The Builder Magazine
April 1922 - Volume VIII - Number
Masonic International Association
OCTOBER 19TH last, Masonic delegates from the Grand Lodge of New York, from
Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Spain, France, Italy, Holland, Portugal, Turkey,
Switzerland, and the Grand Lodge "To the Rising Sun" of Nuremburg, assembled
at Geneva, Switzerland, and there, after six sessions, organized the Masonic
International Association. Four other Grand Lodges, one of which was the Grand
Lodge of Louisiana, wired regrets at not having delegates present.
American Freemasonry was represented by three brethren from New York, Townsend
Scudder, Wm. C. Prime and Arthur S. Tompkins. At our request Brother Scudder
has sent us in brief the estimate which he has formed of the International
Brother Edouard Quartier la Tente, 33d, who has labored through so many years
to bring about a cooperation of the Masonic Powers of all lands, has received
a recognition and reward for all his self-sacrificing efforts by being made
Grand Chancellor of the new Association - a very high honor. THE BUILDER
extends to Brother Quartier la Tente its congratulations, and prays for him
many years of fruitful and successful service in his new office.
Judge Scudder's summary of the accomplishments of the Conference follows:
SIX NOTEWORTHY ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF THE GENEVA CONFERENCE
- The Conference established an agency through which all Grand lodges are
enabled to deal with one another in their efforts to get at the truth
concerning each other, thus facilitating their getting the facts upon which to
base their several judgments of each other, instead of having to rely and act
largely upon hearsay, as has been the case in the past.
- Contact between jurisdictions is afforded without their being in diplomatic
relations with one another, through their joint membership in the Association.
Recognition and diplomatic relations will begin only when agreeable to those
- The membership of Grand Lodges belonging to the Association must be composed
of men exclusiveIy. Thus Woman Masonry, as a part of the Order, is disposed
- Members of the Association respect the territorial integrity and
jurisdiction of each other member. Foreign lodges within our territory,
chartered by legitimate Grand Lodges, acting, however, in hostility to our
claims of territorial jurisdiction, will be eliminated.
- Grand Lodges maintain each its sovereign independence.
- The Association has no concern with matters other than those of its own
organization and functioning.
perhaps lesser importance are the following facts:
- New York is one of the organizers and founders of the Association, the first
Masonic international body in Symbolic Masonry in the history of the
- It is one of the five Grand Jurisdictions entrusted with the management of
the Bureau for the first three years of its life.
- It controls the question of membership in the Association so far as the
United States is concerned and thereby is in a position to eliminate
recognition of clandestine bodies which in Europe heretofore have often,
through ignorance, been recognized, and thereby have been enabled by pointing
to such recognition to give themselves the semblance of legitimacy and use it
to further their fraudulent financial schemes.
- Membership in the Association is dependent upon subscribing to the
principles enunciated. These, however, are not exclusive, but embrace those
things upon which all can agree, leaving open for future accord and
understanding matters not touched upon, they thereafter to be incorporated in
the Declaration of Principles, as agreed from time to time.
- Grand Lodges, and not individuals, are given prominence in the management
and direction of the Association. Hereby is minimized the opportunity of
competition for individual aggrandizement. The Grand Master for the time
being, or the Grand Lodge over which he presides, determines who shall express
its will on the advisory committee, when such Grand Lodge is an elected member
of that committee. This plan of government dwarfs the individual and exalts
the institution; it lessens the likelihood of any one individual attempting to
pose as the head of Freemasonry. The duration of his term in his
representative capacity is beyond the control of the individual; it is
entirely under the control of the Association and his Grand Lodge. These two
would have to act in concert before any one man could gain ascendancy over the
DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES
The Masonic Grand Jurisdictions represented in Congress, with a view to making
more effective their humanitarian and pacific mission, proclaim hereby
constituted a Masonic International Association, the seat of which is Geneva.
All Masonic Grand Jurisdictions which subscribe to the Principles, herein set
forth, shall be eligible to membership.
Inspired by the ideal shared by all, each Grand Jurisdiction in this
Association retains its sovereignty, its traditions and its ritual.
Freemasonry, founded on land marks philanthropic, philosophic and progressive,
the basis of which is the acceptance of the principle that all men are
brothers, has for its object the quest of Truth, the study and practice of
morality, and of that which will lead to unity among men.
labors to better the condition of humanity from the material and spiritual
standpoint as well as to lead it to a higher intellectual and social plane.
has for principles, toleration, respect for others and for self, liberty and
conscience. It holds it to be its duty to extend to all members of the human
family the bonds of fraternity, which unite Freemasons the world over.
Freemasonry, deeming work to be one of the essential duties of man, honors
equally those who toil with their hands and those given to intellectual
is composed then of a society of upright men, free and faithful, who, bound
together by the ties of liberty, equality and fraternity, labor individually
and collectively to promote social progress, giving expression thereby to
beneficence in its loftiest sense.
Part I. Regulations and Statutes.
Art. 1. - The object of the Association is:
maintain and to develop existing relations between Masonic Grand
create new relations.
Art. 2. - The Association and each Grand Jurisdiction forbids itself all
interference in the domestic affairs of all other jurisdictions.
Each Grand Jurisdiction is invited to exchange with associated Grand
Jurisdictions its program of work and to promote opportunities of contact with
a view to harmonizing and coordinating efforts held in common. Nevertheless
the fact of membership in the Association does not imply an obligation to
entertain direct relationship with other Grand Jurisdictions which are
Art. 3. - All Grand Jurisdictions belonging to the Association must be
composed of men exclusively.
Art. 4. - The Masonic International Association has for organization:
1st. The International Convention.
2nd. The Advisory Committee.
3rd. The Secretariat.
Part II. Admission, Resignation, Exclusion.
Art. 5. - The candidacy of a Grand Jurisdiction for membership in the
Association cannot be considered, excepting it be seconded by three Grand
Jurisdictions which are members.
Among the Grand Jurisdictions sponsoring a candidacy must be included those
members of the Association having their seat in the same territory as the
Provided however that the endorsement by the Grand Lodge of New York of the
candidacy of Grand Lodges in the United States shall be required. When,
however, more than three American Grand Lodges shall have given their adhesion
to these articles, the Grand Lodges of the United States which are members of
the Association are authorized to select from among the Grand Jurisdictions of
the United States which shall have subscribed to these articles, the Grand
Jurisdictions which shall act as sponsors for candidates.
Art. 6. - Each candidacy shall be submitted immediately to all member
jurisdictions by notice of the Secretariat. The candidate shall be declared
elected by the Advisory Committee if there shall not have been registered an
objection thereto stating the reason within six months from the day when the
Secretariat shall have sent out the notice aforesaid.
The final admission shall be proclaimed by the Congress.
Art. 7. - Each jurisdiction may withdraw freely from the Association if it has
met its financial obligations. The Secretary forthwith shall notify each
member jurisdiction of such withdrawal.
Art. 8. - Expulsion may be decreed by the Congress where a jurisdiction shall
have violated the provisions of these articles or the spirit of the
declaration of principles.
Part III. The International Congress.
Art. 9. - The International Congress is the ruling agency of the Masonic
International Association. Its jurisdiction is limited to questions only
affecting the Association.
shall meet every third year and shall fix the place and the date of its next
Each member Grand Jurisdiction casts one vote.
delegate can act as proxy for more than two members.
Art. 10. - To constitute a quorum the congress must bring together half plus
one of its membership.
The congress shall determine the vote required to adopt a measure excepting in
the matter of elections to membership and of expulsions of members which must
be voted by two-thirds of the jurisdictions represented.
Art. 11. - In case of emergency and for serious matters the congress can be
called in extraordinary session by the advisory committee on the demand
addressed to the Secretariat by five Grand Jurisdictions. It will sheet in
such a case at Geneva. Its order of business is limited to the matter which
caused the reunion.
Part IV. The Advisory Committee.
Art. 12. - The advisory committee is named by the congress. It is composed of
five Grand Masters or their representatives.
Art. 13. - The Advisory Committee:
Has in charge the execution of the resolutions of the congress.
It takes the steps necessary to realize within the provisions of the
regulations, the purposes of the Association.
It audits the accounts of the Secretariat and submits them to member
It has power, in case of necessity, to authorize expenditures not provided for
in the budget.
Part V. The Secretariat (Bureau).
Art. 14. - The Secretariat is subject to the authority of the congress and the
Its office shall be at Geneva
Art. 15. - The Secretary is elected by the Congress He is charged with the
execution of the decisions of the congress and of the advisory committee.
The Secretariat shall publish a quarterly and an annual bulletin.
The Secretary is the Treasurer of the Association. He receives the dues of
members and meets the expenses provided for in the budget. He shall incur no
expense not provided for in the budget without the approval of the advisory
committee to which he shall present annually an account of all receipts and
disbursements and a tentative budget.
Art. 16. - The Secretary shall receive the honorariums, the amount of which is
determined by the congress.
The management of the office staff is under his jurisdiction.
The regular staff shall be members of a legitimate Masonic body.
The rent, lighting and upkeep of the offices of the bureau shall be at the
expense of the Association.
Art. 17. - In case of the resignation or the death of the Secretary, the
vacancy shall be filled temporarily by the advisory committee.
Part VI. Resources.
Art. 18. - The income of the Association shall be derived from:
The dues of members based on a sliding scale fixed by each congress: the
maximum to be $1,000 the minimum to be $20.
Subscriptions to the Bulletins and the sale of Masonic works.
Gifts of all kinds.
Part VII. Amendments.
Art. 19. - All amendments to these statutes must be proposed six months in
advance and adopted by the affirmative vote of a majority of two-thirds of the
Grand Jurisdictions represented.
Scale adopted by the congress as the basis of annual dues:
Grand Lodges having
From 1 to 2,000 members $ 20.00
2,000 to 5,000 members $100.00
5,000 to 10,000 members $150.00
10,000 to 25,000 members $200.00
25,000 to 50,000 members $250.00
50,000 to 100,000 members $500.00
100,000 to 200,000 members $750.00
200,000 members and over $1,000.00
The dollar is taken at its commercial value before the war.
Budget (in Swiss Francs) for 1922.
Dues Fr. $10,000
Subscriptions to bulletin and sales of printed matter $7,000
Office force Fr. 10,000
General expenses 2,000
Better than grandeur, better than gold,
Than ranks and titles, a hundred-fold,
a healthy body and a mind at ease,
And simple pleasures that always please.
heart that can feel for another's woe,
And share in his joy with a friendly glow.
With sympathies large enough to hold
All men as brothers, is better than gold.
BRO. E. ELLISON, CALIFORNIA
UNTIL comparatively recent times no historical work on Freemasonry was
considered complete without an account of the "Travelling Masons." We have
been gravely assured by the writers on the subject, that Freemasonry in
medieval times was an international association of church builders,
incorporated under a charter issued by the pope, granting to the society a
complete monopoly in the building of religious edifices. It was said that the
mysteries of Gothic architecture, both operative and speculative (practical
and theoretical), were the particular secrets of the corporation; and whenever
a new cathedral or other religious house was contemplated requisitions for
plans and specifications must be made to the headquarters of the body. When
the plans were prepared and approved, orders for details of craftsmen were
sent from headquarters to the subordinate lodges throughout Christendom; and
from north and south, east and west, masons obeyed the summons and journeyed
to the site of the proposed building, under the leadership of their overseers
arrival at their destination, they made themselves known to the master builder
by means of secret signs and tokens. Huts, or lodges, were then built, in
which the workmen prepared the material for the structure in accordance with
plans and specifications. In these lodges the craftsmen held their meetings,
and here the mysteries of the craft were imparted to such profanes as had been
found "worthy and well qualified."
was claimed, further, that under the terms of the charter, the fraternity was
empowered to determine the wages and hours of labour of its members, as well
as other conditions of employment. The craftsmen were not subject to the law
of the land; but all charges or accusations against a member, whether made by
a fellow or by a profane, were tried before the tribunal of the society which
was clothed with complete judicial powers.
But alas, the belief in the existence of an international corporation of
builders has been shattered and swept into the dust by Robert F. Gould,
together with many other venerable cobwebs which had gathered around the
columns and arches of the Masonic edifice, thus preventing us from viewing the
structure in the light of true history.
Gould demonstrates conclusively that "International Freemasonry" in the Middle
Ages is a fiction. Careful search in the archives of the Vatican has failed
to bring to light the slightest evidence that the Masonic Craft has ever
received any special horrors or favours from the pope; and the only basis for
the belief in papal patronage seems to be that at various times popes and
prelates issued bulls promising indulgences to persons who should make liberal
donations of money, lands or labour, to churches in course of construction.
Nor has anyone been successful in locating the headquarters of this
"international society." True, the German Steinmetzen (Freemasons) were
organized along more than local lines. In 1567 they formed a federation of
craft societies in German lands and elected the workmaster of Strassburg
cathedral their chief judge (Oberste Rychter); but the federation did not
extend beyond the boundaries of Germany, and the authority of the central
government did not at any time receive more than passing recognition. As a
matter of fact, the real bond of union between the constituent bodies lay in
their common objects and common craft usages.
Gould has further shown that the general features of the Freemason's craft
societies did not differ from those of other callings, and such differences as
did exist were due to local conditions and the peculiarities of the trade.
the first place, the Freemasons' guilds were of later origin than those of
other crafts. The former did not come into existence until architecture and
building operations generally had become so refined as to necessitate
specialization and subdivision of labour. Originally all masons, whether they
worked in rough or squared stone (ashlar) or brick, as well as tilers, slaters
and those working in the other component divisions of the building industry,
were members of the same guild. As time passed the lines of demarcation
between the different branches of the industry became more clearly defined
with a consequent division of the organization. Finally, when the art of
Gothic building had so far advanced that it became necessary to specially,
train men as architects and to design and execute the delicate stonework and
sculpture, a future division took place. The architects, designers and
sculptors branched off from the mother society and organized separately. Their
work was of the highest character, and became more art than a craft, requiring
technical and science knowledge as well as great manual skill. Their
profession stood at the head of the building trades, and became known as
Only a limited number of fellows were required; and in consequence we find
masters, journeymen (fellow crafts) and apprentices members of the same guild;
while in other trades, such as the masons' and carpenters' employing larger
bodies of men, the journeymen at an early period withdrew from the masters and
formed fraternities of their own. The apprentices, while they were members of
the craft, were not eligible to membership in the guild.
