The Builder Magazine
January 1921 - Volume VII - Number
MEMORIALS TO GREAT MEN WHO WERE MASONS
BRO. GEO. W. BAIRD, P. G. M., DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
CLAY, by far the superior of the men of his time, had three advantages: First,
that he was poor born, the son of a Baptist clergyman; Second, that he was at
an early age obliged to "hustle," and thus to acquire the habit of industry;
and Third, opportunity. Success in life is largely dependent upon opportunity,
or luck, as it is sometimes called.
child of eight years, the writer first saw Henry Clay. My father said to me:
"Do you see that tall man talking to Mr. Frank Taylor? That is Henry Clay, the
greatest living American. He is now an old man. He cannot live long. Look at
him well, for the Nation will never produce his equal."
Clay used more words in his oratory than any man then living. He was fearless,
honest of purpose, and earnest.
1852 as his funeral cortege was passing down the avenue, a Negro was leaning
against a tree in front of Frank Taylor's book store, singing. I caught the
Poor Henry Clay,
dust you must lay."
Negroes loved Clay. He had endeavored to have incorporated in the Kentucky
Constitution a clause looking to the gradual emancipation of slaves. It is not
generally known, but when the Civil War began there were in existence in the
United States twenty-six emancipation societies, thirteen of which were south
Mason and Dixon line. Washington had freed his slaves, and Henry Clay tried to
free many. He was always called Henry Clay, just as today Mr. Watterson is
called Henry, contrary to the habit of their peers.
Clay was a fifth son, and was compelled at an early age to contribute to the
support of a widowed mother. His early education was limited, but what he
learned he never forgot. His family removed to Kentucky but he remained in
Richmond as a clerk, finally gaining admission into the office of the Clerk of
the Chancery Court where he took up the study of law. After being admitted to
the Bar, he went to Kentucky to reside. His frankness, cordiality and sunny
disposition won him many friends. Clay began to take a part in public affairs
and, in 1799 (the year of Washington's death), he advocated the gradual
abolition of slavery. Had his advice been accepted the Civil War never would
Washington, Clay saw the great-advantages in better transportation.
Washington's scheme for a canal connecting the Potomac and the Ohio rivers was
not greater than Clay's proposed canal around the falls at Louisville. His
schemes were in the interest of the commonwealth, not the individual.
served in the legislature, in the Nation's Congress and Senate. He was in
nomination for the Presidency but was defeated by the less-known candidate,
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Entered as Second-Class Matter January 2, 1911, at the Post Offlce, Anaconda,
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Acceptance for mailing at special rate of Stage provided for in section llo3,
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Articles in Copyright 1921 by the National Masonic Research Society.
"teetotaler He, together with many other Senators, on their way from the
Senate to their homes, frequently stopped in at "Hancock's" for their
libations, and their stories were absorbed and remembered by Mr. Hancock, who
lived to an old age and who delighted to repeat the bon mots of Clay, Webster,
Calhoun, Benton and others.
story of Clay's duel with John Randolph, of Roanoke, is interesting. Mr.
Randolph was very eccentric, a powerful speaker, honorable and unselfish, but
very uncertain. He was odd in his dress, many of his expressions were
ambiguous and uncertain. He had said he would rather meet death by a bullet
from Clay's revolver, than in any other manner. As he and Clay were working in
the same interests, generally on the same side, one in the House and the other
in the Senate, there was little likelihood of a quarrel. But it came.
fought with pistols, near Bladensburg. Both were good shots. Clay had attacked
Randolph in a speech, but all sympathy was with Clay. Clay sent a bullet
through Randolph's coat, which barely grazed the skin, while Randolph
dramatically fired his pistol into the air.
Clay, you owe me a new coat," said the eccentric Congressman, advancing with
extended hands, to which Clay replied, "Thank God, Mr. Randolph" politicians
were engaged in throwing so much mud on our Order. The equal of that assault
is unknown, but it is certain that whole lodges got "cold feet" and
surrendered their charters; Masons were boycotted in their businesses, and
the daughters of Masons were ostracized. But Clay remained loyal to the
Fraternity. And after all we have the testimony of Ben Perly Poore that he
(then a boy) with his father saw and talked with Morgan in Smyrna, in 1839. So
the judgment on Henry Clay was correct in that matter.
Clay was born in Virginia in 1777, and died at Washington in 1852. His body
was taken to Lexington, Kentucky, where the memorial shown in the
frontispiece, was erected.
was Grand Master of Masons in Kentucky in 1820. He was always interested in
Masonry, and was often quoted as saying that in Masonry he could find at any
time men who could be trusted to the limit. The writer has heard Theodore
Roosevelt say the same thing.
the custom of Clay, and indeed, of many Congressman, to return to their homes
on horse-back at the end of a session of Congress. The writer, in 1887, drove
in a buggy from Washington to the Natural Bridge, and found a "tavern" about
every fifteen miles. It was the custom to drive about thirty miles a day
with a good horse; we put up at each alternate tavern and, after supper, it
was not difficult to get Clay stories from the elder natives. - Returning by
another route, we found Clay, Randolph and other great men to be well known at
these taverns. Clay was a good "mixer," and these "oldest inhabitants"
were agreed that Henry Clay never forgot a man or a child; that he would at
once call each by his name. In social circles, here in Washington, Clay
had the reputation of being very witty, and clever at repartee, but never once
have we heard of an improper remark being attributed to him.
was one of the first advocates of a protective tariff. He fathered the Bill
which enabled Louisiana to form its State government. He opposed the first
United States bank. While Speaker of the House he constituted the committee
with reference to declaration of war. He advocated a strong army (25,000 men),
and urged the construction of ten additional frigates. He denounced the
Federal Party, in opposition to Josiah Quincy's speeches, and eulogized
Missouri was admitted into the Union, the question of slavery was very acute.
Mr. Clay vehemently opposed any restrictions in the proposed Constitution of
that State as to slavery, but as Speaker of the House, arranged a joint
committee which produced the famous "Missouri Compromise" and thus smothered
the vexed slavery question for the time being. Clay had confidence that
slavery would gradually be eliminated.
records of the Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia for the year 1821 show
a Masonic notice reading:
members of Congress who belong to the Masonic Fraternity, and those visitors
in the city who are or have been members of any Grand Lodge, are respectfully
invited to attend a meeting, to be held in the Senate Chamber this evening at
seven o'clock to take into consideration matters of general interest to the
Masonic Institution. March 9th, 1822."
is the only instance we have ever found where the Senate Chamber has been used
by the Fraternity and, on this occasion, it was by the influence of Henry
Clay and Andrew Jackson stood pat on the Masonic threshold during the Morgan
proud to know that Washington, the father of his country, was a prominent
Mason, that his life work demonstrated to all his conscientious
interpretation of Masonic teachings and of Masonic lessons. We as Masons,
however, cannot live upon the pastthe future lies before us. A greater work is
in store for us if we conscientiously measure up to our duties than anything
the past has presented. Shall we measure up? We earnestly hope and pray that
we may. If we go forth from our lodges, old members as well as new, thoroughly
imbued with the beautiful lessons of Freemasonry, convinced of the truth of
the teachings, impressed with the desire to emulate and surpass the record of
the past, we shall be empowered by our united strength to enable our country
safely to ride over the many difficulties, dangers and pitfalls that lie
before us. Masonry teaches loyalty and fealty to flag and country. We shall,
we must, have Americanism in every sense of the word, for Americanism
represents the teachings of Masonry as laid out by our wise forefathers.
Unless we, as a united, determined and faithful band set our faces firmly
against disloyalty, anarchy, bolshevism, or whatever the term applied to the
foreign growth whose seed is unfortunately being sown in this country may be,
a dismal, dark, discouraging future lies before us. Let us therefore bend our
every endeavor so that our newly welcomed brethren may truly and completely
understand the noble import and purposes of Freemasonry.
Charles C. Homer, Past Grand Master, Maryland.
SMITH - TOWNER EDUCATIONAL BILL
BRO. HOKE SMITH
Smith-Towner Educational Bill, the text of which is incorporated in the
following speech of Senator Hoke Smith, of Georgia, delivered in the United
States Senate on July 28, 1919, will come up for consideration during the
present session of Congress. A Jesuit writer in the November issue of
"America," a Roman Catholic weekly, solicits every Roman Catholic to "at once
urge the danger of the Smith-Towner bill upon the Senators from his State.
men who suggested this bill were active workers in different Christian
denominations, earnestly seeking to serve their fellow men, their country, and
only discordant note has come from certain Catholic organizations, based, I
must believe, upon a misapprehension of the bills.
paid for the support of public schools are the highest contribution made by
wealth for the welfare of our citizens and for the future of our country.
attacks might have been expected of leaders of thought in the dark ages; at
the present time they are surprising and shocking.
not believe that the real leaders of the Catholic Church or the rank and file
of its members in the United States are opposed to public schools or to an
opportunity being given to every child of obtaining an education at the public
Democratic Senator from Georgia.
SMITH of Georgia. Mr. President, about two years ago a committee of educators,
composed of presidents of leading colleges and men prominent in educational
work throughout the United States, conferred with me as to the importance of
establishing a department of education, with a member of the Cabinet at its
head. These men were active workers in different Christian religious
denominations, earnestly seeking to serve their fellow men, their country,
and their God, by broadening educational opportunities for our children and
nothing concerns more our national life than the education of our citizens, it
needed little argument to enlist my active interest in the proposed measure.
free discussion a committee was appointed to draft a tentative bill. The bill
was worked over a number of times and finally, about 12 months ago, I
introduced a bill providing for the creation of a Department of Education,
with a secretary in the President's Cabinet, and copies of the bill were sent
to those interested in the subject in various parts of the United States for
further criticism and suggestion. Modifications were made in the bill and it
was again introduced during the last Congress changed somewhat in details. It
has been, since that time, reviewed and criticized by committees from various
bill introduced in the House by Judge Towner, l[. R. 7, and by myself in the
Senate, S. 1017, still contains much of the bill which was pending at the
last session of Congress, but changes which seemed to improve the original
bill have been made.
National Education Association has a membership of 35,000. It was organized
in 1857, and many of our ablest college presidents and educators have pre
over its meetings. Committees of this organization aided in the revision of
the bill, and at the Ju meeting of the association the bill received the cords
approval of its members.
request to print, without reading, the resolution passed by the National
President pro tempore. Without objection, is so ordered.
resolutions referred to are as follows:
SMITH TOWNER BILL
Resolution adopted by National Education Association, Milwaukee meeting, July,
association has urged for years that education should be given just
recognition by the Federal Government, and that a department of education
should be established. The war has so emphasized the importance of education
from a national standpoint that the necessity of the immediate consideration
of this question is universally recognized.
Moreover, a commission on the emergency in education, appointed by this
association one year ago, acting under the instruction of the association,
prepared a bill creating a department of education with a secretary in the
President's Cabinet, and authorizing the appropriation of $100,000,000 to
encourage the States in the promotion of education, particularly in the
removal of illiteracy, the Americanization of immigrants, physical and health
education, teacher preparation, and the equalizing of educational
association, through its commission, and with the cooperation of other great
national organizations, secured the introduction of this bill in the
Sixty-fifth Congress, and more recently its introduction in the Sixty-sixth
Congress in a carefully revised and perfected form, known as the SmithTowner
bill, H. R. 7 and S. 1017: Therefore
Resolved, That this association gives its hearty and unqualified endorsement
to the Smith-Towner bill, H. R. 7 and S. 1017, now before the Sixty-sixth
Congress, and instructs the official staff of this association to use all
honorable means to secure its passage.
Smith of Georgia. Mr. President, the American Federation of Labor and the
American Federation of Teachers have given the measure a hearty endorsement.
request to print, without reading, their resolutions.
President pro tempore. If there is no objection, it is so ordered.
resolutions referred to are as follows:
Resolution No. 123, by Delegate Charles B. Stillman, of the American
Federation of Teachers.
Whereas in accordance with the instructions of the last convention, the
executive council of the American Federation of Labor, working with the
American Federation of Teachers and the National Education Association, has
cooperated in the preparation and introduction of the educational bill, H.
R. 7, which creates a Federal department of education and appropriates
$100,000,000 to be apportioned among the States to aid in the payment of more
adequate teachers' salaries, in the equalization of educational
opportunities, in the removal of illiteracy, in Americanization of
immigrants, in physical education, and in the preparation of competent
Whereas the present period of reconstruction is revealing even more clearly
than the preceding period of the war the need for a national educational
policy to secure coordination among the States, and to promote national
welfare, efficiency, and unity; and
Whereas the threatened collapse of our schools, which influenced the action of
the last convention, is still more imminent now, through the forcing out of
our best teachers by the thousands by sheer economic pressure, and through the
refusal of young men and women of ability and independent spirit to prepare
themselves for a calling which does not offer a self-respecting living; and
Whereas the ultimate national need is for educated manhood and womanhood, a
need which will become more urgent in the period we are entering; and
Whereas the recent past has forced upon us a realization of the necessity of
more effective physical education, of the removal of illiteracy, and of the
Americanization of immigrants; and
Whereas in the fields of vocational and agricultural education, the value of
the stimulus to the States of Federal appropriations available to a State on
its meeting specified standards, and on the appropriation by that State of
equal amounts, has been proved by experience; therefore, be it
Resolved, That this thirty-ninth convention of the American Federation of
Labor, in conformity with the recommendation of the preceding convention,
indorse the educational bill, H. R. 7, and instruct the president and
executive council to use the full influence of the American Federation of
Labor in its support.
other organizations, including school boards and chambers of commerce, have
indorsed the measure. Indeed, so far as I know, the only discordant note of
opposition has come from certain Catholic organizations, based, I must
believe, upon a misapprehension of the bills.
