The Builder Magazine
February 1916 - Volume VI -
THE EFFECT OF “HOME RULE” ON FREEMASONRY IN
W. COPELAND TRIMBLE, IRELAND
SOME of our American brethren may desire to know the result
which would likely grow from the granting to Ireland of what is understood as
“Home Rule.” If the whole of the Irish people were loyal to the United kingdom
and not under the domination of clericalism, things might be very different
from what they are; but we have to do with facts as we find them.
Up to the time of the Unification of States under Garibaldi,
Roman Catholics were to be found freely in Masonic lodge rooms. Daniel
O'Connell and many of the Irish priesthood were members of our order. But the
Pope considered that Masonic lodges had been used in Italy for the furtherance
of the propaganda which wrested from him the Papal States and created a new
and unified Italy, and hence the decree that forbade Roman Catholics to join
the Order. This decree was frequently referred to in Lenten pastorals by Irish
Roman Catholic Bishops, and as a Roman Catholic ceased to be a Catholic,
according to clerical teaching, by the mere fact of going to lodge many of the
Roman Catholic members of the Order ceased attendance, but others continued
until old age came upon them.
How would Home Rule affect Freemasonry in Ireland?
First, What would Home Rule mean? It is generally understood to
imply an Ireland separate in government from England and Scotland, being
governed either by a parliament recognizing the King as sovereign, yet
independent of control at Westminster, or a separate Republic for Ireland
having no connection with Great Britain whatever. Be it remembered that at
present Irish District and County Councils have control of the whole country
in ordinary domestic legislation, and that in Parliament Ireland has, owing to
the excess of her members over the population, double the power of England and
Second. With then, a separate Parliament as the sovereign power
in Ireland, we would have a governing body under the dominion of the Roman
Catholic priesthood whose exercise and claims of authority in morals (which,
freely interpreted, means everything), and who elect, or cause to be elected
the various members of Parliament throughout Ireland. Full deference is paid
by these members to the Bishops and clergy, not only in their episcopal or
clerical capacity, but as the controllers of the local politics.
Third. With then, a Parliament to frame and to execute the
laws, it follows that the Hierarchy
cause legislation to be passed embodying their views and Freemasonry would be
prohibited beyond doubt.
We are not left in any doubt in the matter. Before Ireland was
handed over in 1898 to the new regime of County and District Councils, several
lodges that had been accustomed to holding their meetings in public
courthouses foresaw what would take place and made preparations for a change.
In Sligo the brethren built; a Masonic Hall; in other places something similar
was done; in Enniskillen a lease was obtained for a long number of years from
the Board which had, for a rental, allowed Masonic lodges to assemble in one
of the rooms in the Town Hall - to guard against a notice to quit from a
succeeding Board elected under new conditions.
Brethren in other places awaited word, hoping that they would
be allowed to meet in the public buidings as before. But in vain. The local
lodge received notice to quit and had to make other provision for assemblies.
And if a new Parliament were to be placed in authority there is no manner of
doubt in the Craft that all Masonic meetings would be prohibitedCnot so much
due to the Roman Catholic laymen themselves, but to the influence which impels
them to obey their clergy in matters outside the clerical province, and to
them Freemasonry is anathema maranatha.
The ideas of liberty in thought and speech in Treland also
varies with ideas held on such subjects elsewhere. The prevailing opinion
among the Irish peasantry is that a man has no right to hold views differing
from “the voice of the country” - that is, that the minority should always
yield to the majority. In practice this view does not always hold good. There
are some men of independent mold. But woe to the man who differs from his
pliest, the final arbiter of all such matters !
Freemasonry has a strong hold among Unionist, or Protestant,
circles in Ireland, and it is proud of its Masonic charities and the quality
of its membership. Nor is this a matter of recent date. The writer possesses
the certificate of his grandfather in the Craft and Royal Arch degrees, dating
from 1797, and other ancient certificates are preserved in the Masonic Hall,
Dublin, showing that Freemasonry is no new thing in this island. But how long
it would escape persecution were Ireland to be dominated by a separate
parliament under some form of Home Rule, is another matter, and I believe I am
expressing the unanimous opinion of the Fraternity in Ireland when I say that
under Home Rule the path of the Order would not be an easy one.
Even the British government yields to the Roman Catholic clamor
against Freemasonry. A policeman formerly, on being attested when joining the
force, was prohibited from holding membership in any fraternal organization,
the Masonic Order alone excepted. But this exception has been overruled within
the past few years and at the present time no policeman, whatever his rank or
station, may become affiliated or hold affiliation with the Masonic
The instinct of Freemasonry in Ireland is correct as to the
future unless some guarantees of security were placed in all Act of Parliament
which would set up any new legislature in Ireland. And even then we would
From THE FREEMASON of London, England, we reprint the following
concerning the debate in the House of Commons which appeared in the issue of
that Journal for November 25th, 1916:
PARLIAMENT AND FREEMASONRY
ACTION AND FEEBLE PROTEST
Close attention is demanded by all interested in the welfare of
the Craft to the recent debates in the House of Commons dealing especially
with the relations in one particular of Freemasonry with the outer world. We
have thought it well to deal with the subject in detail, because we feel that
the Craft generally, and not only in Ireland, may be affected by the temper
displayed towards Freemasonry in the House of Commons, and most inadequately
protested against by members of our own body, of whom there are a number, and
some of much Masonic distinction. It may be urged that they did not expect the
question to be raised in this fashion; but, the hare having been started in
full cry on Tuesday, it was hunted to the kill on the following Thursday, with
only one Masonic voice raised in protest, and that by an Ulster member, who
specially noted that he had none of his friends there to support him, or even
to advise him in the matter.
DEBATE IN THE HOUSE OF COMMONS
As a preliminary, it may be recalled that, in the short-lived
strike among the Dublin Metropolitan Police in October, trouble began over the
fact that more than 100 constables defied an order of the Chief Commissioner
by attending a meeting of the Ancient Order of Hibernians and enrolling
themselves in the society. The Chief Commissioner issued a notice warning the
men that, if they attended the meeting of this secret political society, they
would be liable to “serious consequences,” for, under the terms of their
enlistment, the men were prohibited from joining any political or secret
society except the Freemasons. The advocates of the disaffected men urged that
the Hibernian Order was not as secret a society as the Freemasons, and not
more sectarian, owing to the abstention of Roman Catholics generally from
membership of the Craft; and, though there were grievances about rates of pay,
this as to Masonry was made much of.
It was not, indeed, a new question, for over ten years ago when
Mr. Walter Long was Chief Secretary, Mr. J. MacVeagh, a Nationalist member,
called attention in the House of Commons to the encouragement given in the
oath of the police to become Freemasons, and asked the then Unionist
Government to withdraw the preferential treatment given to that Order. Mr.
Long denied that any encouragement was given to the police to become
Freemasons, and would not admit that any irregularity was committed in making
the exception complained of. In more than one quarter of Nationalist opinion
in the lobby, however, when the question was now brought forward, the
anticipation was indulged in that the exception made in favour of Freemasonry
would be dropped.
This anticipation proved correct, for when, on 7th November, a
motion was made in the House of Commons by Mr. Duke, K.C., the present Chief
Secretary, to read a second time the Constabulary and Police (Ireland) Bill,
introduced to remove the Constabulary's grievances.
Major Newman, an English Unionist member, submitted, as an
amendment, a declaration that “in view of the lack of discipline recently
shown by a section of the Dublin Metropolitan Police it is inopportune to
immediately proceed with the further consideration of the Bill.” In so doing,
he incidentally said: “I understand that some 400 of the junior members of the
Dublin force have joined the Ancient Order of Hibernians. A member of the
Royal Irish Constabulary, on entering the force, has to take an oath, and he
swears that he will not belong to any secret society in Ireland or any part of
the world, with the exception of the Order of Freemasons. [Hon. Members:
'Hear, hear!'] I am very glad to hear those cheers, which show that the Order
of Freemasons is so popular in Ireland. I am a Mason myself, and I daresay
other members of the House are members of that Order. At any rate, it is a
fact that the policeman takes an oath not to become a member of any secret
society except the Freemasons. The Ancient Order of Hibernians is not a secret
society, but it is semi-secret; its constitution, aims, methods, and so on are
pretty well known. If it be only semi-secret, it is wholly sectarian; it is
confined absolutely to the Roman Catholic faith. No one who is an Orangeman
can become a member of that Order, and to that extent it is a sectarian
society, and a semi-secret one.... I daresay some members below the gangway
will argue about the Order of the Freemasons. At any rate, the Freemasons take
no part in politics. [Hon Members: 'Oh, oh!']”
Mr. Dillon intersected the remark: “They ruled Ireland for
Major Newman continued: “They have done so, but the Freemasons
are now a great cosmopolitan body, dealing only with matters of Charity, and
with nothing more. I am a Mason, and I know that in a Lodge of Freemasons no
word of politics is ever introduced, and hon. members are very much mistaken
if they think that Freemasons allow politics in their lodges. I do not think I
incur any penalty by saying that, or stating that the Lodges of the Order of
Freemasons deal only with matters of Charity.”
Mr. Duke, the Chief Secretary, in replying, observed: “With
regard to the matter of membership of societies, I regard it as a very
unfortunate thing that the oath against membership of societies has any
qualification; and, if hon. members desire to alter that state of things,
then, so far as I am concerned, they will find that my view is that there must
be equal treatment for everybody in these matters of police discipline. The
objection to membership of organizations on the part of those who are
responsible for the conduct of the police is to membership of any organization
which may cut across the primary duty of the police. Taking that view of the
matter, I have had it under consideration whether, without any regard to the
oath under the Act of William IV., or to any of these matters, the proper mode
of dealing with this question of membership of outside organisations is not to
say to everybody who is in the police, as well as to everybody who comes to
join the police, 'You must not join any outside organisation without the
consent of your chief commanding officer, because it is contrary to
discipline.' That, to my mind, is the sound mode of dealing with a matter of
This, however, did not satisfy the Nationalists, Mr. Devlin
saying: “If you lay down as a universal principle of equality that men who are
in a police force of this character are not to join societies, then complete
and absolute liberty should be conceded to them. I am not going to make any
attack upon the Freemasons. I know nothing whatever about them. I have no
doubt that they are all that members of that organization in England have
described them to be. But I cannot blind myself to the fact that Freemasonry
in Ireland is a large political organization - is a most powerful and
scientific political machine. Every one of us knows that it eats into and
corrodes the whole social and political life of Ireland. Everybody knows it.
Perhaps the right hon. and learned gentleman is ignorant of it. I could give
him a list of appointments made to Government offices in Ireland. In every
branch of the public service where Freemasons decide - at all events, if they
do not decide, look at the statistics and consider! - I think it will be found
that every position above the position of crossing‑sweeper, although the Irish
people are overwhelmingly Catholic in the three provinces
of Ireland - ninety per cent. are Catholics, but the great bulk
of these positions are held by those who are hostile to our faith and our
The Bill was then read a second time without a division, and
two days later it was considered in committee of the whole House, when the
Masonic point came again - and this time very practically - to the front.
Major Newman now observed: “Let us allow these constables to
belong to no secret society whatsoever. Do not let us have the Hibernians,
Orangemen, or Freemasons - at any rate, so long as both these forces are under
the control of Parliament. What may happen after they are transferred to the
Dublin Parliament does not concern us now. Up till then, for the safety of
Ireland, for fair play, and on behalf of the peace of that country, let us lay
down once and for all the rule that,
long as we here have control of these forces, so long as they have to look to
us for their emoluments and so on, we will not allow any member of those
forces, be he county inspector, divisional inspector, subordinate officer,
head constable, or what not, to be a member of any secret society -
Freemasons, Ancient Order of Hibernians, or Orangemen. If the Chief Secretary
will not give us assurances on this point, I should certainly like to test the
feelings of the House in the matter.”
Mr. Dillon replied for the Nationalists, remarking: “The other
day, when some of us pointed out that both the Constabulary and the Dublin
Metropolitan Police, by an extraordinary
prohibited from belonging to any secret society or any political association,
excepting the Society of Freemasons, several hon. members cried out that the
Society of Freemasons is not political. I do not know anything about the
Society of Freemasons in this country, or about the details of its proceedings
in Ireland; but I do know this, that you may state that fact
until you are
black in the face, but you will not get any man in Ireland to believe it. I
speak as an outsider altogether, quite ignorant of these matters, as being a
Roman Catholic, I am obliged to be, but it is a very singular thing that the
great Society of Freemasons, against whom I do not desire to
make any attack
whatever, in certain countries, in certain times, has become a most powerful
and dominating political society. Nobody who has studied history will
challenge that. It is a matter of public knowledge that the great revolution
in Turkey was carried out by the Grand Lodge of Salonika, and that all the
Young Turks whose names were famous throughout the world at that time, owed a
great deal of their remarkable power - which enabled them to overthrow the
Sultan's rule - to the fact that they were leading and high up in the Masonic
Order. That is a matter of common knowledge throughout Europe, and it is
remarkable that in certain countries and at certain periods the Masonic
Society, which in this country may be, for all I know, and I believe it is, a
purely charitable, social, and benevolent society, becomes when under the
control of certain individuals, and, under the stress of certain peculiar
circumstances, locally a most powerful and formidable political association.
It was so in Italy, Portugal, and Turkey. That has been the case in Ireland
for three or four generations, notoriously, and it is perfectly idle to deny
it. Here is the oath which the Constabulary in Ireland and the Dublin
Metropolitan Police are compelled to swear, with one slight variation, to
which I will draw attention in a moment. This oath - and it is a thing which
it is well
for the Chief Secretary to take note of - was imposed upon the Constabulary in
1836, at a time when a great deal of the Penal Code against the Catholics had
been barely repealed - I mean when the Catholics of Ireland were an oppressed
majority of the population, and really were kept out of all authority and all
social position in their own country. The oath is:-
B., do swear that I will well and truly serve our Sovereign,'
and so forth, and then it goes on to detail the duties which he
undertakes to perform:-
'and that I do not now belong to, and that I will not while I
shall hold the said office, join, subscribe or belong to any political society
whatsoever, or to any secret society whatsoever, unless to the Society of
Now that oath, imposed upon the constables of a Catholic nation
where the vast majority of the people were suffering under cruel oppression
from the law, and where that majority were forbidden by the Church, under pain
of mortal sin, to join this association, was an act of high-handed oppression,
and was calculated in the eyes of the people to mark out the policemen as
partisans of the ascendancy faction who ruled Ireland for many years, and this
act destroyed all idea of faith on the part of the Irish in the impartiality
of the administration of the law. I say, therefore, that the infliction of
that oath, which has gone on to this hour was a cruel and very outrageous
insult to the Catholic people of Ireland. Here is the form of oath taken by
the Dublin Metropolitan Police:-
I do not now belong to, and that while I shall hold the said office I will not
join or belong to, any political society whatsoever, or any secret society
whatsoever, unless the Society of Freemasons.'
That form of oath, administered to the Dublin Metropolitan
Police, admits in the very words of the oath that the Freemasons are a
political society, because it says, 'I will not belong to any political
society except the Society of Freemasons.’ “
Major Newman: “Secret society.”
Mr. Dillon: “The wording of the oath conveys the meaning which
even the framers of the oath recognised.”
Lonsdale (Ulster Unionist): “Or any secret society.”
Dillon: “That is the situation. In a country governed, as Ireland has always
been governed, without the slightest regard to the wishes of her own people,
on these men was imposed
a duty so difficult and delicate that it was almost beyond the
resources of men to carry out those duties in a way to command the public
confidence, and the Government in those days went out of their way to frame an
oath which would destroy, in my opinion, all hope of impartiality on the part
of the police.... One of the causes of the trouble in Dublin - and now that
the subject has been raised we should speak perfectly frankly - is that the
belief has grown up amongst the police - and I believe it to be a sound one -
that promotion does not always wait upon merit, but is the reward of certain
occult influences, outside influences, and political views, which ought not to
enter into the question of the promotion of a police force at all.... What is
the Ancient Order of Hibernians? It is not a secret society, it is not an
oath-bound society, and it is not a political society. It is a friendly
society registered under the Insurance Act. It is an open legal friendly
Society which is open to Catholics. I admit it is a sectarian society, but in
Ireland the Freemasons are a sectarian society closed to Catholics, and all
that the police have done - I admit it is very delicate ground, but they have
been smarting under grievances which have existed a long time - all that it is
alleged they have done - I do not know whether it is a fact - is that five
hundred of them have joined the Ancient Order of Hibernians. I ask on what
grounds of justice can the hon. member take up the position that they are not
as much entitled to join the Ancient Order of Hibernians as the officers are
entitled to join the Freemasons? That is an impossible position. If the hon.
member wants my opinion, I will give it to him. I would not allow, if I were
administering the affairs of Ireland, a policeman to join any society. I would
carry it further, and I would not allow any man engaged in the administration
of the law to join any society. But we know perfectly well that up to quite
recently every man engaged in the administration of the law in Ireland was a
Freemason. I say that the law, whether it be administered by policemen, or
magistrates, or prosecutors, or the Attorney-General, or judges, they ought to
be all above suspicion and stand equally between His Majesty's subjects, no
matter what society they belong to. Therefore, I go further than the hon. and
gallant member does, as I would require every judge, magistrate, Crown
prosecutor, and everyone, whoever he may be, in carrying out the law to take
an oath that he would not belong or did not belong to any association. We all
remember the Lord's Prayer, and human nature is weak, and if you have before
you in the administration of the law a man who is bound to you by the bonds of
an association you are tempted to be friendly.”
Mr. Devlin, another Nationalist, took the same line,
exclaiming: “Let all policemen in Ireland stand upon the basis of a common
equality. Let them either join the Hibernians or any other society they like,
and let them join the Freemasons or any other society they like. If those men
are not to have any connection or affiliation, direct or indirect, with
associations, then I say let that be a common principle equally applicable to
all men in the force.” He then appealed to the Chief Secretary to say whether
he intended to accept an amendment standing in the name of a third Nationalist
member, Mr. Nugent, proposing to alter the oath the Irish police had to take.
Mr. Duke replied: “I said when the Bill was before us on Second
Reading that I saw no answer to the objection there was to retaining this
exception in favour of the Order of Freemasons in the oath, and that I
proposed to take the necessary steps in accordance with that view. It is
difficult to say what I will do on a particular amendment, because it is not
quite so simple as to enable me to say Yes or No with regard to the particular
amendment, but, of course, I propose to make the change.”
