She was small, vivacious, witty and handsome, with a mass of dark
auburn hair, and a clear, rosy complexion.
in love with Jones, and he with her. Although he had been smiled upon by the
handsomest and highest women of the court he turned from them all to this
modest girl, who figured socially merely as the protege of a highborn duchess.
love had the enduring foundation of mutual respect and congenial tastes, and
furnishes a fitting lesson for all young people of the twentieth century. It
had not many months to ripen before Jones was obliged to leave France for the
United States; but in the years that followed there beat always for him one
pure heart in Paris that of Aimee de Telison.
Jones was in France she acted as his secretary, helping him with his
voluminous correspondence, translating letters and documents, advising and
suggesting as only an intelligent and educated woman seeing with the eyes of
love could, and in every way assisting him in his career.
letters they exchanged in his long absence have not all been preserved, but
those saved breathe a pure and lofty devotion on both sides.
death claimed Paul Jones, but one heart was wrung with grief that could not be
softened, and that was Aimee de Telison's. She was near him in his last days -
her home was not far from the house where he lodged in Paris - his devoted
nurse. In his will he gave her a third of his property and settled an annuity
during the most pleasing days of Jones' social life in France "a charming but
antiquated widow" of Paris made love to the bachelor-hero, and during her
affectionate remarks, inquired of the peerless seafighter why he cared so much
for the young lady in question. In all the ardor of his frank manhood he
replied: "She is the most beautiful young woman I ever met, I love her for her
loyalty, all that belongs to me I would trust in her care." During his remarks
he looked the antique widow "straight in the eyes." She soon made her way from
his office to seek greener fields.
of the French revolution was then about ready to break and the future looked
dark to all connected with the royal house of France. The King and Queen were
to go to the block, but Aimee de Telison survived and lived to earn her
living, when the war had passed, as a translator for a Napoleonic newspaper
and also as a teacher of English. Trace of her career after the fall of
Napoleon had been lost.
Jones died in Paris July 18, 1792. Patriotism was his watchword, creed entered
not into his life.
He left a
name that shall live as long as a ship of any sort rides the billows of the
mighty deep. On American soil rests that Christian without a creed, the best
of whose life went forth to the cause of liberty. He loved all and hated none.
cannot think of John Paul Jones, the poor bov. the sailor lad at sea. the
merchant marine captain, the volunteer for liberty, the naval officer, the
humbler of Mother England's pride, the Knight at the Court of France, the
Worshipper at Masonry's Shrine, and finally the hero lying more than a century
in a lost grave in Paris, to be claimed at last by a grateful Nation, whose
glory he had first emblazoned to the world on the seas - without thinking also
of the one permanent love interest in his life, the devotion of the young,
beautiful, soft-hearted and good Aimee de Telison.
Russian Government, shortly before his death, voted him a command in the navy
of that country with the rank of Vice Admiral. Admiral Jones viewed it as a
call to take part in a race war and as he was not of that type of a man
refused the command.
thing above all ever commendable in the life of our hero was that he was
chivalric in his admiration of women.
days of John Paul Jones give a never tiring charm to world biography. While
the stars shine and the Navy of the great western Republic sails the Seven
Seas, the name of John Paul Jones will serve to inspire all lovers of
universal liberty. In every State in these United States there should be at
least one body of the Masonic Institution named in honor of the world's
peerless warrior on the great deep.
AND THE ROSE
C. SPURGEON MEDHURST, CHINA
an address delivered before the Tung Te Chapter of the Rose Croix, No. 4,
highest truths can be communicated only in symbol. Masonry could not, if it
would, state in plain language all that it means. It is an attempt to
dramatize by a variety of devices a universal experience - the consciousness
that something essential to complete happiness is often sought for, is never
found. To demonstrate this by examining each of the thirty-two of our Masonic
degrees would be on this occasion impracticable. I confine myself, therefore,
as is appropriate to our present convention, to an attempt to elucidate the
meaning of the emblem of the Chapter of the Rose Croix.
rose and the cross are wide-spread religious symbols, but it would serve no
good purpose at this time to catalogue the places where the symbology crops
up. You will find a brief resume in "Morals and Dogma," and more extensive
references in any standard work on comparative religion. Few symbols are more
universal. The Cross represents the Eternal in time; the Rose the Eternal in
timelessness. We cannot have one without the other.
points to the four quarters of the compass. The Cross then as a symbol is
coextensive with Creation. Nevertheless the Cross is something cut from the
whole. It is a part only; it is not the whole. Its story is a tale of
limitation, and limitation is loss, pain, sacrifice. The Cross is hard and
harsh. It speaks of crucifixion, and our religious records tell us of several
crucifixions besides the great World-Story of Redemption told in connection
with Christianity, for what is crucifixion but one-pointed concentration on
the ideal of life, a stretching of the whole being towards the attainment of
the One Thing which will satisfy. Only this way can we reach the Rose.
Cross symbolizes the necessary limitations of our human conceptions the Rose
is the emblem of their transcendence. Permit me to explain myself a little
more fully. This universe lies under the law of opposites. You cannot think
of anything without thinking of its opposite. The thought of good suggests
evil, you cannot conceive evil except in relation to good. Yet, though bound
hand and foot by evil, you cannot escape reverence for the good. There was
never yet a man so bad that he did not respect someone else because he felt
that other was better than he. The law of opposites extends to the most inner
of the worlds we know; it reigns, as far as we can see, in the outermost
regions of all that we are acquainted with, and we are conscious that while
subject to this opposition we shall never hear the mystic "Peace be Still,"
for the utterance of which we axe all longing. The truth therefore, the
Reality, must lie beyond our world of opposites. It can neither be good nor
evil, but something else which, in some way beyond our apprehension, is the
fruit of both. This Third, the Lost Word, the Something for which we are
looking but never find, is symbolized by the Rose. Our rituals cannot fully
explain. They only supply substitutes. No man can do more than this for his
brother. The attainment of the Rose which springs from the Cross is not an
intellectual process translatable into language; it is a mystic inner growth,
realized only by Life. It is a realization of the integral unity of all, a
variant of the instinct which causes each cell in a living body though living
for itself, and feeding itself, to respond to a common reaction and to work as
a unit when the need's of the controlling life so demand. This is why the
beehive finds a place among our symbols. Though not organically one, bees are
so organized that no individual of the hive can live separate from the rest,
beyond a certain time.
therefore invite you to the Cross that you may know the Rose it bears. This
flower grows nowhere else. It has its roots in pain and limitation. In other
words we only appreciate the beauty and fragrance of the Rose as we face the
strain of the crucifixion of the Cross. Let us not fear the discipline of the
Cross, it is the highway to the Rose. When we bury our faces in its velvety
petals, repenting of our past unbrotherlinesses, and our past harshnesses, we
find that we ourselves are the heart of the Rose, that eternal flower of
perennial beauty at the centre of things. Know then, knights and brethren of
the Rose Croix, that one day, when you shall be able to part from this self
which for the sake of self-development you have cut out from the whole, even
as the Cross is a fragment of Infinity, you will find a grander, greater,
finer, and more comprehensive individuality in the unity of The Whole. This I
take it is the alpha and omega of Masonry, it welds us together as brothers
pledged each to support the other, that it may teach us this great lesson.