Morning Star, printed in New Orleans, on May 31, I find the statement that the
Federation of Catholic Societies condemn the Smith-Towner educational bill as
un-American and un-Christian, and certain resolutions were reported as adopted
which I request to have printed without reading them.
President pro tempore. Without objection, it is so ordered.
matter referred to is as follows:
M. Kenny, S. J., read this section of the report of the Committee on
"Whereas Catholic education, and particularly our parochial school system, are
indispensable nurseries of religion and of the virtues essential to true
civic character and to the maintenance of Christian civilization; and
"Whereas the Constitution of the Nation and of the States guarantees religious
liberty to every citizen and strictly defines the authoritative boundaries of
State and Federal power; and
"Whereas certain legislative measures now introduced in Congress and various
legislatures aim, directly and indirectly, to weaken, emasculate and destroy
religious schools and educational individuality, and to subject all schools,
in finance and curriculum, to a centralized bureau of political
nationalization in Washington, thus robbing State and family and individual
of their God-given rights: Therefore be it
"Resolved, That we, the representatives of the Catholic Federated Societies of
Louisiana, are unanimously opposed
such measures as both un-American and unchristian, and earnestly urge our
people to support our Christian schools with increased unanimity and loyalty,
and to combine with all Christian and patriotic citizens in opposing, by voice
and pen and vote and every constitutional instrument, the advocacy, adoption,
and advocates of those subversive and destructive educational schemes, thus
erecting an impregnable barrier against this sinister menace to religion and
Constitution, to family and Nation; be it further
Resolved, That copies of this resolution be forwarded to the President and
Cabinet of the United States, to the President of the Senate, the Speaker of
the Louse, and to our State and National Representatives."
Smith of Georgia. Mr. President, the Morning Star on the same date commended
the "magnificent stand which the Federation of Catholic Societies has made
against the Smith educational bill which is to be re-introduced into Congress
under the name of the Smith-Towner bill."
Star of the same issue quoted from a paper called "America," declaring that
the Smith bill was for the Prussianization of the public schools and that the
Smith-Bankhead bill, for the Americanization of illiterates, was a scheme
scarcely less dangerous.
July 1,1909, at Peru, III., the National Benedictine Educational Association
of America adopted a platform of educational reconstruction condemning the
Smith-Towner bill. I request that it be printed in the Record.
President pro tempore. If there is no objection, it is so ordered.
matter referred to is as follows:
BENEDICTINE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION PROTESTS
AGAINST AUTOCRACY IN EDUCATION
Assembled at a time when the war-worn peoples of the globe watch with anxiety
the threatening triumph of might over right, of tyranny over democracy, of
international chaos over organized government, The National Benedictine
Educational Association of America, convened in St. Bede College, Peru,
III., and representing independent institutions in the States of Oregon,
Washington, Minnesota, Illinois, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Pennsylvania,
Missouri, Kansas Arkansas, Virginia, North Carolina, Alabama, Georgia and
Florida, hereby proclaims its solemn conviction that education is the bulwark
of freedom, and invites the universal cooperation of serious-minded American
citizens upon the platform of educational reconstruction that here follows:
Federal cooperation with our free and self-controlled educational activities
we recognize and welcome as an ally of educational freedom. Federal domination
we condemn as educational tyranny.
spirit of liberty, the fountainhead of our national Constitution, serves to
condemn any governmental agency that tends to disregard or abolish the
God-given right of each and every American father to create and control for
his child a school which satisfies the dictates of his conscience.
Power to create and control the school depends on the power to control the man
that creates the school.
Consequently, Federalization of all school moneys, the essential feature of
the Smith-Towner bill, is the death knell of educational freedom.
Consequently, the voters of America will employ all legitimate agencies, and
the final sanction of the ballot box, against a measure subversive of the
educational freedom guaranteed to our families and our States by a
Constitution that has lately been rewritten in the life-blood of their sons
and brothers. Shall the educational tyranny of Bismarek, after devouring with
cynical smile the flower of American manhood, ride with our returning armies
across the Atlantic to complete in Washington what it began in Berlin?
Smith of Georgia. Mr. President, I trust these attacks upon the bills to
create a Department of Education have been due to a lack of knowledge of the
real provisions of the bills on the part of those who made them. I can not
believe that these attacks represent the mature views of any considerable
number of our citizens. Rather, I believe, they have been inspired by
addresses such as that recently delivered by Rev. E. D. L. McDonnell, S. J.,
of Loyola College, Baltimore, Md. The address to which I refer was reported in
the Washington Post on the 16th day of June. I send to the desk of the
Secretary of the Senate some extracts from that report, which I ask to have
President pro tempore. The Secretary will read as requested.
Secretary read as follows:
The Washington Post. June 16, 1919.)
ATTACKS BILL. REV. MR. McDONNELL WARNS OF MENACE IN EDUCATIONAL ACT.
SPEAKS TO G. U. GRADUATES. DECLARES SENATOR HOKE SMITH'S MEASURE FOR
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION WOULD MEAN "DICTATOR" IN WASHINGTON.
bitter attack upon Senator Efoke Smith's educational bill and similar measures
pending in Congress creating a Department of Education was made yesterday by
the Rev E. De L. McDonnell, S. J., of Loyola College, Baltimore, Md., in a
baccalaureate sermon delivered before the graduating classes of Georgetown
* * *
OF AN "OVERSEER"
McDonnell referred to the proposed legislation as "designed to place the whole
educational machinery of the country under the control of one autocratic
overseer here in Washington," and described it as "the most dangerous and
viciously audacious bill ever introduced into our halls of legislation, having
lurking within it a most damnable plot to drive Jesus Christ out of the land."
now, last of all, but by no means least of all, our freedom is still further
threatened, and still greater power is to be given to the Central Government,
and State rights are still further to be weakened by a bill in Congress, the
Iloke Smith educational bill, by which the whole educational machinery of the
country is to be placed under the control of one autocratic overseer here in
there is another aspect of this bill which, for us Catholics and for every
right-thinking American, must seem much more serious, for whilst the bill does
nothing ostensibly against religion, in effect it aims at banishing God from
every schoolroom, whether public or private, in the United States.
bill destroys all freedom of education, takes away the sacrosanct duty and
right of parents to educate their own children and the right of the children
to be so educated. It is a direct assault upon religion and it penalizes Jesus
Christ, His faith and all who believe.
Smith of Georgia. Mr. President, this address embodies three distinct charges
against the pending bills to create a department of education.
That the whole educational machinery of the country is to be placed under the
control of one autocratic overseer here in Washington.
Second. That the bill takes away the duty and right of parents to educate
their own children and the right of the children to be so educated.
That the bill would banish God from every schoolroom and is a direct assault
of these charges is so utterly false that it is difficult to understand how
anyone could have been willing to make them. It is especially difficult to
understand how a preacher of the Gospel of Jesus Christ could have been their
request now to have printed in the Record, without reading, Senate bill 1017,
which is almost identical with House bill No. 7, introduced by Congressman
President pro tempore. If there is no objection, the request is granted.
matter referred to is as follows
SIXTY-SIXTH CONGRESS, FIRST SESSION. S. 1017.
SENATE OF TIDE UNITED STATES.
Smith of Georgia introduced the following bill; which was read twice and
referred to the Committee on Education
to create a Department of Education, to authorize appropriations for the
conduct of said department, to authorize the appropriation of money to
encourage the States in the promotion and support of education, and for other
enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of
America in Congress assembled, That there is hereby created an executive
department in the Government to be called the Department of Education, with a
Secretary of Education, who shall be the head thereof, to be appointed by the
President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, and who shall
receive a salary of $12,000 per annum, and whose tenure of office shall be the
same as that of the heads of other executive departments; and section 158 of
the Revised Statutes is hereby amended to include such department, and the
provisions of title 4 of the Revised Statutes, including all amendments
thereto, are hereby made applicable to said department. The Secretary of
Education shall cause a seal of office to be made for such department of such
device as the President shall approve, and judicial notice shall be taken of
2. That there shall be in said department an Assistant Secretary of
Education, to be appointed by the President, who shall receive a salary of
$5,000 per annum. He shall perform such duties as may be prescribed by the
secretary or required by law. There shall also be one chief clerk and a
disbursing clerk and such chiefs of bureaus and clerical assistants as may
from time to time be authorized by Congress.
3. That there is hereby transferred to the Department of Education, the Bureau
of Education, and the President is authorized and empowered, in his
discretion, to transfer to the Department of Education such offices, bureaus,
divisions, boards, or branches of the Government devoted to educational
matters and connected with or attached to any of the executive departments or
organized independently of any department as in his judgment should be
controlled by, or the functions of which should be exercised by, the
Department of Education; and all such offices, bureaus, divisions, boards,
or branches of the Government so transferred by the President or by act of
Congress, shall thereafter be administered by the Department of Education, as
officers, clerks, and employees employed in or by any office, bureau,
division, board, or branch of the Government, transferred in accordance with
the provisions of this act to the Department of Education, shall each and all
be transferred to said Department of Education at their existing grades and
salaries, except where otherwise provided in this act; and the office records
and papers on file and pertaining exclusively to the business of any such
office, bureau, division, board, or branch of the Government so transferred,
together with the furniture and equipment thereof, shall be transferred to
4. That the Secretary of Education shall have charge, in the buildings or
premises occupied by or assigned to the Department of Education, of the
library, furniture, fixtures, records, and other property used therein or
pertaining thereto, and may expend for rental of appropriate quarters for
the accommodation of the Department of Education within the District of
Columbia, and for the library, furniture, equipment, and all other incidental
expenses, such sums as Congress may provide from time to time.
power and authority conferred by law upon or exercised by the head of any
executive department, or by any administrative board, over any officer,
office, bureau, division, board, or branch of the Government, transferred in
accordance with the provisions of this act to the Department of Education,
and any and all business arising therefrom or pertaining thereto, and all
duties performed in connection therewith, shall, after such transfer, be
vested in and exercised by the Secretary of Education.
laws prescribing the work and defining the duties and powers of the several
offices, bureaus, divisions, boards, or branches of the Government,
transferred in accordance with the provisions of this act to the Department of
Education, shall, in so far as the same are not in conflict with the
provisions of this act, remain in full force and effect and be executed under
the direction of the Secretary of Education, to whom is hereby granted
definite authority to reorganize the work of any and all of the said offices,
bureaus, divisions, boards, or branches of the Government so transferred, in
such way as will in his judgment best accomplish the purposes of this act.
5. That it shall be the duty of the Department of Education to conduct studies
and investigations in the field of education and to report thereon. RESEARCH
SHALL BE UNDERTAKEN IN (A) ILLITERACY; (B) IMMIGRANT EDUCATION; (C) PUBLIC
SCHOOL EDUCATION, AND ESPECIALLY RURAL EDUCATION; (D) PHYSICAL EDUCATION,
INCLUDING HEALTH EDUCATION, RECREATION, AND SANITATION; (E) PREPARATION AND
SUPPLY OF COMPETENT TEACHERS FOR THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS; AND (F) IN SUCH OTHER
FIELDS AS, IN THE JUDGMENT OF THE SECRETARY OF EDUCATION, MAY REQUIRE
ATTENTION AND STUDY.
order to carry out the provisions of this section the Secretary of Education
is authorized, in the same manner as provided for appointments in other
departments, to make appointments, or recommendations of appointments of
educational attaches to foreign embassies, and of such investigators and
representatives as may be needed, subject to the appropriations that have been
made or may hereafter be made to any office, bureau, division, board or branch
of the Government, transferred in accordance with the provisions of this act
to the Department of Education; and where appropriations have not been made
therefor the appropriation provided in section 6 of this act shall be
6. That for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1921, and annually thereafter, the
sum of $500,000 is hereby authorized to be appropriated, out of any money in
the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, to the Department of Education, for
the purpose of paying salaries and conducting investigations and paying all
incidental and traveling expenses and rent where necessary, and for the
purpose of enabling
Department of Education to carry out the provisions of this act. And all
appropriations which have been made and which may hereafter be made to any
office, bureau, division, board or branch of the Government, transferred in
accordance with the provisions of this act to the Department of Education,
are hereby continued in full force and effect, and shall be administered by
the Secretary of Education in such manner as is prescribed by law.
7. That in order to encourage the States in the promotion and support of
education, there is hereby authorized to be appropriated, out of any money in
the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, for the fiscal year ending June 30,
1921, and annually thereafter, $100,000,000, to be apportioned, disbursed,
and expended as hereinafter provided.
8. That in order to encourage the States to remove illiteracy,
three-fortieths of the sum authorized to be appropriated by section 7 of this
act shall be used for the instruction of illiterates ten years of age and
over. Such instruction shall deal with the common-school branches and the
duties of citizenship, and when advisable shall prepare for some definite
occupation. Said sum shall be apportioned to the States in the proportions
which their respective illiterate populations of ten years of age and over,
not including foreign-born illiterates, bear to such total illiterate
population of the United States, not including outlying possessions,
according to the last preceding census of the United States.
9. That in order to encourage the States in the Americanization of immigrants,
three-fortieths of the sum authorized to be appropriated by section 7 of this
act shall be used to teach immigrants ten years of age and over to speak and
read the English language and to understand and appreciate the spirit and
purpose of the American Government and the duties of citizenship in a free
country. The said sum shall be apportioned to the States in the proportions
which their respective foreign-born populations bear to the total foreign-born
population of the United States, not including outlying possessions, according
to the last preceding census of the United States.