Mr. Devlin rejoined: “A great deal of the time of the House,
and the time, perhaps, that ought to be occupied with other matters contained
in this Bill, has already been taken up in the discussion of this question;
and I wanted, as far as possible, to avoid the repetition of this discussion,
therefore I am very glad to find that the right hon. gentleman, in pursuance
of the promise which he gave when the Bill was before the Hoase on the Second
Read ng, proposes to accept the amendment which stands in the name of my hon.
Mr. Nugent, in moving his amendment, observed: “I have listened
to the suggestion made not by one speaker, but
by all, that
this antiquated rule which prohibits men from joining any secret society other
than the Freemasons should be wiped
existence. I am glad that that is now recognised. I agree that men should not
belong to any secret society - Catholic, Proestant, or anything else - which,
as the Chief Secretary said should cross or interfere with the discharge of
their public duties. But how is this to apply? . . . It is a terrible
objection to a man that he should be a member of an organisation of Catholics,
but is no objection when he signs the Ulster Covenant, or joins the
Freemasons' organization. The hon. gentleman (Major Newman) admits that the
Masonic organisation is a perfectly secret society, from which Catholics are
excluded by their religion. In the City of Dublin more than eighty percent. of
the people are Catholic, and in the Dublin Metropolitan Police more than
eighty per cent. of the men are Catholic. They are informed that they can join
the Masonic organization and have its influence to secure promotion, but that
if they join a Catholic organization, or the Hibernian Society, it is an
entirely different thing. The Ancient Order of Hibernians is not a political
society, and is not a secret society. It is a society registered under the
Friendly Societies Act, its books are open for inspection to every member of
the society, its returns are made to the Registrar of Friendly Societies, it
is approved under the Insurance Act as one of those societies which are to
administer it. I can say here, without fear of contradiction, that there is no
in Great Britain that has been able to conduct its business better.
. . . It would be far better in the interests of good
government in the interests of the City and Metropolitan police, and in the
interests of the peace of the city, to be generous in this
period whenever you are introducing a Bill which to some extent will remove
some of the grievances under which the men suffer.”
The amendment, however, was negatived without challenge, it
being understood that the Chief Secretary was prepared to meet the point in
another way. This other way was by means of a new clause, moved by Mr. Dillon
expressly to remove a portion of the old oath, in the following terms: “The
Statutes mentioned in the Third Schedule to this Act shall be repealed to the
extent mentioned, and in the said Schedule.”
An Ulster Unionist member (Col. Craig) at this point observed:
“I have not really had time to consider the question, but, as far as I
understand it, a great many men have joined the Freemasons' Society, and I
would like to ascertain whether the effect of this amendment might not press
rather hardly on those who have joined a society which, so far as I
understand, he could not leave once having joined it.”
Mr. Duke replied: “It is quite true that there are men in the
constabulary now who have joined the Order of Freemasons, but I do not at all
gather that there is any desire to penalize them, and I understand that the
intention is to have a fresh form of oath which has not on the face of it that
obvious inequality and that provocative exception with which the amendment
deals. I gather from the hon. member for East PIayo (Mr. Dillon) that I
correctly interpret his desire in this respect, and the desire of those who
act with him. There is an additional reason for it which I might perhaps
mention. When a man has attained commission rank he has to renew his oath with
regard to the position, and obviously it would be unjust that a man who has
entered the force upon certain conditions should be deprived of the just
expectation of promotion because in a different time and in a different temper
there was used what now seems an obsolete expression. I shall propose to
insert a qualification, when we come to the schedule, by means of words which
provide 'that the repeal, so far as it affects persons who join the respective
forces after the commencement of this Act.' I must say I am glad to
accept the proposal
which the hon. member has made.”
Mr. Dillon rejoined: “I accept the qualification which the
right hon. gentleman has stated, and I only desire to add this one word. The
attitude of the right hon. gentleman has been most conciliatory and most fair,
and I am very glad to be able to make such a concession, if concession it be.”
question was then put and agreed to, and the proposed new clause was added to
the Bill; but a further discussion took place when, later in the proceedings,
the new schedule was brought before the House in the following terms:-
Session and Chapter
EXTENT OF REPEAL
6 & 7
Section 17 from “whatsoever,” where it last appears to “Freemasons.”
6 & 7
Dublin Police Act, 1836
Section 44, from “whatsoever,” where it last appears to “Freemasons.”
The schedule having been read a first time, Mr. Muldoon, a
Nationalist member, moved that it be read a second time, suggesting that a
provision preserving the interests of those who have already joined the
society might, perhaps, more conveniently be inserted after the new Clause 4.
Mr. Duke replied: “I think the object desired by the hon.
member could be attained by inserting, at the end of the first paragraph in
the third column, the words, 'so far as respects persons who join the Royal
Irish Constabulary after the commencement of this Act'; and at the end of the
second paragraph in the third column, the words, 'so far as respects persons
who join the Dublin Metropolitan Police after the commencement of this Act.' I
think that will meet the hon. member's view. But if he thinks it would be more
artistic to do it in a different manner on report, I daresay we shall not
quarrel over that.”
The schedule having been read a second time,
Mr. Duke said: “I beg to move, at the end of the first
paragraph in the third column, to insert the words, 'so far as respects
persons who join the Royal Irish Constabulary after the commencement of this
Mr. Hazleton (Nationalist): “After the passing of this Act.”
Mr. Duke: “It is the same thing. 'Commencement' is the
technical expression for its coming into operation.”
Col. Craig then observed: “I want to enter a protest against
this proposal, in order that it may be recorded that I did so. I do not intend
to press my objection further than to say, as a member of the Masonic Order,
that I do not think it is necessary that this step should be taken. I see the
point of view of hon. members below the gangway - that, if there is to be a
restriction, so far as joining any of these societies is concerned, there
should be no exception whatever. Hitherto the Masonic Order has taken a place
entirely by itself. It takes no political part whatever in the life of
Ireland, nor, as far as I know, in the life of England. At the same time, I am
fully alive to the fact that as it is a secret society, hon. members say that
if there is to be a rule that men of the Royal Irish Constabulary are not to
be permitted to join any secret society, the rule must apply here also, and
with this protest I am prepared to waive my objection. I hope, however, that
members of the Order, whether inside or outside the House, will not regard it
as any slur upon the society. We are in the midst of a great war, and we all
have to sacrifice something. I have none of my friends here to support me, or
even to advise me, in this matter. Therefore I simply enter my protest, and,
faced with the fact that we want to show a united front wherever we can, and
in the interests of the discipline of the force, I withdraw my opposition.”
The amendment was then agreed to, and a further amendment made,
at the end of the second paragraph, in the third column, to insert the words,
“so far as respects persons who join the Metropolitan Police after the
commencement of this Act.” The schedule, as amended, was then added to the
Bill, it being
Session and Chapter
EXTENT OF REPEAL
6 & 7
Section 17 from “whatsoever,” where it last appears to “Freemasons,” so
far as respects persons, who join the Royal Irish Constabulary after the
commencement of this Act
6 & 7
Dublin Police Act, 1836
Section 44, from “whatsoever,” where it last appears to “Freemasons,” so
far as respects persons, who join the Dublin Metropolitan Police after the
commencement of this Act
The Bill was immediately reported to the House, at which stage,
despite the Chief Secretary's suggestion that it might be possible then to
deal with the matter “in a more artistic way,” not a further word was said
concerning it; and the measure
was ordered in
a very few minutes for third reading, which
given to it without further ado on Wednesday of this week.
ENCYCLICAL LETTER HUMANUM GENUS” OF THE POPE LEO XlIl
(CONCLUDED FROM JANUARY ISSUE)
THE LETTER then proceeds to state the materialistic “principles
of statesmanship.” It says: “They maintain that all things are vested in a
free people; that power is held by the order or permission of that people, so
that, if the popular pleasure change, Princes may be degraded from their rank
even against their will. They assert that the source of all laws and civil
duties is either in the multitude, or in the power that rules the State, and
this when formed by the newest teaching.” And the Letter avers, “that these
very sentiments are equally pleasing to the FreeMasons; and that they wish to
arrange States after this likeness and pattern, is too well known to need
demonstration. For long indeed they have been openly working for this object
with all their strength and resources.”
These are the political principles of all English-speaking
Masons; not because they are Free-Masons, not because these principles are
taught in their lodges for they teach nothing there in regard to politics or
systems of government; but because they are Englishmen, Scotsmen, Irishmen, or
citizens of the United States; and their Civil Governments are founded upon
these principles. In other countries these are the principles which have
always inspired the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, and the French or
Modern Rite; and these Rites have therefore always been the advocates and
champions, especially in the Latin countries of Europe, of freedom and
constitutional government; and in this chiefly consist their glory and their
honour. The Roman Catholic Church has been always and everywhere on the side
of the arbitrary power Princes and Potentates: Masonry on the side of the
people. Thou hast said truly, O Pope!
Then the Successor of Saint Peter thus announces to the
Faithful the law by which they are to be absolutely governed, - the law of the
Divine right of anointed
are born by the will of God for civil union and association, and as the power
of ruling is so necessary a bond of civil society, that on its removal that
society must suddenly be severed, it follows that He who gave birth to society
gives birth also to the rule of authority. Whence it is understood that he in
whom power is, WHOEVER HE IS, is God's Minister. Wherefore, so far as the end
and nature of human society require, it is as right to obey lawful authority,
when it issues just orders as it is to obey the power of God who rules all
things: and this is pre-eminently inconsistent with truth, that it should
depend upon the will of the people to cast off obedience at its pleasure.”
one, then, who finds himself actually possessing power, thereby God's
Minister? Was Cromwell God's Minister? Was William of Orange God's Minister?
Was Napoleon the Great? Were William and Mary God's Ministers? Are the King
and Parliament of Italy God's Ministers? Are the Emperors of Germany and
Brazil God's Ministers? Oh no! The Pope means those in whom power is, they
having lawful authority, i. e., those whose rule and power are sanctioned by
the Church. How, according to his doctrine, if it be “pre-eminently
inconsistent with truth” that the people may rid a country of a ferocious and
brutal tyrant, by compelling his abdication - of a Ferdinand VII., or Philip
II., (whose will and that of the Church of Rome Alva executed in the
Netherlands, leaving written there all over the land the never-to-be-effaced
records of the blood-guiltiness of the Church and King), - of a Bomba, of a
Nero, of a Caligula, of a Borgia, - how is any bloody and brutal miscreant,
wearing the purple, to be dethroned? Must the people endure until God shall
remove the butchering malefactor by death, that perhaps Commodus may succeed
Tiberius, or a worse and meaner tyrant follow Bomba?
must be some power on earth to set free a suffering people. It must not
“depend upon the will of the people to cast off obedience at its pleasure, -
all Catholics are ordered to believe.” When, then? When the Church may
authorize it; when the Pope may declare the Throne forfeited for crime, and
excommunicate the Ruler, as Heretic or Free-Mason? Is it not this that is
Pope pronounces by his prerogative of infallibility, and as Vicegerent of God,
whom it is as unlawful to refuse to obey as it is to refuse “to obey the power
of God who rules all things,” that the dethronement of James II., Catholic
King of England, was an act of disobedience of the power of God.
contempt for the authority of Princes, on the allowing and approving of lust
for sedition, on the granting of full license to the passions of the people,
bridled only by the fear of punishment, there must of necessity arise a change
and overthrow of all things.”
Free-Masons, he passionately cries, “have begun to have great weight in ruling
States, but they are ready to shake the foundations of Empires, and to
censure, accuse and drive
out the chief men of a State, whenever its administration seems different from
their wishes. Just so have they deluded the people by their flattery. By
calling in sounding terms for liberty and public prosperity, and saying that
it is owing to the Church and Princes that the people are not delivered from
unjust slavery and want, they have imposed upon the populace, and have
instigated it by a thirst for revolution to attack the power of both.”
Where? Garibaldi, in Italy, was a Free-Mason, and there are
perhaps a hundred and fifty Masonic lodges in Italy; and yet a King rules
peacefully there, upheld by the Free-Masons, his Minister, Depretis, being a
Mason. In Brazil the Emperor is a Free-Mason of the 33d Degree, and there have
been no insurrections or disturbances of the public peace there, though the
Free-Masons assemble in some two hundred Lodges and higher Bodies. In Portugal
there are a Grand Orient and Supreme Council and sixty or seventy Lodges, and
the Marshal Duke Saldanha, why by peaceful revolution gave that Kingdom a
constitutional government, was Ex-Grand Master of Masons; and yet a King
reigns peacefully in Portugal. In Spain there are two hundred Lodges, and
Sagasta is a Free-Mason, and Alfonso reigns secure, his throne upheld by
Attacks upon the Church and Princes, the Pope exclaims,
instigated by Free-Masons, have given the people greater expectation than
reality of advantage. “Nay, rather, the common people, suffering worse
oppression, are for the most part forced to be without those very alleviations
of their miseries, which they would find with ease and abundance, if matters
were arranged according to Christian ordinances. But as many as strive against
the order arranged by divine Providence, usually pay this penalty for their
pride, that they meet with a wretched and miserable fortune
in the quarter
whence they rashly expected prosperity
The Spanish Colonies in the New World threw off by revolt the
intolerable yoke of oppression of the Spanish Crown, and made themselves free
Republics. They were not content with “matters arranged according to Christian
Ordinances” by the Catholic Church, for the benefit of a rapacious and cruel
government, with those “Ordinances” administered by Inquisitors. Are the
people of Mexico loosers thereby? Are those of Chile, or Venezuela? The
Netherlands, bled nearly unto death, at last, by heroic endurance and
matchless courage, rescued their country from the Satanic rule of Alva. France
put an end to such Saturnalia of Hell there as that of the Eve of St.
Bartholomew, and in carrying away the Pope to Avignon paid Rome in full for
the blood with which the grey hairs of old Coligni dabbled the stones of
Paris. God, by the instrumentality of Luther, avenged the murdered Albigenses
and Lollards, Huss and Wiclif, Jerome of Prague and Savonarola; seriously
disarranging “matters arranged according to Christian Ordinances.” Has all
this been to the manifest disadvantage of the people of the liberated
countries of the world ? Have the Netherlands, Belgium, Portugal, Italy, lost
by it? Is France miserable and suffering? Is Germany wretched? Does Great
Britain languish for want of the tender mercies of the Papacy?
That great Statesman, Edmund Burke, said that he did not know
how to draw an indictment against a whole people; but we have thus shown, by
the very words, faithfully translated, of the Roman Pontiff himself, that this
Encyclical Letter, which purports to be only an arraignment and condemnation
of Free-Masonry, is in its principal intent and deepest significance an
indictment, not only of the people of every Republic and Constitutional
Monarchy in the world; but of every Protestant country in the world; and not
only of the people of every Protestant country in the world, but of all that
portion of the people of every Catholic country who have in these later
centuries asserted the right of the people to have a voice in the affairs of
government, and to be secure in their persons and lives against the infernal
methods of procedure, the creation of imaginary crimes, and the cruel
torturings upon mere suspicion, of such tribunals as the Inquisition. It is a
sentence purporting to be uttered by the voice of God, outlawing and excluding
from Heaven all the patriots and lovers of liberty and liberators of the
people, all the array of martyrs who have died in endeavoring to vindicate the
right of Humanity to freedom of thought and conscience.
It denounces as wicked and criminal, and contrary to the
ordinances of the Christian religion, not only the laws which permit the
solemnization of marriage by the civil magistrate, and those which exclude
sectarian religious teaching from schools and seminaries maintained by public
taxation; not only the constitutional provisions which in all the States of
these United States decree the separation of Church and State, and refuse to
the Church any part in the civil government of the country; not only those by
which the pretensions of the Churches and their right to dictate opinions may
be freely discussed by the public press; but also the great principle on which
the governments of all Republics are founded, of the sovereignty of the
people, the only legitimate source and author of civil power and government.
It asserts the divine right of Princes, if held by the Church of Rome to have
lawful authority, to govern men against their will; that they are the
Ministers of God; and that the people have no power to free themselves from
the tyranny and oppression of these divinely commissioned scourges and
Assassins of Humanity.
It is an indictment of Humanity itself, for its instinctive
struggles to lift itself above the miseries and indignities of bodily and
intellectual bondage to Priest and Potentate; for the involuntary and
irrepressible aspirations of its Soul towards light and knowledge and the free
atmosphere of intellectual expansion; and for the not more involuntary
quiverings of its tortured, racked, wrenched and mutilated muscles and nerves.
It is an indictment of Civilization, of Progress, of the Spirit of Manhood, of
the self-respect of the Peoples, of the Progress onward and upward of
Humanity, of the Spirit of the Age, which is the very Inspiration of God; and
of God Himself and the beneficent Providence of God, Who loves the people in
rags, hungry and hopeless, better than He loves the Priests in scarlet and the
Tyrants in purple.
In renewing and by his Apostolic authority confirming
everything decreed by former Popes against Free-Masonry, ratifying their Bulls
as well in general as in particular, Leo XIII. leaves to his faithful subjects
no discretionary power to regard any portions of those anathemas as obsolete,
or to pay respect and obedience to those laws, Bills of Right, or
Constitutions, of the countries in which they live, which may forbid the
enforcement of the commands of the Church containing these Bulls.
For he immediately adds: “Having entire confidence in this
respect, in the good will of those who are Christians, we beseech them, in the
name of their erernal salvation, and we demand of them to make it for
themselves a sacred obligation of conscience, never to depart, even by one
single line, from the mandates promulgated on this subject by the Apostolic
He then proceeds to direct by what measures and devices the
Clergy “are “to cause to disappear the impure contagion of the poison which
circulates in the veins of society, and infects it throughout.”
First: by tearing off the mask of Free‑Masonry and showing it
as it is.
Second: by special discourses and pastoral letters to instruct
the people. “Remind the people,” he says, “that by virtue of the decrees often
issued by our predecessors, no Catholic, if he desires to continue worthy of
the name, and to have for his salvation the concern which it deserves, can,
under any pretext, affiliate with the Sect of Free-Masons.”
Then, by frequent instruction and exhortation to help the
masses to acquire a knowledge of religion, expounding, in writing and orally,
the elements of the sacred principles which constitute the Christian
philosophy; and so to increase the devotion of Clergy and Laity to the
Catholic Church, the result whereof will be increased disgust for secret
societies, and greater care to avoid them. To which method of inculcating what
is believed by the Church to be truth, and opposing the progress of what it
believes to be error, a Free-Mason will be the last man in the world to
object, if it is not to be supplemented by other too well known methods.