This, I take it, is the meaning of the Lost Word, a word which is indeed
ineffable, though the tenor of its significance may be caught from a saying of
the first Wise Master of the Rose Croix: "At that time you will know that I am
in my Father, and that you are in me and that I am in you"; and also from a
statement by another great master in our order: "Then cometh the End, when he
is to surrender the kingship to God, the Father, when he shall have overthrown
all other government and all other authority and power." (1 Cor. 15-24).
FRENZY with which we are living these days is likely to render us incapable of
the reflection that is conducive to our happiness. We often hear it suggested
that it is more of work that our generation needs, that it is too indolent,
likewise too extravagant. But here, be it observed, there.is an apparent
contradiction, as the restlessness that is allied to our extravagance gives
ample proof that we are not indolent. There does not seem to be any lack of
the expenditure of energy. The complaint must be that the energy is expended
unwisely. The mad frenzy which has gripped us has hurried us into an
incoherent way of living. The world, rushing pen men towards what seems like
inevitable disaster cannot be aware of the danger and peril that is attending
always, the halt must be called and a detachment from life must be made in
order that the extremities to which we are coming, if something is not done to
prevent, may be fully apprehended.
of all who have acquired greatness, reveal the fundamental necessity of
detachment from their usual activities in life.
during the latter years, heard a great deal among Masons of that Oriental
philosophy, mystic in its nature which has counselled men to withdraw and get
acquainted with their inner selves. Such advice may be eminently worth while,
but our reason for desiring the detachment from the outward activities for a
brief while (and it is only a brief while that can be spared) is that more may
gain the clear perception that will reveal to them things as they really are
in the world.
in connection with the lecture on the twenty-four-inch gauge, that in its
being divided into twenty-our equal parts, it is emblematical of the
twenty-our hours of the day. Eight hours we learn are for the service of God,
and a distressed worthy brother; eight hours are for our general vocations,
and eight for our refreshment and sleep. To an observance of this Masonic rule
as a principle for the world, men are gradually responding. The regrettable
thing is that Masons who have been enjoined to be governed by this rule
observe it more in the breach than in action.
play to most people today are the two poles of life, but if we would believe
the wise men who sponsored the rule that the twenty-our-nch gauge symbolizes
man's life, we live not only by work and play, but by worship as well, and
worship suggests quiet, meditation, introspection and retrospection. It is the
channel whereby poise is acquired, courage renewed and inspiration derived. It
is the march to the mountain top whence things may be seen in their proper
proportion, and if we were to epitomize in one word the main cause of our ills
individually and socially, these ills and diseases would have to be suggested
by the word disproportion.
things from individual angles with our biases, prejudices, grievances and
hatreds. To consider other men's problems from their point of view is a custom
that the world is pretty much alien to. If we have grievances our continuous
dwelling upon them magnifies them out of all proportion and thus we become
obsessed with the thought that we of all men are the most burdened with trials
and tribulations. If we generalize this thought, so as to affect society, we
will readily appreciate how the various classes with their individualistic
contention for recognition of demands, frequently magnify their grievances out
of all proportion.
habit of thinking selfishly leads men into grooves that transform them into a
disgruntled and egotistic set, and they become a menacing power. While things
are bad, let us assure ourselves that they are not so bad as yet, but that
they might become worse, if a continuance of class antagonism is persisted in.
To clamor for certain things may ultimately bring them, but with their
attainment may come also damaging consequences which will render their
attainment utterly worthless. Ambition overleaping itself brings retribution.
apparent apology for the ambitions of various groups of men seems to be on the
ground that they are entitled to more of this world's goods than they possess.
So far so good. We have no question but that exploitation of the working man
has inflated the pocketbooks of many, and the arrogancy of profiteer and
exploiter no doubt arouses to immeasurable anger those who feel that they have
been exploited. Calm reflection regarding the issue of such discontentment
which manifests itself in industrial warfare warrants us in declaring that the
wise way of adjusting economic troubles, so that the legitimate balance is
arrived at, is through those channels that Constitutional Government provides
for the adjustment of all troubles affecting people living under its
meantime, let the work of production and distribution continue. For the
reflection that we induce men to make will bring to their notice that neither
strike nor lock-ot has ever been conducive to the happiness and welfare of
men. Constitutional government affords any group under its authority with the
means to redress their wrongs, and since the ballot has been obtained and is
fast becoming the universal possession of both men and women, it ought not to
be hard to bring conviction that ballots are more powerful than bullets,
whether those be of lead or of the strike, which often hits a people as
vitally as bullets.
no matter how justified it might have been, and is in some instances even yet,
has become a pernicious habit and it is readily seen that prices and wages but
accentuate the pyramid of the high cost of living, and in no wise assure a
satisfactory solution for our grievous economic problems.
world could but afford to take a week's vacation and had sufficient quietness
of mind to apprehend with what fury and frenzy we have conducted things since
the close of the great war, it would readily come to the conclusion that no
ultimate end which would be worth while could be obtained by a continuance of
the frenzied mode of living. The hope of the idealist during the great war was
that through its instrumentality certain great lessons of humanity would be
learned that would tend to make all peoples seek a common ground where the
adjustment of problems would obviate the necessity of war. Such a hope, on an
international plane, because of the cupidity manifested by great powers, is
fast becoming a matter of despair. Likewise it was believed that in national
activities where all national agencies are woven into a co-perative whole to
pursue the desired end would result in impressing upon a people that their
mutual happiness was best assured as community interests gained pre-eminence
in their consideration rather than individual interests. The flagrant abuses
of privileges enjoyed, the lessening of efficiency and the growing arrogance
of some corporational workers who were supervised by the government, instead
of being conducive to economic harmony, ushered men everywhere into the
maelstrom of selfish greed.