There were still other points of difference: The Freemasons were employed
almost exclusively upon religious buildings. This brought their craft in
close contact with the clergy, and from this association the Freemasons'
societies received a deep religious imprint that is not apparent in those of
The profession of Freemasonry was held in high esteem in the Middle Ages. The
Church was rich and powerful and displayed its wealth and taste in the
construction of beautiful churches. In fact, church architecture was the only
outlet for the genius of the people; all the intellectual forces of society
seemed to converge in architecture and kindred professions; and the calling,
therefore, attracted the best minds and the highest intellects of the times.
All other knowledge was discouraged and condemned by the Church.
Victor Hugo says that down to the time of the invention of printing the
progress of humanity in art and science is recorded in a "book of stone" -
Gothic architecture commenced to decline after the Reformation. The power of
the Church was broken; its right to levy contributions upon the people was
taken from it; and the people found other means of satisfying their desire for
knowledge, and to gratify their artistic tastes.
Freemasonry as an operative art declined with the discontinuance of Gothic
church building, and with it went the operative fraternities. In order to
perpetuate the institution, the lodges admitted to membership men who had not
been bred to the trade. In many cases these "accepted" brethren were men of
learning and science, and through their influence the lodges were gradually
transformed into "speculative", or philosophical societies, in which form they
have come down to our times.
time passed, the old customs of the operative days fell into disuse and became
only memories and traditions; and, later, more or less fantastic explanations
of their meaning and purpose were invented, such as the legend of the "Travelling
order to get a clear view of the craft usages of our operative Masonic
forefathers, we must look for their parallels in kindred crafts, such as the
masons and carpenters, whose fraternities have had a continuous existence from
the Middle Ages down to our own day.
Gould, in his chapter on the German Steinmetzen (Freemasons), borrows freely
from the carpenters and masons for illustration of Masonic customs. He
conveys the impression that these societies, like their Freemasonic relatives,
have become extinct. In reality they still exist, although now rapidly
falling into decay, due to several reasons: the encroachment of modern
trades-unionism; the fact that the state has assumed some of their benevolent
and charitable functions; and, finally, because the stringent apprenticeship
rules are being more and more relaxed.
is an immemorial custom in these crafts, when an apprentice has completed his
service, to spend three years in travel from place to place, working for a
time in each. The purpose of his journey is to familiarize himself with the
methods employed in various places; to enable him to "see the world," and,
finally, to prevent crowding the trade. In this pilgrimage the journeyman
travels under the auspices and protection of his craft guild, or fraternity.
Following are a few facts concerning these organizations with particular
reference to the carpenter's trade, a body which claims to be the senior of
the building trades guilds, and to have had a continuous existence from the
early centuries of the Middle Ages.
The name of the society is "Die Fremde Zimmergessellen." The translation of
the name presents some difficulties. "Fremde" in German means either a
foreigner or a stranger, or one absent from home. Considering the connection
in which the word is here used, "travelling" is the nearest equivalent in
English. The name therefore signifies the "Travelling Journeymen Carpenters."
The name reminds us of that used by the journeymen's societies of France (Sons
of Solomon) whose members called themselves "compagnons etrangers" (stranger
The headquarters of the German carpenters' fraternity is at Bremen, and its
subordinate lodges are dispersed throughout Central Europe. A new lodge may
be formed in any place upon the petition of not less than seven members; but
only one lodge may be chartered in any one city or town. In the vernacular of
the craft, the opening of a new lodge is described as "Opening the Book," so
called from the "Brotherbook," a manuscript volume containing the statutes and
regulations of the fraternity, without which no lodge can be legally held.
The copy of the Brotherbook, therefore serves the purpose of a charter.
Lodges are sometimes opened in remote foreign countries; for instance, in
Jerusalem, 1900; in Paris, 1904, and at Liege, Belgium, 1914.
The executive head of the fraternity is called Hauptaltgeselle (Chief Senior
Fellow), and the General Secretary-Treasurer is called Hauptbuchgeselle.
Local lodges are presided over by the Senior Fellow (Altgeselle); the
Secretary is called Buchgeselle. These officers are elected for six months.
In addition the local bodies have an appointive officer, who performs the
joint duties of Steward and Doorkeeper.
When the apprentice has been set free by his master, after three years'
service, he applies for admission into the journeymen's fraternity. His
application is presented by a member who has worked with him and who vouches
for his character and qualifications. The application must be accompanied by a
certificate from the master under whom the applicant has learned his trade.
In certain states the law prohibits the apprentice from taking employment as a
journeyman until he has made an essay, or masterpiece. In such case proof, of
masterpiece must be furnished. If no objection is made, the application is
approved, and the candidate is notified to present himself for initiation at
the next meeting of the lodge. Should objection be made, the application is
rejected without a ballot.
After the lodge has been formerly opened the candidate is taken in charge by
the member who presented his application, and who now acts as his sponsor. He
is conducted to the Senior Fellow's station in the lodge. A number of
questions are put to him by the Senior Fellow, and are answered for him by his
sponsor. This dialogue refers to the importance and dignity of the craft, the
objects of the fraternity, and in particular to the duty of the individual
fellow to his brethren and to the craft. The candidate is asked whether he is
willing to subscribe to these sentiments, and on his reply in the affirmative
the obligation is administered, to the observance of which he pledges his word
as a true man. He is then presented with "die Ehrbarkeit" (literally:
Virtue), a black neckerchief, and is informed that this piece of attire is a
symbol of manly virtue and the particular badge of the fraternity. He is
instructed to wear it during all his waking hours, whether work or at play,
and solemnly admonished never to disgrace it by word or act.
former times the fellows wore a distinctive livery, consisting of a short
black velvet jack double rows of silver buttons, knee breeches of the same
material, and black hat and shoes, together with the indispensable neckcloth.
The livery has long since fallen into disuse, although the wearing of the "Ehrbarkeit"
continues. It is still considered improper to wear shoes of any colour other
than black, and the members have a special aversion to white hats.
Then follows a lecture by the Senior Fellow in which the candidate is
instructed in the rules and regulations of the fraternity, its customs and
usages; how to conduct himself while travelling; how to present himself and
make himself known to his brethren in foreign parts, etc. At stated times the
Brotherbook is also read in the lodge. There is no mention of any grip or
token; only a brief catechism to which we shall hereafter refer.
The candidate is now a Junior Fellow (Junggeselle), and the ceremonies are
concluded by draping his "ribbon" across the bar under the coat of arms of the
craft, suspended over the Senior Fellow's station. This ribbon is of silk,
about; six feet long by two inches wide, of any colour to suit the taste of
the candidate; on one end is inscribed his name and the place and date of his
birth; on the other, the date of his admission into the fraternity. The
Senior Fellow orders the Steward to fill the "Harmony Tankard" (Vertragskanne),
a large drinking vessel, which forms an indispensable part of the furniture of
the lodge. The tankard is brought to the Senior Fellow, who dips his gavel in
the beer and sprinkles a few drops of the liquid on the new-made brother's
ribbon, and expresses the hope that the later will always live in amity and
harmony with his brethren. The business of the lodge being concluded, the
Senior Fellow calls off, and the health of the new brother is drunk, while the
members join in singing their craft songs, of which they have many.
may mention here the peculiar form of salutation. A member is never addressed
in lodge as brother or comrade; but always as "Ehrbarer Gesellschaft" (trusty
fellowship). The form of address of the Senior Fellow is "Ehrbarer Altgeselle."
The members remain standing "in order" during the entire meeting, heels
together, toes pointing out, coat tightly buttoned and the hat held in the
right hand over the left breast. This attitude is characteristic of the
fraternity and is assumed on all occasions of craft business and ceremony.
The Senior Fellow also presides standing, but with covered head.
When the Junior Fellow is ready to travel, he applies to the lodge for
clearance; but before it is granted must satisfy the Senior Fellow that he has
parted with his master in friendship, that he is in fellowship with his
brethren, and last but not least, that he is clear of debt. These matters
being satisfactorily settled, he is given a clearance card, or "brief," as it
is called, signed by the Senior Fellow and Secretary. The Senior Fellow again
reminds the journeyman about to set out, that under the laws of the fraternity
he is obliged to travel for three years; that at least once a year he must
visit a city where a lodge is located, and work there not less than six weeks;
that he should not remain in the same place longer than six months, and in no
event more than one year; that he must not return to his birthplace, or the
place where he learned his trade, during his wandering years, except to attend
the funeral of a near relative, and in such case he should only remain over
night. He is warned against keeping bad company and against incurring any
debt, and urged to conduct himself in such a manner as to reflect credit upon
The "traveler's" health is then drunk by his brethren with the wish for a
pleasant journey and safe return.
The lodge meetings are invariably held on Saturday night, and on the following
day he sets out on his travels. In former times the brethren of the lodge
accompanied him beyond the city gates with music and song, but this custom is
now obsolete. He invariably journeys on foot, although there is no special
inhibition against the use of speedier means of transportation.
arrival at his destination, he goes to the house of call (herberg). This is
an inn frequented by his fellow craftsmen, where their lodge room is located.
Some of these houses of call belong to the fraternity. He presents himself at
the lodge door and knocks three times. He is received by the Senior Fellow,
or some other brother detailed for the purpose. He assumes the posture
already, described, and the following dialogue takes place:
Senior Fellow: Your name!
Fellow: (gives his name).
Senior Fellow: Who are you?
Fellow: A true and trusty (ehrbarer und rechtschaffer) Travelling Journeyman
Carpenter, from . . .
Senior Fellow: What do you desire?
Fellow: Under favour and by your leave, (mit Gunst und Erlaubnitz), to ask the
trusty (ehrbarer) Senior Fellow to furnish me employment for eight or fourteen
days or as long as it may suit the master, and according to craft custom and
Senior Fellow: 'Tis well! (das ist loeblich! Literally: Praiseworthy; an
Senior Fellow: Your brief!
Fellow: (presents clearance card).
Senior Fellow examines the card and finding it in order says: Be at ease! (Macht
The fellow lays aside his hat, unbuttons his coat and takes his seat. His name
is entered upon the visitors' register, and he is told where he may apply for
employment. He is then treated to a schnapps and a glass of beer. This
ceremony is called "ausschenken"; literally, "drinking him out." He is next
informed of the conditions of trade, wages, etc., and in turn he delivers the
news of his travels. After this he is introduced to the landlord and landlady
of the inn, whom thereafter he calls father and mother. If there is a daughter
in the house, he calls her sister.
His supper, night's lodging and breakfast are paid for by the lodge.
no one is present in the lodge room when he calls, he goes into the tap room
of the inn, orders a stein of beer, and waits for some member to appear. When
he recognizes an arrival by the black neckerchief, he strikes the table with
his stein. The signal is immediately answered by the newcomer, who addresses
his as comrade and inquires whether he can be of service.
the following Saturday he visits the lodge, but is not admitted until the
meeting has been formally opened and the Senior Fellow has announced his
arrival. He is then introduced to the brethren; thereafter he is recognized
as a member of the lodge and entitled to take part in its proceedings.
no work is procured for him, and he is without funds, the lodge gives security
for his board and lodging; but if he owes any debt, he is not granted
clearance when he leaves town. Instead, he receives a letter addressed to the
Senior Fellow of any lodge to which he may apply, informing him (the Senior
Fellow) of the circumstance; and it is the duty of that official to arrange
that a reasonable amount be remitted each pay day, until the debt is paid.
Should he arrive at a town in which there is no lodge, he looks up some master
who has been a member of the journeymen's fraternity and applies in the
prescribed form. The master is authorized to tender such aid as the
circumstances require, being reimbursed by the fraternity.
he should become involved in a quarrel or fight with a fellow member, or be
accused of violating the laws or ethics of the craft, he is summoned to appear
at lodge. He is examined by the Senior Fellow, who possesses power to hear
and determine all questions of craft law and usage, and summarily to impose
penalties upon the guilty brother. Even in grave cases the brethren are not
asked to determine the guilt or innocence, or to assess punishment. The power
of the Senior Fellow to try and punish is called domestic court (Stubenricht).
The defendant has, however, the right of appeal from the decision of the
Senior Fellow to the Chief Senior Fellow, and from the judgment of the latter
to a commission composed of seven Senior Fellows, chosen from different parts
of the jurisdiction. The commission is the supreme court of the order (Schiedgeticht).
the penalty imposed is a minor fine it is usually paid without question. Part
of it is expended for drink, and the atonement is celebrated in convivial
Should the fellow meet with an accident, or be overtaken by illness, medical
care is provided at the expense of the lodge, if he is without means; and the
Senior Fellow details brethren in their turn to nurse him until he is able to
take care of himself, or until he dies.
event of death during his years of wandering, he is buried by the lodge. The
fraternity has no regular burial service, this being performed by a clergyman;
but the brethren follow the remains to the cemetery, wearing their work
squares across the right shoulder. Twelve fellows act as pallbearers. As we
read in the craft songs:
"Who shall be pallbearers?
Twelve sturdy Journeymen Carpenters."
When the craftsman has completed his years of travel he may settle down in his
hometown, or some other place to his liking, and is thereafter called a
resident member (Einheimischer). But he does not relinquish his membership in
the fraternity unless he becomes a master and goes into business for himself.