And, to engage with great zeal in increasing and strengthening
the Third Order of Saint Francis, in the discipline whereof the Pope claims to
have made wise modifications; so that “it may be able to render greater
service in helping to overcome the contagion of these detestable Sects.”
Third: to re-engage in establishing corporation of workingmen,
to protect, under the tutorship of religion, the interests of labor and the
morals of workers; with societies of patrons, to assist and instruct the
proletaires, such as is the Society of Saint Vincent de Paul.
Fourth: vigilantly to watch with pastoral solicitude over the
young, drawing them away, by renewed efforts, from the schools and teachers
where they would be exposed to breathe the poisoned breath of the Sects:
parents, teachers and curates, urged by the Bishops, guarding their children
and pupils against “these criminal societies,” which are ever endeavoring to
ensnare them; those who have it in charge to prepare young persons to receive
the sacraments, inducing every one of them to take a firm resolution not to
join any society without the knowledge of their parents, or without havng
consulted their curate or confessor.
For the rest, to implore the aid of the Lord, with great ardor
and reiterated solicitations, proportioned to the necessity of the
circumstances, and the intensity of the peril.
“Haughty on account of its former success, the Sect of
Free-masons insolently erects its head, and its audacity no longer seems to
know any bounds. United to one another by the bond of a criminal federation,
and by their secret plans, its adepts lend to each other mutual support, and
incite each other to dare and to do evil.”
“To which violent attack an energetic defence must respond.
Good men must unite, and form an immense coalition of prayers and efforts.
Especially the Virgin Mary, Mother of God, must be besought to become the
auxiliary and interpreter of the Church, displaying her power against the
Sects which are reviving the rebellious spirit, the incorrigible perfidy, and
the cunning, of the Devil. Saint Michael who precipitated the revolted Angels
into hell, Saint Joseph, husband of the Virgin, and the great Apostles Saint
Peter and Saint Paul, must also be enlisted: and thus the imminent danger to
the human race may be averted.”
Instructions of the people in religious doctrine; enlargement
of the Third Order of Franciscans; organization of associations of working
men; gaining control of the education of the young; and incessant prayer, -
these are to be the ostensible means of offense and defence. A la bonne heure!
if no more were meant. But the Church of Rome has never been in the habit of
making known the real means or instruments which it has determined to use for
the suppression of heresy or to repress the struggles of Humanity to escape
from the intolerable burdens of oppression; and it is not likely to do it now.
The ostentatious recital of these peaceful means of antagonism does not agree
with the explicit re-enactments of the Bulls of Clement and Benedict. The
Church has other measures in view than teaching and prayer; and it is already
using them in Belgium and Brazil. It has mysteries the divulgation of which is
interdicted; Conclaves and Consistories, Generals of the Order, Assemblies
that are secret, as their decisions and the means and agents of execution are.
The adepts blindly and without discussion obey the injunctions of their
Chiefs, holding themselves always ready, upon the slightest notification or
hardly perceptible sign, to execute the orders given them, devoting themselves
in advance, in case of disobedience, to the most terrible penalties, and even
to death; were the order even to bring about the murder of another William the
Silent, or of the Chiefs of a Republic.
With such a Past as that of the Church of Rome is, it would
have been wise not to provoke comment upon its real crimes by accusing others
of having committed imaginary ones; or exposure of the doctrines of the
Jesuits, by libelling those of Free-Masonry.
It is not only just and fair and reasonable, but of absolute
necessity, to conclude that any one who speaks to men by authority intends the
consequences that may naturally, anywhere, be the effects of his words. It is
even of absolute necessity, sometimes, to conclude that ambiguous phrases and
significant suggestions and veiled meanings, when used as they are here, are
employed to induce the commission of infamies, the explicit incitation
whereunto might startle the conscience of Humanity. And this is especially of
unavoidable necessity, in the interpretation of the mandates of the Church of
Rome against those whom it considers its enemies. For it has never yet
repudiated and condemned the maxims of the Spanish Jesuits, or declared the
suppression of the Truth or the suggestion of Falsehood, for the benefit of
the Church, to be contrary to the spirit of the Gospel, or confessed itself
ashamed for having so long employed the infernal enginery of the Inquisition.
It is infallible, can never have erred, can never change. It long ago lost all
right to expect the world to give it credit for honesty of intention or
frankness of expression.
This new Proclamation of Interdict and Excommunication is, it
is probable, more especially intended as a political manifesto to the Clergy
and Catholics of Italy, Spain, Portugal, Belgium and Brazil, inciting them to
treasonable plottings and combinations against the Constitutional Governments
of those countries. It preaches to them a new Crusade, the purpose whereof is
to destroy those governments, to depose the Monarchs who permit the existence
of Free-Masonry in their dominions and the expression of the voice of the
people in public affairs; and to place in those Kingdoms the education of the
young in the hands of the soldiery of Loyola, and the power of persecuting
Free-Masonry and Heresy and the favouring of liberal government in the Holy
Office or Inquisition, armed with all its old inhuman and unchristian powers,
against which the sense of justice of the whole world long ago revolted. In
Brazil it incites the Arch-Bishop of Rio de Janeiro and the Bishop of Para,
and all the Jesuits and Ultramontane Clergy, to renew the war a few years ago
waged by them against Free-Masonry, against the Emperor and Parliament, and
the Laws of the Empire, acting towards the Emperor as towards one
excommunicated, reprobated and accursed.
Thus it menaces the public peace in those countries, inciting
revolt and insurrection and assassination, and makes the Lord's Prayer the
patent of an Inquisitor, and the Sermon on the Mount a warrant for murder.
Already the General of the Jesuits and the Chief Inquisitor of
the Holy Office have promulgated their orders to their troops and officials,
commanding them to use their utmost exertions to carry into effect the
mandates of the Encyclical Letter. In Spain and Portugal secret Anti-Masonic
Associations are already being organized under these orders, and like
organizations may be looked for in the United States, with resort to every
other means of warfare against the great principles which Free-Masonry
represents, that can be prudently and safely employed.
It is also a political manifesto, and more, for our neighboring
Republic of Mexico, and those of Central and South America. There are Grand
Lodges and Supreme Councils of Masons in most of them; and in all, Masonry is
free to exist and work undisturbed, and is powerful and influential. In
Mexico, the Ex-President, now President Elect of the Republic, and the Actual
President, are 33ds, members of the Supreme Council of Mexico created by us,
as the President Comonfort was a 33d, Grand Commander of that Supreme Council,
and as the President Juarez was a Mason. It is well known that the population
at large of the Republic is uneducated and grossly ignorant, and slavishly
subservient to the Priesthood; and that it detests and hates Protestants as
heretics, damned by the anathemas of the Church, and unfit to live. The
Priesthood in Mexico has always been the uncompromising and wily enemy of
every patriotic President, of Republican Government, of Free-Masonry, of the
principles on which Constitutional Governments are founded, and of all the men
by whose sublime efforts and sacrifices Mexico was made and has been
maintained a Republic.
It is also well known that, in consequence of the friendly
relations between our two Republics, and the extension of railroads in Mexico,
built by the capital of our citizens, there now are in that country a great
number of citizens of the United States, many of whom have purchased mines and
lands, and are working and cultivating them. The Letter Humanum Genus is so
framed and worded as to be calculated, and must therefore be taken to be
artfully and deliberately intended, to incite the Priesthood in Mexico to
renewed zeal against heresy and heretics, and more persistent and continuous
and better organized and more audacious efforts to destroy Free-Masonry there,
and overturn Republicanism. If citizens of the United States peaceably engaged
there in useful avocations, should be assassinated by mobs, instigated, if not
openly led, by the Priests; if Diaz and Gonzales and other Free-Masons should
be murdered, and the Church should inaugurate a bloody civil war, Pope Leo
XIII. will not be able, by any special pleading, to avoid the responsibility
for all the fatal consequences that may ensue.
For men have not forgotten that Ignatious Loyola, founder of
the Order of Jesus, promulgated this law.
“Visum est nobis in Domino nullas Constitutiones posse
obligationem ad peccatum mortale vel veniale inducere, nisi Superior, (in
nomine J.-C. vel in virtute obedientiae,) juberet.”
“It has seemed to us in the Lord that on Constitutions can make
it obligatory to commit a mortal or a pardonable sin unless the Superior (in
the name of Jesus Christ, or in virtue of obedience,) may so order.”
No doubt the General of the Jesuits holds the same doctrine
to-day, and is ready to apply it, if occasion should demand, - that the
Superior in the Order has the power to command an inferior to commit a mortal
sin. It is a fruitful and convenient doctrine, when the matter in hand is to
destroy Constitutional Governments in Catholic countries.
There is still more to be considered by the people of the
United States; which, when they come fully to comprehend the puport of this
manifesto from the Vatican, they will consider. The Catholics, whom it
proposes to organize into Italian Colonies or Camps here, obeying the laws
enacted at Rome, regulating their political action by principles hostile to
those on which Republican Government is founded, and sedulously inculcating
these upon the young entrusted to their charge, are being thoroughly informed
of its contents and meanings; for it is already being read in all their
Churches. Those, whose principle it damns as detestable and wicked, will come
to the knowledge of it more slowly, feeling, even if Free-Masons, little
interest in a Papal Bull against Free-Masonry, and little inclined to read so
long a paper; and slow to believe that it is an attack upon the civil
institutions and system of government under which they live. But they will
well understand it by and by, and have something to say in regard to it.
It makes it to be of divine obligation for every faithful
Catholic in the United States, to be at heart the mortal and uncompromising
enemy of the principles and spirit, the plan and purpose, of the Government
under which he lives, and whose equal laws permit him to plot and conspire
against it with impunity. It proclaims it to the devout believer as a truth
spoken by the mouth of God, that the great axiomatic principles, dear to the
lovers of human liberty in every age, dear especially, dear beyond price or
expression, to the people of the United States, on which, as upon the
immovable adamant of eternal truth, their system of government is builded, are
false and criminal and wicked, making the United States to be a part of the
Kingdom of Satan.
It makes it his and her duty, therefore, to do all that it may
be possible to do to eradicate these principles and destroy all that is
builded upon them; to gain control, so far as possible, of the education of
youth and convert the young to the Catholic faith; to win or buy for the
Catholic Church a power and influence in the government of the country.
Already the Encyclical Letter is acted upon as a political
manifesto in Ireland.
Archbishop McCabe, we are told, has written a letter with
reference to the approaching election of Lord Mayor for Dublin. He says he is
unable to understand how Catholics could in honor and conscience cast their
votes for Mr. Winstanley, who is both a Home Ruler and a Free-Mason. “As a
Free-Mason he is a member of a society which aims to overthrow religion. To
Free-Masonry the revolutions of the last century were traceable. No one can
plead non-participation as long as he remains a Mason.”
And Mr. Winstanley has repudiated Free-Masonry to obtain votes;
and he has been defeated.
But, - for which thanks be unto the God of Hosts “from Whom all
glories are”! - Free-Masonry is
mightier than the Church of
Rome; for it possesses the
invincible might of the Spirit of the Age and of the
convictions of civilized Humanity; and it will continue to grow in strength
and greatness while that Church, in love with and doting upon its old
traditions, and incapable of learning anything, will continue to decay. The
palsied hand of the Papacy is too feeble to arrest the march of human
progress. It cannot bring back the obsolete doctrine that Kings reign by
divine right. In vain it will preach new Crusades against Free-Masonry, or
Heresy, or Republicanism. It will continue to sigh in vain for the return of
the days of Philip II. and Mary of England, of Loyola and Alva and Torquemada.
If it succeeds in instigating the Kings of Spain and Portugal to engage in the
work of extirpating Free-Masonry, these will owe it to the speedy loss of
their crowns. The world is no longer in a humour to be saddled and bitted like
an ass and ridden by Capuchins and Franciscans. Humanity has inhaled the
fresh, keen winds of freedom, and has escaped from companionship with the
herds that chew the cud and the inmates of stables and kennels, to the
highlands of Liberty, Equality and Brotherhood.
The world is not likely to forget that the infallible Pope
Urban VIII., Barberini, set his signature to the sentence which condemned to
perpetual imprisonment, to adjuration and to silence, Galileo Gililei, who, it
is known, avoided being burned at the stake by denying on bended knees the
deductions of positive science, which demonstrated the movement of the earth;
and on the 2d of July, 1633, the Cardinal of Santo Onofio Barbering in the
name of the Pope his uncle, announced to the world the condemnation of Galileo
by an Encyclical Letter, from the Latin whereof we translate these words: “For
which matter Galileo, accused and confined in the prisons of the Holy Office,
has been condemned to adjure the said opinion....”
Nor are Free-Masons likely to forget that when the Bull of
Clement XII., which Leo XIII. now revives and re-enacts, was published,
Cardinal Firrao explained the nature of the punishments which were required to
be inflicted on Masons, and what the kind of service was which the Pope
demanded from “the Secular Arm.”
“It is forbidden,” he says . . . “to affiliate one's self with
the Societies of Masons . . . under penalty of death and of confiscation of
goods, and to die unabsolved and without hope of salvation.” Who will be
audacious enough to censure us for replying defiantly to a decree which, by
revivor of the Bull of Clement, condemns every Free-Mason in the world to
death and confiscation, and damns him in advance to die without hope of
The world has not forgotten that when Charles IX. of France and
the Due de Guise at first disowned responsibility for the massacre of 20,000
Protestants, and others, on the Eve and after the Eve of St. Bartholomew, the
Catholic Clergy assumed it. Heaven adopted it, they said: “it was not the
massacre of the King and the Duke: “it was the Justice of God.” Then the
slaughter recommenced, of neighbor by neighbor, of women, of children, of
children unborn, in order to extinguish families, the wombs of mothers cut
open, and the children torn from them, for fear they might survive. “The paper
would weep, if we should write upon it all that was done.”
Men remember that at Saint-Michel, the Jesuit Auger, sent
thither from the College of Paris, announced to Bordeaux that the Archangel
Michael had made the great massacre, and deplored the sluggishness of the
Governor and Magistrates of Bordeaux. After the 24th of August there were
feasts. The Catholic Clergy had theirs, at Paris, on the 28th, and ordered a
jubilee, to which the King and Court went, and returned thanks to God. And the
King, who proclaimed that he had caused Coligni to be killed, and that he
would have poniarded him with his own hand, was flattered to intoxication by
the praises and congratulations of Rome. Do men not remember that there were
feasts and great gaities at Rome on account of the massacre? that the Pope
chaunted the Te Deum Laudamus, and sent to “his son,” Charles IX., (to win for
whom the whole credit of the massacre, the Cardinal of Lorraine moved Heaven
and Earth), the Rose of Gold? that a medal was coined by Rome to commemorate
it; and that a painting of the bloody scene was made, and until lately hung in
the Vatican ?
Free-Masonry is strong enough, everywhere, now, to defend
itself, and does not dread even the Hierarchy of the Roman Church, with its
great revenues, and its Cardinal Princes, claiming to issue the Decrees and
Bulletins of God, and to hold the keys with which it locks and unlocks at
pleasure the Gates of Paradise. The Powers of Free-Masonry, too, sending their
words to one another over the four Continents and the great Islands of the
Southern Seas, colonized by Englishmen, speak, but with only the authority of
reason, Urbi et Orbi, to men of free souls and high courage and quick
It does not need that Free-Masonry should take up arms of any
sort against the Church of Rome. Science, the wider knowledge of what God is,
learned from His works; the irresistible progress of Civilization, the Spirit
of the Nineteenth Century; these are the sufficient avengers of the
mutilations and murders of the long ages of the horrid Past. These have
already avenged Humanity, and Free-Masonry need not add another word:-
Except these: - that there are two questions to be asked, and
answer thereunto demanded of all Roman Catholics in the United States, who are
loyal to the Constitution of Government under which they live, patriotic
citizens of the United States:
Do not your consciences tell you that what is now demanded of
you by Pope Leo XIII., by the General of the Jesuits and Chief Inquisitor is,
to engage actively in a conspiracy against that Constitution of Government,
and the principles on which it is founded; after the dethronement of which
principles that Constitution of Government could not live an hour?
If you cannot see it in that light, do not your consciences and
common sense tell you, that to approve and favour and give aid and assistance
to an open conspiracy against every other Republic and every Constitutional
Monarchy in the world, and the principles on which they are founded, is to
play a part that is inconsistent with the principles that you profess to be
governed by here, is in opposition to all the sympathies of the country in
which you live, and is hostile to the influences of its example among the
people of other countries, treacherous to your own country, and unworthy of
have to answer these questions; for they will not cease to be reiterated until
you do; and not by Free-Masonry alone.
the Grand Orient aforesaid, the first day of August, 1884, and of the Supreme
Council the, 84th year.
-- A LEAGUE OF THE NATION
JOSEPH FORT NEWTON, NEW YORK
THE LITTLE month of February holds among its days the greatest
birth-dates in the calendar of our Republic: it gave us Washington and
Lincoln. It behooves us not only to recall their names, but to renew our
homage to their patriotic manhood, their moral intelligence, and their
practical sagacity, that so, avoiding alike the obscurantist and the
impossibilist, we may realize our true destiny in our own nation and among the
peoples of the earth. Living in a time of reaction and irritation, of
confusion and misgiving, we need to reach into the grave and touch the bones
of our prophets, and thus rekindle both our faith and our vision.
Washington came up from the south; Lincoln came down from the
north. They were providential men, each trained for the task appointed him,
each bringing to an hour of crisis a great and simple faith, a disinterested
devotion to the common good, a practical acumen led and lighted by an
authentic moral insight; and the Republic is at once their monument and their
memorial. Fidelity to all that is holy in our history, no less than our
obligation to those yet unborn, demands that we keep alive the memory and
ideals of the men who first organized, and then cemented, a group of states
into a League of the Nation, changing division and weakness into unity and
power. Three things are supremely needed today, if we are not to lose our way
in the fogs of party passion, and betray both ourselves and humanity.
First of all, there must be a profound recognition of the fact,
attested by the clearest-visioned men of our race, and confirmed by long
tragic experience, that, in the end, only spiritual forces can hold a nation
together and make it truly great. The great moral prophets were not the dupes
of delusions; they saw straight, and the “long-lived storm of great events”
through which we have passed proves that they alone are practical men. Even
Bismarok saw that in the last result victories are won by the “imponderables,”
by the moral and spiritual influences, and that fact is made doubly plain
today. Force is a failure. Diplomacy is a delusion. Regimented ruthlessness
provokes reaction. Unless the finer influences are allowed to have free play,
inducing a nobler mood and a clearer insight, there is little hope that the
prayer of Lincoln for “a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all
nations” will ever be answered.