believe that among the things that are fundamentally wrong is the failure to
grasp in a different way the universal need of the hour. That men should have
work at which they receive a living wage whereby they are enabled to live in
comfort and propagate and educate their kind is a fundamental necessity. That
they sue for wages and conditions of labor for this end is truly laudable, but
observation seems to indicate that where men could live within such a province
they are actuated by an ulterior motive which urges them to desire luxuries
that could be lived without. We must emphatically face this fact too, that
where classes seek power through certain of their numbers, those whom they
champion for power and leadership must be men of comprehensive vision of the
needs of all the people.
no longer be said either, that corporational power through the instrumentality
of certain men that they studiously support, can thereby corrupt the vested
interests. Reverting to one of the great lessons of the war, we adjudge the
necessity of the moment would be that the sacrifices that were manifested at
that time should be translated into the variety of activities that are
incident to a nation at work today until the equilibrium of national stability
is again arrived at. We venture further to promulgate the theory that doing
unto others as we would have done unto us is eminently practicable as a rule
for the government of men. Indeed only under such a rule can the brotherhood
of man be transformed from a theoretical concept into a practical working
ideal. Let the cupidity fed capitalist who thrives on the blood of children
coined into profits come to the place where he postulates that child as his
very own. Let the malevolent plotters of strikes and black lists be brought
face to face with that vast innocent third party which is murderously affected
by their obedience to the mandates of industrial demagogues. Let all of us who
live under the Stars and Stripes and claim this land as our very own,
apprehend thoroughly that this land belongs to no one party, clique or sect,
and that each of us is entitled to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness,
and legislate in the light of these golden principles. Then will it be that we
will make headway towards the realization in these United States of that
fraternity of interests that will manifest us to the world, as a people worthy
of being distinguished under the appellation "America" and not as a
conglomeration of units, without program or policy for their government or
mutual intercourse. Brain power and brawn power must be granted the legitimate
rights that are within the gift of the republic.
exploiter who by the trick of trade amasses his millions over night, and the
land monopolist who is persistently making more aggravating the housing
problems, together with the four-flushing politician and agitating demagogue
whose highest glory are the plums of office, must be repudiated once and
we must stand behind those men, true and tried whether they be of us or not,
who can represent people without the reference to the clamorings of his native
constituency for this or that reform which enhances his chances for
reselection. Such a man will have the courage to go against the people when
the people are wrong. The shibboleth of the voice of the people being the
voice of God must be done away with. For experience teaches us through such
trials as were incident to the French Revolution, that the voice of the people
very frequently is the voice of madness.
period of reflection that we enjoin will be the period in which man comes face
to face with the issue that things to be fundamentally right must be right in
the sight of God. Except the Lord build the house, they who labor build in
vain and it must be built with reference to men, women and especially little
look beyond today and shape our policies with reference to tomorrow. Men
should live with reference to posterity. What we have missed, our children
should realize; and if by any means we damn their lives by pernicious and easy
living and mad warfare today, thrice damned will we be in their sight in the
tomorrow. - Robert Tipton.
BRO. ROBERT TIPTON
object of this Department is to acquaint our renders with time-tried Masonic
books not always familiar; with the best Masonic literature now being
published; and with such non-Masonic books as may especially appeal to Masons.
The Library Editor will be very glad to render any possible assistance to
studious individuals or to study clubs and lodges, either through this
Department or by personal correspondence.
be our aim to publish in this Department each month a list of such
publications as we may be able from time to time to secure for members of the
Society. However, a book listed herein this month may be out of stock next
month, and further copies unobtainable, and for this reason it is recommended
that when ordering books or pamphlets from these lists the latest monthly
issue of THE BUILDER be consulted, and no orders be made from lists more than
thirty days old.
monthly reviews the names and addresses of the publishers of the books are
given in order that our readers may order such books direct from the
publishers instead of through the Society. In many instances the books may be
found in stock at
local book stores.
SYMBOLISM OF FREEMASONRY
Symbolism of Freemasonry," by Albert G. Mackey. Obtainable through the Office
of the Secretary, National Masonic Research Society, Anamosa, Iowa, at $3.15,
GENIUS of Freemasonry from its beginning has been expended in bringing men to
the knowledge of the sovereignty of God and the immortality of man's soul. The
manner in which its genius was most potently manifested was through the
utilizing of the symbol and legend in communicating the knowledge of the
eternal verities to men. Man is but a grown up child, and as long as the earth
remains will his apprehension and understanding of certain things of primary
importance be through symbolic teaching. For today, as of yore, man's
amazement and natural limitations forbid him articulating in speech the thing
which he feels deepest within him.
him as he emerges from the darkness into the dawn is to appreciate his great
dependency upon the heritage bequeathed to him by a remote ancestry, who had
presupposed certain things as significant of necessary truths and had
treasured those legendary tales which were powerful determining factors in his
man obtained the first ideas of God and immortality of the soul no man truly
knoweth. Modern studies in animism and kindred subjects might lead one to
dispute the naive statements made by Dr. Mackey, that most probably the ideas
of God and immortality had been communicated by direct inspiration from God to
man. But if some have grown so wise and learned that they cannot bear to
identify God as a direct inspirer of these fundamental truths to which man has
clung from the remotest antiquity (and needs must explain the early work and
worship of the most primitive man on anthropormorphic grounds), he will still
find in Dr. Mackey's work the only plausible solution of how truths were
handed down from one generation to another, shaping their moral aims and
determining their destiny.
no need to quarrel with this work so charmingly written and no less valuable
because of its major premise suggesting that at the beginning of time God, by
direct inspiration, had communicated the imperishable doctrines that are
destined to be man's last interest upon the earth, as well as his first.
as a philosophy seeks to reveal and interpret the significance of fundamental
phenomena of human experience. It endeavors to grasp the ultimate, and from
remotest times man's energy has been directed in this channel. The two primary
questions of importance that nave engaged the minds of all primitive peoples
have been the idea of God and life after death. The animistic view of things
modern scholars conceive of having been as universal among primitive peoples.
The world was governed, if primitive mind could apprehend government at all,
by arbitrary rulers, whose favor must be courted and whose wrath must be
appeased. And man's belief in after life was actuated by the dreams he had. He
conceived of himself not as a material body and an immaterial mind, but rather
an acting, feeling, thinking body. But alongside of this modern concept
explaining to the scientist the anthropormorphic belief, we have that mass of
legend to which Doctor Mackey gives credible support and which discovers for
us that the concept of God and immortality were well defined beliefs in the
minds of men in the early dawn of human history; that through the great
patriarchial line, spoken of in the bible, these truths were transmitted from
one generation to another.
chapter on the Noachites intimates at what has become the explanation of
modernism in regard to primitive belief, but refers to them as being
corruptions and deteriorations of the doctrines so zealously transmitted by
Noah to his descendants.