But even as a master he is in close contact with the craftsmen's body, and is
by custom bound to extend the hand of fellowship and do acts of courtesy to
such members as may apply to him.
Attention is here called to some peculiar rules of conduct followed by the
members. Mention has already been made of the fact that the craftsman must
not take off his black neckerchief while at work. If he finds it necessary to
open his shirt collar, he simply opens the neckcloth and slips it down his
bosom. It is considered bad form to work with sleeves rolled up; and it is
regarded as highly improper for a fellow to go more than a house length from
his lodging without coat or hat.
have already noted that the membership is divided into grades. The first,
Junior Fellow, is conferred at initiation. From the time he commences
travelling he is rated as a Fellow. After three years on the road he is
recognized as an Old Fellow, and eligible to election as presiding officer of
a lodge. No particular ceremony is connected with the last two "degrees," nor
do they confer any distinction beyond that due to superior skill and
the carpenter's calling the authority of the Senior Fellow does not extend
beyond the lodge. In the shop or on the job every fellow is his equal. In
this respect the craft differs from the Steinmetzen, whose foreman (parlier)
in the shop became ipso facto the warden of the society. This is no doubt due
to the fact that in the latter craft all grades were members of the
Like the masons, the carpenters have their cowans. The latter call a
travelling journeyman, who is not a member of the society, a "Vogtlander." The
origin of the term is unknown, but it signifies one who is willing to work
unusually long hours for low wages.
the reproduction of a clearance card issued by a lodge in Essen, 1904, note
the seal, bearing the name of the fraternity around the outer edge, and the
central design, composed of the coat of arms of the craft, viz.; A plane
between the extended compass, crossed hatchets, two adjacent squares, and, at
the bottom, a saw.
Note also the legend printed around the outer border, which may be freely
translated, as follows:
"Who can become an apprentice? Any man.
Who shall be fellow craft? He who can.
Who shall be master? He who can design and plan.
What should a Travelling Fellow be? A true man."
would be interesting to examine this ancient society historically but the
means are not at hand. It is claimed that its Brotherbook is several
centuries older than that of the Steinmetzen, which was adopted in 1567 and
there seems no reason to doubt the statement.
The fraternity at present has no legendary history, such as we find in the
Ancient Charges of Freemasonry, but it is more than likely that in former
times such history formed part of the secrets of the craft, and that it has
either fallen into disuse or been forgotten during those periods when the
government attempted to suppress this and similar organizations. During the
"blood-and-iron" rule of Bismarck all secret societies and clandestine
meetings were forbidden, and though this order did not completely destroy the
body, the members had to exercise great care to prevent the police from
breaking up their meetings and lodging the members in jail.
Why the black neckerchief? Is it a symbol of mourning for some traditional
founder or martyr of the craft? Is it not possible that the original
significance of it has been lost or forgotten? How many seamen of today are
aware of the fact that the black neckerchief universally worn by the enlisted
men of all navies, was originally worn in mourning for Nelson, and that the
three white stripes on the naval seaman's shirt collar are commemorative of
the three great victories won by that great seaman?
is my hope that in the near future we shall have available a copy of the
carpenter's Brotherbook, which will enable us to form a clearer idea of the
inner workings of their craft fraternity.
"To live as gently as I can,
be, no matter where, a man;
take what comes of good or ill;
cling to faith and honor still;
do my best and let stand
The record of my brain and hand;
And then, should failure come to me,
Still work and hope for victory!
"To have no secret place wherein
stoop unseen to shame or sin;
be the same when I'm alone
when my even deed is known,
live undaunted, unafraid
any step that I have made;
be without pretense or sham,
Exactly what men think I am."
MASONIC MEDALLION OF 1516
BRO. JOE L. CARSON. VIRGINIA
are indebted to the courtesy of Brother Joe Carson, of Riverton, Virginia,
whose name is well known to our readers, for the privilege of publishing the
illustrations presented herewith. This medallion is an item of considerable
importance to antiquaries, since it is computed to be 405 years old. Thus far
nothing has been published about it, so that it is hoped that among our own
readers may be found those who may add something to the information furnished
by Brother Carson, either by way of facts or of interpretation.
Meanwhile a casual reader will find many points to challenge his speculative
faculty by way of explaining the symbols and emblems exhibited in this rare
old Masonic curio. What is the figure above the sun and moon in cut "A?" What
signify the numbers 15 and 16? Why five steps? What is the object that lies at
the foot of the stair, and looks like a coffin? What is the "X" shaped figure
at the immediate left of the Sun? What is the winged figure supposed to be in
cut "B" ?
Herewith are the explanatory paragraphs sent by Brother Carson:
BELOW is the authenticated history of an old Masonic Medallion dated 1516,
oval in form and beautifully carved with Masonic symbols and characters, found
in the ruins of an old house in the townland of Derganyneville near Dromore in
the county of Tyrone in the year 1912 by Mrs. Sarah Dowd, an old lady who
lived beside the house in question as caretaker of a farm, the property of Mr.
John J. Nelson, of Hackencon, Trillick County, Tyrone. The composition of the
medallion is believed to be petrified oak, correct size 3 5-8 by 2 3-4 inches.
Mrs. Dowd's statement given before the undersigned members of the Masonic
Order is as follows:
"About the end of the year 1912 a little girl, a niece of mine, and myself,
were picking out some stones from amongst the partly fallen ruins of the
kitchen of an old house in Derganyneville when there fell out also a flat oval
piece of something like slate, of a dark color and with a small portion of
chimney soot adhering to it. Being struck with the peculiar shape of the
article I picked it up from amongst the rubble, and thinking it rather a
curiousity, I brought it to my employer, Mr. John J. Nelson, and told him how
I had found; Afterwards, on the 8th of July, 1921, I was asked to meet Mr.
Nelson and some other gentlemen at the said ruins, which I did, and pointed
out the exact place where I found the article."
Mr. John J. Nelson's statement corroborates that of Mrs. Dowd, and he further
states that after he had washed the soot and dirt off the medallion he
recognized the carving as having something to do with Freemasonry, as although
not a member of the Order himself, a Mason lodge met in his father's house
when he was a young lad, of which his father was a Past Master, and the
Master's chair with Masonic emblems carved thereon was for several years after
his father's death and the winding up of the lodge, preserved in the family,
but eventually became broken up and lost. Mr. Nelson kept the medallion in his
private drawer for some years, when happening to turn it up while looking for
some papers, he put it in his pocket and brought it to his old friend and
neighbor, Mr. John R. Henderson, of Lisnahanna, Trillick, whom he knew to be a
Freemason and whom he surmised, would be interested in it, which proved to be
the case, for Mr. Henderson, or, we may now say, Brother Henderson recognizing
its evident connection with early Masonry sent it by the hand of Brother Davis
Graham, to Brother Robt. W. Wilson, then acting as Grand Secretary to the
Provincial Grand Lodge of Tyrone and Fermanagh, who had it immediately
photographed, and who also submitted it to several of the leading members of
the Lodge of Research, who were all intensely interested in what they deem a
rare and valuable Masonic curio.
The authenticity of the foregoing history of the same is vouched hereby by us
who were present at the interviews with Mrs. Dowd and Mr. Nelson, and at the
taking of photographs of the spot and of the parties named herein on the 8th
day of July, 1921.
John R. Henderson, Trillick, P. M. Lodge 58, Trillick.
David Graham, Enniskillen, P. M. Lodge 473, Enniskillen.
James Henderson, Lisnahanna, Trillick, Dolph Lodge No. 80, Athena, Oregon, U.
John Mercer, Enniskillen, Lodge 891, Enniskillen.
Robert W. Wilson, Enniskillen, P. M.
MARTIN FOLKES, DEPUTY GRAND MASTER, 1724
BRO. DUDLEY WRIGHT, ENGLAND
THE CRAFT has always attracted to its ranks men of erudition and leaning, and
one of the most honoured of such is that of Martin Folkes, Deputy Grand
Master, 1724. It was perhaps fitting, in view of the interest he is said to
have taken in Freemasonry and the influence he is reported to have had, that
Martin Folkes should have been born in Queen Street, Lincoln's Inn Fields, the
only home the Grand Lodge of England has known since it had a home of its own,
the date of his birth being 29th October, 1690. He was the eldest son of
Martin Folkes, an eminent lawyer and a bencher of Gray's Inn, described in the
Gray's Inn Admission Register as of Rushbrooke, County Suffolk, and admitted
18th May, 1661. In 1695, Martin Folkes, senior, became Solicitor-General and,
in 1697, Attorney-General to Catherine, Queen Dowager of Charles II. The
mother was Dorothy, the second daughter of Sir William Hovell, Kt., of
Hillington Hall, near Lynn, Norfolk. The family of Folkes is known to be of
Staffordshire extraction and the first member of whom there is any record is
William Fowke, as the name was anciently written, who was of eminence in
Staffordshire in A. D. 1438.
When a boy of nine years, Martin Folkes, the subject of this sketch, was sent
to the University of Saumur, and his tutor, Cappel, the son of Lewis Cappel, a
celebrated Hebraist, described him as "a choice youth of a penetrating genius
and master of the beauties of the best Roman and Greek writers." Soon after,
in February, 1706, at the age of seventeen, he was sent to Clare Hall,
Cambridge, under the care of Dr. Laughton, where he made great progress in
mathematics and other studies, and after gaining his baccalaureate, he
proceeded to the degree of Master of Arts on 6th October, 1717.
Some estimate of his progress at the University may be made from the fact that
he was only twenty-three years of age when he was, on the 29th July, 1714,
elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, his name having been accepted for
nomination on the previous 13th of December. A little more than two years
after his election - on 30th November, 1716 - he was chosen as a member of the
Council of the Society, an honour renewed annually until 1727, and, in 1722,
an addition was made to the distinction by his appointment by the President,
Sir Isaac Newton, as one of the Vice-Presidents. Folkes often presided at the
meetings in the absence of his chief and on one occasion he was told by Dr.
Jurin, the secretary, who dedicated to Folkes the 34th volume of the
Transactions, that "the greatest man that ever lived (meaning Sir Isaac
Newton) singled him out to fill the chair and to preside in the Society when
he himself was so frequently prevented by indisposition, and that it was
sufficient to say of him that he was 'Sir Isaac's friend.'" On the death of
Sir Isaac Newton, in 1727, Sir Hans Sloane and Martin Folkes competed for the
presidency, the latter being unsuccessful. In 1729 Folkes again became a
member of the Council and, in 1732 and 1733, was asked by Sir Hans Sloane
again to accept a Vice-Presidency, which he did, and, on 30th November, 1741,
he succeeded Sir Hans Sloane as President. He presented the Society with a
fine portrait of himself, painted by Hogarth.
Folkes was married on 18th October, 1714, at St. Helen's, Bishopgate, to
Lucretia Bradshawe, when he was described as "of Nafferton, Yorkshire" and his
bride as "of St. Andrew's Holborn." Dr. Doran, in Their Majesties' Servants,
"At this period (about 1714) the stage lost a lady who was as dear to it as
Queen Anne, namely Mrs. Bradshaws. Her departure, however, was caused by
marriage, not by death; and the gentleman who carried her off, instead of
being a rollicking gallant or a worthless peer, was a staid, solemn antiquary,
Martin Folkes, who rather surprised the town by wedding young Mistress
Bradshawe. The lady had been on the stage about eighteen years; she had
trodden it from early childhood, and always with unblemished reputation. She
had her reward in an excellent, sensible, and wealthy husband, to whom her
exemplary and prudent conduct endeared her; and the happiness of this couple
was well established. She won applause as the originator of the characters of
Corinna in 'The Conspirator,' Sylvia in 'The Double Gallant,' and Arabella
Zeal in 'The Fair Quaker."'
The author of the History of the English Stage also describes her as "one of
the greatest and most promising genii of her time" and says that she was taken
off the stage by Mr. Folkes "for her exemplary and prudent conduct." Unhappily
many years before Martin Folkes' demise the wife became mentally unbalanced
and had to become the inmate of an asylum.
1719 Folkes was elected a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, afterwards
becoming a Vice-President. When Algemon, Duke of Somerset, for many years
President of the Society, died on 9th February, 1750, Martin Folkes was
immediately chosen to succeed him, in which office he was continued by the
Charter of Incorporation, which was granted on 2nd November, 1751. It was
Folkes himself who, in conjunction with Lord Chancellor Hardwicke, obtained a
Charter of Incorporation for the Society. Prior to his election as President
of this body, Oxford had conferred upon him the Doctorate of Civil Law, and
Cambridge, his alma mater, the Doctorate of Laws, when on the occasion of a
visit from the Chancellor, the Duke of Newcastle. It is said that when he was
"capped" at Oxford, he returned them "a compliment in a Latin speech, admired
for its propriety and elegance."
Folkes was also an associate of the Egyptian Club and a member of a literary
club, known as the Spalding Society. He was the patron of George Edwards, the
naturalist, and gave some help to Theobald for his Notes on Shakespeare. At
one time he had an ambition for Parliamentary honours, for he contested Lynn
as a Whig in 1747.
Dr. Robert Smith, Master of Trinity College, Cambridge, 1736, and preceptor to
William, Duke of Cumberland, was indebted to Folkes for some curious
information which he embodied in his great work on Optics and acknowledged in
his Preface to the quarto edition published in 1738. Folkes also edited C.