For that reason, every organized moral influence - like
Freemasonry - has laid upon it a new obligation and a new opportunity. By as
much as the world fills up with men of moral insight and courage - men who see
that Masonry is not a system of moral manicure, but a method of training men
in fraternal righteousness - by so much our problems will be solved. The great
causes of God and Humanity are not delayed by being blown up, but by the slow,
glacier-like mass of morally indifferent men. So, when our wise and gentle
Craft labors to make men noble, faithful, and brotherly of heart, building
their lives into a brotherly world-order, she is working at the foundations of
society, making all good things better, and all sacred things more secure. But
to this influence on the individual must be added the momentum that comes of
co‑operation which, by its intelligence as well as by its efficiency, makes
itself felt in behalf of the national life.
Next to a new sense of the practical efficacy of moral forces,
we need, as never before, a clear, commanding conception of what America
means. He is a poor patriot, and no Mason at all, who has not asked himself
what plan, what purpose, what prophecy the Great Architect is trying to work
out in our national history? For true citizenship, no less than true
statesmanship, consists in discerning the way the Eternal Will is moving and
in getting things out of His
Surely America exists to build in the new world a Beloved Community - united,
just, and free - where men of every race and creed may live and live well,
because they live in moral fellowship under a sense of common interest and
obligation; and loyalty to that ideal is true patriotism. For the same reason,
race, class, party, sect, everything must be subordinated to the service of
that ideal, that we may fulfill our national destiny and be of real service to
In short, we need a League of the Nation, uniting all races,
classes, and conditions of men in a compact body of conviction and purpose,
and resolved to bring to the problems of peace somewhat of the solidarity, the
spirit of service and sacrifice, won by the war. Unfortunately, we have
already lost to a sad extent the new solidarity created by the mighty crusade,
but we can never wholly lose the strength and liberation that
came of united effort in a
great enterprise, which must have flashed before even the dullest mind a dim
vision of what America means both to itself and to humanity. Hereafter, any
man who lives altogether for himself, or his party, or his sect, proves false
to the men who paid "the last full measure of devotion" for a better
ordering of the world in
liberty, justice, and goodwill. Here, again, Masonry can help, and is the
better able to help in the nation as it realizes its own unity and obligation.
Surely we have a right to hope much from the fact that the leading minds of
the Craft are coming into vital contact with one another, and into a larger
sense of informal but conscious comradeship in a common cause.
same token, no nation can live unto itself without becoming either a menace or
a monstrosity, as the myopic nationalism of Germany before the war proved.
Great events, which were the footsteps of God, led America into the fellowship
of free peoples in a crusade of righteousness, and we cannot withdraw. Moral
obligations, no less than the dictates of humanity, hold us to our comrades,
as before a comperil and necessity united us with them in the trenches, on the
grey solitudes of the sea, and in the consecration of an inexpressible
sacrifice. Whatever the name, whatever the details of agreement, there must be
some new way of working together - either by formal bonds or otherwise if we
are to save civilization from an all-dissolving anarchy.
rest, I believe in America, as I believe in God, and I know that she will not
fail herself or humanity, much less shirk her just responsibility for the
public law and order of the world. The words of our gracious and wise Emerson
speak to us as poignantly today as they did sixty years ago, both as to our
duty to be just at home and the friend of freedom and peace abroad:
States! the ages plead,
and part in under-song;
your creed into your deed,
with double tongue.
at home; then write your scroll
o'er the sea,
the broad Atlantic roll
of the free.
that worketh high and wise,
pauses in His plan,
the sun out of the skies
freedom out of man.
JESSE M. WHITED, CALIFORNIA
systems of Freemasonry practiced in the United States are generally known as
the York Rite and the Scottish Rite. Properly speaking, they should be termed
the American Rite and the Scottish Rite, for the one commonly called York is
peculiar in its organized proceedings only to the United States.
American Rite embraces the Symbolic, the Capitular, the Cryptic and the
Symbolic degrees are conferred in a Lodge and are the Entered Apprentice, the
Fellow Craft and the Master Mason. They are called Symbolic because their
prominent mode of instruction is by symbols.
Capitular degrees are conferred in a Royal Arch Chapter and are the Mark
Master, the Past Master, the Most Excellent Master and the Royal Arch. The
supplemental and honorary degree of High Priesthood is conferred in a Council
of High Priests upon those who have been regularly elected to preside over a
Chapter of Royal Arch Masons. They are called Capitular because they are
conferred in a Chapter, the work "Capitular" meaning "done in a Chapter."
Cryptic degrees are conferred in a Council. They are the Royal Master, the
Select Master and the Super-Excellent Master. They are called Cryptic because
the word "crypt" means a secret vault or underground passage.
Templar degrees are conferred in a Commandery and are the Red Cross, the
Temple and the Malta. The name Knight Templar comes from the efforts of the
Christian Knights to take the temple at Jerusalem from the Mohammedans.
Scottish Rite embraces the degrees from the 4th to the 33rd, inclusive. In the
Southern Jurisdiction of the United States (which includes all territory south
of the Ohio River and west of the Mississippi River) the organization of the
different bodies, and the degrees conferred by them, are: Lodge of Pertection,
4d to 14d, inclusive; Chapter Rose Croix, 15d to 18d; Council of Kadosh, 19d
to 30d; Consistory, 31d to 32d; Supreme Council, 33d.
Northern Jurisdiction (which includes all States north of the Ohio River and
east of the Mississippi River) the degrees conferred are: Lodge of Perfection,
4d to 14d, inclusive; Council Princes of Jerusalem, 15d and 16d; Chapter Rose
Croix, 17d and 18d; Consistory, 19d to 32d; Supreme Council, 33d.
largest subordinate lodges in various states of the United States are situated
in the following cities and states
Union of S.O.
From 1919 Directory of Masonic Life Association
MONTHLY LODGE MEETING
CORRESPONDENCE CIRCLE BULLETIN NO. 34
Bro. H. L. Haywood
BULLETIN COURSE OF MASONIC STUDY FOR MONTHLY LODGE MEETINGS AND STUDY CLUBS
FOUNDATION OF THE COURSE
Course of Study has for its foundation two sources of Masonic information: THE
BUILDER and Mackey's Encyclopedia. In another paragraph is explained how the
references to former issues of THE BUILDER and to Mackey's Encyclopedia may be
worked up as supplemental papers to exactly fit into each installment of the
Course with the papers by Brother Haywood.
Course is divided into five principal divisions which are in turn subdivided,
as is shown below:
I. Ceremonial Masonry.
Work of the Lodge.
Lodge and the Candidate.
II. Symbolical Masonry.
III. Philosophical Masonry.
IV. Legislative Masonry.
Relationship to Constituent Lodges.
Official Duties and Prerogatives.
Qualifications of Candidates.
Initiation, Passing and Raising.
V. Historical Masonry.
Mysteries--Earliest Masonic Light.
Studies of Rites--Masonry in the Making.
Contributions to Lodge Characteristics.
Parallel Peculiarities in Lodge Study.
Historical Manuscripts of the Craft.
Philological Masonry--Study of Significant Words.
month we are presenting a paper written by Brother Haywood, who is following
the foregoing outline. We are now in "First Steps" of Ceremonial Masonry.
There will be twelve monthly papers under this particular subdivision. On page
two, preceding each installment, will be given a list of questions to be used
by the chairman of the Committee during the study period which will bring out
every point touched upon in the paper.
possible we shall reprint in the Correspondence Circle Bulletin articles from
other sources which have a direct bearing upon the particular subject covered
by Brother Haywood in his monthly paper. These articles should be used as
supplemental papers in addition to those prepared by the members from the
monthly list of references. Much valuable material that would otherwise
possibly never come to the attention of many of our members will thus be
monthly installments of the Course appearing in the Correspondence Circle
Bulletin should be used one month later than their appearance. If this is done
the Committee will have opportunity to arrange their programs several weeks in
advance of the meetings and the brethren who are members of the National
Masonic Research Society will be better enabled to enter into the discussions
after they have read over and studied the installment in THE BUILDER.
REFERENCES FOR SUPPLEMENTAL PAPERS
Immediately preceding each of Brother Haywood's monthly papers in the
Correspondence Circle Bulletin will be found a list of references to THE
BUILDER and Mackey's Encyclopedia. These references are pertinent to the paper
and will either enlarge upon many of the points touched upon or bring out new
points for reading and discussion. They should be assigned by the Committee to
different brethren who may compile papers of their own from the material thus
to be found, or in many instances the articles themselves or extracts
therefrom may be read directly from the originals. The latter method may be
followed when the members may not feel able to compile original papers, or
when the original may be deemed appropriate without any alterations or
ORGANIZE FOR AND CONDUCT THE STUDY MEETINGS
should select a "Research Committee" preferably of three "live" members. The
study meetings should be held once a month, either at a special meeting of the
lodge called for the purpose, or at a regular meeting at which no business
(except the lodge routine) should be transacted--all possible time to be given
to the study period.
lodge has been opened and all routine business disposed of, the Master should
turn the lodge over to the Chairman of the Research Committee. This Committee
should be fully prepared in advance on the subject for the evening. All
members to whom references for supplemental papers have been assigned should
be prepared with their papers and should also have a comprehensive grasp of
Brother Haywood's paper.
FOR STUDY MEETINGS
Reading of the first section of Brother Haywood's paper and the supplemental
(Suggestion: While these papers are being read the members of the lodge should
make notes of any points they may wish to discuss or inquire into when the
discussion is opened. Tabs or slips of paper similar to those used in
elections should be distributed among the members for this purpose at the
opening of the study period.)
Discussion of the above.
subsequent sections of Brother Haywood's paper and the supplemental papers
should then be taken up, one at a time, and disposed of in the same manner. 4.
"QUESTION BOX" THE FEATURE OF YOUR MEETINGS
questions from any and all brethren present. Let them understand that these
meetings are for their particular benefit and get them into the habit of
asking all the questions they may think of. Every one of the papers read will
suggest questions as to facts and meanings which may not perhaps be actually
covered at all in the paper. If at the time these questions are propounded no
one can answer them, SEND THEM IN TO US. All the reference material we have
will be gone through in an endeavor to supply a satisfactory answer. In fact
we are prepared to make special research when called upon, and will usually be
able to give answers within a day or two. Please remember, too, that the great
Library of the Grand Lodge of Iowa is only a few miles away, and, by order of
the Trustees of the Grand Lodge, the Grand Secretary places it at our disposal
on any query raised by any member of the Society.
foregoing information should enable local Committees to conduct their lodge
study meetings with success. However, we shall welcome all inquiries and
communications from interested brethren concerning any phase of the plan that
is not entirely clear to them, and the Services of our Study Club Department
are at the command of our members, lodge and study club committees at all
QUESTIONS ON "THE LETTER G"
Before reading the article on the letter G by Brother Haywood
in this issue of THE BUILDER what was your conception of its symbolic meaning?
Did you accept the ritualistic explanation as authentic and final? Or had you
at any time subsequent to receiving your Second degree investigated the
subject from other sources? If so, what conclusions did you reach? Did the
Masons of the eighteenth century know why the letter G was adopted as a
Masonic symbol? Are Masonic students of the present day agreed upon the
subject? What is said about it in the article in Mackey's Encyclopedia?
Name several interpretations of the symbol as quoted by Brother
Haywood. What are two of the most common theories?
What branch of the sciences was given the greatest prominence,
in the old Constitutions of Masonry? What is a reasonable explanation for
How are the confused explanations of the symbol by eighteenth
century writers accounted for?
How did the letter G ever come to stand for Deity? What was the
Kabbala? Around what did the symbolic system Kabbala centre? What restrictions
were placed upon the real name of God by the ancient Jewish people? What was
result of these restrictions? What symbol did the Kabbalists adopt for the
lost name of Deity? In what manner is the G supposed to have been substituted
for the Hebrew Yod?
Should there be a distinction at this day between the G
standing for Geometry and for Deity? What had Pythagoras and Plato to say
When will men have learned the secret of the letter G?
Vol. III. Geometry in Masonic Symbolism, p. 349 The Letter G,
p. 28. Vol. IV. "A Certain Point Within a Circle," p. 208. Vol. V. The Plan of
Masonry, p. 269.
The Letter G, p. 287; Kabbala, p. 375
BY BRO.H.L. HAYWOOD, IOWA
PART X - THE LETTER G
THE LETTER G is so intimately related to the symbolism of the
Middle Chamber and all connected therewith that it will be wise, just here, to
attempt an explanation of that mysterious letter. "Mysterious" is used
advisedly because there has been very little agreement among our scholars
either as to its origin or to its meaning. Usually we can hit upon the manner
in which a symbol was introduced into the ritual by studying the records of
the early eighteenth century in England at which time and place the ritual was
cast in its modern form, but such a study can not help us here because the
eighteenth century Masons were themselves confused about the matter. This
confusion survives to our own day with some authorities holding to one theory,
others to its opposite, and still others, like the Grand Master of one
American Jurisdiction, inclined to throw the symbol out altogether. Mackey,
who was always so conservative, was quite as radical as this Grand Master, as
is witnessed by this statement: "It is to be regretted that this letter G as a
symbol was ever admitted into the Masonic system."
One writer believes that the G stands for the Greek rendering
of "geometry"; another, that it is the initial of the Greek name for "square";
Brother J.T. Lawrence thinks that it may be an old Egyptian snake emblem;
others hold that it was originally the square made "gallows shape," and that
this gradually became corrupted into a G. The most common theories, however,
are that it stands for Geometry, or that it is the initial of our word "God."
It will be necessary to examine these last interpretations more at length, for
the evidence seems to favour one or the other, or perhaps both together.
One cannot read the old Masonic Constitutions without being
struck by the prominence given to Geometry in their descriptions of Masonry.
The oldest copy of them makes Masonry to spring from Geometry, as may be seen
in the following excerpt:
"On this manner, thru good wit of geometry
Began first the Craft of Masonry."
Brother Hextall (A.Q.C., vol. 25, p. 97) has pointed out that
in every one of the hundred or more copies of these Old Charges, or Old
Constitutions, Geometry is placed first among sciences. How can we account
for this? The most reasonable explanation would seem to be that Operative
Masonry was nothing other than applied Geometry. The builder in that early day
had no architectural handbook, no blue prints, no tables of and his skill
consisted in knowing by heart many of the processes of Geometry, and his
secrets were nothing other than these same processes and the knowledge of
supplying them. This being the case, it was natural that he should hold his
science in high reverence and make its name, represented by its initial
letter, to serve as a symbol in his lodge. Such, at any rate, is the reading
of the matter as held by a majority of our best modern scholars.
These scholars believe that when Freemasonry became stagnant in
the seventeenth century, so that very few lodges remained in existence,
Freemasons themselves lost the old explanation of the letter G though they
retained the symbol because it was so essential a part of the system which
they inherited. This, so it is believed, accounts for the confused
explanations made by eighteenth century writers.
How did the letter G ever come to stand for Deity? It is almost
impossible to answer this question with any degree of certainty, because the
available evidence is so slender, but it is thought by some that an
explanation may be found in the connection between Freemasonry and Kabalism,
for it is believed that some of the non-operatives "accepted" by the lodges in
the seventeenth century brought a certain amount of Kabbala with them.
The symbolic system of the Kabbala centred about the Divine
Name. According to ancient Jewish traditions the real name of God, given to
the Jewish people through Moses, was not permitted to be written, except with
the consonants only. At the time of the exile the pronunciation, and
consequently the true spelling, of the Holy Name was lost. The consonants,
J.H.W.H. remained, but what the vowels were nobody could discover; to find the
Lost Name became one of the great ambitions of Jewish priests and scholars,
and this search became one of the principal subjects in the literature of the
Kabbala. Not having the name itself the Kabbalists were wont to inscribe a
Hebrew "Y" (Yod) in the centre of a triangle with equal sides and make this
stand for it.
It is supposed that this symbol was brought into Masonry by the
non-operatives who were Kabbalists, but that in the course of time the common
men who made up the lodges substituted for the Hebrew initial of the Divine
Name, the English initial. Inasmuch as the initial letter of God was the same
as the initial letter of Geometry the two symbols became confused, and at last
the old Masonic meaning of G was forgotten.
If this history of the matter be correct - I have pieced it
together from the opinions expressed by many of our most learned scholars - I
do not see that we need to make any choice between G as standing for Geometry
and G as standing for Deity; the two conceptions merge naturally because men
have always seen in the Geometry which is everywhere found in nature the
clearest unveiling of the Infinite Mind. The Greek philosopher, Pythagoras,
who was the first man to raise Geometry to the rank of a science, built his
philosophical system on numbers and their relations. "All things are in
numbers," he said, "the world is living arithmetic in its development - a
realized geometry in its repose." Of a similar mind was Plato, king of Greek
philosophers. When asked how God spends his time, he replied, "God is always
geometrizing." "Geometry rightly treated is the knowledge of the Eternal."
"Geometry must ever tend to draw the soul towards the truth."
In spite of the enormous increase in knowledge we who live
twenty-five hundred-years after those thinkers can still agree with them;
science has only made more apparent the lucid order, the geometric symmetry of
the universe. The very elements of which matter is composed group themselves
together in regular order; crystals are a solid geometry; the plant, the tree,
the construction of an insect's wing, are all symmetrical in their proportion
and rhythmical in their motions; the stars move in curves, the wildest comet
inscribes a spiral, and the whole universe is one vast realm of order and
design. Surely, where there is so much order, there must be an Orderer!
As science builds itself on the orderliness of nature so does
Masonry seek to build itself upon the equally certain laws of the human mind.
Human beings are not exceptions to the universal reign of law. These axe laws
of brotherhood, laws of love, laws of the ideal, as certain in their
operations and as undeviating in their processes as the law of gravity. When
men learn these laws, and when they adjust their actions to them, they will
discover that the face of God has been made plain - they will have learned the
secret of the letter G.
SKELETON OR OUTLINE FOR LODGE HISTORIES
With a view to uniformity and comprehensiveness, and to assist
those brethren appointed to prepare their lodge histories, we suggest the
following skeleton or outline of the work, which should be varied according to
circumstances. And we here remark that all members of the lodge should lend
their assistance and co-operation in this work, especially in gathering up the
facts which do not appear in the lodge records.