As an aid
to research, this work of Doctor Mackey's will lend the proper impetus to the
young student in Masonry. Of interest will be Mackey's suggestion regarding
pure Freemasonry and spurious Freemasonry. Spurious Freemasonry he will
discover to be those mysteries of Greece and Egypt, whereby the uninitiated
were brought into an atmosphere of learning, and whereby, through the aid of
symbolism, they were acquainted with the truths of God and immortality. An
acknowledgment of the rightness of Mackey's contention as to how spurious
Freemasonry was generated might be hard to obtain among scholars of today.
evolutionary theory, which has saturated thinking people so thoroughly, would
forbid the acceptance of what seems in Mackey's opinion to be very much like
the worn out dogmas of ecclesiasticism. Nevertheless the work will enhance
interest in the true nature of Freemasonry.
Freemasonry no doubt consisted entirely in philosophic speculation, but with
the race development and the increase of what Doctor Mackey suggests as a sort
of social degeneracy, the necessity of using the symbol became imperative. We
delight in the reference the author makes to the veracity of the legend,
irrespective of whether the legend has any historical basis or not, as the
truth set forth by aid of the legend is the all-important thing in
Freemasonry. Whether or not there be any historical warrant for the drama of
the Third degree, the truth communicated through it is the unceasing verity
necessary for man's human comfort.
elementary fashion Doctor Maekey has succeeded in giving the sources and
suggestions of the development of the legendary matter which makes up so much
of Masonic teaching. As he says, the nineteen propositions announced contain a
brief but succinct view of the progress of Freemasonry, from its origin in the
early ages of the world simply as a system of religious philosophy, through
all the modifications to which it was submitted in the Jewish and Gentile
races, until at length it was developed to its present perfected form.
be of interest to observe the primary reason for the necessity of such an
institution as Freemasonry. The corrupt but worldly mind appears ever as unfit
to receive the choicest truths that man may know anything about. All great
masters of men have drawn unto themselves those rare spirits that could enter
into their thoughts and appreciation of the moral worth and beauty of the
things that they transmitted to them.
standpoint of present day learning it is easily apprehended how, through the
channel of oral transmission, many of the precious things communicated in
their purity could ultimately become distorted and, as we have read somewhere,
no doubt these distortions ultimately acquire such proportions that the true
symbolic significance would ultimately become entirely lost. But we can well
assure ourselves that since Freemasonry has succeeded in perpetuating the
primary concept of the sovereignty of God and the hope of immortality, that
the things of symbolism whose true meaning has been forever lost could not
have been of the great importance that probably some have attached in
latter-day speculation to the significance of the symbol. Of particular value
for Masons today will Doctor Mackey's book be, when we apprehend the trend of
the present movement in Freemasonry to apply itself more persistently in the
shaping of our social destiny.
value indeed is any institution today unless it has a word to say in the
effort to bring about human adjustment to highest ideals. The tenor of Masonic
thought hitherto has been in view of the after life.
preparation in this world through the practice of wise morality which would
insure immortality to man has been the burden of Masonic teaching. But even as
institutional religion has been concerned with the saving of men for heaven
yonder, and today are feeling the urge to create, establish and continue a
heaven here so that man will be worthy of a heaven hereafter, even so the gist
of Masonic efforts is identically in the saxne direction. But the pendulum may
swing too far, and instead of creating in man a proportional view of life
which may direct him strenuously in the channels of earth activity it may
swing toward malting his ultimate destiny an oppression by a materialistic
philosophy which but bodes a fullsome enjoyment of this earth, but leaves man
as most miserable through not preserving within him a strong hope of immortal
Freemasonry, through symbolical and legendary teaching, will save those who
are admitted into the fold from such crass materialism. No man initiated today
as men were initiated into the Egyptian mysteries of centuries ago, can
release himself from the unforgettable scenes of the significance of life and
death as demonstrated in the dramatized Hiramic legend. To know the history
and purport of Masonic legend read this concise exposition of Doctor Mackey.
The following list embraces practically all the standard works
on Masonry which we are able to secure and keep in stock for the accommodation
of individual members of the Society, Study Clubs and Lodges.
We are finding it more difficult each year to procure new or
second-hand copies of the earlier works on Masonry of which, owing to the
limited market for them at the time of their publication, but a small number
of copies were printed.
We are continually in search for additional items which will be
listed in this column whenever it is our good fortune to secure them.
It is suggested that the latest list be consulted before
sending in orders and that no orders be made from lists more than one month
old, since our stock of these books is limited and a book listed this month
may be out of stock by the time next month's list is published.
Since the publishers are constantly increasing their prices to
us the following prices are subject to such changes.