10. That in order to encourage the States to improve educational
opportunities, five-tenths of the sum authorized to be appropriated by section
7 of this act shall be used in public elementary and secondary schools for the
partial payment of teachers' salaries, for providing better instruction and
extending school terms, especially in rural schools and schools in sparsely
settled localities, and otherwise providing equally good educational
opportunities fox the children in the several States, and for the extension
and adaptation of public libraries for educational purposes. The said sum
shall be apportioned to the States, one-half in the proportions which the
number of children between the ages of six and twenty-one of the respective
States bear to the total number of such children in the United States, and one
half in the proportions which the number of public-school teachers employed in
teaching positions in the respective States bear to the total number of
public-school teachers ss employed in the United States, not including
outlying pos sessions, said apportionment to be based upon statistics
collected annually by the Department of Education.
Provided, however, That in order to share in the appor tionment provided by
this section a State shall establish ant maintain the following requirements
unless prevented b constitutional limitations, in which case these requirement
shall be approximated as nearly as constitutional provision will permit: (A) A
LEGAL SCHOOL TERM OF A' LEAST 24 WEEKS IN EACH YEAR FOR THE BENEFI' OF ALL
CHILDREN OF SCHOOL AGE IN SUCH STATE (B) A COMPULSORY SCHOOL ATTENDANCE LAX
REQUIRING ALL CHILDREN BETWEEN THE AGE, OF SEVEN AND FOURTEEN TO ATTEND SOM]
SCHOOL FOR AT LEAST 24 WEEKS IN EACH YEAR (C) A LAW REQUIRING THAT THE ENGLISH
LAN (1TTA(^TE SHALL BE THE BASIC LANGUAGE OF SMITH-TOWNER EDUCATIONAL BILL
INSTRUCTION IN THE COMMON-SCHOOL BRANCHES IN ALL SCHOOLS, PUBLIC AND PRIVATE.
11. That in order to encourage the States in the promotion of physical
education, two-tenths of the sum authorized to be appropriated by section 7
of this act shall be used for physical education and instruction in the
principles of health and sanitation, and for providing school nurses, school
dental clinics, and otherwise promoting physical and mental welfare. The said
sum shall be apportioned to the States in the proportions which their
respective populations bear to the total population of the United States, not
including outlying possessions, according to the last preceding census of the
12. That in order to encourage the States in the preparation of teachers for
public-school service, particularly in rural schools, three-twentieths of the
sum authorized to be appropriated by section 7 of this act shall be used to
provide and extend facilities for the improvement of teachers already in
service and for the more adequate preparation of prospective teachers, and to
provide an increased number of trained and competent teachers by encouraging,
through the establishment of scholarships and otherwise, a greater number of
talented young people to make adequate preparation for public-school service.
The said sum shall be apportioned to the States in the proportions which the
number of publicschool teachers employed in teaching positions in the
respective States bear to the total number of public-school teachers so
employed in the United States, not including outlying possessions, said
apportionments to be based on statistics collected annually by the Department
13. That in order to secure the benefits of the appropriation authorized in
section 7, and of any of the apportionments made in sections 8, 9,10, 11, and
12 of this act, a State shall by legislative enactment accept the provisions
of this act and provide for the distribution of such funds as may be
apportioned to said State, and shall designate the State's chief educational
authority, whether a State superintendent of public instruction, a
commissioner of education, a State board of education, or other legally
constituted chief educational authority, to represent said State in the
administration of this act, and such authority so designated shall be
recognized by the Secretary of Education: Provided, That in any State in which
the legislature does not meet in 1920, the governor of said State, in so far
as he may have authority so to do, may take such action temporarily as is
herein provided to be taken by legislative enactment in order to secure the
benefits of this act, and such action by the governor shall be recognized by
the Secretary of Education for the purposes of this act, when reported by the
chief educational authority designated to represent said State, until the
legislature of said State shall have met in due course and been in session 60
State accepting the provisions of this act the State treasurer shall be
designated and appointed as custodian of all funds received by said State as
apportionments under the provisions of this act, to receive and provide for
the proper custody and disbursement of the same, such disbursements to be
made in accordance with the legal provisions of said State, on warrants duly
drawn by the State's chief educational authority designated to represent said
State in the administration of this act.
State may accept the provisions of any one or more of the respective
apportionments authorized in sections 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 of this act, and
may defer the acceptance of any one or more of said apportionments: Provided,
however, That no money shall be apportioned to any State from any of the
funds provided in sections 8, 9,10, 11, and 12 of this act unless a sum
equally as large shall be provided by said State, or by local authorities, or
by both, for the same purpose: And provided, That the sum or sums provided by
a State for the improvement of educational opportunities, for the promotion of
physical education, and for the preparation of teachers, shall not be less for
any year than the amount
provided for the same purpose for the fiscal year next preceding the
acceptance of the provisions of this act by said State: And provided further,
That no money apportioned to any State under the provisions of this act shall
be used by any State or local authority, directly or indirectly, for the
purchase, rental, erection, preservation, or repair of any building or
equipment, or for the purchase or rental of land, or for the payment of debts
or the interest thereon.
14. That when a State shall have accepted the provisions of this act and shall
have provided for the distribution and administration of such funds as may be
apportioned to said State, as herein provided, the State's chief educational
authority designated to represent said State shall so report in writing to the
Secretary of Education. If such report shows that said State is prepared to
carry out the provisions of this act with respect to any one or more of the
apportionments authorized in sections 8, 9,10,11, and 12 of this act, the
Secretary of Education shall apportion to said State for the fiscal year, or
for the remainder of the fiscal year, as the case may be, such funds as said
State may be entitled to receive under the provisions of this act, and shall
certify such apportionment or apportionments to the Secretary of the Treasury:
PROVIDED, THAT THIS ACT SHALL NOT BE CONSTRUED TO REQUIRE UNIFORMITY OF
PLANS, MEANS, OR METHODS IN THE SEVERAL STATES IN ORDER TO SECURE THE
BENEFITS HEREIN PROVIDED, EXCEPT AS SPECIFICALLY STATED HEREIN: AND PROVIDED
FURTHER, THAT ALL THE EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES ENCOURAGED BY THE PROVISIONS OF
THIS ACT AND ACCEPTED BY A STATE SHALL BE ORGANIZED, SUPERVISED, AND
ADMINISTERED EXCLUSIVELY BY THE LEGALLY CONSTITUTED STATE AND LOCAL
EDUCATIONAL AUTHORITIES OF SAID STATE, AND THE SECRETARY OF EDUCATION SHALL
EXERCISE NO AUTHORITY IN RELATION THERETO EXCEPT AS HEREIN PROVIDED TO
INSURE THAT ALL FUNDS APPORTIONED TO SAID STATE SHALL BE USED FOR THE
PURPOSES FOR WHICH THEY ARE APPROPRIATED, AND IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE
PROVISIONS OF THIS ACT ACCEPTED BY SAID STATE.
15. That the Secretary of Education is authorized to prescribe plans for
keeping accounts of the expenditures of such funds as may be apportioned to
the States under the provisions of this act, and to audit such accounts. The
Secretary of Education may withhold the apportionment or apportionments of
any State for the next ensuing fiscal year whenever he shall determine that
such apportionment or apportionments made to said State for the current fiscal
year are not being expended in accordance with the provisions of this act:
Provided, however, That before withholding any such apportionment from any
State, as herein provided, the Secretary of Education shall give due notice
in writing to the chief educational authority designated to represent said
State, stating specifically wherein said State fails to comply with the
provisions of this act.
portion of the money received by the treasurer of a State under the provisions
of this act for any of the purposes herein provided shall, by action or
contingency, be diminished or lost, the same shall be replaced by said State,
and until so replaced no subsequent apportionment for such purpose shall be
paid to said State. If any part of the funds apportioned annually to any State
for any of the purposes named in sections 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 of this act
has not been expended for such purpose, a sum equal to such unexpended part
shall be deducted from the next succeeding annual apportionment made to said
State for such purpose.
16. That the Secretary of the Treasury is hereby authorized and directed to
pay quarterly, on the 1st day of July, October, January, and April, to the
treasury of any State designated to receive such funds, such apportionment or
apportionments as are properly certified to him by the Secretarv of Education.
and he shall discontinue such payments when notified so to do by the Secretary
of Education, as provided in this act. - Sec. 17. That the chief educational
authority designated to represent any State receiving the benefits of this act
shall, not later than September 1 of each year, make a report to the Secretary
of Education showing the work done in said State in carrying out the
provisions of this act, and the receipts and expenditures of money apportioned
to said State under the provisions of this act. If the chief educational
authority designated to represent any State shall fail to report as herein
provided, the Secretary of Education shall notify the Secretary of the
Treasury to discontinue the payment of all apportionments to said State until
such report shall have been made. Sec. 18. That the Secretary of
Education shall annually at the close of each fiscal year make a report in
writing to Congress giving an account of all moneys received and disbursed by
the Department of Education, and describing the work done by the department.
He shall also, not later than December 1 of each year, make a report to
Congress on the administration of sections 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, and 17 of this act, and shall include in said report a summary of the
reports made to him by the several States showing the condition of public
education therein, and shall at the same time make such recommendations to
Congress as will, in his judgment, improve public education in the United
States. He shall also from time to time make such special investigations and
reports as may be required of him by the President or by Congress. Sec.
19. That this act shall take effect April 1, 1920, and all acts and parts of
acts in conflict with this act are hereby repealed.
TO ATTACKS BY CERTAIN CATHOLICS ON THE BILL TO CREATE A DEPARTMENT OF
Smith of Georgia Mr. President, no one can read the bill without observing
that no autocratic overseer of education is created in Washington. It
will also readily be seen that the bill in no way interferes with the right of
a parent to place his child in a private school or religious denominational
school if he sees fit to do so. The bill seeks to aid the States in
fighting illiteracy, in teaching the English language to immigrants in
strengthening the schools by adding to the pay of teachers, and by
contributing toward the better preparation of teachers for their work.
The charge that it banishes God from the schoolroom and that it is an assault
upon religion will be tolerated only by one who opposes public education
conducted by the State or local authorities, and who opposes all schools,
except denominational and parochial schools. Let us consider the bill
somewhat in detail. The first four paragraphs of the bill provide for the
creation of a department of education, with a secretary of education who shall
be a member of the President's Cabinet. They transfer the Bureau of Education
to the Department of Education, and authorize the President to transfer from
time to time, at his discretion, other national educational activities to the
Department of Education. They give the secretary of education supervisory
authority over the department of education. Section 5 requires the
department to conduct studies and investigation in the field of education and
that research be undertaken in illiteracy; immigrant education; public-school
education, and especially rural education; physical education, including
health education, recreation, and sanitation; and preparation and supply of
competent teachers for public schools.
will be seen that these provisions give the department in Washington no
authority over the problems of education named, but require research in the
interest of the schools of the entire country, that the information thus
gathered may be furnished for the benefit of all States and all schools in the
Sections 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 provide for appropriations, a part for
the instruction of illiterates; a part for the Americanization of immigrants;
a part to be used in public elementary and secondary schools toward payment of
teachers' salaries and for providing better instruction and extending school
terms, especially in rural schools and schools in sparsely settled
localities; a part for physical education and instruction in the principles
of health and sanitation, and for providing school nurses and school dental
clinics and otherwise promoting physical and mental welfare; a part for the
preparation of teachers for public-school service, particularly in rural
funds, except the amount to be used to conduct the work of investigation by
the department here in Washington, are to be distributed to the States, and
used by the States and the educational authorities of the States.
from giving the department here control over the work in the respective
States, it is specifically provided in section 14:
this act shall not be construed to require uniformity of plans, means or
methods in the several States in order to secure the benefits herein provided,
and the use of the funds and all the educational facilities encouraged by the
provisions of this act and accepted by the States, shall be organized,
supervised and administered exclusively by the legally constituted State and
local authorities of said States.
the Secretary of Education shall exercise no authority in relation thereto,
except as herein provided, to insure that all funds apportioned to said State
shall be used for the purposes for which they are appropriated.
language of the bill shows how absurd was the charge that the educational
machinery of the country is to be placed under the control of one autocratic
over seer here in Washington.
provision is made that each State must duplicate the fund offered by the
National Government if it is to be received by the State, and a further
provision i found in section 10 that in order to share in the appor tionment
provided by this section (which is the appra priation to be used in public
elementary and secondary schools for the partial payment of teacher's
salaries) a State shall establish and maintain the following rf quirements, or
these requirements shall be approximal ed as nearly as constitutional
provisions will permit "(a) A legal school term of at least 24 weeks in eac
year for the benefit of all the children of school age i such State; (b) a
compulsory school attendance la requiring all children between the ages of 7
and 14 t attend some school for at least 24 weeks in each yea] (c) a law
requiring that the English language shall be the basic language of instruction
in the common-school branches in all schools, public and private."
purpose of the bill is to aid the States in furnishing an opportunity for
each child to attend a public school and to aid in improving the work of the
school; to require a term of at least 24 weeks in each year for the benefit of
all children is a reasonable provision, and the least that any State should
bill stimulates every State to furnish public schools open for not less than
24 weeks each year to all the children of the State, it will do great good.
no one will question the propriety of making the English language the basic
language of instruction in the common schools, public and private.
disposes of two of the three requirements necessary to sharing in the
provision requiring a compulsory school-attendance law does not require that
the children shall attend the public schools but requires the 24 weeks'
attendance to be in some school, public, parochial, or private, leaving the
choice to the parents. That all children may have a chance to go to school,
the State must see to it that the opportunity is given, but no requirement is
made upon parents that their children shall attend the public school.