Section 1 - Geographical location, surroundings, history,
population, development and general condition, social and otherwise, of the
Section 2 - Preliminary steps to formation of the lodge. Names
of the Brethren actively concerned in the movement, and of those who signed
the petition for the dispensation, or charter, their occupations Masonic
records and brief biographies. Other particulars of interest connected with
them or the lodge in its early stages.
Section 3 - If an old lodge, formed prior to the adoption of
the present form, a full copy of the petition, with signatures, would
doubtless be of interest. Give name and number of the lodge that recommended
Section 4 - To what Grand Master or Deputy Grand Master the
petition was presented, his action thereon and the date. Names of the Brethren
appointed Master and Wardens of the new lodge.
Section 5 - When, by whom, and in what building, the lodge was
opened under dispensation. Minutes of the first several meetings, or copious
extracts or summaries thereof, showing how the new lodge started off.
Section 6 - If an old lodge, chartered prior to adoption of
present form, a full copy, with signatures, of the petition for a charter. To
what Communication of the Grand Lodge was it presented, when and where did the
Grand Lodge meet, the report of the Committee on Lodges Under Dispensation, or
other committee, thereon, and the action of the Grand Lodge. If refused,
follow up the doings of the lodge till the charter was granted.
Section 7 - Where, by whom and in what building, was the lodge
constituted? Names of its officers given in the charter and installed, minutes
or summary thereof and the social or other functions incident to the occasion
Section 8 - Any facts of general Masonic, historical or local
interest connected with the experiences and progress of the lodge and of
Masons in the community. Copious summaries of the minutes might be of service.
Section 1 - List of all the Worshipful Masters of the lodge and
the year in which each was elected and installed, in chronological order.
Section 2 - A roll, in chronological order, of all the members
of the lodge since its first organization, those "made" Master Masons by the
lodge in one column, those affiliated in another.
Section 3 - A list of all Brethren who have died while members
of the lodge, with date of death, and noting observance of the burial service
(if any), with names of officers performing same and other Brethren present.
Section 4 - A brief historical account of the several lodge
rooms occupied, the time of the occupancy of each, and the circumstances
connected with or causing the changes, the leasing or building of each. A
mention of any of the old lodge furniture or appurtenances might be of
Section 5 - All traditions of interest connected with the
lodge, especially in the early days, and contemporaneous events in the
community in which the lodge or any of the Brethren were directly or
Section 1 - Note time and circumstances connected with each
visit of a Grand Officer, including the District Deputy Grand Master, to the
lodge and the social functions (if any) incident thereto.
Section 2 - If the lodge was named for other than the town or
some noted historical or Biblical character, explain the circumstances with
biography of the namesake (if a person) or history of the case.
Section 3 - Biographical sketches of other prominent and
deserving members of the lodge, past and present, but avoiding fulsome praises
of the living.
Section 4 - Special mention of any member or members of the
lodge who have held office in any of the Grand Bodies of Masonry in Texas or
elsewhere (before coming here), or in the public service, local, state or
Section 1 - Accounts with dates and full particulars, including
officers, members present, etc., of all notable functions or events in the
lodge, public or private, such as:
(a) St. John's Day celebrations and public installations.
(b) Cornerstone ceremonies.
(c) Any others, Masonic, patriotic, etc.
Section 1 - Brief mention of other Masonic bodies, in same town
or county, with date of charter and other particulars. To these outlines could
be added other features of interest, especially of things not preserved in
Printed Proceedings of the Grand Lodge, - Grand Lodge Proceedings, Texas.
TO GREAT MEN WHO WERE MASONS
GEO. W. BAIRD, P.G.M., DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
MEMORIAL to Andrew Jackson, the seventh President of the United States, hero
of the battle at New Orleans, and Past Grand Master of Freemasons, is in La
Fayette Square in Washington directly opposite the Executive Mansion (now
called the White House). It was the first equestrian statue erected in the
Capitol City, and was unveiled on the 8th of January, 1853. Correspondence
shows it had been the purpose to have a Masonic attendance, but the Grand
Lodge was not at liberty to appear in Masonic clothing unless Masonic work was
to be done, and no arrangements had been made for such "work."
memorial was started through the efforts of the Jackson Democratic Association
which subscribed $12,000 and Congress appropriated the additional amount of
modeled by Brother Clark Mills, who had the courage to pose the horse on its
two hind feet, and he succeeded in getting a balance, much to the surprise and
admiration of many people. The memorial was pronounced a splendid work of art
and was praised by the Press generally. President Jackson is shown in the
uniform of a General Officer of the Army, in the period of 1812.
memorial was dedicated the Capitol City had a population of approximately
50,000, including government officials. The park where the monument was
erected was but a common. The occasion of the dedication (the first that the
writer ever witnessed) was probably the largest and most enthusiastic that had
ever hitherto been witnessed in the city.
thing as placing another memorial in that little park was never dreamed of,
but when the memorial to La Fayette was in the course of construction in 1890
the question of location arose and it was determined to place it in La Fayette
Square, immediately the old enemies of Jackson materialized and a drastic
effort was made to remove the effigy of Jackson. It was even caricatured in an
almanac as "Aries." Since then there has been placed a memorial in each corner
of the square and all, excepting Kosciuso and Rochambeau, were Masons. The
Kosciuso statue was presented to the government by the Polish Societies
(Catholic), and though the word "Saratoga" appears on one side, "Racliwics"
appears in equally large letters on the other side. The one was his American
battle and the other a Russian battle.
Jackson and Henry Clay were the two prominent Masons who defied the
Anti-Masonic Party which had its origin in the alleged "disappearance" of
Morgan. These people essayed to make the Morgan episode a "Party issue" during
Jackson's campaign, but "Old Hickory" stood pat and was elected President.
More than this, he was reelected after serving a term of four years.
opposition to the U.S. Bank system caused the destruction of many fortunes,
and though he believed he was protecting the best interests of the
commonwealth, his course was not generally approved. His principal opponents
in this were Henry Clay and Daniel Webster. No National Bank existed from that
time until the Civil War, when they sprang up in every State.
was much such a man as Roosevelt - he could separate public from personal
offenses. He was easy to get into a fight with, but rarely, if ever offensive.
difference with Mr. Dickinson it is clear that he wished to avoid a fight. In
fact, he commissioned a friend to so declare. Dickinson, reputed to be
fearless, and the best shot in the State, was the man whom his enemies were
using. Finally Dickinson became so offensive that Jackson felt obliged to
challenge him. Dickinson won the right to give the word, and at eight paces
gave it, and fired. Finding that Jackson gave no sign of being hit, Dickinson
cried, "My God, have l missed him?"; then Jackson fired, and Dickinson’s
funeral followed. But Jackson was hit, his breastbone being shattered, a rib
broken and some intestinal injury that disabled him for several months.
with Benton was none the less tragic, Jackson seemed to harbor no grudge, for
they afterwards became good friends.
Jackson's foreign policy was eminently successful. New commercial treaties
were made with other nations, and old ones renewed. Indemnities for
spoliations on American commerce were obtained from France, Spain, Italy and
Portugal, and amicable relations were sustained with England. During Jackson’s
second term the national debt was extinguished; Cherokee Indians were removed
from Georgia, and the Creeks from Florida; and Arkansas and Michigan were
admitted to the Union.
have greater men now - but when will we ever see the national debt cancelled
are all intended, not to carve our work in snow that will melt, but each and
all of us to be continually rolling a
great white gathering snowball, higher and higher, larger and larger,
along the Alps of human power. - Ruskin.
and love mold the form to their own image, and cause the joy and beauty of
love to shine forth from every part of the face. - Swedenborg.
THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE LODGE INITIATION
BY BRO. G. GARLAND RIGGAN, KANSAS
THE RELATION of a lodge to its initiation is so important and
so evident that even I the casual observer must have noted the closeness of
the connection. To a great many the two are almost synonymous terms. To them
there is no lodge without the initiation and the lodge exists for that
initiation. To others who think more deeply, and therefore come closer to the
truth, the initiation is the very life and breath of the lodge. It exists -
it owes its existence to an act of initiation. The lodge cannot hope to grow
unless it receives candidates. The initiation is therefore fundamental - the
very existence of the lodge. Moreover the initiation is the power of
attraction which calls its members again and again to the sessions of the
lodge. Without it at least half of the attendance of the lodge would not have
been present. Indeed it is a common observation that the attendance upon the
lodge sessions is at the greatest when the degree work is at its best in both
quantity and quality. Moreover, the initiation is the means - perhaps the
principle - of enlisting the activity of the members in behalf of the order.
The individual member can do one or both of two things for his order, he can
attend and he can take part in the degree work. Therefore the initiation is
rightly called "work" as it engages the activities of the members. The
initiation consequently is primal in its relation to the lodge, its
attendance, its activity and prosperity.
To this commonly accepted view there must be added that which
is not so universally thought of in this connection, viz.: that of the
candidate - how the candidate approaches the ceremony of initiation? - what is
the mental state? - what method shall be employed to meet that state? These
are considerations of first importance not only to the candidate but to the
lodge itself - In short, the psychology of the candidate in and before the
time of the initiation constitutes the very raison-d'etre for all the ceremony
attendant upon the induction of the candidate into the full fellowship of the
The purpose of this article is therefore to trace the
psychology of the whole situation in order that the ceremonies of initiation
and their intrinsic worth may be better understood, and on the other hand,
that the ceremonies may be improved in accordance with strict psychological
principles to the end of improving the impression made upon the candidate in
this most receptive period - in his lodge life.
THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CONDITION OF THE CANDIDATE
To those who will recall the time of their introduction into
the preparation room adjacent to the lodge room of a secret order there will
be required no argument to prove that there is a psychological condition of
the candidate with which he approaches the ceremony of initiation. To the
candidate who is receiving the degrees the mental state is unusually active,
with extreme emphasis upon the emotions. The occasion once experienced will
never be forgotten. What is that psychological condition? 1. The candidate
craves information concerning the secrets of the degree and the principles of
the order that he seeks to join. By conversation with his friends who may
covertly or overtly have obtained his petition he has come to believe that
there is a mass or body of truth concerning which he is in ignorance. The
veiled comments upon the "lofty principles of the order," "the beautiful
work...... the impressive degree," all go to strengthen the opinion that he
has held more or less distinctly for some time. The candidate therefore comes
possessed with a feeling of curiosity. If the initiation is even tolerably
good his attention will be easily obtained throughout it all for his interest
is enchained even in the preparation room. The nature of the degrees as far as
he may understand gives him the impression that they are valuable. Therefore
his mental condition is favourable, the candidate haying ascribed value to the
principles and initiation even before he has received them. The lodge
therefore can count upon the interested and appreciative attention of the
candidate from the very start.
2. The candidate craves an individualistic experience. In a dim
way he realizes that the initiation is an experience through which he must
pass. Even though he approaches the hour with a slight feeling of dread owing
to the uncertainty that he feels (not of course knowing what will happen to
him), nevertheless he desires to receive it. "Others have gone that way before
him," he is told. The very fact that he is to undergo a common experience
makes him feel that he must not be unequal to the test. Moreover if others
have endured this he surely can and moreover he will. The mental condition
therefore is that of pride and bravery coupled with the secret desire to have
the experience. Having heard of the "goat" that he must ride and also of the
"beautiful work," he looks for some individualistic experience which he must
undergo - something that is extremely personal. Therefore he looks for action
of some kind. He expects to take part in that action - for the action to
centre around him and that either actively or passively he shall be the centre
of attraction in all the movement. This, of course, requires in his thought
that he shall pass through alone for only as he is alone can he hope to be the
centre of attraction and of action in the ceremonies. It is an open question
whether this feeling is due to the preceding influence brought to bear upon
the candidate by the thought of the ceremony of initiation or rather the
initiation is made to meet the psychological need of the candidate. The
author is inclined to view the initiation as a situation created for the
benefit of the candidate and that there is in the candidate a psychological
need that calls for action - individual action - individual experience and
that the initiation is placed as the means of introduction to the lodge as a
concession to him. The initiation therefore must satisfy this need. Not to
face this demand in the initiation is to disappoint the candidate in his
3. The candidate is prepared to pledge allegiance to the order
with which he seeks to connect himself. He does not realize that this must be
in the form of an obligation or an oath unless he has experienced some other
initiation, in which case, he receives it as a matter of course. But even if
he does not realize that it forms a part of the initiation, nevertheless his
mind is prepared for the obligation which he finds that he must assume, for
latently he has a dim perception that he is throwing in his lot with the order
and that his interests and its interests are to be one and the same.
Consequently there is all the feeling of loyalty that is more or less latent
to which he will be glad to give expression in the assumption of an
obligation. To deprive him of an obligation is to take from him or to fail to
develop by open expression that sentiment which is within him. Having
surmised that the initiation is more or less physical and in the nature of a
test he is prepared in spirit that the obligation should be more or less
strenuous and since he knows that he is not joining for just a few years but,
for perhaps the rest of his life, he will upon consideration, be willing to
recognize the connection would require the strongest ties known to mankind.
Again a further consideration will urge him. These are to be
his brethren and, if so, he is to be tied to them by some common tie. This
tie he will discover could be no stronger than the tie of the obligation and,
without the obligation, there could indeed be no order at all, for fraternity
rests upon the realization of an obligation or a responsibility for others,
which is natural. 4. The candidate is prepared for fellowship after
initiation. Dimly he realizes that somehow the initiation is the basis of the
fellowship that is to ensue on its completion. This is one of the reasons why
he is willing to pass through it. He looks to see, perhaps at the time or if
not then, afterwards the relationship between these initiations and the
fellowship. The nation therefore in order to meet his expectations must
emphasize the great principles or common experience by which the whole
brotherhood is bound. For the lodge to fail to do this would be to fail to
respond to the psychological need of the candidate.
THE METHOD OF MEETING THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CONDITION OF THE
Having seen more or less, in detail, the psychological
condition of the candidate prior and during the ceremonies of initiation we
must now turn to examine how the initiation can best strengthen and supply
that need. Herein is the great success or great failure of the degree. A
properly constructed ritual will so adapt itself to the candidate's condition
that the two will fit each other as does the glove the hand for which it is
made. Let us note:
1. The initiation must give instruction in the principles of
the Order. This, of course, is recognized by every student of the question.
The problem is not so much what shall be said as how it shall be said and at
what times. Now the great and common appeal or the means of imparting
instruction that is moral and spiritual is through symbolism. Symbolism
speaks a universal tongue understood by all after it is explained. Moreover,
its use appeals to the imagination of him who receives it. The candidate
being in a receptive mental condition as has been shown, is prepared to
receive the instruction in the teachings of the order if given in the form of
symbols which are later explained. Perhaps he may surmise during the progress
of the initiation that every movement has a meaning and that if he will only
be patient all will be made clear to him. When he comes to understand them,
however, the meaning will be impressed upon his mind all the more because at
one time they were not understood. If, moreover, he has the faculty of
imagination the connection - the symbolic connection between the movement and
its explanation - the meaning will delight him and strengthen his belief in
the order by the cleverness and beauty of the symbolism. The initiation is
therefore a response to that which is innate in every man, the use of
symbols. Human language itself is a symbolism. The very word that we utter is
but a sign or abbreviated picture of the thing or the mental state that
accompanies the presentation of the thing. All life therefore is based more
or less upon a symbolism until it becomes almost instinctive in the human
mind. Therefore no better method of instruction could be employed than
symbolism. Thrice blessed indeed is the secret order that has been able to
work out a consistent symbolism in its degrees for through its symbols it can
hope to speak to the human mind better than by any other method.
In addition to this, there is call for direct instruction. The
candidate must be told the principles of the Order and not left to infer them
altogether. If he has passed through ceremonies the meaning of which he has
not thoroughly comprehended these must be explained to him in detail. Here
two methods must be used - the eye and the ear.
According to psychologists the majority of persons are
eye-minded or receive impressions better by the eye than any other way. The
lodge therefore must make large use of the visual. Its symbolism should be
shown completely. If characters are impersonated they should wear the robes
suitable to the impersonation. All stage properties should be real that the
impression of reality may be the better realized. Moreover the candidate
should be shown, perhaps by the chart, the object or by the stereopticon, the
principles of the order. He can grasp them better in that way than in any
other, even better than by the ear. Still, however, there is a large appeal
through the ear and the method of instruction through oral comment and the
effective degree must not fail to make use of plain instructive and beautiful
oral explanation throughout its work. Between the two, the oral and the
symbolic, there should be, if possible, a connection in order that there may
be unity. The fitting order seems to be first the symbolism. This is more
universal and will impress the candidate, thereby gaining his attention and
fastening his curiosity. This gives large scope for action. Later on in order
to satisfy this curiosity symbolism can be explained to him and by the
connection now understood the principles of the order are more clearly
impressed upon his mind.
2. Action must play a large part in the method of meeting the
psychological condition of the candidate. As has been before said the
candidate expects an experience and in reality demands it. The initiation,
therefore, must place a large emphasis upon action. The candidate must be
doing something or having something done to him. It is not sufficient for him
to sit to one side and see something done. He must be in the work. It must be
done to him else it largely loses its impression.
If the reader will think over the degree that he has received
he must admit that the degree which has remained most vividly in his mind is
the one in which there has been a large emphasis upon individual action. There
are degrees in which he himself took part - perhaps alone - in which he was
the centre of action and in which he received the full force of the action -
these are the degrees which will ever live in memory of the candidate.
The attendance of the lodge is a testimony to the same fact.
One of the great elements of attraction in a degree is the large emphasis upon
action - action centring around the candidate. To illustrate: The great appeal
of the Master Mason degree is the large emphasis placed upon the action
centring in and around the candidate and the dramatic portrayal of a story in
animated action - these are the forces that bring the lodge-goer night after
night to see the third degree above all others. The universal testimony is
that even the occasional lodge-goer will always seek out the third degree and
attend that one even if he is never seen for the first and the second degrees.
The reason for this has been stated - the large use of action in the
degree. The present tendency in lodge circles, in our opinion, does
violence to the psychological principle. The common procedure today is that of
large classes in which the candidate does not take part - an individualistic
part - in the work. He with his ninety and nine fellow candidates are ushered
into the lodge room, given a front seat and look upon the degree as it is
conferred in more or less spectacular form. In all this time he is quiescent.