PUBLICATIONS ISSUED BY THE SOCIETY
bound volume of THE BUILDER $3.75
bound volume of THE BUILDER 3.75
bound volume of THE BUILDER 3.75
bound volume of THE BUILDER 3.75
bound volume of THE BUILDER (for delivery about
1st or 15th) 3.75
Philosophy of Freemasonry, Pound 1.25
Freemasonry in America Prior to 1750, Melvin M. Johnson, P.G.M.,
Constitutions ( reproduced by photographic plates from an original copy in the
archives of the Iowa Masonic Library, Cedar Rapids). Edition
Story of Old Glory, The Oldest Flag," Bro. J. W. Barry, P. G. M., Iowa, red
buffing binding, gilt lettering, illustrated. A story of the Flag and Masonry,
Story of Old Glory, The Oldest Flag," paper covers .50
Notes on the Comacine Masters," W. Ravenscroft, England. A sequel to "The
Comacines, Their Predecessors and Their Successors," a Masonic digest of
Leader Scott's book "The Cathedral Builders" and containing the latest
researches of Brother Ravenscroft which present a very logical argument for
the connection of Freemasonry of the present day with the Roman Collegia and
traveling Masons of the early times, paper covers, illustrated .50
of the First Degree, Gage, pamphlet .15
of the Third Degree, Ball, pamphlet .15
of the Three Degrees, Street, 68 pages, paper covers. The lessons and symbols
of each degree traced to their origin, in every instance that it has been
possible to so trace them. Brother Street gives many explanations of our
symbols in this little book on which our monitors but vaguely touch
Aspects of Masonic Symbolism, Waite, pamphlet .15
* * *
PUBLICATIONS FROM OTHER SOURCES IN IN STOCK AT ANAMOSA
Builders," a Story and Study of Masonry, by Brother Joseph Fort Newton,
formerly Editor-in-Chief of THE BUILDER $ 1.75
Encyclopaedia, 1919 edition, in two volumes, Black Fabrikoid binding
of Freemasonry, A. G. Mackey 3.15
Jurisprudence, A. G. Mackey 3.15
Parliamentary Law, A. G. Mackey 2.65
History of Freemasonry, Robert Freke Gould 4.50
* * *
foregoing prices include postage and insurance or registration fee on all
items except pamphlets. The latter will be sent by regular mail not insured or
ON SOUTH AMERICA
BY BRO. ROBERT I. CLEGG, NEW YORK)
Country Lodges Lodges Members Members
1913 1919 1913 1919
(Grand Lodge) ----- 50 ------
“ (Grand Orient) 139 139
(National Grand Orient) 390 582 15,000 40,000
(Rio Grande do Sul
Grand Orient) 39 40
Orient do San Paulo) ---- -----
(Grand Orient at
Curutyba) 12 12
(Grand Lodge) 27 27 3,618
(Grand Orient) --- 7
(Grand Lodge) --- 9
Ecuador --- 5 ---
(Grand Orient) 9 9
Peru --- 33 ---
Nicaragua --- 3 --- 150
(Grand Orient) 18 18
(Grand Orient) --- 1
(Grand Lodge) 24 20 1,673
9 --- ---
must require just and reasonable things if he would see the scales of
obedience properly trimmed. From orders which are improper, springs resistance
which is not easily overcome. - Basil.
have faith that Right makes Might and in that faith let us dare to do our duty
as we understand it. - Lincoln.
BUILDER is an open forum for free and fraternal discussion. Each of its
contributors writes under this own name, and is responsible for his own
opinions. Believing that a unity of spirit is better than a uniformity of
opinion, the Research Society, as such, does not champion any one school of
Masonic thought as over against another, but offers to all alike a medium for
fellowship and instruction, leaving each to stand or fall by its own merits.
Question Box and Correspondence Column are open to all members of the Society
at all times. Questions of any nature on Masonic subjects are earnestly
invited from our members, particularly those connected with lodges or study
clubs which are following our "Bulletin Course of Masonic Study." When
requested, questions will be answered promptly by mail before publication in
MEMBERSHIP OF VARIOUS FRATERNAL ORDERS
the membership of the following Societies according to the latest figures:
Freemasons, Odd Fellows, Knights of Columbus, B.P.O. Elks and Knights of
Pythias? S. D., Wisconsin.
following tables of membership are quoted from the latest available reports as
published in the World Almanac for 1920:
Independent Order of Odd Fellows. Grand Lodges 68. Subordinate Lodges 17,621.
Membership, Dec. 31, 1918, 2,226,562. (These figures comprise the United
States and foreign countries.)
of Columbus. Councils 1,894. Membership, Sept. 1, 1918, Insurance 156,469,
Associate 395,674, total 541,143. The New York World of June 2, 1920, in the
report of the State Convention just then being held in Glens Falls, N. Y.,
noted that there were 1,975 Councils and a membership of 633,978, a gain of
160,000 in the last year, of which 37 per cent. (23,695) was gained in New
Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks. Lodges 1,374. Membership 600,000.
of Pythias. State Domains 55. Membership, Jan. 1, 1919, 698,840.
83 and 84 of the March, 1920, issue of THE BUILDER will be found a statistical
table of the Masonic membership in the United States, Canada, England,
Ireland, Scotland and Australia totaling 19,235 Subordinate Lodges and
2,607,399 members. It will be noted that these figures do not include South
America or European countries other than Great Britain which would probably
bring the world total closely to 3,000,000.
* * *
SIMS AN EPISCOPALIAN
please inform: me through the columns of THE BUILDER if Admiral Sims of the
U.S. Navy is a Mason?
Sims is not a Mason. His church affiliations are Episcopalian.
* * *
OF THE BUILDING OF SOLOMON'S TEMPLE
any information regarding the details connected with the relationship of
Solomon, King of Israel, and Hiram, King of Tyre ?
Sidonians helped at the building of the Temple?
in detail, they found the timbers ? How they were paired off as workmen ? As
overseers ? Their names ? What were they called? How the material was
transferred to the Israelites ? E. H., Iowa.
little is known sn the above subjects save such information as we have in the
Old Testament. Certain portions of that account cannot bear critical
examination, but most of it can, and the student who is curious to learn how
the story of the building of the Temple has survived the ordeals of biblical
criticism is advised to read some good modern commentary, sueh as any volume
found, for example, in The International Critical Commentary.
Archeologists (some of whom were English Masons, by the way,) have unearthed
some of the original foundation stones on some of which the old Phoenician
Mason Marks are still discernable. H. L. H.
above heading in the Correspondence Column of the May issue of THE BUILDER
appear two or three statements which seem not quite to accord with the facts.
While, it is true, these are not matters of importance, it is well for us to
endeavor to keep the "record straight."
first place, the writer of these lines does not agree with the negative answer
returned to the question: Was Brigham Young, the Morman, a Mason ? The
following considerations have led to the conviction that Brigham Young was a
Apparently all of the leaders and principal men, as well as large numbers of
the rank and file of the Mormon church in the Nauvoo days, were members of the
Nauvoo lodges. In the absence of any statement to the contrary, or even so
much as the suggestion of a reason to account for a different course on the
part of this one prominent leader, the presumption would be strongly in favor
of his having taken the degrees.
2. In a
finely illustrated booklet published by the Deseret News in 1906, entitled
"The City of the Saints in Picture and Story," is to be found another bit of
evidence which points in the same direction. Concerning this work the
publishers state "The contents of the work may be relied upon as authentic and
up-todate, having been compiled with the utmost care from the latest
34 of this book is a picture of "Brigham Young as Governor of Utah in 1850."
This picture has the appearance of having been reproduced from an ambrotype.