Presbyterian Church in the city of Atlanta of which I am a member, maintains a
church school. The bill in no way interferes with this school. Attendance for
24 weeks each year upon this school or any church school Presbyterian,
Baptist, Methodist, Episcopal, or Catholics any private school meets the
requirements of the bill. The claim that it takes away the right of parents to
educate their own children is plainly false.
charge that this bill would banish God from every school is without the
slightest foundation. The bill can only be considered an assault upon religion
by those who oppose public schools, and by those who believe ignorance on the
part of the masses increases religious faith. The charge is really an attack
upon public education and shall not be permitted to hide behind an expressed
attack on this bill. It is founded upon opposition to taxing all the people
that all the children may have an opportunity to obtain an education. It is an
assault upon our public-school systems in every State, and carried to its
logical consequence would abolish all public education conducted by State or
public education were suppressed, more than half of the children of our
country would grow up in ignorance.
not dwell upon the calamity which would be visited upon our country if the
opportunity for education at public expense were suppressed.
paid for the support of public schools are the highest contribution made by
wealth for the welfare of our citizens and for the future of our country.
attacks might have been expected of leaders of thought in the Dark Ages; at
the present time they are surprising and shocking.
not believe that the real leaders of the Catholic Church or the rank and file
of its members in the United States are opposed to public schools, or to
opportunity being given to every child of obtaining education at the public
they will learn the real meaning of the bills to create a Department of
Education.- If they so, and if I am right in my estimate of their attitude
toward public schools, they will aid in stopping the wise opposition to these
bills to which I have referred.
VOICE OF AMERICA
taken the breed of all nations, Barred no religion or race, From the highest
and lowest of stations They came and I found them place. Powers invisible drew
them, Freedom unborn was their quest, 'Til my uttermost borderlands knew them
The least of the world and the best. They came with the wisdom of sages, The
darkness, the stain and the dirt, They came with the glory of ages, And I took
the my hope and my hurt. I have gathered the breed of all nations, Drawn
from each caste and each clan; Tried them and proved them and loved them And
made them American. Made them a nation of Builders, Fearless and faithful and
free, Entered them, passed them and raised them To the Master's Sublime
Degree. Theirs is the task of restoring The Ancient and Honored Guild The work
to the Speculative, The spirit to those who build. 'Til none shall be less
than a Master, And know but one Ruler above, Bound by the spirit of justice
And the mortar of brotherly love. 'Til the house shall belong to the Workman
And the Craft come again to its own; And this is your task, oh, my people!
Through you will the Lost Word be known.
Josephine B. Bowrnan. Peoria, Illinois.
BRO. GERALD A. NANCARROW, INDIANA
Book! Thou solid Rock of all the years Thy covers bring to me sweet memories,
Thy golden Truth and Promise still my fears - And feed my soul.
father's eyes did search Thee and did find Thy fruited lessons which he made
to show In e'en his smallest dealings with mankind While he was here.
mother's hands caressed Thy page and board While from her blessed lips Thy
truths have come. O Bright illume this picture for me, Lord, My eyes grow dim.
loved us both, Old Book, and taught me Thee. Though scarred Thy boards and
yellow is Thy page, No other book can ever be for me So loved a guide.
MASONS' MARKS AND MARK MASONRY
BRO. CHARLES A. CONOVER. MORTON
(CONTINUED FROM DECEMBER)
the enquiring Master Mason seeks for still "further light in Masonry" he is
informed that the next group of degrees to which he is eligible is those of
the chapter and the first one consists of Mark Master Mason. The very name
"Mark" is at once suggestive to him as he undoubtedly remembers his first
school experience when sent to the blackboard to "mark."
occurred to me that a short history or resume of the "Mark," that is the
Mason's Mark, its early use and its appropriation by the "operatives" whereby
their work might be known and designated, and then later when symbolically
appropriated by the "speculatives" when evolving the ceremonies which have now
come to be known as the degree of Mark Master, might be of interest to the
majority of the Craft readers. These articles are not claimed by the writer as
original but they are gathered from such sources as have been available in a
very hasty preparation. It is hoped, however, that they may not be entirely
uninteresting to you. I acknowledge my indebtedness to the Iowa Masonic
Library for many references.
extended article on "Masons' Marks" by R. W. Brother Chas. Aburrow, P. D. G.,
in the Masonic Journal of South Africa, is a list of some 34 groups of Marks
selected from as many different locations. These were collected and published
by Prof. G. Godwin in a paper read before the Royal Institute of British
Architects in 1868. These Marks extend over many centuries of time and have
been gathered from buildings in many climes. These embrace the Great Pyramids
of Gizeh; Churches in the Holy Land; Pompeii; the Doge's Palace, Venice; Roman
Altars in England; Yorkshire; Kenilworth; Sussex; Lincoln Cathedral;
Leicester; Canterbury Cathedral; Haddon Hall; Yarmouth; Bray; Great Briton; an
old Minute Book of the "Court of the Bricklayers and Tylers Company," those
signing the book in 1580 also appended their Marks; Glasgow Cathedral Crypt;
Ireland, St. Mary's Youghal, 13th Century; Strasburg Cathedral; France; St.
Michall's Dijon, Notre Dame; Tyrol, Botzen; Switzerland, Lausanne Cathedral;
Geneva Cathedral; Sweden, Upsala Cathedral; Germany, Cathedral Munster;
Austria, St. Stephen's; Spain, San Ysidor, Santiago de Compostella, St. Maria;
Portugal, Church of St. Francis, St. Cross, etc. These Marks as illustrated
form all possible combinations of lines and figures. The most striking
feature is the similarity found in several countries and in different
letter from Prof. Godwin to the Society of Antiquaries, he says: "The Marks of
which we are speaking, it can perhaps hardly be doubted, were made
chiefly to distinguish the work of different individuals. At the present time
the man who works a stone (being different from the man who sets it) makes his
Mark on the bed or internal face of it, so that it may be identified.
fact, however, that in the ancient buildings it is only a certain number of
the stones which bear symbols, and that the Marks found in different
countries (although the variety is great) are in many cases identical, and in
all have a tendency to show that the men who employed them did so by system,
and that the system, if not the same, was closely analogous in one country to
that of the others."
Portugal, however, going further than this, it would seem to have been urged
that these signs were symbolical, and were used as means of recognition by the
Freemasons, who, as some believed, traveled over Central Europe, exercising
their art. I may here mention that the principal object of the Chevalier's
Memoir is to show that the opinion of those who have believed that these Marks
have a Masonic significance cannot be admitted. He writes:
should the Freemasons, who traveled to execute their labours in a body, each
accompanied by his family, have placed these signs upon the stones, since each
one knew the other for his partner? For none but those initiated or affiliated
to their lodges were permitted to help in the construction of those beautiful
edifices; thus enabling them to protect each other reciprocally as loyal
brothers, and, above all, to keep amongst themselves the secrets of their art.
Why, then, show these Marks to all the world (as it was said) if they were
simply used with the intention of making themselves known as Freemasons, when
every workman knew the other as a brother? And besides, would they have been
permitted to make public these signs if they were really those of the order
into which they had been admitted? Again, if these signs were really
characteristic of the Masonic order, they ought, without doubt, to be
identical on all buildings, because the hieroglyphic alphabet, or scale, being
composed of a limited number of figures, and Masonry having at the
commencement but a single rite, the sign would have been reserved for the most
urgent cases for recognition or correspondence, and never employed uselessly
or exposed to the observation of the profane."
Godwin concludes his writings on this interesting theme by saying: "No
circumstance which promises to throw even the smallest additional light on the
early history of those wonderful men to whom we are indebted for so many
magnificent buildings can be deemed insignificant or unworthy of
consideration, and I think we, as Freemasons, having a deep interest in this
subject, certainly agree with him."
"The Builder," year 1863, April 4 and IS, June and July issues, Mr. John E.
Dove wrote four articles on "Geometrical and Other Symbols," which cover a
very wide area of research, extending outside the realms of the particular
subject we are considering, but still, from its affinity, giving useful light
on the origin of "Masons' Marks."
author says: "There is sufficient evidence that some of these symbols have
been extensively and generally used, both in ancient and modern times, and
both amongst Eastern and Western nations, singular accordance in character,
seems as well as amongst heathen and Christian communities."
second and third articles (April 18 and June 6) frequent reference is made to
the early writings of Prof. Godwin and other writers in connection with
fourth article (July 11) deals with the psychological phase of Freemasonry
and ancient religious mysteries in general, which is best read and thought
over by the Mason in the quietude of his own sanctum.
following extracts from "The History of Freemasonry," by the late Bro. R. F.
Gould, are instructive. Volume 2, Chapter 9.
1841 to 1843, M. Didron, of Paris, communicated a series of observations on
Marks to the "Comite Historique des Arts et Monuments." He says it is
generally thought these Marks divide themselves into two classes those of the
overseers and those of the men who worked the stones. The Marks of the first
class consist generally of monogrammatic characters, and are placed separately
on the stones; those of the second class partake more of the nature of
symbols, such as shoes, trowels, mallets, etc.
Gould says: "It was a law in St. Ninian's Lodge No. 66, at Brechin, that every
Mason should register his Mark in a book, and he could not change that Mark at
pleasure." To the inquiry, on what principle these Marks were formed,
Scottish Masons generally replied: "That they probably had in early times a
meaning now unknown, and are still regarded with a sort of reverence; that the
only rule for their formation is, that they shall have at least one angle;
that the circle must be avoided, and cannot be a true Mason's mark unless in
combination with some line that shall form an angle with it; that there is no
distinction of rank that is, that there is no particular class of Marks set
apart for and assigned to Master Masons as distinguished from their workmen;
and if it should happen that two Masons, meeting at the same work from distant
parts, should have the same Mark, then one must for a time assume a
distinction, or, as Herolds say, a difference."
Irish Craftsmen and Masons of the middle ages, it is said, not only had
private Marks, but also a dialect called "Bearlagair-na-Sair," which was
unknown to any but the initiated of their own callings; and the writer, who is
responsible for this statement, asserts that this dialect is still in use
among Masons (though not exclusively confined to them) in the counties of
Limerick, Clare, Waterford and Cork.
the question as to whether or not Marks were heritable by descent from father
to son, the highest authority on Scottish Masonry says: "We have been able to
discover in the Mary Chapel records only one instance of a Craftsman having
adopted his deceased father's Mark."
Lyon continues: "Whatever may have been their original significance as
exponents of a secret language, a position which is assigned to them by some
writers, there is no ground for believing that in the choice of these Marks
the sixteenth century Masons were guided by any consideration of their
symbolical quality, or of their relation to the propositions of Euclid."
Gould says as follows:
view which has been very generally received is that the short-hand signatures
or markings which Masons have for centuries been in the habit of cutting on
the stones wrought or hewn by them, may be all included in two classes he
false or blind Mark of the Apprentice, displaying an equal number of points,
and the true Mark of the Fellow Craft or passed Mason, consisting of an
unequal number of points. Indeed, the late Mr. E. W. Shaw, who had made a
collection of 11,000 Marks, professed his ability to discriminate between the
Marks of the Master Masons, Fellow Crafts and Apprentices and the 'blind
Marks,' as he termed them of those hired to work, but who were not members of
the Guild. Two Marks not unfrequently occur on the same stone, showing,
according to one view, that it had been hewn by the Apprentice, and finished
or passed as correct by the Mason; and, in the opinion of other authorities,
that the second Mark belonged to the overseer.
recommend all Masons to read this exhaustive article on "Masons' Marks," and
especially would call your attention to the plate or diagram of Marks given,
and the detailed description of same.
"History of Freemasonry," by Mackey and Singleton, Masons' Marks (see Chapter
24.) Mr. Godwin's works are therein often referred to, and many other writers
are quoted from, and the whole subject of Marks and their history is fully
dealt with. This work will well repay your study.
"Symbols and Legends of Freemasonry," J Finlay Finlayson says:
was a custom among Operative Masons that each individual artisan should have
his special 'Mark,' a signature to identify himself with his works. This Mark,
for the greater part, consisted of new arrangements of old geometrical forms,
which were peculiar to the Craft, reproducing in the main symbols of the
greatest antiquity with such developments and variations as the skill or
genius of the Craftsman might suggest."
late Bro. T. Hayter Lewis read a long paper, "Masonry and Masons' Marks,"
before the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. This is given in Ars Quatuor Coronatorum,
Volume 3, 1890.
MASONS' MARKS AND MARK MASONRY
Man or Mark Master depends less on tradition to establish its antiquity and
has more corroborative history than any other degree, and is considered the
oldest in Masonry. It preceded the Master's degree by just so much time as was
necessary to make a perfect workman or mechanic out of an apprentice or
beginner, and was specialized by means of a Mark.
beginning the Mark was used only in order that the stone might be set in its
proper place, but afterward, as the number of workmen increased, some
proficient, some otherwise, it became necessary, in order to trace inferior
work to its proper source, to require the private Mark of each workman, also
and later on for a more specific reason. It became the heriage handed down
from father to son, each family Mark being identified by some peculiar
variation, or additional symbol, that was unvarying in location and character.
These Marks exist in profusion; they can be found on the stones of the most
ancient buildings, those on the Castle of Richmond, built in 1052, being still
OF TIDE CRAFT
former times Operative Masons, the "Steinmetzen" of Germany, were accustomed
to place some mark or sign of their own invention which, like the monogram of
the painters, would seem to identify the work of each. They are to be found
upon the cathedrals, churches, castles, and other stately buildings erected
since the twelfth century, or a little earlier, in Germany, France, England,
and Scotland. As Mr. Godwin has observed in his History in Ruins, it is
curious to see that these Marks are of the same character in form, in all
these different countries. They were principally crosses, triangles, and other
mathematical figures, and many of them were religious symbols.