He does nothing save look upon the action of others. He is not the centre of
the action but merely a spectator of it. Moreover the fact that he is but one
of a score or more makes him lose the individuality that ought to be brought
out upon the occasion of his initiation. The man does not receive the
individual attention that should be his, in response to the psychological
need. The inevitable result is that he goes away from the ceremony of
initiation more or less unimpressed because he has had no action - no
individualistic action on his part. Though he may admire the costumes, scenery
and the principles as exemplified by others, and in the action of others,
nevertheless they have not taken hold of him in the way to produce a lasting
This has been the great power of the third degree in
Freemasonry. It is that the candidate is the centre of action - that he is
singled out - brought to the fore-front of the stage of action. He who - has
received this degree can never eradicate the impression that is made by this
individualistic experience. Therefore the present tendency to degree teams
and large classes is doing direct violence to the psychological principles of
the candidate. The result will be that the candidate will not take the hold
of the principles that he should, which he otherwise would have had, and of
course cannot set them forth in his life because of the failure of the
initiation to impress them upon him at the most impressionable time in his
Another tendency of lodge procedure is to eliminate all that
comes under the head of "rough work," "horse play" or unwarranted physical
action. This has been gradually eliminated because in some instances it has
been unwisely conferred and was hence objectionable. The pendulum seems now
to be swinging in the other direction and all action is sometimes removed, to
such a degree that all the interest is taken out of them. There is no more
"horse play" but there is no more tense interest.
Now there is nothing that so impresses a candidate as physical
action - movement of the body in some form. He is prepared in thought for a
certain amount of roughness in the initiation and not to have it there is to
leave him unsatisfied. He will likely view the whole procedure as a very
"tame affair" if he has not received some action throughout the performance
and having an opinion that the initiation is devoid of interest he does not
possess the enthusiasm necessary to influence other possible candidates. The
great success and prosperity of the order of the Mystic Shrine is due in no
small measure, if the report is correct to the employment of physical action
in its degree work. Even if the "sands are hot" the Shrine does not fail to
attract its quota of devotees and candidates year after year.
Some may say that there is some of the element of the brute
left in mankind. This must be admitted. But however that maybe there is an
innate desire even in the heart of the child as well as in the heart of the
man to be the centre of action, if passive, to be the centre of the received
action and the man who is but a grown-up child demands that this psychological
need be grafted. We therefore think that the rituals should be so revised as
not to do violence to this principle laid down by the psychological laws.
3. The candidate is prepared to receive, and the initiation
should therefore provide, an obligation. As has been indicated the candidate
craves expression. His loyalty and his allegiance - he must declare them. The
obligation gives him this opportunity. To be a success from a psychological
point of view an obligation possesses several characteristics. a. It involves
action. The candidate must do something during the time that the obligation is
administered to him or something must be done to him at that time. If the
obligation can be so arranged in the initiation that it will come as a climax
it will be all the more impressive especially if the action either by posture
of hand or body by which the candidate must assume the obligation, is
b. The obligation must furnish the basis of the fellowship that
ensues. It must lay the foundation of a responsibility that the candidate
assumes and a responsibility that the other members of the order have with
reference to the newly obligated brother. He must be made to feel by its
provisions that he is being vitally related to the order and its fellowship.
For the obligation to fail here is to fail at a vital point and to leave some
feelings forever unsatisfied in the heart of the candidate - feelings that
will affect his conduct towards the lodge ever afterwards.
c. The obligation must be administered impressively. This
perhaps is the reason why in so many orders that the obligation is
administered with the eyes closed, the hoodwink being on the candidate. Shut
from the world of light by the hoodwink he can give himself more in thought to
the obligation that he is receiving and the impression made by the obligation
is thereby rendered greater and more lasting. In addition to this if there can
be some symbolical movement in the infliction of the penalty on the candidate
or the re-enforcing of the obligation by some duty that the candidate must
perform immediately upon the assumption of the obligation, the impression
created by the obligation will then be made all the greater. To those who
have had the degrees in any secret order where such methods have been employed
instances will readily be brought to mind and upon analysis, will be found to
be one of the most effective parts of the initiation.
4. The principles of the order must be embodied in the
obligation to some extent. It stands to reason why that the majority of the
obligations are taken in the presence of Almighty God for upon the basis of
Deity and the belief and recognition of Deity the lodge holds its existence
and it is only proper that at the time of the obligation there should be an
emphasis upon that principle.
5. Moreover, the terms of the obligation should show forth the
principles of the order in concrete fashion by demanding certain concrete acts
and forbidding other concrete acts. This method will occur to the participant
in the third degree in Masonry as one of the most effective parts in that
obligation as received. From this standpoint the obligation of the third
degree is more impressive than the obligations of the first and second.
Of all these things, we see that there must be a great emphasis
upon the time, place and manner and content of the obligation in order to
satisfy the psychological need of loyalty to the lodge and its brothers that
is in the heart of the candidate.
6. The initiation should give an opportunity for the candidate
to participate at once in the fellowship, duties, responsibilities and
benefits of the order. This is perhaps one of the reasons why nearly every
impressive initiation gives a souvenir to the candidate, though it is not the
only means by which the order or initiation is to be remembered, but rather is
a visible sign to him that he belongs to the fellowship of the lodge and is a
part of it. This same impression is strengthened by sometimes extending the
hand of fellowship after the initiation in order to make the candidate realize
that he is indeed a member.
7. Again the initiation should be the means of identification
of the member and of his right to the privileges of the order. Not only is it
the door of his entrance to the order but it should be the means of the
recognition that he is entitled to its benefits. The emphasis placed upon it
will but strengthen its importance in his mind. If he is receiving a number of
degrees and catches the idea in the conferring of the first degree that all
the others which he shall receive are but the means (or are to be used as the
means) of identification he will appreciate the initiation all the more. All
these considerations should be brought out by the lodge in its ceremonial
initiation in order that the psychological condition of the candidate might
again be satisfied.
SOME PRACTICAL POINTS IN THE APPLICATION OF, THE PSYCHOLOGICAL
Having in view the psychological method in general let us now
observe some of the practical applications as found or as should be found in
the practical ceremony of initiation.
1. When one faculty or one of the senses is closed temporarily
a greater appeal must be made to the other avenues that are left open. If the
candidate is hoodwinked in a stage of the ceremony the appeal must be made in
other ways - through the ear and through touch, or even through the sense of
smell. The lodge should take care to introduce music at the time that the
candidate is hoodwinked. The music should be appropriate, of course, but even
if it is not so very appropriate it will be appreciated all the more by the
candidate because it is about the only sense impression that he can receive at
the time and can therefore give himself undividedly to it.
The author can recall upon a similar occasion that he heard the
hymn "There is a land that is fairer than day" as it seemed to him then most
impressively sung. In reality it was most indifferently sung upon that
occasion but because the eyes were closed the audible impression was rendered
all the greater and in fact made up for the deficiency in the harmony.
Especially should the odours of the lodge room not interfere
with the impression made upon the candidate. If incense is to be burned let it
not be burned when the eyes of the candidate are closed. Surely he should not
at the time when perhaps he is most solemnly impressed meet the smell of
tobacco smoke or of the fetid air of the lodge room. All these would but tend
to distract his attention and detract from the ceremony.
The candidate, when hoodwinked especially, is also cognizant of
the handling of his body whether efficiently or inefficiently done. There
should be care in the movements around the lodge-room that in the handling of
the body of the candidate it be done in such a way when he is hoodwinked that
it will not interfere but strengthen the desired impression. Again the
candidate is also conscious of the way in which the work is delivered to him
and the way in which the ritual is recited, whether poorly or well. There is
therefore the great need for proficient ritualists at this time in order that
the candidate may be duly impressed and not interfered with by the failure of
memory. In a word the candidate is, at the time that his eyes are closed,
most alive to sound, and smell and touch. All these should be used to the
strengthening of the impression of the moment.
2. Great care should be taken with the scene that is observed
by the candidate when the hoodwink is removed. This is a part wherein all the
lodge should operate. If there is a special line formation then let that
formation be strictly observed in order that the first impression may be
fitting and lasting. The candidate when will as a rule not soon forget the
first sight. It is engraven upon his mind forever. The lodge should therefore
by the cooperation of all, seek to make that first impression pleasing and
3. Great attention should be paid to the scenic effect. Lodge
rooms should be especially well furnished. Their walls are not the place for
pictures that do not strengthen the impressions of the moment of initiation.
To look at the average lodge-room walls is to observe the photographs and
portraits that look down from the walls placed there to perpetuate the memory
of good men but they do not Strengthen the impression of the hour of
A lodge should spend money upon proper robes and stage effects,
etc. This is not extravagance, for the candidate properly impressed by an
initiation will be stirred to get others for the rite of the order or, if he
is not allowed to solicit openly, his enthusiasm will stir up others to join.
The bareness of many lodge-rooms is one of the contributing causes for the
dead and half dead condition of some of the country lodges. A proper
expenditure therefore upon equipment is not only laudable but necessary.
4. In keeping with the foregoing suggestion large use should be
made of instruction by use of the eye. This, as has been indicated, can be
done by the use of stereopticon and in part by the use of the object as there
may be need. If possible to illustrate the lecture by the use of the concrete
object the impression is greatly strengthened. The author recalls upon one
occasion that the symbols in connection with the lodge stereopticon but by
small models of the symbols themselves. The impression was heightened in
accordance with the psychological law that the mind prefers the actual object
even to the representation of it.
5. The initiation should contain an element of surprise. If
the candidate can forecast what is to happen to him his interest is greatly
decreased. Those who have received degrees in different orders can bear
witness to the fact that one of the most impressive things is a surprise -
some unexpected turn of the initiation. Especially are the surprises all the
more impressive if they are connected with the lesson of the degree and, if
unappreciated by the candidate, at least they are never lost upon the
audience. However, the candidate rarely ever fails to perceive it. One of
the strong points of the initiation of the third degree is that one thing -
the surprise of the second half of the degree.
6. Attention should be paid to the large influence of the
physical action in the degree work and of its power upon both audience and
candidate. The author is of the firm opinion that the degree should not be
made less strenuous but should be conferred with more dignity with all its
strenuousness. Those who are as assisting in the conferring of the degree
should take pains not to laugh but should treat the roughness of the physical
action as a mere incident in the proper presentation of the degree. Viewed in
this light even the roughness becomes most impressive and teaches it own
lesson. The fault therefore and the need of improvement should be not so much
in the work but in those that confer the degrees that they should learn to
observe the decorum of the occasion.
7. The important place held by the obligation in the ceremony
of initiation should not be forgotten. In character, administration, its
connection with what has preceded, its relation to the fraternity, the
principle of the order, and its secrecy as related to the rest the world - all
these should be carefully guarded. Though it may not be of such importance or
interest to the spectator, it must ever be held in mind that it one of the
most impressive parts of the ceremony initiation as regards the candidate and
is so received by him.
We must therefore conclude that the ceremony initiation fills a
psychological need in the candidate. It is not therefore a thing to be slurred
over but a thing to be most carefully considered from every angle a and more
especially from the standpoint of psychology seeing that after all is said,
the very purpose of the lodge is to influence the mind or the soul of the
initiate a that the ceremony of initiation is the only way (or the most
important way) of accomplishing that end.
To think, and to feel, constitute, the two grand divisions of
men of genius - the men of reasoning and the men of imagination. - Isaac
There is nothing strictly immortal, but immortality. what ever
hath no beginning may be confident of no end. - Sir Thomas Browne
OF GOLD - OR THE GOLDEN RULE?
journal not long ago made much about the observation of an eminent Frenchman
who was quoted as saying that the cause of the downfall of monarchies was
poverty, and that the cause of the downfall of republics was their wealth.
(coming to our notice at a time of such vital-national controversy over the
distribution of wealth, and the betterment of our social condition, it has
caused us to question whether this may not prove to be the ultimate fate of
these United States. A dispassionate investigation certainly serves to bring
out for our notice certain forces that will contribute to the death of the
Republic that we have created if they are not speedily and effectively
case the Frenchman's observation ought to challenge us in such a manner as
would cause us to take full measure of our national circumstances and the
effort to that end must be along the line that will discern in general the
nature of the demoralizing agencies that are present with us.
diagnosis of our social ills must be comprehensive, and the adjustment that is
made must be made without fear or favor. We must fully recognize that as we
have fundamental rights that are unquestionably guaranteed by the Constitution
of these United States, even so there are things in our midst that are
fundamentally wrong, contrary to the spirit of the Constitution, and ever
militating against the establishing of the nobler order in which justice and
equity and social tranquility will be the lot of each and all.
investigation let us inquire briefly what part wealth is playing in our
national demoralization. We speak of demoralization advisedly, and intend
merely to indicate thereby certain tendencies which, if unchecked, will surely
bring it to pass. The ruthlessness with which competition has been carried on
in trade, the unpitying cupidity whereby large elements of our population have
been kept above the subsistence line, and the lawlessness which we have
tolerated to abuse our liberties has fomented a situation in which anarchy can
only be the logical expression if we do not change things.
make a category of our national ills, foremost in interest will be the capital
and labor problems. So dominant is the situation revolving around these two
factors of our civilization that we may well believe that an effort to
ascertain the sympathies of the public would find them sharply drawn into
either one of these two camps, for things have so resolved themselves that
each finds himself vitally concerned in the claims of either one of these two
verity the rule of gold is the most potent thing in the life of this nation at
this moment, and the golden rule concerns itself only with yesterday and with
One who taught and practiced it and who lived long ago. He was deemed to be
impractical, void of business vision and his sole claim to an eternal hearing
is his insistence that men should live in peace and unity.
solemnly ponder again the observation of the eminent Frenchman who declared
that the death of republics was due to their wealth, and let us with equal
solemnity inquire as to whether the golden rule or brotherly dealings with
reference to ends other than filthy lucre may not be the most profitable basis
for our assuring the continuance of this nation as an exemplar of morality and
wise government, before all the peoples of the earth.
believe we are safe in presuming that the quest for wealth is indeed a quest
for power that life itself may be enjoyed in its fullest measure; but past
history surely should warrant us in believing that the acquisition of wealth
has militated more frequently for human downfall than human uplift. The glory
that was Rome ought to be a perpetual warning against the quest of wealth for
the pleasures that it brings. We are working out the problem of human life
from wrong premises. Our salvation is impossible on the plane of selfish
aspiration and factional or partisan cupidity.
have indicated may be conceded to be the aspiration of the rich and powerful,
and such, too, may be said to be the aspiration of those who are in a less
fortunate position. Each faction is striving after wrong ends, by entertaining
false standards of what is the greatest good in life. A shoddy imitation of
the rich can never bring happiness to the poor. The insane effort to outdo the
luxurious enjoyments of others will never be conducive to the establishing of
an exemplary morality. Let us recognize that we are not only living in too
many instances beyond our means, but we are living just as frequently beyond
our necessities and the warfare for the division of the spoils is continually
while ago a certain financial journal of high standing stated that what our
age needed most was a revival of religion. In this we heartily concur. For
religion would rivet men's attention once more upon righteousness. We would
deal with men as men. Human welfare and happiness would gain preeminence over
exploitation, wages, dividends and hours. Religion would repudiate the
nauseating sensationalism that we patronize which is at once both an
indication of our inferior taste and a witness to our deterioration.
would insist that in art, music and literature things should be measured again
by their fitness to disseminate the ideals of beauty and goodness. And the
religion of all good men, as we understand it Masonically, is one of the most
potent agencies for this purpose that exists in the world today. We are to
insist that the great god quantity shall be supplanted by quality, that
cheapness and shoddiness shall give way for workers whose pattern will be
discovered in those Builders who grace our Masonic ancestry. We are to see
that thrift once more is crowned and the spendthrift eternally banished. We
are to give to labor the respect due unto its worth and dignity; we are to
change life by an application of our highest-ideals in the spirit of religious
enthusiasm by consecration and sacrifice to the only worthy and divinely
alone can the republic be saved from the things that the possession of wealth
gives rise to and that in themselves contain the malignant energies of
BRO. ROBERT TIPTON
object of this Department is to acquaint our readers with time-tried Masonic
books not always familiar; with the best Masonic literature now being
published; and with such non-Masonic books as may especially appeal to Masons.
The Library Editor will be very glad to render any possible assistance to
studious individuals or to study clubs and lodges, either through this
Department or by personal correspondence; if you wish to learn something
concerning any book - what is its nature, what is its value, or how it may be
obtained - be free to ask him. If you have read a book which you think is
worth a review write us about it; if you desire to purchase a book - any book
- we will help you get it, with no charge for the service. Make this YOUR
Department of Literary Consultation.
OF THE THREE DEGREES
"Symbolism of the Three Degrees," by Brother Oliver Day Street, reprinted from
THE BUILDER. Sixty-eight pages, paper covers. Price 35 cents. Special price in
lots of twenty-five or more for presentation by lodges to members.
like to draw the attention of our readers to a work by our Brother Oliver Day
Street, of Alabama, entitled "Symbolism of the Three Degrees." The book first
appeared as a series of articles in THE BUILDER. The highest commendation is
due Brother Street for the remarkably lucid exposition of the significance of
the three degrees in so small a space. The generous amount of references
appended to the work, coupled with their use evidenced in the writing, is
indicative of Brother Street's Masonic scholarship and breadth of reading.
It is a
work of such character as will readily make intelligible to the initiate the
symbols of our Order and it furnishes ample and satisfactory references to
such works as the Mason might care to read for further light and information
on the symbolic significance of Masonry.
Library Editor would commend this to lodges desiring to place in the hands of
their new initiates a work that would prove both interesting and fruitful to
* * * * *
of Altemont Lodge," by Dr. Fred S. Piper, 20 Clarke St., Lexington, Mass.
the needs of local lodges today is a local historian, one who can compile
those facts of history in connection with the lodge that ought to be
preserved. There has recently come to our desk a small book containing the
History of Altemont Lodge No. 26, Petersborough, New Hampshire. It covers the
period from its founding in 1815 to its Centenary in 1915. Brother Dr. Fred
Smith Piper is its author, and he has done his work in such a way as may well
stand as an example for other historians. Very suggestive is his dissertation
on how Altemont came to be selected as the name of the lodge. The glimpse that
he gives us of the early members is one that gives us a full impression of the
ruggedness of the Fathers of the Craft in this country.
endeavors to record from year to year the working of the lodge, many things of
interest come to our notice. Among the early chronicles we discover the
practice of balloting on the candidates for each degree, and Altemont seemed
to have been rather reluctant in giving up the practice. A little later there
is the record of a trial in which we see that there was no easy tolerance of
those who did not keep close to the path of Masonic virtue. Still later there
is the record of a vote prohibiting the further expenditure of the lodge's
money for liquor. As our historian continues, he arrives at the Morgan
controversy. There is quite a vivid impression given of that momentous period
and the relative attitude of the lodges of New Hampshire at that time.