In the center of the shirt front shown in this picture is the conventional
Masonic emblem - the square and compasses. It is hardly conceivable that this
emblem would have been worn if the wearer had not been introduced to the
mysteries of Masonry.
page 191, volume I, of Apostle Orson F. Whitney's ponderous History of Utah
occurs a statement which furnishes more conclusive evidence. After speaking of
the return of the Apostles from Europe; the plans for building up Nauvoo, and
of the recent impetus given to the work of building the Temple, the writer
says "A Masonic Temple was likewise projected at Nauvoo, and Joseph and Hyrum
Smith, Brigham Young and other leading Mormons became Freemasons."
foregoing facts, taken together, seem to leave little room for doubt that
Brigham Young was a Mason.
beginning of the second paragraph, under the above caption, occur the words:
"From Gould's History we learn that the Grand Lodge of Illinois, in 1842,
granted a dispensation for a lodge at Nauvoo...." This statement is not quite
accurate. The records show that Grand Master Abraham Jonas and not Grand
Lodge, granted the dispensation to Nauvoo Lodge (Proc. Ill., 1842, p. 52), and
that the year was 1841 (Oct. 16) and not 1842 (ibid p. 68).
course, Gould's statement may have been intended to be general, only.
necessity for the appointment of a committee "to examine the work of the
lodge" - referred to in the paragraph under consideration - would have been
made apparent had the additional fact been noted that the "286 candidates
initiated and nearly all passed and raised," were given the degrees in less
than five months (Proc. Ill., 1842, p. 59).
was not set to work till March 15th, 1842, and this function was made the
occasion of three days of "high jinks," during which - a contemporary writer
informs us - Grand Master Jonas publicly "constituted" the lodge, "installed"
its officers, and made Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon Masons at sight (Times
and Seasons, vol. III, pages 749-50; Reynolds' History of Masonry in Ill., p.
matter dealt with in the article under consideration is worthy of passing
notice, at least. This relates to the efforts of Mt. Moriah Lodge, Salt Lake
City, to obtain a charter.
course of events is correctly traced, save for one interesting omission.
Following the refusal of the Grand Lodge of Nevada to act favorably upon their
first petition for a charter, the Salt Lake brethren settled down "to work in
the yoke," as they expressed it, "till the meeting of Grand Lodge." But this
decision did not hold for any considerable length of time. The Grand Lodge of
Nevada met that year (1866) late in September. Early in November, following,
the brethren of Mt. Moriah addressed a communication to Grand Master Chase
Withrow, of the Grand Lodge of Colorado, which he received on the 17th of that
month. In this letter they asked the Grand Master if he would grant them a
dispensation provided they would surrender the one they held from the Grand
Lodge of Nevada. The reason assigned for this request was that "they disliked
certain instructions from the Grand Lodge of Nevada, forbidding their making
Masons of Mormons, or to allow them to affiliate or visit." When reporting
this incident to Grand Lodge, Grand Master Withrow gave the substance of his
reply in the words:
while I might differ in opinion from the Grand Master of Nevada, I did not
think it the policy of this Grand Lodge to interfere with the matter; and
inasmuch as they had a dispensation from Nevada, and were working under it,
they had better work along another year; then, if they failed to get a charter
they could surrender their dispensation and, if they chose, apply elsewhere."
(Proc. Colo., 1867, p. 177).
stated at the outset, these are not matters of any great importance, yet the
additional facts given may be of interest to some of the readers of THE
* * *
OF DE MOLAY FOR BOYS
year ago last March, there originated in the mind of Brother Frank S. Land of
Kansas City a plan to meet the great need for a better organized, more
elevating social life for boys nearing the age of manhood. It was realized
that, when a boy has reached the age of sixteen, his interest in boyish things
decreases to such an extent that he is no longer a real boy, and yet the
affairs of manhood are not yet open to him. During this period in the boy's
life, it was seen that many were drifting on the reefs of life for the want of
systematic social guidance.
this need Brother Land conceived the idea of having the powerful and well
organized Masonic organization foster a fine bit of social service for the
benefit of boys between the ages of sixteen and twenty-one. A very fine
two-degree ritual was prepared by Brother Frank Marshall of Kansas City. The
initiatory degree has some of the very finest, most uplifting and most
inspiring lessons taught anywhere. The second degree is built around the
burning of Jaques DeMolay by the bloody-minded inquisition on March 11, 1313,
because he refused to reveal the secrets of the Templars, of which
organization he was the head. The lessons of fidelity taught in this degree
are such as are sure to be lasting in their effect. The organization was named
the Order of DeMolay for Boys. Any Masonic organization in any community can
call together a group of the best boys in the community, and organize and
foster the Order of DeMolay.
chapter in Kansas City was the mother chapter. Several months ago a chapter
was chartered at Omaha, Nebraska. Soon afterward one was chartered at Trenton,
Mo., under the leadership of Brother Ray V. Denslow. The Omaha chapter was
organized under the leadership of Brother Dr. Clark. On May 24th last, a
chapter was instituted at Kirksville, Mo., under the leadership of the writer,
this chapter being the fourth in the country. Those who have made most careful
investigation of the new order are convinced that it is one of the finest
moves made by Masonry in a long, long time. It has a powerful pull for moral
betterment on the boys at a time when they stand most in need of such a
steadying influence. There is no "horseplay" in the work of the order and no
place for any. It is serious business for serious-minded boys. Any Master
Mason is entitled to visit the chapter at any time and to help out with the
ritualistic work. Only the boys can vote or hold office.
appointed by the Masonic body fostering each chapter, a Board of Advisors to
serve as the balance wheel, so to speak, for the boys. On May 29th, 1920,
there assembled in Kansas City delegates from all four of the organized
chapters of the new Order for the purpose of witnessing the exemplification of
the degrees on a class of 350, and to discuss the perfecting of the temporary
arrangements for the national organization. The work was very well done by the
boys of the Kansas City Chapter, and their hospitality was most impressive.
Arrangements were made whereby the Advisory Board of the mother chapter
constitute the body authorized to grant temporary charters, make temporary
regulations and foster and extend the Order. Accordingly, those who would like
to investigate the Order for the purpose of instituting a chapter should write
Brother Frank S. Land, Scottish Rite Temple, Kansas City, Mo. It is hoped that
the new organization will spread with great rapidity in all parts of the
country within the next few months. In about six months it is expected that
another national convention will be called for the purpose of perfecting the
national organization, and drawing up permanent constitution and by‑laws. All
chapters organized at that time will be given an opportunity to be represented
in that meeting. The Order has already passed the experimental stage, and is
ready to be taken up by Masons everywhere for the everlasting benefit of the
boys. Incidentally it will be a great benefit to Masonry itself, though that
side of the question is entirely subordinate and a secondary matter in view of
the great good that may be accomplished among the boys. The Order is not a
junior Masonic organization in any sense of the word but it will certainly
repay any Masonic organization to foster a chapter of the new Order.