1843 "The Builder," an architectural magazine published in England, had two
articles of much interest on the subject of Masons' Marks and I take pleasure
in reproducing portions. The first is an article carrying the general title of
Masons' Marks as a phrase, and in themselves, will be to many a mystery and
hieroglyphics; but this is the title we choose to give to a brief notice of a
subject which we must at a more leisure period more largely enter upon. We
have been reading two published letters of Mr. George Godwin's on "Certain
Marks discoverable on the Stones of various Buildings erected in the Middle
Ages," which letters are the subject of a communication by that gentleman to
the Society of Antiquaries, through Sir Henry Ellisall honored names, and not
least so that of the author of these letters. Mr. Godwin is yet but a young
man, but he has, by the indefatigable and earnest exercise of a fitting
talent, managed to associate his name with some of the most interesting
researches and doings in art that have engaged our attention for the last
seven years; and we sincerely hope that his future career may be the
appropriate continuance of so much promise at setting out. In these letters
he brings to view some 160 specimens of Masons' Marks, from various edifices
of the Middle Ages, from Gloucester, Bristol, and Cologne Cathedrals, from
various abbeys and churches in England and on the Continent, and from Punic
inscriptions found upon the site of Carthage.
OF THE CRAFT REGULAR
Mark degree there is a certain stone which is said, in the ritual, not to have
upon it "the regular mark of the Craft." This expression is derived from the
following tradition of the degree: At the building of the Temple, each workman
placed his own Mark upon his own materials, so that the workmanship of every
Mason might be readily distinguished, and praise or blame be justly awarded.
These Marks, according to the lectures, consisted of mathematical figures,
squares, angles, lines, and perpendiculars, and hence any figure of a
different kind, such as a circle, would not be deemed "the regular mark of the
Craft." Of the three stones used in the Mark degree, one is inscribed with a
square and another with a plumb or perpendicular, because these were marks
familiar to the Craft; but the third, which is inscribed with a circle and
certain hieroglyphics, was not known, and was not, therefore, called
"regular." (A'. G. Mackey).
Extracts from Robt. F. Gould's History of Freemasonry:
Workmen have been accustomed to mark the product of their labor from very
early times is indisputable.
default of stone, the Chaldeans used bricks, sometimes of unbaked clay
hardened by the heat of the sun. The curious archaic characters with which
they stamped on the bricks the name of the god or goddess to whom it was
dedicated, taken separately, might very well pass for Masons' Marks of a later
age. Like the Chaldeans, the Assyrians, in all probability, stamped the
inscription upon their bricks with a solid stamp. But, unlike the Chaldeans,
who impressed the characters on a small square near the center of the broad
faces of the bricks, the writing of the Assyrians either covered the whole
face or ran along the edge.
Babylonians, like the early Chaldeans, seem to have almost entirely used
bricks in their construction and like them impressed the inscription on the
broad face of the brick, in a square with a solid stamp; but the Egyptians
traced their Marks upon the bricks with the finger, and in the great pyramid
of King Cheops, the Masons' Marks are scrawled in red pigment.
Roman brick-maker had his Mark, such as the figure of a god, a plant or an
animal, encircled by his own name. After careful investivation and
consideration by eminent Hebrews and others, their conclusions are that the
Marks on the Temple stones at Jerusalem are only quarry marks because of the
fact that the same Marks appear on the stones at the Port of Sidon and are
Phoenician. However, the investigations by the historians and archaeologists
confirm the scriptural text that Solomon's builders and Hiram's builders
together hewed the stones. Their further conclusions are that we can not be
too careful when considering letters, syllables or characters, lest we
mistake chance or idle amusement markings for important data. With this in
view, probably nothing would have more astonished the workmen of past ages
than the interpretation which has been placed on their ancient signatures. For
any practicable purpose, large collections and comparing Marks are alone
valuable in determining whether the same workmen were employed to any great
extent upon buildings in the same countries.
Sir:In the month of December, 1841, I had the pleasure of laying before the
society some observations on the fact, that the stones both inside and
outside numerous ancient buildings in England and France, bear, in many
cases, peculiar Marks or symbols, apparently the work of the original
builders. Since then I have had an opportunity of examining the Cathedral of
Cologne, and some other sacred edifices in that city, where I found many
similar Marks. Copies of some of these, half real size, I beg leave to forward
with this letter, in order that they may be compared with the diagrams
length they vary from 11/2 to 2 inches. They are not so deeply cut in as those
already spoken of, nor are they formed by so wide a line, but nevertheless
they are all remarkably clear and distinct. More order is perceptible in the
position of the Marks in the interior of this Cathedral than I have elsewhere
observed; for example, they appear with considerable regularity up the center
of the four chief members of each of the great clusters of columns dividing
the nave and aisles; and they commence at a certain height from the ground,
Monsieur Didron, of Paris, it seems, has communicated a series of
observations on these Marks to the Comite Historique des Arts et Monuments. He
has found them at Strasburgh, Spire, Worms, Rheims, Basle, and elsewhere, and
believes he can discover in them reference to distinct schools or lodges of
Masons. The Marks collected by M. Didron divide themselves, according to his
opinion, into two classes, those of the overseers, and those of the men who
worked the stones. The Marks of the first class consist generally of
monogrammatic characters, and are placed separately on the stones: those of
the second class partake more of the nature of symbols, such as shoes,
trowels, mallets, etc. It is stated that at Rheims, in one of the portals, the
lowest of the stones forming one of the arcades, is marked with a kind of
monogrammatic character, and the outline of the sole of a shoe. The stone
above it has the same character, and two soles of shoes; the third the same
character and three soles and so all around the arcade. The shoe mark he found
also at Strasburgh, and nowhere else, and accounts for this by the fact, that
parts of the Cathedral of Rheims were executed by Masons fetched from
committee either have published, or are about to publish, a set of
instructions to their correspondents on this point, with plates of the Marks
already collected, in order that they may obtain additional information and
means of comparison.
Strengthened by this proceeding on their part in my belief before expressed,
that the observation and collection of these Marks may ultimately aid in
elucidating the history of the Free Masons, I feel encouraged to bring the
subject again before the society, which otherwise I should not have done.
lamented Mr. Rokewode, in a paper on the dedication and consecration of
churches, printed in the twenty-fifth volume of the Arehaeologia, observes
that "the ancient altar stone, known by the crosses graven in the center and
at the angles, is now frequently to be found in our churches, generally
applied to sepulchral purposes. The crosses upon it were intended to mark the
spots anointed with chrism,and if I do not mistake, this was the object of
the crosses once inlaid with metal, cut in the external walls of some
churches, as in the Cathedral of Salisbury, and the Churches of Edindon in
Wilts, Cannington in Somersetshire, and Brent Pelham in Herts. It may also be
observed, that on one of the Norman Pillars in New Shoreham church, are two
Jerusalem crosses, probably graven on the occasion of the dedication."
Sydney Smirke, in a paper which follows the last quoted, and illustrates it
from the church of St. John at Syracuse, refers to a pontifical printed at
Rome in 1595, and now in the British Museum, where the Bishop is enjoined to
mark with his thumb dipped in the chrism, twelve crosses on the walls of the
church and others on the door, and altar. It further provides that these
crosses are to be at the height of 7 feet 5 inches above the floor.
not quote these observations with the view of showing an immediate connection
between any religious ceremonies and the Marks in question. They may,
however, be deemed to bear, although slightly, upon the subject; and therefore
they are introduced; the more so, too, perhaps because in searching for Marks
at Furness Abbey (where they abound), a large cross, 14 inches high, and 14
inches wide, was found, cut on the external face of a stone, at the east end
of the church, as represented at the head of this extract.
Marks of which we are especially speaking, it can perhaps hardly be doubted,
were made chiefly to distinguish the work of different individuals. At the
present time the man who works a stone (being different from the man who sets
it), makes his Mark on the bed or other internal face of it, so that it may be
identified. The fact, however, that in the ancient buildings it is only a
certain number of the stones which bear symbols, that the Marks found in
different countries (although the variety is great), are in many cases
identical, and in all have a singular accordance in character, seems to show
that the men who employed them did so by system, and that the system, if not
the same in England, Germany, and France, was closely analogous in one country
to that of the others.
Moreover, many of the signs are evidently religious and symbolical, and agree
fully with our notions of the body of men known as the Free Masons.
reference to the religious characters of associated Masons in very early
times (times much earlier than any of the works already mentioned belong to),
I am induced to allude to a curious MS. account of the proceedings of four
sculptors who worked "in the name of the Lord." It is in No. 91 of the Arundel
MASONS' MARKS AND MARK MASONRY
British Museum, deseribed as "Sanctorum vitae miracula, et martyria," and is
to be found at folie 218, headed, "Claudii Sociumq. ejus." It commences thus:
"At the time Diocletian was Emperor, various metallic substances were cut by
the Pannonians from the mountains in his presence. It came to pass that when
he had collected all the workers in metal, he found amongst those endowed with
great skill in art certain men named Claudius, Castor, Simphorianus, and
Nicostratus, who were wonderful in the art of masonry. These men were
secretly Christians, observing the commandments of the Lord, and, whatsoever
work in the art of sculpture they performed, they did it in the name of our
Lord Jesus Christ.
Further on, it proceeds: "At the command of Diocletian, a porphyritic shell
with pomegrantes and foliage, was perfected by the hands of Claudius,
Simphorianus, Castor, and Nicostratus, and they were brought under the notice
of the Emperor. And he was pleased with all things, and made them many
presents. Then said Diocletian, I desire that some columns with foliated
capitals should be carved out of the porphyritic mountain under the direction
of Claudius, Simphorianus, and Castor. When the philosophers heard this they
were vehemently indignant because the command of Diocletian provoked them.
Coming, however, to the mountain, they marked out the portion of stone which
should be cut away. Then the artificers in masonry prayed, and made the sign
of the cross of Christ, and giving directions and setting to work, they began
to cut the stone for the neck of the columns, and they worked at it daily for
three months. When, however, one wonderful column had been produced with
perfect art, the philosophers said to Claudius and the others: Ye who are
enriched with gifts, give your skill to the shaping of another column.
Wherefore, replied they, do ye wish to learn the art from us ? Still, in the
name of Our Lord Jesus Christ, in whom we trust, we will shape this other
column like the first. And giving their labor with the utmost diligence,
within twenty-six days they had cut the other column. Then the philosophers
indignantly exclaimed: These mysterious words can only pertain to
second article is a letter to this journal from one who signs himself "J. H.
J." and is dated from Steam Marble Works, Great Patrick Street, Belfast, Sept.
18, 1843. It has an interesting bearing on the antiquity of the Masons'
I have been a subscriber to "The Builder" since its commencement. I have
watched its progress carefully, and read it with pleasure. On its appearance,
I certainly thought you were, like a great many others, pretending to be of
the craft, but really I do honestly think you are one of us and as such, I
heartily and sincerely wish you success.
bred a Mason, I was forcibly struck with an article in No. 30 entitled,
"Masons' Marks," in which the writer identifies their uses as belonging to the
ancient order of Freemasons. This has been long my opinion, and I know a
great number of the old Marks to bear a close approximation thereto, for when
carrying the tools to the smithy, I could almost tell difference between a
good and bad Mason by the appearance of his tools. I am, however, in
possession some facts regarding Masons' Marks which I shall late, and if you
think them worth your notice, you r make what use you please of them.
fifty years ago, the late Earl of Bris Lord Bishop of Derry, built a splendid
episcopal pa] at a place called the Ballysculion, in the County Derry; it was
scarcely finished when he died, ant was taken down and the materials sold.
Among ot splendid specimens of masonry (for he had carv from Italy, etc.), he
brought entire, out of the ruine Herculaneum, ten beautiful columns of Sienna
Mar of the Corinthian order, with statuary, capitals < bases, 13 feet high in
the shaft and 18 inches diameter; they were of a pale kind of Sienna with
streaks, and very handsome, but the gallery in which he intended placing them
not being finished, they
the cases were rotted about them; no person kn the value, and about seventeen
years ago the rema of them were purchased from the bishop's heirs fo] small
sum, by Mr. Alexander, of Portglenon, and manufactured them into columns and
antae for his h and chimney-pieces for his house.
examining them I found "Masons' Marks,' dare say nearly 3,000 years old ! They
must have be about that, or older. It is a fact, known to Masons this day,
that in working a column, the Mason puts l Mark on the front of the head, to
denote the hat somest and soundest front, no matter whether it is a diagonal
line or no, and this I found invariably. t case. The marks were generally
Greek letters, but
of them this Mark was quite plain, with the addittion of the lower score on
two of them. The Greek Delta was, I think, on three, and different Greek
characters on the rest. I also found patches inserted with cement, the
identical kind we use at present, for I h it analyzed, except it being mixed
with the reddish pa of the Sienna, pounded. The columns were one-step up from
the bottom the same diameter as the low tincture, and were exceedingly well
and Due worke the Scotia being beautifully hollowed; but a strand fact still I
have to relate, that on the ends were tl mark of a hack tool. Now, I remember
the first introduction of such a tool here about twenty years ago 1: myself,
to work Galway marble, since which it has bee used for Stanty stones, and is
considered a great improvement, so that the use of it must have been know at
that time; in corroboration of this, I read some yea] ago, I think in the
Lancet, of a surgeon's shop or house having been discovered in Herculaneum,
and on th body of the occupant were his surgical instrument' one of which was
a facsimile of an instrument for which a patent had been secured but a short
time ago for cutting in fistula, or some such disorder.
remain, Mr. Editor,
KNIGHT TEMPLARY IN ENGLAND
BRO. JULIUS F. SACHSE, GRAND LIBRARIAN, PENNSYLVANIA
ENGLAND, according to Brother W. B. McLeod Moore, Grand Prior of Canada,
during the eighteenth century, the Chivalric Order was formally introduced and
adopted by the Masonic Body after the establishment of the present Symbolic
system, the object being to complete and cement the moral code of Freemasonry
with the pure doctrine of Christianity, taught in the Chivalric Order of the
Knights Templar, requiring all Freemasons joining the Order to profess a firm
belief in the Holy Trinity, the basis on which it was founded. If any branch
departs from the Trinitarian belief and test, it is no longer a Templar Body,
let it call itself what it will; even as a Masonic Body, which denies God,
ceases to be Masonic, a belief in God being the first great unalterable
landmark, without which no Masonry exists; and just so a belief in the
Trinity, holy and indivisable, is the chief and indestructible landmark of the
true Templar Order, without which, in spite of all sophistry and special
pleading, no Templary can exist.
profession it was required of the candidate to make was: "I attest that I
believe in God, in the persons of the Trinity, and in all other articles of
the catholic faith, I believe there is but one God, one faith, one baptism,
one church; and that in death, when the soul is departed from the body, there
is but one judge of good and evil, this is my belief, this is the belief of
the Order of the Temple."
evidence of the conferring of the degree of Knights Templar in Great Britain,
we have a skeleton ritual, partially in cipher, undoubtedly of eighteenth
century origin. This ritual was ascribed to the year 1786 by its late owner
Major Irwin, the well-known antiquary of Bristol. For Ireland we have still
earlier and no less convincing evidence in the expository Address to the
Divine Being, dated 1784, and prefixed to the MS. Statutes, Rules, and
Ordinances for the Government of the Most High and Illustrious Order of High
Knight Templars of the Province of Munster, November, 1793.t
Archives we have the two following English Templar certificates showing that
the orders were conferred under the Warrant of an English Craft lodge at
Leicester, No. 91, on the Registry of England. This is the only early evidence
that we have showing the conferring of the Red Cross together with the order
of the Temple under a Craft Warrant.