Altemont apparently did not stand out as some of the other lodges, but it is
suggested there might have been some meetings held of which no record was
kept. We have sufficient evidence here of the ruggedness of soul that Masons
of that period must have possessed.
Unqualified courage must of necessity have been fundamental for only one who
adhered to his convictions through thick and thin could afford to be a Mason
those days. Our historian indulges in some splendid observations on Masonry
and its teaching and the Masonic character. His effort in this direction we
believe to be a reflection of the temper that characterized those who have
been members of Altemont. Not a large lodge, but one given to serious work and
pride is taken by our brother in the public achievements of its distinguished
members. It is indeed a worthy record, which may be amplified upon and as
heretofore suggested may serve as an example for the much needed historian in
all lodges. It would be a matter of perennial delight to those interested in a
local body if some worthy brother would extract from the record such facts as
when read would indicate the historical things of interest that.have taken
place during the life of the lodge, and there is no estimating the value of
the record of the distinguished Masons who have attained position and power in
public life, who attribute their great initiative to Masonic fellowship and
inspiration. Let this work of recording the history of lodges be considered
seriously and may it result in the realization of works that will add luster
to Masonic data.
* * * *
COMPARISON OF PRESENT‑DAY CONDITIONS
THOSE OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY
Towns," by Ralph Adams Cram. Published by Marshall Jones Company, 212 Summer
Street, Boston, Massachusetts, at $1.25.
Adams Cram has a decisive challenge for the moment in his book "Walled Towns."
We could wish indeed that this book could be placed in the hands of all
thinking men among the Craft. It is a practical suggestion and practical
because of its suggestiveness of a way out of our present social and economic
difficulties. Its introduction is a sharp contrasting of conditions existent
in the fifteenth century and the present day. None but an artist could have
depicted so realistically the idealistic phases of fifteenth century
civilization. And none but one who is sharply sensitive to the presence of all
the moral ugliness that darkens the sun could depict conditions as they are
himself could not make one feel more keenly the dark moral limitations of our
times than has Cram. His "Walled Towns" is a thundering protest against the
artificiality of our civilization with its emphasis on quantity rather than
splendid picture of all Walled Towns, such as would be practical for our time
and purpose could we but be persuaded to try it, is a picture of the town of
Beaulieu which, as our author informs us, is about forty miles from one of the
great manufacturing cities of New England.
Walled Town offering as it does a remedy for our existent social awryness is
capable of establishment wherever men will experiment along its lines. As a
factor in our national betterment it is not dependent upon the solution of
every problem at Washington or some other metropolis. Trade unions could well
learn a lesson from a study of the idealisms that actuated its prototypes, the
us say, it is a volume comprehensive in its suggestiveness and a pertinent
challenge to all who would see a more equitable and righteous social and
economic condition existing, who love beauty in preference to ugliness, and
who prize excellence of attainment in work and art, rather than the meddlesome
blundering which creates and tears down with reference to filthy lucre. A sane
book by a man who believes that society should be governed and its problems
adjusted in reference to God and for the good of Man.
* * *
OF KNIGHT TEMPLARISM
of Knights Templar of Pennsylvania," compiled by Julius F. Sachse, Librarian
and Curator of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania. Issued by the Grand Lodge of
Pennsylvania. Members of the Society interested in securing a copy of this
work are directed to communicate with "The Librarian, Masonic Temple,
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania," regarding the sale price of the book.
Lodge of Pennsylvania is to be congratulated on the issuance of this
splendidly decorated volume. It contains brief epitomes of the history of
Knights Templar with reference to their work in Ireland, Scotland and France
and the relationship of Templary in those countries with its establishment in
the United States.
played by the Army Lodges in introducing Knight Templary in this country is
admirably so forth. The book as referred to, is amply illustrated with plates
of aprons and charters and certificates pertaining to its early days in this
country. Photographs of worthy and eminent Knights lend grace to its pages.
Brother Sachse has not lived to receive this congratulation on his fine
achievement, but his splendid researches have long ere this brought their
deserved fame. This work in particular has resulted in bringing together a
valuable array of interesting material. It is a fitting crown to a life full
of achievement in behalf of the Fraternity to which the life was so largely
given. The Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, while they mourn his loss, will have a
cherished memory and a prodigious record of work well done within their
Jurisdiction in behalf of Freemasonry the world over.
* * * * *
MAKE PERFECTION APPEAR"
Make Perfection Appear," by Katharine Francis Pedrick. Price $1.25. Published
by Lothrop, Lee & Shephard Co., 93 Federal Street, Boston, Massachusetts.
little book is indicative of the author's wide reading and deep thinking. From
a previous work we gather that she is a practical mystic. In some measure a
continuation of her plea for more idealism with reference to the great unseen
is carried on in this book.
potential divinity of man is charmingly stated in a chapter dealing with the
way of the spiritual idealist. For a book dealing in metaphysical subtleties
it is written in a manner that makes it pleasantly readable and spiritually
helpful. Harmony with the great within ought to be the supreme effort of
everyone for knowledge, love and goodness are potential factors in the life of
with God is the paramount issue dealt with throughout the book and the
reverent spirit reealed therein will be conducive to attracting people to the
reading of other of the author's works after finishing this one.
PUBLICATIONS ISSUED BY THE SOCIETY
bound volume of THE BUILDER $3.75
bound volume of THE BUILDER 3.75
bound volume of THE BUILDER 3.75
bound volume of THE BUILDER 3.75
bound volume of THE BUILDER (for delivery about
1st or 15th) 3.75
Constitutions ( reproduced by photographic plates from an original copy in the
archives of the Iowa Masonic Library, Cedar Rapids). Edition
Philosophy of Masonry, Roscoe Pound 1.25
Story of Old Glory, The Oldest Flag," Bro. J. W. Barry, P. G. M., Iowa, red
buffing binding, gilt lettering, illustrated. A story of the Flag and Masonry,
Story of Old Glory, The Oldest Flag," paper covers .50
Notes on the Comacine Masters," W. Ravenscroft, England. A sequel to "The
Comacines, Their Predecessors and Their Successors," a Masonic digest of
Leader Scott's book "The Cathedral Builders" and containing the latest
researches of Brother Ravenscroft which present a very logical argument for
the connection of Freemasonry of the present day with the Roman Collegia and
traveling Masons of the early times, paper covers, illustrated .50
of the First Degree, Gage, pamphlet .15
of the Third Degree, Ball, pamphlet .15
of the Three Degrees, Street, 68 pages, paper covers. The lessons and symbols
of each degree traced to their origin, in every instance that it has been
possible to so trace them. Brother Street gives many explanations of our
symbols in this little book on which our monitors but vaguely touch
Aspects of Masonic Symbolism, Waite, pamphlet .15
* * *
PUBLICATIONS FROM OTHER SOURCES IN IN STOCK AT ANAMOSA
Builders," a Story and Study of Masonry, by Brother Joseph Fort Newton,
formerly Editor-in-Chief of THE BUILDER $ 1.50
Encyclopaedia, 1919 edition, in two volumes, Black Fabrikoid binding
of Freemasonry, A. G. Mackey 3.15
Jurisprudence, A. G. Mackey 3.15
Parliamentary Law, A. G. Mackey 2.15
Freemasonry in America Prior to 1750, Melvin M. Johnson, P.G.M.,
Essays on Freemasonry, Robert Freke Gould 7.00
History of Freemasonry, Robert Freke Gould 4.50
foregoing prices include postage and insurance or registration fee on all
items except pamphlets. The latter will be sent by regular mail not insured or
BUILDER is an open forum for free and fraternal discussion. Each of its
contributors writes under his own name, and is responsible for his own
opinions. Believing that a unity of spirit is better than a uniformity of
opinion, the Research Society, as such, does not champion any one school of
Masonic thought as over against another, but offers to all alike a medium for
fellowship and instruction, leaving each to stand or fall by its own merits.
Question Box and Correspondence Column are open to all members of the Society
at all times. Questions of any nature on Masonic subjects are earnestly
invited from our members, particularly those connected with lodges or study
clubs which are following our "Bulletin Course of Masonic Study." When
requested, questions will be answered promptly by mail before publication in
BIBLIOGRAPHY OF MASONIC BOOKS
tell me where I may obtain a bibliography of the bestMasonic literature? T. A.
question bobs up almost daily in our mail from new members who are constantly
joining the Society. We have been replying to these inquiries by referring
these brethren to the monthly book lists published in the "Library Department
in each issue of THE BUILDER since it has become an impossibility to secure
but few of the standard works which have been published in the past few years.
To secure many of the older publications is out of the question entirely.
little work on the Comacine Masters, by Brother Ravenscroft of England, of
which we secured the only remaining copies in the hands of his English
publishers several months ago, is now out of print. We recently purchased one
hundred copies of Gould's "Concise History of Freemasonry" from England and
immediately placed an order for another hundred, but the publishers write us
that this is now "out of print" and that no further copies are available. We
hope, however, to hear from them within the course of the next month or so to
the effect that a new edition is being printed.
D. D. Berolgheimer, Librarian of Johnkeer Lodge No. 865, of Yonkers, N. Y.,
one of the few literary lodges in the United States, has furnished us with the
following list of Masonic works suitable for a Masonic library, but he states
frankly that the average Mason who has not made a lengthy study of Masonry
would quickly get beyond his depth if he attempted to read some of the works
publishing this list we wish to impress upon the members of the N.M.R.S. that
we are not in a position to obtain copies of these books for them, nor do we
believe that many of them are on the market. It is quite possible, however,
that some of them as well as others of value not here listed, may be picked up
here and there in stores dealing in second-hand books, and we would recommend
that strict search and due inquiry be made among the several establishments of
this kind in every city to see if any of them may be found. Assist us,
brethren, in digging up these treasures that may be lying here and there among
the rubbish, and, if you do not want them for your own library, inform us of
any such finds, giving the price, condition, and name of the dealer from whom
they may be purchased, that they may find a place in the libraries of those
who may have been searching for them for a long time.
G. Letters on the Masonic Institution. 1847.
Jas. Constitutions (1723). First edition. Reprint 1855.
Jas. Constitutions (1738). Second edition. Reprint 1855.
Jas. Constitutions, Revised by J. Entick. Third edition. 1756.
Jas. Constitutions, Revised by J. Entick. Fourth edition. 1767.
Jas. Constitutions, Revised by J. Nourthouck. Fifth edition. 1784.
The Masonic Manual, Revised by Oliver. 1855.
N. S., and Sachse, J. F. Freemasonry in Pennsylvania, 1727-1907. 1908.
History of Jacobinism, etc. Four volumes.
R. H. Suggestions for a Course of Masonic Reading. 1917.
The Realities of Masonry. 1879:
W. Origin and Beginnings of Freemasonry in England. (German.) Three volumes.
W. L. Classification of the Literature of Freemasonry. 1915.
THE. Volumes I, II, III, IV and V. 1915, 1916, 1917, 1918 and 1919.
Churchward, A. Signs and Symbols of Primordial Man. Second edition. 1913.
Churchward, A. Origin and Antiquity of Freemasonry. 1898.
E. The Records of the Hole Craft and Fellowship of Masons. 1894.
C. Caementaria Hibernica. Three parts. 1895-1900.
Compilation and Digest. Grand Lodge of New York. 1911.
Masonic Chart. First, second, third or fourth edition.
J. W. The Master Mason's Handbook. Fifth edition. 1915.
J. W. Things a Freemason Should Know. 1909.
L. Ahiman Rezon. First, second, third, fourth, fifth or sixth edition.
L. Ahiman Rezon. First American edition. 1805.
J. Exposition of the Mysteries of Ancient Egyptians, Pythagoreans, etc., and
J. G. History of Masonry. 1866.
J. F. Symbols and Legends of Freemasonry. 1889.
George F. Early History and Antiquities of Freemasonry. 1875.
H. H. Egyptian Obelisks. 1882.
Robert Freke. History of Masonry. Six volumes. 1884-7.
Robert Freke. Concise History of Freemasonry. 1904.
Robert Freke. The Four Old Lodges.
Robert Freke. The Atholl Lodges.
Robert Freke. Military Lodges.
B. Some of the Ancient Landmarks. 1894.
R. True Principles of Freemasonry. 1916.
J. O. Early History of Freemasonry in England. 1840.
J. New Freemasons' Monitor. First or second edition. 1818 or 1819.
and Stillson. History of Freemasonry and Concordant Orders. 1892.
W. J. Masonic Sketches and Reprints. 1871-6.
W. J. Constitutions of the Freemasons. 1869.
W. J. The Old Charges of British Freemasons. Second edition. 1895.
W. J. Origin of the English Rite of Freemasonry. New edition. 1909.
Hutchinson, W. The Spirit of Masonry. Revised by Oliver. 1855.
M. M. Freemasonry in America Prior to 1750. 1916.
Works of. Any good edition.
Research No. 2429. Transactions.
M. History of the Ancient Lodge of Edinburgh. First or second edition. 1873 or
A. G. Encyclopaedia of Freemasonry. Latest edition.
A. G. Manual of the Lodge. New edition. 1871.
A. G. Lexicon of Freemasonry. 1845.
A. G. Symbolism of Freemasonry. 1874.
A. G. Masonic Jurisprudence.
A. G. The Mystic Tie.
A. G. Ahiman Rezon.
A. G. Masonic Parliamentary Law.
and Singleton. History of Freemasonry. Seven
Obituary Rites of Freemasonry. 1868.
General History, Cyclopaedia and Dictionary of Freemasonry. 1870.
Manchester Association for Masonic Research. Transactions Volume I, 1910, and
C. E. The New York Obelisk. 1891.
R. William Morgan, or Political Anti-Masonry. 1883
Joseph Fort. The Builders. 1916.
G. History of Freemasonry, 1829-1841. 1855.
G. Dictionary of Symbolic Masonry. 1855.
Origin of Freemasonry. 1811.
J. Constitutions - Irish. 1730. Reprint.
Morals and Dogma, with index. 1905.
F. Comparison of the Egyptian Symbols with those the Ancient Hebrews.
Translation by Simons. 1904.
Roscoe. Philosophy of Masonry. 1915.
W. Illustrations of Masonry. 1855.
Coronati Lodge No.'2076. Transactions. Volume I
Coronati Lodge No. 2076. Reprints.
Revelations of Masonry.
Ravenscroft, W. The Comacines. 1910.
Ravenscroft, W. Further Notes on the Comacine Masters. 1918
E. General History of Freemasonry in Europe. Translation by Brennan. 1867.
J. Old Constitutions. 1720. Reprint.
A Standard History of Freemasonry in New York Two volumes. 1899.
J. F. Old Masonic Lodges of Pennsylvania. Two volumes. 1912 - 1913.
H. Masonic Facts and Fictions. 1889.
H. Masonic Reprints and Revelations. 1898.
Leader. Cathedral Builders. 1899.
W. Course of Masonic Reading. 1899.
Steinbrenner, G. W. History of Masonry. 1864.
L. Letters of Masonry and Anti-Masonry. 1832.
F. Etiquette of Freemasonry.
Salem. Speculative Masonry. 1818.
Bicentenary of Freemasonry. 1918.
S. Secret Traditions in Masonry. Two volumes. 1912
Thomas Smith. Freemason's Monitor. Any edition, 179 to 1822.
J. A. The Obelisk and Freemasonry. 1880.
T. The Swastika. 1894.
Conferences of Grand Masters. Proceedings. NewYork. 1914
Conferences of Grand Masters. Proceedings. Cedar Rapid 1918.
Proceedings of Grand Lodge of which library owner is a member
Constitutions of Grand Lodge of which library owner is a member.
* * *
OLD LODGES" OF ENGLAND
give me information concerning the "Four Old Lodges" which met in 1717 to form
the Grand Lodge of Eng land? J. M. L., Wyoming.
Old Lodges" which united to form the Grand Lodge of England, as given by Gould
in his larger "History of Freemasonry" are:
No. 1, which met at the Goose and Gridiron, in St. Paul's Churchyard, from
1717 until 1729, and removed in the latter year to the King's (or Queen's)
Arins, in the same locality, where it remained for a long period. In 1760 it
assumed the title of the "West India and American Lodge," which ten years
later was altered to that of the "Lodge of Antiquity." In 1794 it absorbed the
Harodim Lodge No. 467, a mushroom creation of the year 1760. At the Union, in
1813, the first position in the new roll having devolved by lot upon No. 1 of
the "Atholl" lodges, it became, and has since remained, No. 2.
to the Engraved List of 1729 this lodge was originally constituted in 1691.
Thomas Morris and Josias Villeneau, both in their time Grand Wardens, were
among the members - the former being the Master in 1723, and the latter in
1725. Benjamin Cole, the engraver, belonged to the Lodge in 1730; but with
these three exceptions the names, so far as they are given in the official
record, do not invite any remark until after Preston's election to the chair,
when the members suddenly awoke to a sense of the dignity of the senior
English lodge, and became gradually impressed with the importance of its
traditions.... From Preston's time down to our own, the Lodge of Antiquity has
maintained a high degree of preeminence, as well for its seniority of
constitution, as for the celebrity of the names which have graced its roll of
members. The Duke of Sussex was its Master for many years; and the lamented
Duke of Albany in more recent days filled the chair throughout several
No. 2 met at the Crown, Parker's Lane, in 1717, and was established at the
Queen's Head, Turnstile, Holborn, in 1723 or earlier. Thence it moved in
succession to the Green Lattice, Rose and Rummer, and Rose and Buffloe. In
1730 it met at the Bull and Gate, Holborn; and, appearing for the first time
in the Engraved List for 1736, was struck off the roll at the renumbering in
1740. An application for its restoration was made in 1762, but, on the ground
that none of the petitioners had ever been members of the lodge, it was
rejected. According to the Engraved List for 1729, the lodge was constituted
No. 3, which met at the Apple Tree Tavern, in Charles Street, Covent Garden,
in 1717, moved to the Queen's Head, Knave's Acre, in 1723 or earlier; and
after several intermediate changes - including a stay of many years at the
Fish and Bell, Charles Street, Soho Square - appears to have settled down,
under the title of the Lodge of Fortitude, at the Roebuct Oxford Street, from
1768 until 1793. In 1818 it amalgamated with the Old Cumberland Lodge -
constituted 1753 - and is now the Fortitude and Old Cumberland Lodge, No. 12.