Maclaurin's Treatise on Algebra. He was renowned as a numismatist and had a
famous collection of coins and medals. On his travels through Italy he
compiled a Dissertation on the Weights and Values of Ancient Coins. The only
copies of his works in the British Museum are: 1, a Table of English Gold
Coins from the 18th year of King Edward III, with weights and values, London,
1736, 4to. 2, A Table of English Silver Coins from the Norman Conquest to the
present time, with weights, values, and remarks, 1745, 4to- 3, Tables of
English Silver and Gold Coins, in three parts, 1763, published after his
There are some interesting references to Martin Folkes, or to what may not
inappropriately be described as "Martin Folkes and his Circle" in the Journal
and Letters of John Byrom, the inventor of a system of shorthand and who
dedicated to Folkes some verses entitled "A Humorous Account of the Epping
Forest Robbery." Some of the more important are here reproduced:
"1725, Tuesday, 9th February. Bob Ord came in while I was writing and I went
to him to the Club in Paul's Church Yard, where were Mr. Brown, Derham, White,
Glover, Heathcote, Graham, Foulkes, and another: we talked about the 'Religion
of Nature delineated,' the character of which book I asked Mr. Brown."
"1725. Tuesday, 9th March. Thence to the Club in Paul's Church Yard, where we
had two barrels of oysters, one before and another after supper, Mr. Leycester,
Glover, White, Bob Ord, Graham, Foulkes, Sloan, Derham, Heathcote, a talking
gent. I had never seen there before; paid 2s. 6d. a piece. Mr. Brown they
said had got the gout. We talked much of something and nothing, about Dr.
Vincent's copying of letters, and I told them I was going to establish a
Cabala Club that were guessers."
"1725. Thursday, 11th March. When we were at dinner the Duke of Richmond and
Mr. Foulkes [came in]. . . . The Duke of Richmond was very merry and good
company; Mr. Foulkes just mentioned my having found out shorthand, but nothing
more was said on it then. I came to the Society in the coach with the Duke of
Richmond, Mr. Foulkes, and Mr. Sloan and we talked about Masonry and
"1725. Tuesday, 6th April . . . to Paul's Church Yard, where Mr. Leycester and
I went, Mr. Graham, Foulkes, Sloan, Glover, Montagu. . . . I had a scallop
shell and Welsh rabbit. Mr. Leycester and I walked home together. There was
a Lodge of Freemasons in the room over us, where Mr. Foulkes, who is Deputy
Grand Master, was till he came to us. Mr. Sloan was for taking me upstairs if
I would go: I said I would, and come back if there was anything I did not like
and then he bid me sit down."
"1725. Tuesday, 29th June. Mildmay and I went to the Sun in Paul's Church
Yard, it was past ten when we came there; there were twelve of us only,
Foulkes, Graham, Brown, Derham, Bob Ord, Sloan, Heathcote, Hauksbee, Dr.
Anteney, and a stranger that Mr. Foulkes brought. . . . Mr. Foulkes said that
Dr. Stukeley had said that he could read the Egyptian hieroglyphics as well as
June, 1725, the Duke of Richmond, then Grand Master, was created a Knight of
the Bath, but was unable to attend the investiture in consequence of attack of
smallpox. His proxy at the ceremony was Sir George Sanders, who was
accompanied by Martin Folkes, then Deputy Grand Master and an intimate friend
of the Duke, who furnished the Duke with a full account of the investiture.
The Duke, acknowledging Folkes' letter eight days after its receipt, said:
am very much asham'd when I think how long I have defer'd answering your two
obliging letters, especially when I consider that I ought to have writ first
to thanks you, as I do now, for the goodness you have had in letting us have
your company here at Goodwood, but staying so little a while is but
tantalizing us, for as soon as one had the pleasure of your acquaintance, your
affairs oblig'd you to go. But next summer, if I return to Sussex, you will,
I hope, remember your promise of staying some time with me, in being my
Squire. I fear the fatigue you underwent, might hinder the pleasure of the
entertainment. I wish it lay in my power to show you in a more essential way,
how great a value and friendship I have for you. I have been guilty of such
an omission that nobody less than the Deputy Grand Master can make up for me.
. . . I desire you would present my humble service to Mrs. Folkes. I hope she
was entertained at the Instalment."
1733, Martin Folkes went abroad with his family to Italy and remained abroad
for about two years and a half. He was armed with letters of introduction
from the Duke of Richmond and was warmly greet by the many friends of the Duke
whom he met while upon his travels. Apparently Mrs. Folkes was not received
with open arms by all and sundry, but possibly an explanation of this and of
the following letter which Tom Hill, the Duke's steward wrote to the Duke on
20th July, 1733, is that the mental malady from which she afterwards suffered
so acutely was then in manifestation. The steward's communication was as
"With much ado I obtain'd leave to transcribe the following account relating
to Mrs. Folkes out of a letter that came from abroad, having first sworn no to
tel the person that sent it.
"'There is come hither a Lady with her husband, three children, and a monky,
who are no more exempt from obedience to her, one than another, and all
seemingly fellow-sufferers alike. I happen'd to be at a visit when she came
in. In all my life did I never hear such an insupportable creature, nor so
much nonsense in so small a space of time. You will be surpris'd when I tell
you the husband is reckon'd as clever a man as any in England. His name is
Folkes (Martin Folkes as she cals him) who used to be very much with the Duke
of Richmond. The lady he married is very wel known in England. He designs
making the tour of Italy and France, by which time I don't doubt but she wil
turn out the most accomplisht of fine Ladys. She did think indeed of bringing
a little dog and a cat to keep poor pug company, but that they could not
possibly find more room in the coach. Such characters are no where to be met
abroad, whatever they may be in England, and even there I never saw one come
up to this.'
"This is al that was read to me out of the letter. I could not help saying,
what I fancy you'l join with me in, Poor Martin! In an evil hour didst thou
take to thy bosom this Lady Mar-all."
The Duke of Richmond gave Martin Folkes a letter of introduction to Princess
Pamphili, in which he spoke of him as "a gentleman of very good family, and
one of the leading savants of this kingdom."
Similarly, in a letter to the Countess Celia Borromea, he wrote:
may venture to say that this letter will be attended with one agreeable
circumstance to your Excellency which is that of introducing one of the most
learned and at the same time most agreeable men in Europe to you, besides this
he is one of the most intimate and dearest friends I have in the world, which
I am vain enough to hope will not lessen him in your Excellency's esteem. His
name is Mr. Folkes: he is a member of our Royal Society and has been a great
while our Vice-President, he was an intimate acquaintance of the great Sir
Isaac Newton, for whose memory, as every man of learning must, he has the
There seems to be some confusion with regard to a medal either designed, or
struck, by Martin Folkes, or struck in his honour. Hawkins, in his Medallic
Illustrations, says of a medal, dated 1740:
"In February 1740, James Anthony Dossier, a nephew of Jean Dossier, engraver
to the Mint at Geneva, published proposals for executing several medals of
famous men living in England. The set was to consist of thirteen medals and
the subscription to be four guineas, but if sold singly, the price was 7s. 6d.
each. The medal of Martin Folkes was first made. The dies were engraved in
London, but the medaig were struck abroad, because no engines were allowed for
that purpose in this country."
According to Hawkins, however, there was a second medal, bearing the date of
1742, which he says:
"Was executed at Rome, and, tradition says, by especial command of the Pope,
unknown to Folkes whom it was intended to surprise during his visit to Italy.
Freemasonry was originally named 'Lux' and is said to have existed from the
Creation. Folkes' visit to Rome took place in 1733. It is much more probable
that the medal was struck at Rome to show the high esteem in which Folkes was
held in that city of antiquities and about the time he was elected a member of
the French Academy. There is in the British Museum an early proof of this
medal struck before the legends were added or the type of the obverse
The Papal tradition obviously is without foundation. Clement XII occupied the
papal chair in 1733, and Benedict XIV in 1742, and both condemned the Masonic
Order in unmistakable language, so that it is scarcely likely that either
would sanction the issue of a medal in honour of so distinguished a Freemason.
This medal by some means left the possession of the Folkes family, but, about
1890, it was recovered by Bro. Sir William Ffolkes, Bart., a lineal
descendant, whose brother-in-law found it in a curiosity shop in Norwich. In
the History of the Philanthropic Lodge, No. 107, King's Lynn, published in
1911, it is stated that "Sir William Ffolkes has in his possession a bronze
medal, which was struck in honour of Martin Folkes by the Masons resident in
Rome in the year 1742, and also an original letter from the Duke of Richmond
to his Deputy, Martin Folkes, asking him to make his excuses for not attending
to a report from a Charity Committee, and thanking him for an old record he
had sent him, which he stated was really very curious, and a certain proof of
Masons' antiquity by the Unbelievers. Martin Folkes constituted the Maid's
Head Lodge, the earliest Lodge on the roll of Norfolk Freemasonry [No. 30 in
the 1725 List, erased in 1809.-D. W.] and his name appears in the first list
of members in 1725."
Russell Forbes says (Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, xiv) that Martin Folkes founded
a lodge in Rome in 1742 and named it after Fabius Maximus. "He had a medal
struck at the Papal Mint, engraved by Hamerain. On the obverse is his bust,
and on the reverse a sphinx in the foreground, on the side of which is the
crescent moon. Behind is the pyramid tomb of Caius Cestius, thus a rectangle
is introduced twice, as two sides of the tomb are shown. At the northeast and
northwest corners of the pyramid are two columns, so the tomb and columns
might suggest the temple. In the south the sun shines in full splendor, above
all is the motto, Sua sidera norunt. At the base is Romae, A.L. 5742."
the 5th September, 1742, Martin Folkes had been elected a member of the French
Academy, to fill the vacancy caused by the demise of the celebrated Halley,
and, in the words of the Minute "the Academy thought it could not better
repair the loss than by the election of M. Folkes in his place." The Minute
also mentions in terms of high praise his communications to the Royal Society
on the subject of Weights and Measures.
Weld in his History of the Royal Society also says that "Martin Folkes was a
man of extensive knowledge, who has, however, rendered more service to
archaeology than to science; the latter being chiefly enriched by his work on
the intricate subject of coins, weights, and measures."
the anniversary meeting of the Society in 1753, Martin Folkes resigned the
Presidency, to the great regret of the Fellows, who immediately passed the
"Resolved: That the thanks of the Society be returned to Martin Folkes, Esq.,
their worthy President, for the many great services which they have received
from him, both as Member and as President, of which they shall retain the
highest sense. And that he be assured of the great concern which they feel
that his ill state of health will not permit him any longer to discharge the
office of President, which he has so many years filled with so much credit to
himself and advantage to the Society."
Dr. Stukeley's testimony, which appears in his Common Place Book, is of
particular interest in view of a more lengthy, statement which appeared later
from his pen. He thus alludes to the meetings held under Folkes' presidency:
"They are a most elegant and agreeable entertainment for a contemplative
person: here we meet, either personally or in their works, all the geniuses
of England, or, rather of the whole world, whatever the heavens present. My
custom is, when I return home and take a contemplative pipe, to set down the
memoirs of what entertainments we have there."
Martin Folkes was succeeded in the Presidency by the Earl of Macclesfield,
who, from the time of his election to the Council evinced a warm interest in
Weld, in summarizing the years of the Presidency of Martin Folkes, says:
"It is but just to Mr. Folkes to state that he left the Society in a much more
flourishing condition than when he was elected President; for, at the time of
his resignation, their funded capital amounted to 3,000 pounds. A careful
examination of the voluminous Minutes of the ordinary meetings, extending over
the eleven years that he was in office, enables me to state that he was
scarcely ever absent from the chair, and that the meetings were honoured by a
greater number of visitors than usual, numbering frequently as many as thirty
or forty. Indeed, so much inconvenience was occasionally experienced by the
crowds desiring to be admitted, that the President was obliged to request the
Fellows to exercise a little discretion in bringing visitors and to enforce
the standing order precluding their admission until leave had been obtained
from the Society in the usual manner."
the 26th September, 1753, Martin Folkes was seized with paralysis, as a result
of which he was deprived of the use of his left side. In this unhappy
situation he lingered on until 28th June, 1754, when a second stroke put an
end to his mortal career. He was buried in Hillington Church near Lynn, in
Norfolk, under a black marble slab in the chancel, with no other inscription
than his name and the date of his death, in accordance with the provisions of
his last will, dated September, 1751. He bequeathed 200 pounds to the Royal
Society, in addition to a cornelian ring, on which was engraved the arms of
the Royal Society, for the use of the President. He also bequeathed 400
pounds a year for life to his wife and he left, 12,000 pounds to each of his
daughters. In 1792 a monument was erected to him in the south side of the
choir of Westminster Abbey.
Stukeley's Diary contains an entry dated 28th June, 1754, which reads as
"This morn, about four, dyed Martyn Folkes, of a repeated paralytic stroke.
He had just finished his new house adjoining to his own in a most elegant
manner, though always incapable of having the least enjoyment from it. He has
remained for this three or four year a most miserable object of dereliction
from that Deity which he supposed took no account of our actions and had not
provided for an immortal part."
is singular that Dr. Stukeley should have waited until after Folkes' death
before he ventured to attack him, but his entry in his Common Place Book is
more lengthy and more spiteful. He there writes:
"Martin Folkes has an estate of near 3,000 pounds got by his father-in-law.