Assembly of the Knights of the RED CROSS held under the Sanction of Warrant
No. 91 Leicester and on the Registry of England
are to certify that the Bearer hereof Our
*Reprinted from "History of Masonic, Knights Templar of Pennsylvania," by
permission of R.-. W.. Bro. John S. Sell, (brand Master of Masons in
and well beloved Brother Sr. William Terry was by us Installed & Dubb'd a
Knight of the Antient and Honorable Order of the Red Cross and has to the
Utmost of his power Justly supported the Dignity thereof
therefore Recommend him as a Worthy Valiant Knight
under our hands & Seal of our Assembly at our Assembly Room in Leicester this
19th day of January 1801
BROWN Gr. W
NAME OF THE MOST HOLY GLORIOUS AND UN
DIVIDED TRINITY, FATHER SON AND HOLY GHOST
C: G: and Grand Wardens of Lodge No. 91 Leicester and on the Registry of
hereby Certify that the Bearer hereof Our Trusty and well Beloved Brother Sr.
William Terry was by us installed and Dubb'd a Knight of the Most Noble and
Right worshipful Order of Knights Templars Knight Hospitalor and Knight of
Malta he having with fortitude and due honour Justly Supported the Amazing
Trials attending his admission
therefore Recommend him as a worthy honest faithful and Vallient Brother
undre our hands and Seal of our Lodge at our Lodge Room in Leicester this 19th
Day of January 1801
BINDER C: G.
WILLIAM BROWN 1st ROBt WYLIE 2d
HILL, G. Secretary.
C., Volume XXVI, p. 56.
BRO. L. B. MITCHELL, MICHIGAN
as to why and whence and where, Lifting the heart away from care; Sowing e'en
while the life receives Back for its own, the golden sheaves.
as the anchor to the all, Holding the heart what'er befall; Giving its urge
the right to lead All the way through the realm of need.
as the soul of thingsthe prize Setting all values neath the skies; The angel
UpOll whom all must wait Till he swings for us the mystic gate.
shall all men's good be each man's rule, and universal peace be like a shaft
of light across the land?Tennyson.
human heart is human.
do them, but when we do things calculatich and bless others, whether they are
legally us or not, and further, when we do them from Impersonal consideration
of hope of gain, but ery love of doing good itself, then we are makble
confession without verbal utterance of our God as the Father, and we are
dealing with our way that we believe He deals with all of us.
would devolve into a narrow, secular inshould it fail to apprehend the
teaching that Deeply imbedded in its very constitution. The lity of
brotherhood is emphasized when the If religious confession and racial
distinction is ted within its body, and as we would do for thin the precincts
of the Temple, because they e recognized in the bonds of brotherhood, so e do
for the world, for their being there is but of world brotherhood, and is
intended if man has any virtue to impress indelibly upon our hearts any lesson
our obligation to love all mankind.
Religious intolerance finds its genesis when God's is regarded as a limited
seeks to instruct men in the laws of moral which, ruling over the lives of
men, will bring ;o harmonious relationship known as The Brotherhood, that has
been the devout prayer able men in whom the light of God has shone, dawn
of time. And its wisdom is amply just bringing together men of the great
religions on a common meeting ground, where the belief the band that binds,
but where they make their interpretations of the character of God subo the
great thing that each subscribes to, and ated simply, they discern to be the
will of God. n the great congress of religions met in Chi1893 it was the
grave concern of some as to great gathering should be opened, and what ,
representative should have the preferential Finally it was happily agreed that
what is common in the world as the Lord's Prayer was an on appropriate to the
common feelings and emotions represented there. And if we are to manifest the
great key-note of that prayer that n in the great common cause of serving
human declaration of their belief in God as the father, it is the utterance
asking that the will Swather shall be accomplished on earth, and that adorn
shall be realized upon the earth. The In that "God is Father," finds itself a
compliant in the brotherhood that men evince when recognize God as Father.
elucidated at length on the Masonic conof God, and an unqualified recognition
of his to the Hindu as well as the Christian, and to ze truly that God must
care as much for a mnibal as for the most cultured or refined, it S us to
investigate what effect this doctrine has r practical life and well-being in
the State. To yet more concrete, we must speak not only of Lte," but of these
United States. Religious lib
is one of the foundation stones upon which this Republic is built, but strange
as it may seem, we are yet but beginning to apprehend the true significance of
religious liberty. A dispassionate analysis of our country will reveal many
sad things that have brought misery in their wake; arising generally from the
subsequent bigotry of those who sought these shores and claimed for
themselves religious liberty. The persecuted history is not slow in revealing
to us have too often been transformed into persecutors. It is then, indeed, a
gleam of the divine that is reflected in the Constitution of the United States
when it bespeaks for the maintenance of religious toleration and the lasting
preservation of religious liberty.
Freemasons in these United States and in view of the thing that is guaranteed
unto us by the Constitution we must be on our guard against any religious
sect that arrogantly ascribes to itself the holding of the only true and final
religious knowledge and authority. The right to elect or damn has never been
bequeathed to any man or any organization, and religions as all other things
of time seem to have had their rise and wane according to the proportion of
good or evil that they rendered the world. Bigotry and fanaticism, which has
too frequently resolved itself into cupidity, cruelty and persecution, has
ever been the chief characteristic of religions that lost the vision of
toleration, and in the toleration of religious differences by those who
subscribe to the one great doctrine of Belief in God as the Father of men
Masonry seeks to inspire men to labor and to pray for the divine event when
Brotherhood will grace the earth. Robert Tipton.
BRO. GEO. L. SHERMAN, D. C.
Masonic tradition informs me that it was the custom, morning and evening, when
the ranks first and last rays touched the mountain tops to call the builders
of the Temple to and from their labors by a trumpet.
olden time, in distant clime, At early dawn and eve of day, When gilding rays
of passing sun Turned purple haze to golden blaze, On mountain top, to men
would come A silv'ry note: 'Twas Hiram's call Down pillared aisle and stately
hall, Past winding stair and waterfall,
checkered floor with blazing star, To topmost walls; then flung afar
timbered mount and quarry wall.
long the years since Hiram called But down the corridors of time Is ringing
clear, to ears that hear, That far-flung, sweet, and mystic chime. 'Tis
calling now to duties great; Yea, greater than of those who wrought In olden
time on temple walls Or with the pagan strove and fought.
thine ears! O hark ye well! Ye Sons of Light of later days; The ashlars rough
to thy hands laid Are thine own souls; and he that prays At Cryptic shriners
Hiram did When vaulting sun at balance stands, Will hear the Builder's call
and know The squaring touch of Master hands.
BY BRO. ROBERT TIPTON
time ago we were privileged to read an essay dealing with village life in
England six hundred years ago. The author had gleaned facts relative to the
people of this particular village whose history he was investigating, from the
parish records. His labor throughout revealed the marks of patient industry
and exhaustive research.
requires no little imagination to realize that the ancestry of a people who
have acquired a marked degree of culture, refinement, and progressive
enterprise, could have possibly lived in such mean circumstances as he
discovered. Of the people referred to there were no doubt some whose homes
were near those of the lineal ancestry of George Washington, and a stretch of
the imagination would make it possible to conclude that probably some of these
shared the impoverished condition described as the lot of the common people.
For example, we find that of Washington's ancestors, one was the first lay
proprietor of the Manor of Sulgrave, suggesting a possible one-time emerging
from a lower into a higher rank where respectable merchandising or some such
vocation received more than paltry recognition.
Jessopp, our investigator, describing the conditions of that period, writes
thus as the result of his findings:
for the houses themselves, they were squalid enough for the most part. The
manor house was often built of stone, when stone was to be had, then of flint,
as in so many of our church towers. The poorer houses were dirty hovels, run
up 'anyhow,' sometimes covered with turf, sometimes with thatch. None of them
had chimneys. Six hundred years ago houses with chimneys were at least as
rare as houses heated by hot-water pipes are now. Moreover, there were no
brick houses. It is a curious fact that the art of making bricks seems to have
been lost in England for some hundreds of years. The laborer's dwelling had no
windows; the hole in the roof which let out the smoke rendered windows
unnecessary, and even in the houses of the well-todo, glass windows were
rare. In many cases oiled linen cloth served to admit a feeble semblance of
light, and to keep out the rain. The laborer's fire was in the middle of his
house; he and his wife and children huddled round it, sometimes grovelling in
the ashes, and going to bed meant flinging themselves down upon the straw
which served them as mattress and feather bed, exactly as it does to the
present day in the gypsy's tent in our byways. The laborer's only light by
night was the smouldering fire. Why should he burn a rushlight when there was
nothing to look at, and reading was an accomplishment which few laboring men
were masters of?"
Compare now, if you please, the following, which will give an interesting
light on some of the perplexing problems that the civilized world is
confronting after the Great War. From the comparison it will be readily seen
that of the millions inhabiting the Balkan Peninsula, the great majority are
almost on a Dar with thorn
English rurals of six hundred years ago. A recen study of "The Balkans" by
Professor Sloan discover for us an analogous condition depicted in the piece o
historical research by Dr. Jessopp. In Professo: Sloan's work which so
remarkably sets forth the con ditions under which men live in southeastern
Europe today, we read particularly of a Montenegrin home. S visitor to
Montenegro has a sense of that country" bitter poverty which the people
themselves do not feel As was said of Greece, the estimate of the tourist de
pends on his point of view.
the wild surrounding people, Montenegro is in a state of advanced
civilization, a model and a stimulus. But a Montenegrin country home! Four
stone walls and a roof, thatch or slate, with no chimneys, the smoke oozing
out through every cranny of the eaves, the unglazed windows and open doors.
Within is a clay floor, with shouldering embers in the middle, and wide
couches round about; the cattle are in a leanto at the end, with their hoard
of manure cherished like the treasure it is."
houses are better, some worse than this faithful description, but the average
is- very low Squalid enough ancestry is here depicted, for so many of our
twentieth century people have attained a degree of comfort and prosperity that
is indeed enviable.
naturally always interested in finding the factors responsible for the generic
movements, or the person responsible for what today must be regarded as
wonderful transformation. For during these days of much talking about
interdependence, organization and cooperation, little or no credit is ascribed
to the effort of the individual, and the tendency is to a general
forgetfulness of his potency. The chief concern seems to be to insist that
all men are but relative in their usefulness, and in that last summing up are
but cogs in a vast machine. Because of this it will do us good occasionally
if we but revert to those wise sages who grace the pages of history, who have
emphasized in unforgettable ways the value of the individual.
turn to Carlisle, and we may read something like this relative to those who
are sponsors for great movements in human progress:
all epochs of the world's history, we shall fled the Great Man to have been
the indispensable savior of his epoch; the lightning, without which the fuel
never would have burnt. The History of the World, I said already, is the
Biography of Great Men."
re-reading of the Heroes impressed the following quotation which seemed to us
eminently worth considering. It is what Carlyle offers in regard to those
puny souls who are forever delighting in disparaging their kind, and
belittling the noble efforts of great men. "No sadder proof," says he, "can be
given by a man of his own littleness than disbelief in great men."
search then, for the factor that transforms society and enhances the interest
of men, will be the search for the individual. That individual may not always
be discoverable, even as in the case of the English village; much difficulty
would be encountered in the endeavor to ascertain the single individual whose
aspiration and success became a beacon light of promise in such darkness.
"Some there be which have no memorial." Such was the observation of an
desires to indulge further in the perusal of such an interesting field of
literary exploitation, we would covet for him the reading of those masterful
biographies of great men whose lives and deeds have been preserved for us. In
so many instances the analysis of the context would make clear for us the
dictum of Carlyle; that the history of the world is the history of the Great
Men who have lived in it.