* * *
FREEMASONRY IN HOLLAND
from a Circular Recently Addressed to All Lodges Under the Grand East of the
Lodges Belonging to the Grand East of the Netherlands:
repeated enquiries are being received from lodges seeking guidance concerning
their labours, the Grand East has the privilege of communicating its opinion
thereon in the following circular:
A. II -
necessary, first of all, clearly to keep in mind the fact that Masonic work
can only yield fruit if the "atmosphere" of the lodge is in accordance with
Article 3 of the Constitutions. Brotherhood must be the Alpha and Omega of
lodge meetings and relationships. For this reason, part of our work must
consist of the study and development of a Masonic doctrine of conduct - Study
and Development: Word and Deed. It would be of the greatest benefit
occasionally to discuss the factors necessary in the relationships which
should exist between members of a lodge. Example is better than precept - the
former must be regarded as pre-eminently the factor. Where the spirit in the
lodge is good, the newcomer is struck by the tone that prevails. He realizes
that he is in a totally different milieu to that of ordinary meetings: that
different maxims guide the corporate life and work. The Masonic education
required to the Entered Apprentice is to learn how to conduct himself, how to
exercise selfcontrol and brotherly feeling. How is he to receive that
education ? Partly by precept, the spoken word, but principally by practice,
by the deed itself, and by the example of others. To which may be added the
corollary, admonition and correction by elders.
the manner in which the education is always given? The question, we fear, must
be answered in the negative. There are many lamentations over the shortcomings
of brethren in respect to the absence of real brotherly feelings. Is
admonition given by elders to juniors in a brotherly manner ? Yet this must be
regarded as one of the great advantages of Masonic communion. Each Master
Mason who is really worthy of the name must be ready and qualified to give
guidance to juniors, not as a moral censor, nor as one who feels himself
placed on a higher pedestal, but as an elder brother, one who from love and
devotion wishes to cooperate in the welding of a firm and solid link in the
Masonic chain. To this end, however, it is necessary that brethren should be
closer in touch with one another.
A. lll. -
PHILOSOPHIC. ETHICAL, RELIGIOUS, SOCIAL, AND PHILANTHROPIC SUBJECTS
the section which monopolizes interest more, perhaps, than any other, and not
without reason. As already stated, the Freemason must absorb that which is
peculiar to himself, and assimilate it so that it forms part of his existence.
He must be an expert, not only in knowledge but in its application. He must be
eager and able to promote everything that will transform spiritual poverty and
material welfare. He must not only labor for the uplifting of humanity by his
own gifts and personal devotion, but he must also know how to impart to others
those principles which guide him, so that power may also be exercised by and
through them. The individualism formerly frequently predominant among brethren
must be elevated and changed into a sense of communal possession. The
programme must include all that equips the individual for this missionary
work. To this end the Freemason must, in the first place, acquire insight into
the great problems which life offers. Part of the time should, therefore, be
devoted to the subjecting Masonic principles and to the drift of other
spiritual and political currents and to dealing with social questions. The
treatment must be from the standpoint of Masonic principles, and this
connection must stand out clearly. All subjects having no connection with
Masonic principles must be kept rigidly outside the lodge. Time and
circumstances must, of course, govern the choice of subjects. Such subjects as
are, for the time being, absorbing public attention will, in the nature of
things, awaken the greater interest. As an example, we may take the question
of education, which claims the attention of everyone. It is clear that where a
number of fundamental principles are calling for realization in our social
life, the Freemason is in duty bound to take notice of them and make his
choice, always keeping clearly in mind that he is a Freemason.
A. IV. -
PREPARATION FOR SOCIAL WORK
devotion to the well-being of the community is asked of the Freemason, he will
often feel it to be his duty to afford support and cooperation to those of
like mind who are already at work in his field. In other words, it is the duty
of the Freemason to accord his support to social work wherever possible. For
this purpose preparation and organization are necessary, and these may be
regarded as forming part of the work of lodges. The necessary discussions and
consultations to this end are closely associated with the subjects already
A. V. -
READING, ESPECIALLY OF MASONIC WRITINGS
strange, but it is necessary to emphasize the fact, that the reading of
Masonic writings can contribute very largely to the moulding of the Freemason.
It is necessary because of the lack of interest which brethren appear to take
in Masonic literature. Editors of Masonic journals are constantly complaining
of this feature, and the Grand Directorate is complaining frequently of the
lack of interest in this respect evinced by brethren, and again appeals to the
officers of all lodges to endeavor to effect an improvement in this matter by
their own example and stimulus. It is not inferred that in this matter there
is any intentional lack of co-operation, but rather a laxity which must be
overcome. Brethren should also remember that it is impossible for the many who
devote much of their time to the interests of the Order to maintain their zeal
at a high level if their brethren do not take any interest in what they do. It
is only by continual exchange of thought that it is possible to approach
Masonic truth. Let each one of us be mindful of our duty in this respect.
B. 1. -
DISSEMINATION OF PRINCIPLES BY PRECEPT AND EXAMPLE
portion of the Freemason's duty consists in the dissemination of Masonic
principles - the furtherance of the Masonic idea - by precept and example. The
time is past when the Freemason need hesitate to avow himself as such in
public. Although the character of the work done at lodge meetings precludes
the whole of the proceedings being submitted to the criticism of the outer
world, yet it is our firm conviction that publicity is one of the most
conspicuous characteristics of our time and it demands that we lay aside any
undesirable secrecy and place in the fullest possible light the great
principles by which our work is guided. It is sufficient to remind brethren
that lodges should seize every possible opportunity of bearing witness to the
light that is, or ought to be, in us.
means? Public lectures, direct influence in social and other work,
dissemination of suitable Masonic literature, and the use of the public press.
Only when Freemasonry shall be recognized generally as a factor of great
importance in culture, and when that influence is felt all round, may this
part of Masonic labor be regarded as accomplished. Several subjects included
in the list at the end of this circular are associated closely with this
important part of our Masonic task, and for this reason are warmly recommended
to the attention of the brethren.
C. I. -
PROMOTION OF THE ORDER AS AN ORGANIZATION
heading we should like to place the well-known motto, Mens sana in corpore
sano, a proverb as wise as it is ancient, but the truth of which, perhaps, for
this very reason, is only too frequently lost sight of. The spirit of the
Order and of the lodge must, however, be sound and purposeful. It awakens the
thought of unity, harmony, and cooperation. These must be the characteristics
of the spiritual bond uniting the brethren together into a lodge, possessing a
real life of its own. And the impulse emitted by the central organ should act
conversely in making its influence felt on the work of all the brethren. He
that realizes that this is necessary and indispensable to the life of the
Order can no longer think lightly of such internal matters as ballots,
elections, agendas, election of candidates. etc.