He is a man of no economy. Before at age he married Mrs. Bracegirdle off the
stage. His mother grieved at it so much that she threw herself out of a
window and broke her arm. His only son broke his neck off a horse back at
Paris. His eldest daughter ran away with a bookkeeper and who used her very
ill. Quarrelling with Sir Hans Sloane about the Presidentship of the Royal
Society and being baffled he went to Rome with his wife and daughters, dog,
cat parra, and monkey. There his wife grew religiously mad. He went to
Venice and got a dangerous hurt upon his leg. Returning he was successor to
Sir Hans Sloane, President of the Royal Society. Losing his teeth he speaks
so as not to be understood. He constantly refuses all papers that speak of
longitude. He chases the Council and officers out his junto of Sycophants
that meet him every night at Rawthmilis coffee house, or that dine with him on
Thursdays at the Miter, Fleet Street. He has a great deal of learning,
philosophy, astronomy; but knows nothing of natural history. In matters of
religion an errant infidel and loud scoffer. Professes himself a godfather to
all monkeys, believes nothing of a future state, of the Scriptures, of
revelation. He perverted Duke of Montagu, Richmond, Lord Pembroke, and very
many more of the nobility, who had an opinion of his understanding; and this
has done an infinite prejudice to Religion in general, made the nobility throw
off the mask and openly deride and discountenance even the appearance of
religion, which has brought us into that deplorable situation we are now in,
with thieves and murderers, perjury, forgery, etc. He thinks there is no
difference between us and animals; but what is owing to the different
structure of our brain, as between man and man. When I lived in Ormond Street
in 1720, he set up an Infidel Club at his house on Sunday evenings, where Will
Jones, the mathematician, and others of the heathen stamp, assembled. He
invited me earnestly to come thither, but I always refused. From that time he
has been propagating the infidel system with great assiduity and made it even
fashionable in the Royal Society, so that when any mention is made of Moses or
the deluge, of religion, Scriptures, etc., it generally is received with a
loud laugh. In September, 1751, being of a very gross habit, great eater and
drinker, he was seized with the cholic, which soon terminated in a hemiplegia.
He has now been confined a twelvemonth in this miserable state, but so far
from correcting his irreligious notions that he's grown worse if possible. In
two years time he dyed in a deplorable manner. Two years after his daughters
both married to indigent persons."
There is some slight corroboration of his irreligious opinions in an entry in
Byrom's Diary under date of 26th March, 1736, when he wrote:
"Mr. Johnson talked about the Duke of Montague and I walked with him through
the Strand and he said Martin Folkes talked strangely about religion."
The editor of the book however adds:
"Probably against religion as he had seen it exhibited in Rome and Florence,
where he had resided two years and had lately returned (September, 1735) to
Martin Folkes destroyed many manuscripts shortly before his death, some of
which, it is thought, would have thrown light upon the early history of the
organized Craft in England. His library was sold by Samuel Baker, of York
Street, Covent Garden, W. C. The sale began on Monday, 2nd February, 1756, and
continued for forty days. There were in all 5,126 items, the sum realized
being 3,091 pounds 6s., which was a large sum in those days, although a great
many items were withdrawn from the sale.
The present family of Ffolkes descends from Martin Folkes' brother, William
Folkes, barrister-at-law of the Inner Temple, agent to the Duke of Montague in
Lancashire, who married, as his second wife, the only daughter and heiress of
Sir William Browne, President of the Royal College of Physicians. There was
only one child of this marriage, Martin Folkes, who changed the spelling of
his name and styled himself Martin Browne Ffolkes after the death of his
grandfather. He was created a Baronet on 26th May, 1774. The present bearer
of the title, Sir William Edward Browne Ffolkes, is the fourth Baronet and
brother of the third Baronet, who had only one child, a daughter, now the wife
of Lieut.-Col. the Hon. John Dawnay. The present Rector of Hillington - the
Rev. F.A.S. Ffolkes, M.V.O., J.P., Chaplain in Ordinary to the King and
Chaplain of the King's Own Norfolk Yeomanry-is a brother of the present
THE JAMESTOWN FELLOW CRAFT CLUB
THOUGH this is admittedly a commonplace, it is undeniably true, - that we live
in a very busy time. The conditions of hustling modern life force us, whether
we will or no, to fill our days and hours with a multitude of activities; and
even then to leave undlone many desirable things.
Very desirable, we believe, are our fraternal activities; yet even in these
circles we find duplicated these same hustling conditions of all other phases
of life. There are many lodges, and they all clamor for attention. Such
attention as we give must be carefully bestowed. Careful attention we believe
we have given to our Masonic organization; yet even here we find more or less
of this overfilling of our available time.
Within Masonic circles any new organization, even though auxiliary, may well
be received with caution. Energy and attention needed for the main lines of
Man sonic activity should not be lightly scattered and carelessly divided. Any
new club must fully justify its existence if it is to be received, approved
and made permanent.
These conditions would seem to discourage the addition to our system of a new
unit such as our Fellow Craft Club. This club, however, was the outgrowth of
these very conditions, helping somewhat to meet their problems which we are
Among the undoubted problems is that of the gradual change in our lodges
brought about by new needs. Our lodges, becoming larger and larger, must serve
this larger membership. This growth in membership brings a constantly
increasing number of petitions and candidates, and this necessitates more
frequent meetings. The time of our busy officers, mortgaged to the degree work
and the duties incident to a large membership, is hardly sufficient to meet
the needs that are urgent.
These needs, however, are merely the more insistent ones. Others arise from
the fact that to a certain extent the lodge, standing less alone in the
community than formerly, must compete with many other activities which are
bidding for the attention of busy men. Many men, we must confess, are not
interested for very long in the degree work alone, and their interest must be
maintained by an emphasis on the social features which make gatherings of men
Out of such conditions grew our Fellow Craft Club. It was formed primarily for
the purpose of assisting the Master in his lodge work, and then for the
purpose of doing some things which the Master could not find time to
accomplish. The club was first but a small group of men with enthusiasm for
our lodge. The work, once started, grew, revealing new possibilities for
service which were met as they appeared. The by-laws (we were ambitious enough
to believe we needed them) are simple, providing just enough organization to
accomplish our purpose. The work, not the machinery, is emphasized.
The by-lays state: "The object of this organization shall be to promote the
welfare of _____ Lodge.
"Sect. 1, By assisting the officers of the lodge in the presentation of
degrees, especially the Third degree.
"Sect. 2, By assisting the Senior Deacon in welcoming and introducing visiting
"Sect. 3, By providing means of entertainment and refreshments at such
communications as the Worshipful Master shall direct."
Certain requirements for membership are provided. The Junior Warden of the
lodge is automatically the Club Leader, but emphasis is placed on the fact
that the authority of the Worshipful Master is absolute in all the affairs of
the club. Other useful matters are worked out in these by-laws.
Our club is accomplishing several of its purposes. In connection with the
degree work it furnishes and organizes men for the Fellow Craft team in the
Third degree. For this work we have enough interested men so that it is
possible always to have the necessary twelve.
Not only for the Third degree, but for other meeting nights also, the club
members have been appointed in rotation on reception committees, a past master
when possible acting with them. This committee welcomes all who attend our
meetings to make them feel that their attendance and interest are appreciated.
Especial attention and appreciation are of course given to strangers. The
stranger is introduced to those who may be at liberty, an examining committee
is arranged if he is making his first visit, and after the examination he is
placed in charge of some brethren who look to his pleasure during the rest of
the evening. Every brother who is a member of another lodge is marked with a
small bow of blue ribbon on his coat lapel. This badge, marking him a visitor
and being automatically an introduction to every brother present, smooths the
way for easy acquaintance and informal welcome.
Particularly has the Fellow Craft Club taken responsibility for the social
side of lodge life. Lunches and smokers following lodge meetings have been
arranged and managed. At these affairs, delightful in their informality, there
is often a speaker who for a few minutes speaks entertainingly, after which
the men themselves either ask questions, continue the discussion, or indulge
in general conversation.
The club has arranged a few dances during the winter season. These have been
simple and inexpensive, and have interested many who were not permanently
attracted by the ritual work.
This summer, indoor lodge activities being unseasonable, the club took the
lead in the arrangements for a successful picnic in which all the appendant
Masonic bodies of the city joined.
The club has found it desirable, however, to preserve for itself organization
enough to prevent the feeling that it is merely a group of committees. To this
end the officers have arranged a monthly meeting for the discussion of plans
and policies; and in connection with this meeting have introduced an
initiation for the new members. The club being largely social, it has not been
felt that the initiation need carry any very serious import. It is not even
remotely suggestive of any Masonic degree work, that being too sacred to be
trifled with. This little initiation employs amusing and entertaining features
without degenerating into anything undesirable, yet closes with a dignified
climax. Containing amusement and a little instruction, it has added greatly to
the interest of the club.
find that the club has awakened and maintained an interest in many men by
giving them something to do. It has scattered rather widely among them the
social duties and responsibilities, as well as the incidental work of the
lodge. Many men do not care to hold Masonic office. Many more are not fitted
for the peculiar requirements of such responsibility. But almost every man
being interested in his lodge, we find that most of them are glad to do the
things which this club fosters.
are but beginning, and find that there is a large field of activity not yet
touched, Many more things might with benefit be done.
The many branches and forms of Masonic study and instruction remain for future
development, which might with entire appropriateness be fostered by the Fellow
The discussions following the regular meetings could be systematized,
extended, and made more important.
Subcommittees might well care for and handle the properties for the various
degrees, thus saving time and making for general efficiency.
Some work along dramatic lines would be valuable. College dramatic clubs have
shown us how to make this work useful and pleasant, indicating a field where
entertainment and valuable training are combined. As an approach to this work
the club might develop degree teams to understudy the officers for the various
degrees. This would give a taste of degree work to those who do not care to
assume official responsibility, and would perhaps develop good material for
committee of the club might bring to the meetings of the lodge those who are
normally shut in by some handicap and so deprived of lodge life.
The club could do much to keep in touch with every Mason resident in our city
but belonging to a lodge elsewhere. This would extend Masonic courtesy in a
very pleasing way.
have found that our work grows with experience, each new step determining the
direction of further progress.
general our Fellow Craft Club has worked well. It has proved its worth and
usefulness by adding to the efficiency of the lodge. By keeping itself
strictly subordinate to the lodge it has not been subject to any of the
criticisms which would justly condemn any competing or disturbing
organization. It has kept its reason for being strictly in view, has tried to
do its legitimate work, and has held itself strictly to the desires and plans
of the Worshipful Master. It seems to us to have great possibilities for
growth and extension and for added usefulness to our lodge.
summarize. The fact that we live in a very busy time, and that our lodges are
growing rapidly, brings important problems! Any new organization must justify
the time we give it by being useful. The Fellow Craft Club tries to help the
Master to solve some of his problems by giving him active assistantance. It
has a simple organization, and holds itself strictly subordinate to the
Master. It furnishes a Fellow Craft team. It provides reception committees for
communications, with especial reference to visitors. It arranges social
affairs following meetings. It has arranged winter dances and a summer picnic.
It has its own meetings, with a diverting initiation. It has interested men by
giving them duties. Still further work remains to be done.
Pleasures are like poppies spread,
You seize the flower, the bloom is shed,
like the snowflake in the river,
moment white, then lost forever.
THE TEACHINGS OF MASONRY
following paper is one of a series of articles on "Philosophical Masonry," or
"The Teachings of Masonry," by Brother Haywood, to be used for reading and
discussion in lodges and study clubs. From the questions following each
section of the paper the study club leader should select such as he may desire
to use in bringing out particular points for discussion. To go into a lengthy
discussion on each individual question presented might possibly consume more
time than the lodge or study club may be able to devote to the study club
conducting the study club meetings the leader should endeavor to hold the
discussions closely to the text of the paper and not permit the members to
speak too long at one time or to stray onto another subject. Whenever it
becomes evident that the discussion is turning from the original subject the
leader should request the members to make notes of the particular points or
phases of the matter they may wish to discuss or inquire into and bring them
up after the last section of the paper is disposed of.
meetings should be closed with a "Question Box" period, when such questions as
may have come up during the meeting and laid over until this time should be
entered into and discussed. Should any questions arise that cannot be answered
by the study club leader or some other brother present, these questions may be
submitted to us and we will endeavor to answer them for you in time for your
Supplemental references on the subjects treated in this paper will be found at
the end of the article.
BRO. H.L. HAYWOOD, IOWA
PART X - DEMOCRACY
WHEN in the course of human events the mass of people living in a nation learn
how to live together as a people, and devise means whereby to secure for
themselves their rights as a people, and contrive political machinery and
social institutions of such character as exist by and for the whole mass of
individuals, that land may be said to be a democracy; for democracy may be
described as a state of society in which the people as a whole control in
their own collective interest the institutions and forces of the nation. No
nation becomes democratic by first thinking out a theory of what democracy is
and then, as an architect follows a blueprint, deliberately setting out to put
the theory into practice; but they arrive at democracy very gradually and
naturally, though not always without strife, by securing control of one thing
and of another until they have control of everything, mad then manage
everything so as to satisfy the needs and desires of the people as a whole.
Some nations long for democracy, others are on the way to democracy, and
others still may be said to possess it, albeit in no nation has it as yet
become perfect. The most conspicuous among these last is, perhaps, our own
country. It was the first great nation to adopt democracy whole-heartedly,
and it has from the first never swerved from the path that leads to a more and
more complete control of everything by the people themselves and in their own
interests. Whether one should describe as democratic a nation that merely
longs for it, or whether the name should be exclusively applied only to those
nations which may be truly said already to possess it, must be left to the
individual's opinion to decide. The use of words is one thing, facts are
another. The organization of public life by and for the public - that is what
we Americans all our hearts, unless we are renegades, and that is what we
American Masons, with an equal whole-heartedness, believe the Masonic
Fraternity to stand for.
you find Brother Haywood's definition of democracy to be adequate? If not, how
would you enlarge or modify it? How can a people ever be said to control their
own life when always a minority, sometimes large, sometimes small, is opposed
to the course of the majority? Is majority rule the same as democracy? Can you
name a nation now existing which is trying to secure democracy? Name two
nations now "on their way to democracy." Would you describe the soviet
government of Russia as a democracy? What kind of a government did Alexander
Hamilton wish us to have? What sort of a nation did Thomas Jefferson strive
for? Were they both democrats? Do you believe that the mass of the citizenship
of this nation is competent to manage its own affairs? A French writer
(Fauget) describes democracy as "the cult of inefficiency." Do you agree with
him? Or do you agree with President-Emeritus Eliot of Harvard University that
democracy is the most efficient of governments ?