* * *
today deeply impressed in the post-war studies of influences that were at work
generating the tendencies that made for war, in discovering the remarkable
power wielded over thinking youth by those writers who so trenchantly
enunciated a philosophy for which they were either sponsors or strong
devotees. To reflect that Nietzsche and Frietschke were potent factors in the
shaping of the thought that made Germany a militaristic nation serves
formidably in bringing to the fore the power and influence of the
individual. To enhance this conception of the influence of such individuals,
it may be interesting to reflect on the following quotation from General
Bernhardhi's recent book, "War in the Future," which in no small degree
accentuates the belief that the German militaristic aspirations are not yet
know that the course of polities changes; that the moment will come, all too
soon, when there will be need of us on one side or the other; that, when it
comes, things will turn out favorably for our restoration. I hope that the
Germans, who now seem sunk in selfishness and the pursuit of pleasure, will
stand up again like men; that there will arise a purified nation, worthy of
its great forefathers, able to look upon war as it really is.
for me, I shall hardly live to see this great moment. My life-course has been
run helping build up the nation which now lies in ruin. But I write
confidently for the future. Men of a day yet to come will be capable of
appreciating that which I here set down, and my words, which until now have
always fallen on unheeding ears, will prove to be seeds that do not fall upon
thorns. With that belief I lay down my pen for the present.
"Germany will arise again: she still has a great future before her!"
heightened interest in these matters prompted us a while ago to write to two
of our friends asking them just what biographies of their reading had
appealed and influenced them most. The two friends were in walks of life
widely divergent; one being a professor of literature, the other a lawyer who
exercises a notable influence in political circles. The friendship of these
men, by the way, include some of the most notable people in this land.
Ardently American and jealous for the future of America, I solicited their
biographical interests, fully supposing that they would
recognize that the reading of a country youth was the most potent factor in
the shaping of life and destiny, if the formidable strides made by Germany
culminating in its entrance into the world war could be accepted in any degree
as a reliable criterion.
friend, who is particularly interested in statecraft, wrote us and said that
the biographies which he considered most powerful and stimulating were: First,
"The Lives" by Plutarch; Second, Froude's "Caesar"; Third, Herndon's
"Lincoln"; Fourth, Lockhart's "Napoleon."
suggestion made us turn again to a re-reading of these notable works. We could
readily appreciate that a perusal of "The Lives," reflecting the personality,
influence and character of those men of remoter times, could be a vitally
enriching thing, intellectually, to the youth of today. Even so Froude's
biography of Caesar could be stimulating and thought-provoking.
here wish to bring attention to one of the remarkable paragraphs that we ran
across in the rereading of Froude's "Caesar." At the time of the breaking
down of the Republic, due to being burdened by extravagancies and luxuries of
the privileged, the only redemption possible seemed to be through the efforts
of the stout Yeomanry who had been uncontaminated by the offenses and abuses
of those who lived in the cities. The paragraph referred to caused us to
reflect that the conditions described by Froude were in measure prototype of
the conditions that we face today, and we too felt an avowed conviction that
the regeneration of our own times lies largely with those who live upon the
farms and in the rural districts, far from the madness and social insanity
that is most eloquently symbolized in what is designated as the "Jazz."
us, if you please, place side by side a quotation from Froude's Caesar, a
short article by a recent writer in The Living Age on "Jazz."
"Redemption," says Froude, "if redemption was to be hoped for, could come only
from the free citizens in the country districts, whose manner and whose minds
were uncontaminated, in whom the ancient habits of life still survived who
still believed in the gods, and who were contended to follow the wholesome
round of honest labor."
read the quotation on "Jazz," which we suggest to be wonderfully symbolic of
the insanity of our times:
"Screams, moans, crashes, blows, cowbells, and tin pans fought desperately
with each other, something like a tugboat siren cried ghastly at the night,
and a booming bass drum carried one's mind to the kraals of Africa. 'A social
evening for the young folk,' said someone indulgently, 'it helps to keep the
young people in the church.'
am not going to raise my hands in pious horror at jazz music. Such music is
the order of this barbarian day, and the minority can do little but endure. I
cannot say that I admire it myself, for the truth is that my soul loathes it,
yet when I find myself in the centre of a jazz jamboree, I listen with no
bored, snobbish insouciance, but with what I imagine to be serene toleration."
much, if you please, of soliloquies produced by reading of Froude's Caesar.
Reflecting on the suggestion of our friend that Lockhart's Napoleon would be
1921 THE BUILDER 2
stimulating, we were reminded of the idolatrous worship of the late Crown
Prince of Gerrnany, that paragon of militarism. Likewise there comes to us a
recollection that some noted lecturer ventured to suggest at the beginning
that the reason for the intensification of the militaristic spirit in Germany
was occasioned by the German government, when they recognized that the young
German students becoming tired of the preachments of Nietzsche, and looking
around for another teacher, had turned to our own good Walt WhitInan. We can
readily understand how war would have been impossible should the young Germans
ever have succumbed to the glorious gospel about the wider democracy of Walt
Therefore, we can readily appreciate the virtue of reading such biographies as
Herndon's Lincoln. May we not with assurance assert that to keep the American
spirit alive one must become saturated with the idealisms of those who best
have interpreted America ?
have heard in recent years a certain berate ment of the West by the East on
account of what they designate as a lack of what antiquity and culture gives.
There is a broad, beautiful, unconventionality about the western way; it seems
to bespeak the vast distances, the high mountains and wide rivers that we have
to deal with in America, and the unconventionality and the charm of these
things seems to reflect itself in such great souls as Abraham Lincoln. Herndon
has given him to America as he knew him, in this biography, so as to make him
the enchanted one to which young America can ever resort for inspiration in
Knowing Lincoln one can read about all the emperors, kings, and potentates
that the world has even seen and yet keep sanely American, and the keeping
sanely American of our younger generation of thinkers is going to prove itself
the great barrier against that tendency among us to Europeanize America.
BUILDER is an open forum for free and fraternal discussion. Each of its
contributors writes under his own name, and is responsible for his own
opinions. Believing that a unity of spirit is better than a uniformity of
opinion, the Research Society, as such, does not champion any one school of
Masonic thought as over against another, but offers to all alike a medium for
fellowship and instruction, leaving each to stand or fall by its own merits.
Question Box and Correspondence Column are open to all members of the Society
at all times. Questions of any nature on Masonic subjects are earnestly
invited from our members, particularly those connected with lodges or study
clubs which are following our "Bulletin Course of Masonic Study." When
requested, questions will be answered promptly by mail before publication in
MASONIC MEMBERSHIP OF SENATOR HIRAM JOHNSON
you please inform me through THE BUILDER if Senator Hiram Johnson, of
California, is a Mason, and also what is his religion? J. F. K., Ohio.
W. Johnson is a member of Union Lodge No. 58, of Sacramento, Calif; Sacramento
Chapter No. 3, Royal Arch Masons; Sacramento Council Royal and Select Masters;
Sacramento Commandery No. 2, Knights Templar, and Islam Temple, A . A. O. N.
family attends the Presbyterian church.
* * *
OF THE AMERICAN LEGION A MASON
you kindly advise me whether or not Mr. F. W. Galbraith, Jr., Commander of
the American Legion. is a member of the Fraternity?
Brother Galbraith i
of Hoffner Lodge No. 253, 1~'. & A. M., of Cincinnati, Ohio, and of the
Scottish Rite bodies in Columbus, Ohio.
LETTER G IN FOREIGN MASONRY
England and America the letter G is openly suspended in the lodge. Can you
inform me as to the regulation or practicc in this respect in countries such
as France, Italy Spain and Portugal, where the letter D might be termed its
refer to bodies working in the so-called York Rite, and not to the Grand
Orients. J. W. McC., Mississippi.
says that the Utter G. first adopted by the English ritual makers, has without
remark been transferred to the Masonry of the Continent, and is to be found
as a symbol in all the systems of Germany, France, Spain, Portugal, Italy, and
every other country where Masonry has been introduced; although in
Germany only can it serve, as in England and America, for an intelligent
QUEER CONCEPTION OF MASONRY
of us belong to famous lodges, but I doubt if many of us can claim such fame
for ourselves as was gained by "Star of the East" of Rawul Pindi in India. I
have copied part of a letter which I have just read, thinking it might be of
interest to readers of THE BUILDER.
recent letter to NATURE (Oct. 21, 1920), H. H. Godvvin-Austin, referring to
conditions in India just before the Mutiny, in 1857, writes:
give an idea of the reports then in circulation, one of my servants, on
returning from the City where he had gone to make purchases, came at once to
ask me whether it was true that the Queen of England was sending out to India
an army of several ]akhs of men to force the population of India to become
Christians. I told him it was nonsense, and asked him where he had heard it.
IIe said two Faqirs (religious mendicants) were preaching on the invasion in
the streets of the City. The story had evidently made an impression on him,
and it led to my having a conversation with another native, in which I heard
for the first time of momiai, and was told that we sahibs made it. He gave me
a very circumstantial account; that children were kidnapped, hung up by the
heels, heads downward, and an incision made in the breast from which flowed
the wonderful substance which gave us so much power. To prove his words, my
informant, who was a Kashmir resident in Rawul Pindi, said he could show me
the very bungalow in which all this was done.
'This turned out to be the Masonic lodge 'The Star in the East,' I think
it is called situated in the cantonment of Rawul Pindithe 'Jadu Ghur' or
mystery house, as it is always called by the natives. In my wanderings in the
Kashmir Himalaya up to 1863 the story of the 'Jadu Ghur' would crop up. It was
thoroughly known in Kashmir, on into Ladak, and extended, I believe, into
Central Asia, wherever Kashmir merchants are to be found.
much fear my explanation of what is done in a Masonic lodge, and of what its
use is, did little to alter whatever was in the mind of my informant. I do
know that these impossible tales carry enormous weight for evil among the mass
of the people, both male and female."'
Harvey McNairn, Canada.
HISTORICAL LA FAYETTE JEWEL WORN BY GRAND
MASTER, SOUTH CAROLINA
C. Citadel, built in this city sometime about 1830, has outgrown its present
quarters, though very ample, and is preparing another building to accommodate
1200 students. This institution, one of the few in the United States, is quite
noted. Commissions in the United States Army are given to its graduates. We
mourn many of its boys who fell in France.
the cornerstone of the Greater Citadel was laid on Thanksgiving Day by the
Grand Lodge of South Carolina, the historical Grand Master's jewel, known as
the La Fayette jewel, was worn by Grand Master, S. T. Lanham. This famous
jewel, which is now a precious possession of Friendship Lodge No. 9, A. F. M.,
was worn by General LaFayette in Kershaw Lodge No. 29, at Camden, in the year
1825, and was given by General La Fayette to Past Master A. DeLeon, and in the
year 1891 it was presented to Friendship Lodge by Past Master H. H. DeLeon.
historical La Fayette trowel was also used in the cornerstone laying
United States Congress, in the year 1824, invited the Marquis de La Fayette to
visit this country as its guest, which he gladly accepted. Early in the
following year his itinerary landed him in South Carolina, having come, the
beloved and honored guest of the State to discharge a special duty in behalf
of a war comrade. South Carolina called him to place the cornerstone of the
memorial erected to the memory of his bosom friend, Major General Baron De
Kalb. This episode, no doubt, was the incentive that led Congress to extend
and the Marquis to accept the invitation.
in this State the Marquis went to the town of Camden to fill an appointment
made with the citizens there to place the cornerstone of the monument erected
in honor of De Kalb, who fell mortally wounded, pierced by eleven bullets, at
the head of his command of Delaware and Maryland troops, in the endeavor to
retard the advance of Cornwallis' army. LaFayette also commanded a force of
American troops near Camden.
Hirsch, South Carolina.
MASON F OR SEVENTY-TWO YEARS
Brother James H. Sterling, P. M. of Chesapeake Lodge No. 147, Crisfield,
Maryland, has compiled the following account of the oldest Mason in Maryland,
Brother John Sterling, one of the founders of Chesapeake Lodge.
Captain John Sterling's Masonic record is without doubt unique. For
seventy-two years he has been a faithful and conscientious member of the
greatest fraternal organization in the world.
early life, as a sailor, when voyages were determined by weeks and months,
instead of by days as at present, and when the opportunities for attending
Masonic lodge meetings were few and far between, when there were good excuses
for a member to gradually withdraw from active participation in the work,
Captain John's chief pleasure was to be present whenever possible at the
meetings of Manhattan and Ocean Lodges. Nothing but his unflagging interest in
the advancement of the Order would
account for his unbroken record of seventy-two years active membership.
hale and hearty, at the age of ninety-two he frequently attends the stated
meetings of Chesapeake Lodge, and is as much interested in the advancement of
the organization as he was in his younger days.
Captain John's record as a Mason dates back to the forties. At that time he
was a deep sea sailor, captain of a vessel plying between New York,
Philadelphia, Baltimore and the ports of the Southern Seas.
application for membership in the Order was made to Manhattan Lodge No. 62, F.
& A. M., of New York City, and he was made a Master Mason and admitted as a
member of that lodge on February 7th, 1847. He remained a member of Manhattan
Lodge for about one year, when he secured a demit for the purpose of becoming
a member of Ocean Lodge No. 156, of the same city, of which one of his
friends, a ship broker, Alfred F. Thorne, was Master. Captain John was
affiliated with this lodge for nearly twenty years, and his description of
some of the sessions he attended while a member there are unusually
interesting, particularly to members of the Fraternity.
3rd, 1869, Captain Sterling obtained a demit from Ocean Lodge for the purpose
of helping to organize Chesapeake Lodge No. 147, of Crisfield, Maryland.
Captain John Sterling's brother, Captain Christopher Sterling, and Captain Dow
Lawson also withdrew at the same time from Ocean Lodge, and were charter
members of Chesapeake Lodge. The first demit obtained from Manhattan Lodge in
New York more than seventy years ago, and the demit obtained from Ocean Lodge
in 1869, are possessed by Chesapeake Lodge, and are perfectly preserved.
life of great usefulness in many directions, the distinction of having been a
worthy and active Mason for more years than an ordinary lifetime holds for a
majority of persons, is the crowning glory of a good man's life.
an honor to have as a brother such a man as Captain John Sterling, and it is a
greater honor for Chesapeake Lodge, in that one of its founders has lived to
see and to enjoy the enormous advancement that has been its portion since its
incepBenj. H. Sterling, Maryland.