Anderson informs us that, after the removal of this lodge to the Queen's Head,
upon some difference, the members that met there came under a New Constitution
(in 1723) "tho' they wanted it not"; and accordingly, when the lodges were
arranged in order of seniority in 1729, Original No. 3, instead of being
placed as one of the Four at the head of the roll found itself relegated by
the Committee of Precedence to the eleventh number on the list. This appears
to have taken the members by surprise - as well it might, considering that the
last time the Four were all represented at Grand Lodge - April 19, 1727 -
before the scale of precedence was adjusted in conformity with the New
Regulations enacted for that purpose, their respective Masters and Wardens
answered to their names in the same seniority as we find to have prevailed
when the "Book of Constitutions" was approved by the representatives of lodges
in 1723. But although the officers of No. 11 "represented that their lodge
was misplaced in the printed book, whereby they lost their rank, and humbly
prayed that the said mistake might be regulated" - "the said complaint was
dismissed." It is probable that this petition would have experienced a very
different fate had the three senior lodges been represented on the Committee
Original No. 2 - also so numbered in 1729 - "dropt out" about 1736, the lodges
immediately below it each went up a step in 1740; and Original No. 3 moved
from the eleventh to the tenth place on the list. If the minutes of the
Committee of Charity covering that period were extant, we should find, I
think, a renewed protest by the subject of this sketch against its
supersession, for one was certainly made at the next renumbering in 1756 -
and not altogether without success, as will be seen by the following extract
from the minute book of one of the lodges above it on the list:
1755. - "Letter being (read) from the Grand Secy: Citing us to appear at the
Committee of Charity to answer the Fish and Bell Lodge (No. 10) to their
demand of being placed prior to us, viz. in No. 3. Whereon our Rt Worsl Masr
attended & the Question being propos'd was answer'd against (it) by with
Spirit and Resolution well worthy the Character he assum'd and being put to
Ballot was cared in favour of us. Report being made this night of the said
proceedings thanks was Return'd him and his health drank with hearty Zeal by
the Lodge present."
although defeated in this instance, the officers appear to have satisfied the
committee that their lodge was entitled to higher number than would fall to it
in the ordinary course, from two of its seniors having "dropt out" since the
revision of 1740. Instead, therefore, of becoming No. 8, we find that it
passed over the heads of the two Lodges immediately above it, and appeared in
the sixth place on the list for 1756; whilst the Lodges thus superseded by the
No. 10 of 1755, themselves changed their relative positions in the list for
1756, with the result that Nos. 8, and 9 and 10 in the former list severally
became 8, 7, and 6 in the latter, - or to express it in another way, Nos. 8
and 10 of 1755 change places in 1756.
I have observed: "The supersession of Original No. 3 by eight junior Lodges in
1729, together with its partial restoration of rank in 1756, has introduced so
much confusion into the history of this Lodge, that for upwards of a century
its identity with the 'old Lodge,' which met at the Apple Tree Tavern in 1717,
appears to have been wholly lost sight of."
of this lodge cannot be even approximately determined. It occupied the second
place in the Engraved Lists 1723 and 1725, and probably continued to do so
until 1728. The position of the lodge in 1729 must have been wholly determined
by the date of its warrant, and therefore affords no clue to its actual
seniority. It is quite impossible to say whether it established earlier or
later than original No. 2 (1712), nor pace Preston can we be altogether sure -
if we assume the precedency in such matters to be regulated by dates of
formation - that Fortitude and Old Cumberland Lodge would be justified in
yielding the pas, even to the Lodge of Antiquity itself.
to the meeting at the Goose and Gridiron Alehouse, on St. John the Baptist's
day, 1717, Findel observes, "This day is celebrated by all German Lodges as
the day of anniversity of the Society of Freemasons. It is the high-noon of
the year, the day of light and roses, and it ought to be celebrated
to me, however, that not only is this remarkable incident in the history of
the Lodge of Antiquity worthy of annual commemoration but that the services of
the Fortitute and Old Cumberland Lodge, in connection with what may termed the
most momentous event in the history of the Craft are at least entitled to a
similar distinction. The first Grand Master, it is true, was elected and
installed at the Goose Gridiron, under the banner of the Old Lodge there, but
the first Grand Lodge was formed and constituted at the Apple Tree under
similar auspices. Also, we must not forget, that the lo at the latter tavern
supplied the Grand Master-Sayer who was elected and installed in the former.
No. 4 met at the Rummer and Grapes Tavern, Channel Row, Westminster, in 1717,
and its representatives - George Payne, Master, Stephen Hall and Francis
Sorell, Wardens - joined with those of nineteen other lodges, in subscribing
the "Approbation" of the Constitutions in January, 1723. The date of its
removal to the tavern with which it became so long associated, and whose name
it adopted, is uncertain. It is shown at the "Horn" in the earliest of the
Engraved Lists, ostensibly of the year 1723, but there are grounds for
believing that this appeared towards the close of the period embraced by the
Grand Mastership of the Earl of Dalkeith, which would render it of later date
than the following extract from a newspaper of the period:
was a great Lodge of the ancient Society of the Free Masons held last week at
the Horn Tavern, in Palace Yard, at which were present the Earl of Dalkeith,
their Grand Master, the Deputy Grand Master, the Duke of Richmond, and several
other persons of quality, at which time, the Lord Carmichael, Col. Carpenter,
Sir Thomas Prendergast, Col. Paget, and Col. Saunderson, were accepted Free
Masons, and went home in their Leather Aprons and Gloves."
of these five initiates, two of whom were afterwards Grand Wardens, are shown
in the earliest list of members furnished by the Lodge at the "Horn" - in
conformity with the order of Grand Lodge. From this we learn that in 1724 the
Duke of Richmond was the Master, and George Payne the Deputy Master, whilst
Alexander Hardine and Alexander Choke were the Wardens. The character of the
lodge has been already glanced at, but the names of its members during the
years 1724 and 1725, will be given in full in the Appendix to which therefore
it will be unnecessary to do more than refer. Among the private members were
Desaguliers and Anderson, neither of whom in the years 1724-25 held office in
the lodge. Unfortunately, the page allotted to Original No. 4 - or No. 3 as it
became from 1729 - in the Grand Lodge Register for 1730, is a blank, and after
that year there is no list to consult for nearly half a century; when we again
meet with one in the official records, where the names of the then members are
headed by that of Thomas Dunckerley "a member from 1768."
Hardine was the Master in 1725, the office becoming vacant by the Duke of
Richmond's election as Grand Master. There is hide doubt, however - to use
the quanit language of "Old Regulation XVII." - by virtue of which the Duke
was debarred from continuing in the chair of the "Horn Lodge," whilst at the
head of the Craft - that "as soon as he had honourably discharged his Grand
Office, he returned to that Post or Station in his particular Lodge, from
which he was call'd to officiate above." At all events he was back there in
1729, for on July 11 of that year, the Deputy Grand Master (Blackerly)
informed Grand Lodge, by desire of the "Duke of Richmond, Master of the Horn
Lodge," as an excuse for the members not having brought charity, like those of
the other lodges, that they "were, for the most part, persons of Quality, and
Members of Parliament," and therefore out of town at that season of the year.
The Duke was very attentive to his duties in the lodge. He was in the chair at
the initiation of the Earl of Sunderland, on January 2, 1730, on which
occasion there were present the Grand Master, Lord Kingston, the Grand Master
elect, the Duke of Norfolk, together with the Duke of Montagu, Lords Dalkeith,
Delvin, Inchiquin, and other persons of distinction.
the same year, he presided over another important meeting, when many foreign
noblemen, and also William Cowper (D.G.M., 1726), were admitted members, and
was supported by the Grand Master (Duke of Norfolk), the Deputy (Blackerly),
Lord Mordaunt, and the Marquesses of Beaumont and Du Quesne. The Duke of
Richmond resigned the Mastership in April, 1738, and Nathaniel Blackerly was
unanimously chosen to fill his place. Original No. 4 was given the third
place in the Engraved List for 1729, and in 1740 became No. 2 - which number
it retained till the Union.
3, 1747, it was erased from the list, for non-attendance at the Quarterly
Communications, but was restored to its place September 4, 1751. According to
the official records - "Bro. Lediard informed the Brethren that the Right
Worshipful Bro. Payne, L. G. M., and several other members of the Lodge lately
held at the Horn, Palace Yard, Westminster, had been very successful in their
endeavours to serve the said Lodge, and that they were ready to pay 2 guineas
to the use of the Grand Charity, and therefore moved that out of respect to
Bro. Payne and the several other L.G.M. (late Grand Masters) who were members
thereof, the Said Lodge might be restored and have its former rank and Place
in the Lists of Lodges - which was ordered accordingly." Earl Ferrers was
master of the "Horn Lodge" when elected Grand Master of the Society in 1762.
February 16, 1766, at an "Occasional" Lodge, held at the Horn Tavern, the
Grand Master, Lord Blayney, presiding, His Royal Highness, William Henry, Duke
of Gloucester, "was made an entered apprentice, passed a fellow craft, and
raised to the degree of a Master Mason."
Prince, and his two brothers, the Duke of York and Cumberland, eventually
became members of the "New Lodge at the Horn," No. 313, the name of which, out
of compliment to them, was changed to that of the "Royal Lodge." At the
period, however, of the Duke of Gloucester's admission into the Society
(1766), there were two lodges meeting at the Horn Tavern. The "Old" Lodge,
the subject of the present sketch, and the "New" Lodge, No. 313, constituted
April 4, 1764. The Duke was initiated in neither, but in an "Occasional"
Lodge, at which, for all we know to the contrary, members of both may have
been present. But at whatever date the decadence of the "Old Horn Lodge" may
be said to have first set in, whether directly after the formation of a new
lodge at the same tavern, or later, it reached its culminating point about the
time when the Duke of Cumberland, following the example of his two brothers,
became an honourary member of No. 313. This occurred March 4, 1767, and on
April 1 of the same year, the Dukes of Gloucester and Cumberland attended a
meeting of the junior Lodge, and the latter was installed its W. M., an office
he also held in later years.
Engraved List for 1767 shows the "Old Horn Lodge" to have removed from the
tavern of that name to the Fleece, Tothill Street, Westminster. Thence, in
1772, it migrated to the King's Arms, also in Westminster, and on January 10,
1774, "finding themselves in a declining state, the members agreed to
incorporate with a new and flourishing lodge, entitled the Somerset House
Lodge, which immediately assumed their rank." So far Preston, in the editions
of his famous "Illustrations," published after the schism was healed, of
which the privileges of the Lodge of Antiquity had been the origin. But in
those published whilst the schism lasted (1779-89), he tells us, that "the
members of this Lodge tacitly agreed to a renunciation of their rights as one
of the four original Lodges by openly avowing a declaration of their Master in
Grand Lodge. They put themselves entirely under the authority of Grand Lodge;
claimed no distinct privilege, by virtue of an Immemorial Constitution, but
precedency of rank, and considered themselves subject to every law or
regulation of the Grand Lodge, over whom they could admit of no control, and
to whose determination they and every Lodge were bound to submit."
value, indeed, of this evidence, is much impaired - and must appear so, even
to those by whom Preston's veracity is regarded as beyond suspicion - by the
necessity of reconciling with it the remarks of the same writer after 1790,
when he speaks of me the two old lodges then extant, acting by immemorial
status of the junior of these lodges stood in no need of restoration at the
hands of Preston, or of any other person or body. In all the official lists,
published after its amalgamation with a lodge lower down on the roll, from
1775 to the present year, the words "Time Immemorial" in lieu of a date, are
placed opposite its printed title. Nor is there any entry in the minutes of
Grand Lodge, which will bear out the assertion that at the fusion of the two
lodges there was any sacrifice of independence on the part of the senior. The
junior of the parties to this alliance - in 1774, the Somerset House Lodge,
No. 219 - was originally constituted May 22, 1762, and is described in the
Engraved List for 1763 as "On Board H. M. Ship the 'Prince,' at Plymouth"; in
1764-66 as "On Board H. M. Ship the 'Guadaloupe"'; and in 1767-73 as "the
Sommerset House Lodge (No. 219 on the numeration of 1770-80) at ye King's
Arms, New Bond Street."
Dunckerley (of whom more hereafter), a natural son of George II., was
initiated into Masonry, January 10, 1754, whilst in the naval service, in
which he attained the rank of gunner; and his duties afloat seem to have come
to an end at about the same date on which the old "Sea Lodge" in the "Prince"
and lastly in the "Guadaloupe," was removed to London and christened the
"Somerset House," and most probably by way of compliment to Dunckerley
himself, being the name of the place of residence where quarters were first of
all assigned to him on his coming to the Metropolis. In 1767 the king ordered
him a pension of 100 pounds a year, which was afterwards increased to 800
pounds, with a suite of apartments in Hampton Court Palace.
official records merely inform us that Dunckerley was a member of the Somerset
House Lodge after the fusion, and that he had been a member of one or both of
them from 1768, beyond which year the Grand Lodge Register does not extend,
except longo intervallo, viz., at the returns for 1730, a gap already noticed,
and which it is as impossible to bridge over from one end as the other.
Dunckerley's we meet with the names of Lord Gormanstone, Sir Joseph Bankes,
Viscount Hampden, Rowland Berkeley, James Heseltine, and Rowland Holt, and
later still of Admiral Sir Peter Parker, Deputy Grand Master. In 1828 the
Lodge again resorted to amalgamation, and absorbed the "Royal Inverness"
Lodge, No. 648. The latter was virtually a military Lodge, having been formed
by the officers of the Royal North British Volunteer Corps, of which the Duke
of Sussex (Earl of Inverness) was the commander. Among the members of the
"Royal Inverness" Lodge were Sir Augustus D'Este, son of the Duke of Sussex;
Lord William Pitt Lennox; Charles Matthews the elder, "comedian"; Laurence
Thompson, "painter," the noted preceptor; and in the Grand Lodge Register,
under the date of May 5, 1825, is the following entry, - "Charles James
Matthews, Architect, Ivy Cottage, aged 24."
Lodge at the Horn," which we have traced through so many vicissitudes - for
reasons already given in the sketch of the Lodge of Antiquity - dropped from
the second to the fourth place on the roll at the union; and in 1828 assumed
the title of the "Royal Somerset House and Inverness Lodge," by which it is
still described in the list. It is a subject for regret that no history of
this renowned Lodge has been compiled. The early minutes, I am informed, are
missing, but the materials for a descriptive account of a Lodge associated
with such brilliant memories still exist, although there May be some slight
trouble in searching for them. Among the Masonic jottings in the early
newspapers, and the waifs and strays at Freemasons' Hall, will be found a
great many allusions to this ancient Lodge. Of these, examples are afforded
in the sketch now brought to a close, which is mainly based on those sources
Imperial Council, at its last session held at Indianapolis, approved and
ordered printed for general sale and distribution, an official history of the
Mystic Shrine. Full details may be obtained from Recorder B. W. Rewell,
Masonic Temple, Boston, Mass. J. Harry Lewis, Minnesota.
of the Ancient Arabic Order Nobles of the Mystic Shrine was published in 1916.
Particulars may be obtained concerning this work from George L. Root, San
Boyden, District of Columbia.
* * * * *
PROCEEDINGS OF QUATUOR CORONATI LODGE WANTED
I have a
complete file of the Transactions of Quatuor Coronati Lodge No. 2076, London,
except volumes 1, 3, 6, 7 and 8.
be very glad to procure these volumes, bound or unhound. Wm. F. Bowe, Augusta,
* * * * *
OF HIRAM, KING OF TYRE
connection with the article "The Tomb of Hiram, King of Tyre," which appeared
on page 5 of the Correspondence Circle Bulletin section of the November number
of THE BUILDER, I am sending you a clipping on the subject from a recent copy
of the NEW YORK TIMES which will doubtless be of interest to our members. It
is signed by Chayim Tobin, and reads as follows:
the horrors of war are over, the interest of all Jews, Gentiles, and
Freemasons should be roused when they learn of the proposed expedition that
has for its object the excavation of the site of the Tomb of Hiram King of
Tyre, that has been partly ruined by the Tyrians. For now that the day of the
Turk has passed, that of the Bible student and the archaeologist has dawned.
soldiers occupy Jerusalem who are unlocking the secrets of Christianity, which
also opens the gates to El Sur or Tyre, that can now be scientifically
explored. This is well worth while, for beneath its soil are remains of
valuable prehistoric records. Close to the city the mills are still running
that cut the cedars of Lebanon for the house of Solomon, while about two
hours' ride to the southeast of Tyre are the remains of the tomb, in fairly
good condition, called by the natives 'Aber Hiram,' that contains, it is said,
the ashes of Hiram King of Tyre (II. Chronicles, II., 3-11.) The excavation of
the site may throw light on the history of one of the first three Grand
Masters of the Craft of Freemasons.
hoped that 'masons' marks' may be found in the cornerstone of the tomb with
other important links in the historic chain that connects the craft with the
builders of King Solomon's Temple a thousand years before the Christian era.
Therefore the brethren should be personally interested in the excavation of
the Tomb of Hiram King of Tyre, as well as Bible students who will find a new
field opened to them."
Audett, New York.
* * * * *
* * * * *
FOR THE RIGHT KIND OF LEADERSHIP
others I am yet in the "Northeast Corner," although according to custom I have
been "raised" beyond that mark, and I feel the need of Masonic study and
research. Yet there does not seem to be a kindred feeling among those whose
Masonic positions should cause them to step forth and lead the many like
myself. I wish these local units (study groups) of the Society could be so
organized that there would be a general movement to create and build.
* * * * *
* * * * *
FREEMASON FOR 72 YEARS - IS THIS THE RECORD?
Masonic Veteran Association of the District of Columbia has on its rolls the
Rev. William W. Curry, born at Louisville, Ky., Feb. 15,1824, and now in his
96th year. Brother Curry was initiated into Masonry in Madisonville Lodge No.
143, Madisonville, Ky., August 9, 1847, and has therefore been a Freemason
more than 72 years.
Association is desirous of ascertaining whether any member of the Craft now
living has a longer record than Brother Curry, who was Chaplain of the 53rd
Indiana Regiment during the Civil War. L. D. Carman, District of Columbia.
HEARTNESS AND THE SMILE
L. B. MITCHELL, MICHIGAN
I left it
to my heart to find the place
fair realm, some boundary untraced,-
place where thought had never left a mar,-
place beneath an unexploited star
free from all the cobwebs and the snares
ways of human thoroughfares
might gleam from nature's heart to mine
handed in its clarity sublime
might find, unhindered and alone
of things, - the secrets all her own,
of rare intrinsic worth
measured by the values of the earth,-
things that faith alone cannot beguile,-
heartness that gives to the soul its smile.