Now it is self evident that there may be many means whereby the public as a
public may come into control of its own social forces and institutions. How
democracy is to be won and preserved is a question of political and social
machinery, and that is a question that cannot concern us here because it
belongs to politics. Suffice to say that it is possible for the people
directly to manage their own institutions, as in some cities the price of a
street car ride is determined by popular ballot, which is usually described as
"direct democracy," and that it is also possible for the people to control
their own institutions through elected representatives as is usually done
among us, which method
called the "republican" or "representative" system. In our own nation we mix
up the two methods very much and the United States might be properly described
as a democracy in the form of a republic.
What is meant by political science? What is sociology? What is economics? Give
examples from your own knowledge of "direct democracy." Of "representative
democracy." Can you explain the difference between the Democratic Party and
the Republican Party on this question?
The Study Club member may have been wondering why it should be necessary to
include in this series a paper on democracy when the course includes two other
papers on equality and liberty respectively. Well, it may be said in reply
that while democracy includes equality and liberty, equality and liberty may
exist without democracy, and that in our nation, and also I believe in our
Fraternity, we strive for all three together. Liberty means that a man is free
to develop and use the functions of his own nature without undue interference
from others. Equality means that one man has the same fundamental nature as
another man, and should have the same privileges to live; but it has often
happened that a social structure has existed in which only a minority of the
people have been permitted to enjoy either liberty or equality. In Athens,
for example, a fraction of the populace was composed of citizens enjoying
liberty while the great bulk of them were slaves, and in many parts of India,
to cite an example of the other kind, all the individuals enjoy liberty but,
owing to a very hard-and-fast caste system, they do not have equality. The
democrat (this must not be confused with the member of the political party
which employs that name) believes that liberty is a good thing for each
individual and that therefore a state should guarantee it to all, and he also
thinks that the state should Provide genuine equality for all. A state in
which all the social forces and values are controlled by and for all the
people, and which is so organized at the same time as to guarantee for all
liberty and equality, may be thought of as the ideal toward which all true
democrats are working. If it be true, as I think it is true, that Freemasonry
is one of the mightiest forces working in that direction, we may all feel that
no institution could be of more value to our nation than Freemasonry.
must be careful not to conceive of democracy being merely political. I should
advance this as a criticism of James Bryce's definition in his recent
treatise, already seen to be a great work, called "Modern Democracies." He
says that "Democracy really means nothing more nor less than the rule of the
whole people expressing their sovereign will by their votes." That is clearly
a merely political definition. Democracy is oft something besides a "rule": it
may be an expression of the popular life, as in what we call democratic art,
like the "Leaves of Grass" by Walt Whitman; and when it is a rule it may be
exercised in quite other ways, as when social changes are brought about or
prevented by the power of public opinion; and also it often happens that the
mere unconscious growth and changing of a people may transform important
conditions in a nation's life.
Then, too, I think one should quarrel with Viscount Bryce's definition in that
it ignores such things as social democracy, industrial democracy, and
intellectual democracy. By social democracy we mean that social customs and
conditions should be controlled and shaped by all the people in the interests
of all the people. By industrial democracy we mean that industry shall be
controlled by and in the interests of everybody; and by intellectual democracy
we mean that there shall be no mere caste of thinkers as there was in Ancient
Egypt but that everybody will use his brains and that science and scholarship
exist for all and by all. The organizing of science and scholarship in public
schools which function under the control of the state is an example of how the
intellectual life may become genuinely democratic. How all these things may
be accomplished or perfected is a question of ways and means, and belongs to
those discussions in which we strive to discover what are the most perfect
social mechanisms, and therefore do not come within our present province.
is wise for us to learn to look at the facts themselves, and do our own
thinking by means of them, rather than to let ourselves be deceived by words.
For oftentimes it happens that a nation may call itself a democracy or a
republic and yet have not even a tithe of the reality for which these names
stand. Mexico under Diaz may have had a very stable government but it was not
a democracy, though Diaz and his grandees were careful to observe the
formalities, and carried on "elections" every once in a while. Diaz called
himself a "President" but in reality was a dictator. In England, on the other
hand, there is a king and a royal house but everybody knows that the English
people are quite as democratic as we are, because their great governing body
is immediately responsible to the people, and is elected directly by the
Can you tell in what ways some of our own social institutions are not yet
democratic? What is a social institution? Name five. Do you believe that
industry should be socialized, or brought under public control? Is this the
same as Socialism? If not, in what way does it differ? How could industrial
democracy be brought about? Can you name any country that calls itself a
democracy which is really not? Name a democratic country that still has a king
but is really democratic. Is Belgium a democracy?
may be safely said that Freemasonry is about the most democratic institution
in existence. On its lodge floor men of all grades of rank, wealth and
influence meet together in absolute equality, so that Presidents of the United
States have sat on the side lines while some humble workman governed in the
East. Its members are elected by secret ballot; its officers are chosen by
ballot also; and it is governed by laws administered through representatives
who must, once a year, give an account of their trust to the body of the
membership. It is so organized that its responsibilities and privileges are
equally distributed among the whole membership so that all share equally.
The democratic nature of the Craft is shown by its actual conduct in history
during the past two hundred years. It arose in England (I refer here to
modern speculative Masonry as we now know it) when society in general hated
and loathed the idea of democracy, and when men were broken up into social
classes of such rigidity as really to constitute genuine castes; but in its
lodges it gave to every man absolute freedom of thought and expression and it
put into practice those methods of popular rule which we have now in our
government. Since its reorganization in 1717 it has always thrown its weight,
or at least with very few exceptions if any, on the side of popular rule. I
had occasion recently to read every reference to Freemasonry in the
Encyclopedia Britannica, and I was struck by the fact again and again that the
Fraternity received mention almost every time as being one of the forces on
the side of a revolt against tyranny in some country, as, for example, in
Spain and in Belgium. We know how that a great many of the founders of our
nation were active members of the Craft; how that the Declaration of
Independence has been freely described, even by the profane, as a Masonic
document; and how it can be accurately said that the Constitution of the
United States is Masonry put into political practice; and we also know that
Masons were very active in tormenting and carrying through the American
Revolution. My friend and colleague, Cyrus Field Willard, of San Diego,
California, has prepared a paper on "The Origin of the Scottish Rite" which is
to be published in these pages, in which he shows that European Jews of great
wealth were so anxious to see organized here a democracy in which they could
have full citizenship and never be in danger of persecution that they poured
vast sums of money into the coffers of the Revolutionary government; and that
they made use of lodges, and organized many such, in order to carry on their
work through Masonry.
The teachings and principles of Freemasonry can never be realized in any state
of society save a democratic one. How could there be equality for all in a
nation ruled by a class, or a caste, or a clique of bureaucrats, or a set of
multi-millionaires? How could liberty be guaranteed to every last man in a
nation that did not govern itself through laws that apply equally to all, and
are interpreted and executed by men chosen by the people and responsible to
the people? In any other kind of government liberty and equality may be
granted for a time as a privilege but there is never any way of knowing, as
history itself so abundantly attests, when that privilege will be withdrawn.
The foregoing mention of the Scottish Rite reminds one of Masonry's great
book, Albert Pike's "Morals and Dogma." Those who have carefully read that
wonderful work ("those" should include every Mason, whether he be a member of
the Scottish Rite Bodies or not) will recall how that liberty and equality
sound through its pages over and over like a mighty bell, and how that the
author interprets the whole of history as a vast conflict between the forces
that make for tyranny and the forces that make for freedom. It is often asked
why Scottish Rite Masonry makes such headway in Latin countries where Ancient
Craft Masonry (the "Blue Lodge") stagnates: I believe the reply to be this,
that Albert Pike and his co-founders of the Scottish Rite System organized a
Masonry that may be readily translated into a people's yearning for political
freedom. They read in its mighty palimpsest their own prayers for liberation;
they find in it a power for emancipation; it is an irresistible force for the
overthrow of thrones and dominions.
But is must not be supposed that Freemasonry works for democracy only when it
is engaged in some actual struggle, as it was during our Revolutionary
period. Its silent and perpetual influences, quiet as the coming of the
night, unostentatiously prepare in every Masons mind those thoughts and
feelings which make toward democracy. It has become a commonplace with
political thinkers that democracy cannot come to any people until they have
prepared themselves for it. It is not a magic that acts independently of the
citizenship; it is a thing that people themselves do if it be done, and it
cannot be unless they learn how to do it, and until they desire it with a
ceaseless desire. A great Order of more than two and one-half million members
in this nation exercises an immeasurable influence toward a full and complete
democracy by constantly instilling into its members those ideas and longings
which inwardly prepare them for the fullest measures of equality and liberty.
As the sun works so potently in the spring in developing the young seeds until
a luxuriant vegetation breaks forth, so does the mighty Order that is
dedicated to Light throw its fructifying warmth about the mind and heart of
everyone of its children. And it does this ceaselessly. It knows no seasons:
it has no winter.
Democracy, I said, is not a kind of magic that works whether or no. It is not
an infallibility. When the people govern themselves they do not escape
mistakes nor are they miraculously freed from weaknesses and evils. The
theory of democracy is that the people can learn to govern themselves only by
governing themselves, just as an individual learns by experience and
experiments. Therefore though the people, or let us say "we," may fail, time
and again, that is no reason for despairing of democracy.
the foregoing section are mentioned a few ways in which Freemasonry is
democratic; can you name others? Can you give examples of how Freemasonry has
actually fought on the side of political liberty? Why can't a democratic
institution like ours flourish in an undemocratic society? What is the
principal idea in Pike's "Morals and Dogma"? What does that name mean? Has
Freemasonry made you more democratic? How can one carry out the ideals of
democracy in every day conduct? How would you change Masonry to make it more
democratic? Could it be made more democratic?
Mackey's Encyclopedia-(Revised Edition):
Free, p. 280; Free and Accepted, p. 281; Free Born, p. 281; Freedom, p. 281;
Freedom, Fervency and Zeal, p. 282; Freeman, 282; Freemasonry, p. 283; Free
Will and Accord, p. 284. Democratic rule implies the just collective
government of themselves by free men. Just as Freemasonry has its peculiar
strength in the free choice of its members to become initiates of their own
accord and that they have the qualifications to do so r being themselves free
born and free men, so is the democracy formed of those united to govern
themselves with due regard the personal liberty and equality of each. Only by
knowledge of what is meant by Masonic freedom, liberty, and equality, may one
best understand that democracy intended by the Freemason fathers of the
Republic in the making of its Constitution.
Scales, p. 666; Equality, p. 247. Both refer to the lesson of balance, and
both ought to be considered in connection with the Level, p. 242. A just
Masonic appreciation of these leads not to the anarchy recognizing no
distinction, but to that brotherhood which rejoices unselfishly in our
successful neighbour's referment.
Belgium, p.102; Egyptian Mysteries, p. 232; Egyptian Priests, Initiation of
the, p. 234; Grand Lodge (as a governing body), p. 306; Mexico, p. 482; Pike,
Albert, p. 563; Scottish Rite, p. 671; Social Character of Freemasonry, p.
STUDY CLUB PLAN
Bulletin Course of Masonic Study," of which the foregoing paper by Brother
Haywood is a part, was begun in THE BUILDER early in 1917. Previous to the
beginning of the present series on "Philosophical Masonry," or "The Teachings
of Masonry," as we have titled it, were published some forty-three papers
covering in detail "Ceremonial Masonry" and "Symbolical Masonry" under the
following several divisions: "The Work of a Lodge," "The Lodge and the
Candidate," "First Steps," "Second Steps," and "Third Steps." A complete set
of these papers up to January 1st, 1921, are obtainable in the bound volumes
of THE BUILDER for 1917, 1918, 1919 and 1920 and 1921.
Following is an outline of the subjects covered by the current series of study
club papers by Brother Haywood:
TEACHINGS OF MASONRY
The Masonic Conception of Human Nature.
The Idea of Truth in Freemasonry.
The Masonic Conception of Education.
Ritualism and Symbolism.
Initiation and Secrecy.
Masonry and Industry.
The Brotherhood of Man.
The Fatherhood of God.
Schools of Masonic Philosophy.
systematic course of Masonic study has been taken up and carried out in
monthly and semi-monthly meetings of lodges and study clubs all over the
United States and Canada, and in several instances in lodges overseas.
course of study has for its foundation two sources of Masonic information, THE
BUILDER and Mackey's Encyclopedia.
TO ORGANIZE AND CONDUCT STUDY CLUB MEETINGS
clubs may be organized separate from the lodge, or as a part of the work of
the lodge. In the latter case the lodge should select a committee, preferably
of three "live" members who shall have charge of the study club meetings. The
study club meetings should be held at least once a month (excepting during
July and August, when the study club papers are discontinued in THE BUILDER),
either at a special communication of the lodge called for the purpose, or at a
regular communication at which no business (except the lodge routine) should
be transacted - all possible time to be devoted to study club purposes.
the lodge has been opened and all routine business disposed of, the Master
should turn the lodge over to the chairman of the study club committee. The
committee should be fully prepared in advance on the subject to be discussed
at the meeting. All members to whom references for supplemental papers have
been assigned should be prepared with their material, and should also have a
comprehensive grasp of Brother Haywood's paper by a previous reading and study
PROGRAM FOR STUDY CLUB MEETINGS
Reading of any supplemental papers on the subject for the evening which may
have been prepared by brethren assigned such duties by the chairman of the
study club committee.
Reading of the first section of Brother Haywood's paper.
Discussion of this section, using the questions following this section to
bring out points for discussion.
The subsequent sections of the paper should then be taken up and disposed of
in the same manner.
Question Box. Invite questions on any subject in Masonry, from any and all
brethren present. Let the brethren understand that these meetings are for
their particular benefit and enlightenment and get them into the habit of
asking all the questions they may be able to think of. If at the time these
questions are propounded no one can answer them, send them in to us and we
will endeavor to supply answers to them in time for your next study club
foregoing information should enable study club committees to conduct their
meetings without difficulty. However, if we can be of assistance to such
committees, or any individual member of lodges and study clubs at any time
such brethren are invited to feel free to communicate with us.