* * *
INTERESTING OLD BOOK ON MASONRY
interested in reading the short biographies of eminent men who were Masons, by
Brother Baird, which are now appearing in THE BUILDER, and believe that these
articles are much appreciated by all of your readers.
noted many interesting items of Masonic history in the pages of THE BUILDER
and it possibly might be of interest to the members of the Society to learn
something of a quaint and interesting book which recently came into my
possession. It is a book of 382 pages, printed in old style English, called
"The Pocket Companion and History of Freemasonry," published in London in
1764 for R. Baldwin, W. Johnston, B. Law & Co., and J. Scott.
book contains a history of Masonry from the Creation to the Flood, from the
Flood to the building of Solomon's Temple, and so on through various phases
until the date of publication. There is a frontispiece with King Solomon in
the chair. My copy is a third edition, greatly enlarged throughout, and
revised and corrected. It contains not only chapters dealing with the origin,
progress and the (then) state of Masonry, but also an abstract of the laws,
constitutions, customs, charges, orders and regulations for the instruction
and conduct of the brethren; a confutation of Dr. Plots false insinuations; an
apology occasioned by the persecution of Masons in the Canton of Berne, and
in the Pope's dominions; the original papal edict against Masonry, and a very
comprehensive reply to the same.
also interesting addresses by famous Masons of the day, and a collection of
songs to be sung at Masonic gatherings. It deals with the appointment of
Provincial Grand Masters in certain of our States, and has a list of the
following lodges in A morics:
Norfolk in Virginia.
John's Lodge No. 2, New York.
in New England.
Beaufort Port Royal, Charles Town (as written).
Union Lodge, a Masters' Lodge and St. Marks Lodge, all of South Carolina.
lodge in Savannah, Georgia.
lodge in Wilmington, on Cape Fear River, in North Carolina.
lodge in York Town, Virginia.
interesting section of the book deals with certain questions, with answers to
the same, concerning the mystery of Masonry, written by the hand of King
Henry the Sixth of the name, "and faithfully copied by me,l John Leyland,
Antiquarius, by the command of2 his highness." In a footnote we read that John
Leland was appointed by King Henry the Eighth, at the dissolution of the
monasteries, to search for and save such books and records as were valuable
among them. He was a man of great labors and industry.
book is extremely interesting, and although the backs have gone, it is
otherwise intact. I shall be very glad to supply any item of interest from its
pages to Masons.
J. Kitt, Ohio.
FREEMASONRY AND THE BOY SCOUT MOVEMF,NT
Fraternal Forum in the April, 1920, number of THE BUILDER is most interesting
and although you invite comment, I would not so venture except for what seems
a serious omission as to one side of the argument.
Unquestionably the great weight of Masonic opinion will coincide with that of
the majority of the contributors to the Forum. That is to say, any civic
activity of a lodge, as a lodge, should be approached with more than ordinary
caution. A Mason of a past generation phrased it thus, "While Freemasonry
exerts a powerful influence against spiritual and civil despotism, she must
not organize against them and enter into a formal and organized contest. She
must ever recollect that her mission is one of influence and not of power."
That influence, it is true, proceeds from the Mason as an individual and will
be effective, in very large measure, by just the amount of inspiration in and
spirit of Masonry that the lodge is able to transmit to its members.
other hand, should lodge participation in civic affairs be advisable is there
not at least one pathway properly "lighted by the golden rays of truth" and
which may be safely pursued?
jurisdictions have to some extent recognized the duties of the Craft to the
sons of Masons, and in turn their right to certain privileges in the father's
lodge. On some of the old English tracing boards there appears a working tool
called a Lewisa "cramp of metal" by means of which large stones were raised.
It was the symbol of strength. This term was later applied to the son of a
Mason. He was a Lewis (to the French, a louveteau) in that he was his father's
strength in declining years.
principle of the Lewis has received greater recognition abroad than here. In
our country, however, George Washington is said to have been made a Mason
before he was twenty-one years old, because he was a Lewis. An example, yet
fresh in memory, was afforded by the Great War when many jurisdictions waived
"suitable proficiency" and "constitutional intervals" as to all candidates and
also "lawful age" as to Lewises, who were actually in the Service.
Assuming then that the lodge owes a duty to the sons of its members and
further that active participation in civic affairs by a lodge, as such, is
advisable, what better opportunity have we than active support of the Boy
has been declared to be the greatest field of endeavor opened to civilization
in the past century, and, in this country, one of the most potent of
influences available to any Americanization plan. An examination of the Scout
oath and law alone will show how closely scouting fits in with the spirit of
Masonry: "On my honor I will do my best: 1, To do my duty to God and
country, and obey the Scout law. 2, To help other peon at all times. 3, To
keep myself physically strong, mental awake and morally straight." The Scout
law may be condense to five words: Honesty, Courage, Kindliness, Loyalty and
movement which actually brings home to the understanding of boys of twelve to
twenty-one years these basic principle of manhood and of citizenship by
transmuting the gang-co into the Scout-law unquestionably deserves our active
support . individual Masons, if not the forming of Masonic Scout Troop under
the wing of our lodges, composed of our sons and led E our brethren.
suggestions of Brothers Carson and Hugo are interesting and the mentioned
subjects of relief commendable, but history would seem to teach that
Freemasonry belongs in the va: as a breaker of the way and a layer of bridges
for the combatant forces of civilization, rather than in the rear as a ran
claimer of the wounded and derelict. Surely, Scouting is one those combating
Baker, New York.
MASONIC COLONY IN EAST AFRICA
interesting experiment is about to be tried in the stri of country known until
recently as German East Africa. Bra Captain Willis, M. C., a native of
Canterbury, New Zealand, ar. who has had much experience of tobacco planting
in South an East Africa, has been appointed commandant of a portion of th
conquered territory in East Africa, and is also supervising
for the establishment of a Masonic co-operative settlement there. The
territory he proposes the settlement shout occupy is the hilly country
contiguous to the north end of Lak Nyassa, a "pool" 360 miles long, between
thirty and sixty mile wide, and the second deepest lake in the world. The lake
i about 1,600 feet above sea-level, and it is proposed to acquire an area
extending up to about the 7,000-feet level. From three thousand feet up, the
country is as healthy as any in the world On the lower levels tobacco, hill
rice, cotton, and tropical fruit do well; a little higher, tea, coffee, and
sub-tropical product grow profusely, whilst the higher levels grow wheat and
other cereals, and afford good grazing for cattle. Droughts are un known; from
December to May the rainfall is heavy, October and November being the driest
months in the year. The countr is prolific; one hundred acres in tobacco will
produce twenty-five tons of cured leaf, worth considerably over 1s. per pound
o] the London market on present rates. Nyassaland tobacco bring, the highest
price, being the best leaf offered on the market. A the present time, to
raise, cure, and put the tobacco in London would cost about sixpence per
pound. Tea is a good proposition n hundred acres of which, on attaining the
age of five years would clear about 8 to 10 per acre per annum. The broker in
London will readily put in all requisite machinery. Linseed or Irish flax also
grows well, and the natives soon become expert in linen fiber manufacture. All
fruits and vegetables dwell some on the lower and some on the higher levels.
proposed that every settler shall acquire five thousand acres or more of
plantation land, the rest on the higher level E for grazing. He can also have
an area in the settlement for E residence if desired. Labor is cheap and
plentiful, and labor troubles are unknown. The native works for 1s. per week,
considering himself well paid at that price. Good burnt bricks are made for
2s. 6d. and 3s. per thousand, and quite a good house can be erected for 100,
the woodwork being usually of mahogany. The natives make good artificers and
agriculturists, are of a kindly disposition, and also make good servants.
Lions and leopards are to be met with, but nature has provided a defense in
the way of a thorn bush that no animal will face, and the intention is to
"ring-fence" the settlement area with this, an impenetrable defense being
assured in two years. The land inside the fence will then be cleaned out, thus
freeing the settlement from any trouble on that score. The freehold of the
land, it is anticipated, will cost under 1s. per acre.
settlement is to be governed Masonically; none but Masons are to be admitted,
and it will be run on co-operative principles. No outside trades or trading
will be permitted, but the lines established by the Rhodesian Farmers'
Co-operative Society will, it is suggested, be followed. All products will be
sold by the Society on behalf of the individuals, and they will purchase their
supplies at net landed cost, at the end of the financial period getting their
credit balance, less their proportion of working expenses the trading
organization making no profit whatever. The amount of money required by a
settler is approximately 1,000. The seaport for the country is Daressalaam.
Train is taken from there to Dodomaa day's journey; and the balance can be
completed to New Langenburgh per motor lorry in two days. The country has
motor roads made by the military. The present cost of reaching there from New
Zealand is about 100 per adult, but a cheaper rate via Colombo is probable.
proposed that an advance party of brethren shall first go over, have the land
surveyed into the requisite areas, and start planting, and thus get the
requisite experience to guide the main body, for whom they will make
preparations. It is hoped that the settlement will draw on every profession
and craft for its members, so that it will be self-contained. As there will be
practically no housework for the women to do, a portion of the government will
be vested in themsuch as education, etc. To provide the necessary machinery
they will have a Lodge or Club. It is hoped that the best of educational
facilities will be made available, and that the social life of the community
will reach a very high plane. Married men are required, and no admixture with
the natives will be countenanced. The prestige of the white race has to be
maintained; so our blood must remain unadulterated.
Considering the prospects for the future in New Zealand and other countries,
and the great uncertainty the coming years hold, the prospects of a
comfortable existence with fears for the future practically eliminated is most
alluring. Reduced to a few words, in East Africa can be acquired land that
will produce anything for a few pence per acre; labor is plentiful and cheap,
thus allowing for cheap production; whilst the markets of the world offer the
best prices in history for all that can be produced. A world shortage of food
threatens; there will be plenty. There will, of course, be hardships to face,
but a mere bagatelle alongside of those generally experienced by first
settlers. The point of settlement is within three weeks from almost any port
in the world, has good motor roads and telegraph lines, it has plenty of good
labor, and with its abundant game and fruits an easily obtained food supply is
assured. Some brethren in good positions have already signified their
intention of settling in this new Masonic colony. London Freemason.
BRO. F. W. DIBBLE, SOUTH CAROLINA
Composed while meditating upon the Sphinx in front of The House of the
Temple, Washington, D. C.
Crouching and half concealed in desert sands, Half brute, half human, and upon
her face Expression changing with each mood or whim, Behold the Sphinx! What
means this graven form? In pensive mood I gaze into her eyes And there
reflected see pensivity: Amused I lookit seems I trace a smile: Or weighted
with the burdening cares of life, It seems a burden, too, the Sphinx hath
borne And e'en deep grief within her heart of stone.
voice of ages past comes to my ear:
is the symbol of the things of life.
some we see, the more we cannot know.
might this form gaze pensively upon
stretch of desert sands, the Pyramids,
far away the Nile; for heath her look
passed mankind in all his various moods.
by one who longed to know the truth
somehow baffled in the life-long quest,
Sphinx hath seen the folly of mankind
mankind's effort spent itself for naught Its wisdom, when the thoughtful minds
of earth Strove to find out the 'wherefore' of all things Its splendor as the
great of Egypt passed, Her royalty in gold and glittering gems, With numerous
courtiers in pagentry Attended by innumerable slaves; Her priesthood, offering
incantations weird; Her wise men, learned in esoteric lore Its grief, as o'er
the fated land there passed The Angel, carrying out the doom of heaven When
Egypt's firstborn, dying heath God's wrath Softened the heart of Pharaoh."
crowds passed Thronging the highway to the Pyramids When the nobility and
royalty Of Egypt passed into the Great Beyond. At other times the poor of
Egypt crept Out in the desert, broken in their heart, And there in shallow
graves, dug hastily, Gave back to earth the body of their dead. On this broad
stretch of earth astrologers Studied the heavens, trying to find out God, And
learn from Him the mystery of life.
seasons passed their course, and time rolled by And still mankind showed
folly, wisdom, grief. The things of now are but the things of then, And ages
have not solved the mystery.
stands the Sphinx. Part buried in the sands She is unseen beyond a little
scope Of desert. Hidden in mankind are we, Beyond the circle of our friends
human head above a lion's form Part human and part brute are we, perhaps More
brute than human: but the intellect, The soul, the spirit, are the mightier
part, And by these gifts divine may we find God Who planned the course we must
pursue thru life.
Methinks the Sphinx was once a temple where The priesthood met for
ceremonials, When lower courses came for deeper truths. Th' initiates'
probation being done, Before the great High Priesthood of the realm His
yearning mind sought esoteric Light Methinks he learnt that Egypt's Pyramids,
Her temples and her monuments but signs And symbols to direct his mind to God.
Methinks he learned to know the great I AM, Veiled in such quaint and mystic
symbolisms; Methinks that in the depths beneath the Sphinx There is a perfect
cubic altar raised, At which they offered worship unto God, And on the which,
unmarred by wasting Time, Triangles may be traced, and stamped in gold Tn hold
relief. the mystic name of God.
not temples thus? Do not our hearts Yearn to find out the deeper things of
God? Doth not some soft, pulsating motive course In every act to make us think
of God? Yea! and our heart contains a secret shrine Erected for the worship of
the Lord, And there His name, ineffable, sublime, Is worshipped; and tho sin
may mar our lives We often seek the God within our hearts, Bemoan our faults,
and seek new strength from Him. And when at last, before relentless Death, We
quail and quiver, and our hearts grow still, Somehow we feel the God-in-us
will save Th' immortal spark that on His altar glows Within our dying hearts,
and usher us anon the presence of the truth on high.