C. II . -
THE INNER LIFE OF THE ORDER
this heading may be discussed the question as to what way cooperation between
lodges and the Grand Directorate may be improved. As we have said already;
there ought to be continuous reciprocal working, and the questions to be
considered are: By what means can that be furthered? Has the work done by the
Grand Directorate of late years received the approval of lodges and the
brethren? What can be done to improve it? In what way can it be further
extended? These are important matters for the life of the Order.
C. III. -
THE OUTWARD LIFE OF THE ORDER
heading immediately conjures up important questions. The vision of a
world-Freemasonry will not leave us, in spite of all that has happened to
obliterate it during the last few years. To each it must give cause for shame
that Freemasons, who speak so glibly of a Brotherhood spread over the surface
of the earth, who are all supposed to be striving towards a Universal
Brotherhood of man, who have assumed the task of removing all that divides
spirits and minds, that we should only have reached a point in which the great
Masonic Powers of divers nationalities stand towards each other in an attitude
of moderate indifference, if not of hostility. It should be the object of our
unfailing solicitude to bring this humiliating state of affairs to an end as
soon as possible. This work, of course, belongs more to the Order as a whole,
rather than to the lodges in particular, but the discussion of these matters
in the lodge can awaken visions which will be of great import for the
realization of the idea of world-Freemasonry.
Meanwhile, the Order must determine with accuracy its position in our country
itself. Is it, although moving more in the open, to maintain its isolation? Or
is it to lend an ear to the voices which are continually calling it to
corporate work? It is very alluring to discuss more in detail the advantages
and disadvantages of the outward work of the Order as such, but in our opinion
this is not the most opportune moment for so doing. The subject is simply
commended to the consideration of the lodges as being of the highest
importance, bearing in mind the recommendation of the last Masonic Congress
concerning the spreading of the principles of the Order, its aim and endeavor,
which must not be confused with the operations of the Order as a corporation
for the attainment of definite and clearly circumscribed, albeit more or less
material, successes in social life.
C. IV. -
HISTORY OF THE ORDER
item in the program of work demands little explanation of recommendation, for
the utility and necessity of a study of the history of the Order are
self-evident. Not only because every society which respects itself will take
an interest in the adventures which have happened to it in the past, but
rather because history, the guide of nations, can be for us also a trustworthy
pilot to warn us of the rocks on which our predecessors have been stranded,
and a signpost to point the way we must follow in order to preserve the
continuity of the life of the Order. It may be regarded as a favorable
phenomenon, as an indication of the renewed youth of the Order, that its
history is engaging the attention of an increasing number of investigators,
and we hope it will continue so to do. As one advantage which cannot be too
highly appreciated, the study of the history of our Order will awaken in us an
increased significance of the work of our Order and its force in the cultural
development of nations.
recommend all lodges to consult the scheme laid down herein when framing their
annual programs of work, care being taken that the plans shall be progressive,
and that they shall be so thought out and arranged as to make as much as
possible for unity and continuity.
SUBJECTS FOR DISCUSSION
what respects are changes in ritual desirable? Can the connection between the
rituals of the degrees be improved?
what way can cooperation between the lodge and the Grand Directorate be
and development of - a considered plan of Masonic conduct.
what way can the public press be used for the dissemination of Masonic
what way can the dissemination of Masonic literature be developed -
periodicals, as well as books?
Development of a national conseriousness and education of the entire Dutch
nation, with a view to inward refinement and order.
permeation of the people with our fundamental principles, by the establishment
of non-Masonic societies with a Masonic tendency, intention, and aim.
of the conceptions and ideals of the various parties of the State in our
country from a Masonic point of view, in order to be able to express
well-considered judgments concerning them.
of the basic principles and aims of the various moral bodies which strive for
the development of the spiritual life, and the advancement of such bodies from
a Masonic point of view.
Mutual education in the Masonic sphere.
desirable to the Grand Directorate that every year two subjects at least
should be chosen for discussion in all lodges with the intention that reports
on same should be forwarded to the Grand Directorate in order that that body
should frame a general report, which shall be communicated in turn to the
lodges. Before the commencement of the working year these subjects should be
announced to the members in good time in order that the members may have full
information as to the nature of the proposed work.
foregoing communication is the result of lengthy discussions among the members
of the Grand Directorate. play the outcome conduce to the uplifting of the
life of our Order and to our individual happiness, as well as to that of the
community, for whose well-being we have made it our aim and duty to cooperate.
heartiest fraternal greetings,
Lingbeek, Grand Master.
Van Nieuwenberg, Grand Secretary.
* * *
CORRECTION - SECRETARY OF THE NAVY DANIELS A METHODIST
Question Box of the June issue of THE BUILDER, on page 166, replying to a
query of "R.F.C." of Kansas, the assertion is made that Josephus Daniels,
Secretary of the Navy, is a Catholic. In this connection I have before me a
list of members of President Wilson's Cabinet, published in the Central
Christian Advocate during the year 1919, the list having been compiled by the
Kansas City Star on inquiry direct to the President's secretary. The list is
Wilson - Presbyterian.
of State Lansing - Presbyterian.
of the Treasury McAdoo - Episcopalian.
of War Baker - Episcopalian.
General Gregory - Presbyterian.
Postmaster General Burleson - Family Baptists.
of the Navy Daniels - Methodist.
of the Interior Lane - Presbyterian.
of Agriculture Houston - Episcopalian.
of Commerce Redfield - Episcopalian.
of Labor Wilson - Presbyterian.
present Secretary of the Treasury, Glass, is a Protestant. General Pershing
and Mrs. Woodrow Wilson are Episcopalians. V. E. Vieira, Tennessee.
WM. HARVEY LECKIE. TEXAS
the man whose thoughts will bear,
test of the unerring square;
the path that must ever be trod,
on towards his Maker - God, -
in acts of charity and love,
admission to the Lodge above,
the stone 'mongst the rubbish cast,
crown our Master's work at last.
the ages, a widow's son;
symbol of the faithful and true;
life was but a pledge for work well done, -
the widow, - All Hail to you.
Acacia, marking the spot,
the foul deed of the low and the base,
hope that the Temple's dark blot,
cleansed by the power of the Master's Grace.