BRO. FRANK C. HICKMAN, MICHIGAN
time! immortal is thy life!
The emblematic Scythe, thy Knife,-
With which thou reap.
Thy harvest is life's brittle thread,-
Thou sever free,
Whereby thou send us on to tread
Behold! what havoc thou hast made
Mid'st Mortal man!
time! thou has't a cruel trade
infancy arrive at youth,
Without a Scratch,
And youth succeeds to man, forsooth,
With health to match,-
Yet all too soon, thou Scythe of Time!
Cut short our days,
And we are gathered up in fine
And sent our ways.
THE PRIVILEGES OF YOUR N.M.R.S. MEMBERSHIP
SEVERAL THOUSAND new members have flocked into our family since the war and
many of these brethren, so there is some reason to believe, have as yet not
discovered all the privileges and opportunities that accompany membership in
the National Masonic Research Society. To the end that these brethren may be
made to feel more at home, and that they may be made acquainted with their
rights and prerogatives as members, they are invited to join in the little
conference which we shall now hold among ourselves and for our own benefit. Ye
editor will address the new members, as follows:
When you joined our circle it was not by means of purchasing a subscription to
THE BUILDER but by taking out membership in The National Masonic Research
Society, and therefore you are entitled to much more than the twelve monthly
numbers of the journal each year.
The Society carries on a constantly increasing service by correspondence. This
service covers the whole field of Masonic research, study, and reading, and of
all the various activities that pertain to those interests. If you have any
need at all for the Society's services do not hesitate to write to us about
you have a talk to prepare and can't find any materials for it? Or, it may be,
do not know how to go about preparing a talk on Masonry ? Let us help you.
you wish to borrow or to buy a book on Masonry? Ask us. We are not always able
to obtain books, either for loaning or for sale, but we do our best. We have a
few books for sale ourselves. If a book can be purchased, and we do not have
it on our lists, we shall tell you where you can get it. If you wish to borrow
a book we shall help you find the loan of it when that is possible. If you are
thinking of buying some books but wish first to consult us about their value,
feel free to write about them.
you wish to start a Study Club in your lodge but do not know how to go about
it we shall be very glad to help you. After assisting in the organization of
several thousand we have learned much from experience, and this which we have
learned we are here to share with you.
you are of a mind to undertake the study of Masonry privately and for your own
individual benefit we shall be equally pleased to lend you whatever assistance
you need toward outlining a list of titles, and in securing whatever materials
you may find necessary.
You are entitled to all these forms of service by virtue of your membership in
the Society, and you must consider yourself at liberty to write to the Society
at any time about anything. There will never be any charges whatsoever for
such assistance as it is the Society's function to render.
THE BUILDER is not a magazine in the strict sense of that term but a Journal,
by the which is meant that its control and management is vested in the Society
as a whole instead of in the hands of one man, or a group of men, and it
exists to reflect the life of the Society and to minister to the needs of the
Society. Each and every one of you is associated with the editor in the
production of it. If you have something you consider worth publishing submit
it; if there is room for it, and it is deemed worthy of print, it will be
published. Every member has the right to contribute materials to THE BUILDER.
you are troubled by some difficulty in your reading about Masonry send your
problem to the Question Box Editor. You will receive a reply as soon as it is
possible to unearth the facts, and unless the Question Box Department is
overcrowded the reply will appear there in due time over your initials. As
soon as a reply is prepared you will receive a copy of it through the mails.
you have anything to say about the Society itself, or about THE BUILDER, or if
you wish to address a word to the Fraternity at large, or make some comment on
matters of the day that pertain to Masonry, prepare a letter for the
Correspondence Department. Many letters are received and replied to that do
not appear in that department, but all letters that deserve a wide notice or
are worthy of permanent record, are published sooner or later, if it is
possible to find the space.
you are the director of a Study Club and you are looking for an outline of
studies for your club turn to the back numbers of THE BUILDER beginning with
1917. You will there find the beginnings of a complete course of such studies
covering the entire Blue Lodge ritual. At the present time a second series is
running on "The Teachings of Masonry." In order to meet the demand for the
first series it is arranged to publish the same in book form some time during
this year. This volume will be arranged as a text book for Study Clubs and
will contain all the information and helps that any club will need under
you have become interested in Masonic reading and study you should possess the
bound volumes of THE BUILDER. Thus far seven such volumes have been issued.
Each volume contains an index and there is a consolidated index covering all
the volumes together for the first five years. These seven bound volumes
comprise the largest and most accurate as semblage of articles and of
information dealing with Masonry that can anywhere be obtained. THE BUILDER
has already become an encyclopedia.
you have not already done so it will be worth your while to read very
carefully the paragraphs on the inside front cover of THE BUILDER.
And now a word about Masonic books. Many of our best works are published
abroad, and it is often quite impossible to get them. Other works often quoted
have gone out of print and therefore cannot be included in our book list. In
that event we are always ready to refer a request for these titles to houses
that deal in second-hand Masonic books. The titles included in our own list
are not by any means the only ones that we should recommend; they are listed
because it is possible to supply them promptly in quantities.
you encounter a book that we have not reviewed in The Library Department
acquaint the editor with the fact. He is evermore on the lookout for all
Masonic books that appear. If you know of a book that you believe we should
include in our list write us about it.
The National Masonic Research Society, including its journal, THE BUILDER, is
not a commercial institution existing in order to pay dividends, but a Masonic
service organization existing to render whatever help it can toward the
enlarging and enriching of the life of the Masonic Fraternity, to the glory of
which it is dedicated.
there are yet other questions that you have in your minds write to the editor
about them. You are one of the family and you are urged to enjoy the freedom
of the house.
THE HAND AND THE BRAIN
Ever and anon one encounters in Masonic journals and in Masonic speeches a
good deal of fault-finding with Masonic study and research on the ground that
a "real" Mason, a "true" Mason, - the words are emphasized here to conform
with the emphasis that is always given to them in such cases - is one who
works hard in charity, in carrying the burdens of the lodge, and in putting
into practice in the world outside the principles that he has been taught
inside the lodge, mstead of being one who wastes his time reading a lot of
Masonic books. Why make any such distinction? If that distinction is valid in
Freemasonry is it not equally valid elsewhere, and for the same reason ? Then
why send a boy to school to be taught mathematics, logic, history, poetry
whereas he might be putting in his time at the more practical tasks of driving
a delivery wagon or following the plow? Why should a man ever waste his time
reading a book when it is well known that a book is a string of mere words,
and there is so much actual work to be done in the world ? These will be
considered ridiculous questions but they are not one whit more ridiculous than
the attempt to draw a line of cleavage between Masonic study and Masonic
practice, because a man needs use only one eye while he is abroad in the Craft
to see that as a rule the men who do the most Masonic reading are the ones who
do the most Masonic work. A statesman reads history in order that he may the
better meet the problems of his own day. A professional man studies Latin in
order that he may the better understand how to write a prescription or design
a building. A physician studies anatomy, with all its thousand and one details
of remote significance, in order that he may the more successfully diagnose
the malady of a sick child. There is no conflict anywhere between right study
and right practice, and there never has been. Men study to know in order the
better to do. So has it always been, so is it now, so will it ever be. And so
is it in Freemasonry. Those who study to know the history, the philosophy, the
ritual, the symbolism, the jurisprudence, and the literature of the Craft are
not idle dilettanti anxious to set up false claims to mentality, but men who
are busy equipping the brain that it may all the more successfully direct the
Once in awhile, a long while, one encounters a production that is a classic in
its own field. Expressing a fact or an idea in a manner that is adequate,
delightful, and final, it takes its place at once among those things that we
treasure and preserve. Ye editor believes that the paragraph which follows is
to be so classified. He found it in the annual address of the Grand Master of
Arkansas for 1920, Brother Louis Bauerlein, and the utterance speaks for
itself, and that abundantly in every fashion. And what a picture it is! Were
all Masons to be tricked out like the attractive specimen presented herewith
what a spectacle would a lodge assembled present! A colony of flamingoes, a
bevy of birds of paradise would be as tame as the cocoa mat that lies upon the
porch! The watch-fob Mason, the jeweler's pride, let him look into this glass
and see himself:
"Visiting a certain lodge your Grand Master found the Worshipful Master much
troubled because he had a visitor who could not prove himself. At the request
of the Worshipful Master your servant went to the committee room and found a
brother taking a cigarette from a silver case upon which was enameled the
square and compasses. We remarked: 'That is a nice case.' The visitor replied:
'It cost me $7.00. I bought it when I took the third degree. I paid $40.00 for
the degrees.' Question after question was asked and no answer could he give
that would prove he had received anything for his $47.00. We noticed a pair of
cuff buttons: on each was a keystone. We were informed that they cost $15.00
and he had purchased them when he was made a Royal Arch Mason and he further
enlightened us that the Chapter degrees had set him back $25.00. Seeing a
beautiful Knight Templar charm, your servant discovered that this charm
together with the Commandery degrees had cost $250.00 more. Commenting upon a
ring the visitor displayed as he lighted his cigarette brought forth the
information that this ring and the Scottish Rite degrees had separated the
visitor from three hundred American dollars, - and yet he could not work his
way into a Blue Lodge! Seeing a button on his coat, we asked: 'How much did
that cost you?' With a face lighted up with a smile the decorated brother
replied: 'My wife gave me that when I joined the Shrine, but I paid $78.00 for
the degree, which included the Fez.' We were glad to learn that the good
brother had at least one piece of jewelry that cost him nothing, but the
brother continued: 'The Shrine is the playground of Masonry and I am glad that
I have all there is in Masonry and am at the top.'
"Poor deluded man, he had paid $715 to get all there was in Masonry he
remembered that, but not a word of the ritual, not a beauty, not a lesson. For
his $715 he had gotten nothing. Money will not purchase the beauties of our
mysteries. They must come through the heart and mind and not through the
purse. Before you can see all the gems and beauties of our beloved Order
revealed in their grandeur, you must have a vision."
NEW BRIEF HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY
"The Story of the Craft," by Wor. Bro. Lionel Vibert, author of "Freemasonry
Before the Existence of Grand Lodges," etc. Published by Spencer & Co., 19
Great Queen Street, London, W. C. 2. For sale by the National Masonic Research
Society at $1.35, postpaid.
A HAPPY circumstance this book has appeared almost coincidentally with the
installation of Brother Vibert in the East of of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati,
Masonry's highest academic honor. Not since the days of the giants has any
other man been more justly entitled to the position, for Brother Vibert has
been these many years a faithful and diligent servant of that great research
institution, and it would be impossible to discover another more thoroughly
imbued with its tone, or more attuned to its methods. His earlier work,
entitled "Freemasonry Before the Existence of Grand Lodges" and very well
known, was a compend of the more important results of Quatuor Coronati
researches in the field of early Freemasonry, and helped much to make
available to laymen throughout the world the achievements of the scholars in
that field. His new work, just off the press, is another essay in the same
line, and quite as successful, which is praise enough.
the Masons who feel an interest in Masonic history, and who desire to be
intelligent in their Masonry as well as faithful, very few have either time or
inclination to push their way through the great tomes of erudition in which
lie buried whatever is known about the Craft: and these men, countless numbers
of them, have been asking for something brief and simple that they may find
time and ability to read. Also, there are many others, more advanced students,
who, though they find opportunity to read a little, are utterly unable to keep
pace with the latest developments in research, and are accordingly eager to
have the field reviewed for them by some competent specialist. Brother
Vibert's book, "The Story of the Craft," is designed to meet the needs of both
these groups: it is brief (88 pages in all) and simple, and it is an authentic
report (though not in the form of a report) of the results of Quatuor Coronati
researches in the department of general Masonic history.
Brother Vibert has an eye single to the facts in the case. In writing he was
very evidently intent upon furnishing his reader a maximum of facts in a
minimum of space. His condensation is almost Baconian, so that his pages are
like conglomerate rocks, not beautiful to see, but pebbled through with hard
bits of dry information. The reader may at times wish his author a little
easier to follow, but for all that he will not be inclined to find fault. A
scorn of verbiage, an absence of that windy rhetoric which so often inflates a
ten page Masonic pamphlet (or what should be one) into a 200 page "book," is
refreshing and rewarding. May the day come when all our writers will be as
much interested in facts! A typical example of Brother Vibert's method of
telling a long story in few words is found in his account of the rise and
development of the "Antient Grand Lodge," as printed on page seventy-one of
"There now appeared in London a number of Irish Freemasons, men of very humble
social standing for the most part, but Masons nevertheless, and following the
usages that in their minds were associated with the Craft from time
immemorial. Not only did they find the Grand Lodge (this refers to the
"Modern" Grand Lodge. - H.L.H.) following different practices, but these Irish
Masons were refused recognition by that body.
"They thereupon, in 1751, took the strong step of forming a Grand Committee of
their own, which in 1753 they made into a Grand Lodge, and they called
themselves the Antients, to indicate that they stood for the true tradition,
and the original Grand Lodge they described as the Moderns, in reference to
the innovations it had introduced. Further, at this time the Grand Lodge at
York, which had long since asserted, apparently without objection, that it
alone was of great antiquity, was dormant. The Antients, therefore, also
described themselves as 'York Masons,' meaning thereby no more than that they,
like the Masons at York, preserved the true traditions of the operative lodges
and the Old Charges, which refer to an Assembly held at York by Edwin. The
moving spirit in all this was Laurence Dermott, who was Secretary, and later
on Deputy Grand Master, and in 1756 he issued Constitutions, under the title
of 'Ahiman Rezon' (which has been explained as meaning 'faithful brother
Secretary'). They also very soon had a peer as their Grand Master, and the
circumstance that at a later date two Dukes of Atholl presided over them, the
second being their last Grand Master before the year of the Union, (the Union
of the Antients and Moderns came in 1813. - H.L.H.) also led them to be known
as the Atholl Grand Lodge. No doubt they attracted to themselves many who were
dissatisfied with the original Grand Lodge and its methods, but it must be
clearly understood that in its inception the Grand Lodge of the Antients was
not a seceding but an independent body."
this excellently brief fashion Brother Vibert covers about the same ground as
Gould's "Concise History" except - and this is somewhat a new departure in
writing Masonic history - he ignores in beginning the long story of the
ancient backgrounds of Freemasonry, in which usually are included accounts of
the Ancient Mysteries, the Collegia, the Comacini, and all that.
any advance serious objections to Brother Vibert's volume it will be on the
ground that he has too completely ignored the part played by organizations
other than Operative Masons in the evolution of the Craft. As things now
stand, so it will be urged, the features of Freemasonry that most appeal to
the imagination are in many cases manifestly not of operative origin at all,
but derive from occult fraternities and similar groups; and these elements
have as necessary a place in even a brief resume of Masonic history as any
account of builders' lodges and their work. To this Brother Vibert would very
probably reply that he has undertaken only to tell the story of the
institution as an institution, without reference to the ritual and philosophy
and antiquities, and that everything cannot be told in only eighty-eight
The student, especially the beginner, who needs at hand a brief reference work
in which to find dates, names, and facts, will have no cause to quarrel with
"The Story of the Craft" on the ground of omissions, for it contains nearly
all the more salient matters of fact. For my own part, I shall place the
volume on the shelf with Gould's "Concise," and stand ready to recommend it to
beginners in Masonic study and to Study Clubs whenever an opportunity
presents. Among more recent publications Heiron's "Ancient Freemasonry and the
Old Dundee Lodge, No. 18," "A Century of Masonic Working" by F. W. Golby, and
"A New Encyclopedia of Freemasonry" by A. E. Waite (all published by the same
firm) should go along with it on the same shelf. And if anybody chances to ask
me, "Do you like Vibert's new book?", I shall reply that I like it very well
except that it does not have an index. Alas for all these English brethren who
have formed the bad habit of publishing books without index !
THE BLOIS MASONIC CLUB
"Masonry in the World War, a History of the Masonic Club of A. P. O. 726, A.
E. F., Blois, France." Compiled by Brothers E. Q. Jackson, J. M. Loughborough,
and Mitchell Wilt. Price fifty cents.
Among the many Masonic clubs organized in France by members of the A.E.F. the
club at Blois was one of the most successful. Among the larger units of
organization which constituted the A.E.F. and which helped mightily to put the
Boches to sleep was the Service of Supplies, or, as it was familiarly known,
the S.O.S. Under this service there existed at Blois a Casual Officers' Depot,
American Post Office 726. The function of the C.O.D. was to reclassify wounded
officers who were ready to return to service, also, green officers, just over
who had not yet been assigned, were sent through the C.O.D. in order to be
fitted into their places. To maintain a big institution such as the C.O.D.
required many resident officers, commissioned and noncommissioned, and these
were called "permanents." Among these "permanents" were, of course, a lot of
Masons, and thereby hangs this tale.
the 15th of March, 1918, a number of these brethren held an informal meeting
with a view to the organization of a Masonic Club. On March 22nd another
meeting was held, and on March 29th a permanent organization was effected
under the name "High Twelve Club." On May 3rd this name was changed to the
"Masonic Club of A.P.O. 726."
But there is not space in which to carry the interesting story any farther. To
that end the three brethren listed under the caption have compiled and written
a paper-bound history of this club, and a good one it is, full of romance and
information, and done in the very best style. In connection with the history
of the club these brethren have furnished a list of brief biographical
sketches of the brethren who worked in it and, what is still more important, a
roster of the club arranged alphabetically according to states. Of these names
there are more than nine pages, and every state seems to be represented. Those
who in any way came into contact with the club at Blois will surely wish to
have this book; so also will the Masonic reader who desires to keep in touch
with the developing story of Freemasonry overseas. A copy may be obtained by
writing to Brother E. Q. Jackson, 846 Lexington Avenue, New York. N. Y.
"The Saint" by Antonio Fogazzaro. Translated from the Italian by M.
Prichard-Agnetti, with an Introduction by William Roscoe Thayer. Published by
Grosset & Dunlap, 1140 Broadway, New York, N. Y., by special arrangements with
G. P. Putnam's, New York and London.
Jeanne was the "woman" who had belonged to Benedetto's past. Donna Rosetta was
the wife of an "excellency," the Under-Secretary of State, and a hard-lipped
cynical person, loving intrigues. The latter had dragged Jeanne off to see the
notorious "non-concessionist," Cardinal Blank, on the pretext that he might be
wheedled into using his influence in behalf of "the saint," Benedetto, who had
been commanded to leave Rome within three days. When the Donna Rosetta
returned to the carriage to her awaiting friend she, - but I shall let the
author himself describe the scene.
"As she enters the carriage she casts a little book at her feet, and, instead
of speaking, rubs her lips vehemently against her perfumed handkerchief.
Finally she says, with a shudder, that she was obliged to kiss the Cardinal's
hand, and that it was anything but clean.... And he had given her a little
book on the doctrines of hell and the inevitable damnation of Freemasons. It
was this little book she had cast at her feet on entering the carriage."
Donna Rosetta and Jeanne rode home with the little book about the inevitable
damnation of Freemasons under their feet.
This sarcastic little gleam lies upon the book like a blue ray from the moon
through an angry sky. Is the sarcasm intended for us, for us Freemasons? or is
the author making sport of the Cardinal whose hand "was anything but clean" ?
It is hard to say.
Oh! well, the little incident is indeed a little incident, and it has been
described here because it is a point of contact between a famous novel and our
Antonio Fogazzaro was born at Vincenza in 1842, a district then under the
immediate control of Austria. Having been bred to a liberal mind he was
obliged to seek the Dee air of Piedmont, where Cavour labored titanically and
(at last) successfully to steer the Italian people between the Scylla of the
Red Revolutionaries headed by Mazzini, and the Charybdis of the Black
Reactionaries, headed by the lean-handed gentry of the Vatican, to a
constitutional free government. Law was Fogazzaro's vocation - he became a
senator at last - but literature became his mistress, and it has been in her
field that he has won himself his laurels, quite the greenest and brightest
that any Italian novelist has worn since the days of the great Manzoni. In
1881 he published his first romance, "Malombra"; and in 1905 crowned his
carreer with "Il Santo," the volume now on the table.
few years ago a middle western preacher attracted some attention with a book
on "If Christ Came to Chicago." It was a literary scheme for casting the
Chicago morals into contrast against an ideal background, and it succeeded
very well. "The Saint" is such another book, albeit on a much higher plane of
literary excellence. "If a Saint came to Rome, to the Rome of the Vatican and
the Quirinal," - that is the theme of "The Saint."
Benedetto is a saint, so the author assures us. He is given the dress, the
mien, and the vocabulary, and every other character in the book announces him
as such. But alas! his actions and his speeches, some of the latter of which
are quite long sermons, and even his death, do not give us readers that
impression, unless it be that we shall be content with hearsay. Fogazzaro does
not belong among the great literary creators. He was not able to let Benedetto
himself, by word and by deed, reveal himself to us as a Saint; he was
compelled to have us believe it on the author's word.
consequence of this lack of final creative power, the reader, for all his
genuine interest in the exciting book, discovers it at bottom to be a
sublimated melodrama. It is a moving picture panorama drifting across the
vision wherein popes, monks, innkeepers, college students, gardeners,
musicians, atheists, freethinkers, politicians, and a few lovely women move
along from one interesting situation to another. After this panorama has
passed it is forgotten; the characters have not remained behind in one's mind.
Having said that "The Saint" does not belong among the greatest (where many of
its admirers have placed it) it remains only to say that it is well within the
next-to-the-greatest. It deals with a high theme; it compels one's interest;
it has valorousness and vision. One is glad to have had the privilege of
Senator Fogazzaro wrote the book as an ardent Roman Catholic of the more
liberal school, who expressed himself as not afraid of the new mood of inquiry
and examination which we call the scientific spirit, and who called upon the
governors of the church to open the doors to this new spirit in order to prove
to this generation the eternal vitality of Roman Catholic dogma.
Alas and alas! the book has been placed on the Index !
THE AMERICAN'S CREED
"The Book of the American's Creed." The conditions under which this volume is
circulated are described below. Issued by the American Creed Fellowship.
"In 1916, Henry Sterling Chapin, of New York, conceived the idea of promoting
a country-wide contest for the writing of a National Creed, which should be
the briefest possible expression of American political faith, and at the same
time embrace the fundamental things most distinctive in American history and
"Early in 1917, the proposed contest was announced at a large gathering of
representative American authors, artists, and editors. The American Press took
up the challenge and a number of the great magazines published editorial
articles wishing the plan success.
"On behalf of the city of Baltimore, Mayor John H. Preston offered an award of
$1,000 for the winning creed." Committees were appointed, conditions were
published, and the contest was on. The choice of the Committee on Award was
announced to be the Creed submitted by William Tyler Page, who lives in a
suburb of Washington, D. C., and who, by his researches in constitutional
government, and by a fervent and devout study of American history, had
saturated himself with the spirit of Americanism.
Such, in quotation or in substance, is the account of the origin of the now
familiar "American's Creed" as given in the latter part of "The Book of the
American's Creed," the great little volume now under review.
The nation immediately accepted the Creed, and all over the land school
children by the million were reciting its stately simple sentences. Many
patriots who saw what the result of this might mean to the nation conceived of
the idea of perfecting an organization that might serve as a means of placing
the Creed into the hands of every school child in the land. Out of this idea
grew the "American's Creed Fellowship," the nature and function of which are
so well described in the pages of "Educational Foundations," a pedagogic
bi-monthly published at Cooperstown, New York, the old home of James Fenimore
Educational Foundations wishes to announce to its readers that The American's
Creed Fellowship, has been created, and that it may, in due time, be
incorporated by Congress. The qualifications for membership are as follows:
desire to become a life member of The American's Creed Fellowship, and I
herewith subscribe $1.00, for which I shall receive a Founder's Copy of 'The
American's Creed' issued under the auspices of the historical and patriotic
societies of America, the same containing the Creed, the story of its origin,
and the basis for its phrases in the sayings of the Founders and Builders of
endorse The American's Creed as a summary of American political faith and I
will lend my moral support to the use of the Creed throughout the Nation."
Member of * ________________
Return slip and dues to The American's Creed Fellowship, 849 Park Ave.,
PIease state membership, if any, in patriotic society or societies.
letter worded as above may be sent in and the name will be transferred to the
The Committee on Announcement has issued a pamphlet stating one great specific
object of the Fellowship. Under the heading of "The American's Creed
Fellowship" it states that "A call to the colors means a defense of American
constitutional government 'against all enemies, foreign or domestic.' Armies
led by foreign foes must be repelled by force; but those misled by domestic
enemies may best be won by education.
"The American's Creed, as a comprehensive summary of our political faith,
offers the simplest basis for explaining the principles of constitutional
"Let us not only continue the teaching of The American's Creed in our schools,
in peace as well as in war, but extend the use of it in citizenship work.
"To forward this purpose, The American's Creed Fellowship has been organized.
The Fellowship hopes to place 'The Book of the American's Creed' in the hands
of the graduates of the grammar schools of the United States.
"Each child is to be awarded the book on the sole condition that he or she can
recite the Creed. Three objects will thereby be accomplished which have not
yet been successfully combined in any patriotic endeavor.
"(1) It will interest the child; (2) It will carry an effective message to the
home; and (3) There will be almost no wastage of money or material.
"The Fellowship offers a specially numbered Founder's Copy of 'The Book of The
American's Creed' to every signer of a Fellowship card."
The Committee on Publication consists of the following: Matthew Page Andrews,
Porter Emerson Browner Henry Sterling Chapin, W. B. Chapman, Irvin S. Cobb,
Hamlin Garland, Ellen Glasglow, Richard Gwinn, James H. Preston, Julian
Street, and Charles Hanson Towne. Headquarters for correspondence and
information are at 849 Park Avenue, Baltimore, Maryland.
Washington Headquarters are at the Offices of the Clerk of the House of
The book itself is a little jewel of pure English, of clear thinking, and of
the bookmaker's art, sixty-six pages in length, and appropriately bound in
blue. After printing The American's Creed it devotes 52 pages to an exposition
of its every phrase; this is followed by an account of the manner in which the
Creed came into existence; and the volume closes with a list "Of the Doctrinal
Authorities Upon Which the American's Creed is Based."
Every citizen in the United States should possess a copy of this book. Every
pastor, school teacher, politician, publicist, and public speaker should read,
mark, and inwardly digest it, for the like of it cannot elsewhere be found.
And as for Masons, every member of the Fraternity from one coast to the other,
should keep it ever at his hand. It is one of the clearest and most concise
statements of the principles of the American government that has ever been
PUBLICATIONS WANTED, FOR SALE, AND EXCHANGE
are constantly receiving inquiries from members of the Society and others as
to where they might obtain books on Masonry and kindred subjects, other than
those listed each month on the inside back cover of TIIE BUILDER. Most of the
publications wanted have been out of print for years. Believing that many such
books might be in the hands of other members of the Society willing to dispose
of them we are setting apart this column each month for the use of our
members. Communications from those having old Masonic publications will also
Postoffice addresses are here given that those interested may communicate
direct with each other, no responsibility of any nature to be attached to the
is requested that all brethern whose wants may be filled through this medium
communicate with the Secretary so that the notices may then be discontinued.
Bro. D. D. Berolzheimer, 1 Madison Ave., New York, N. Y.: "Realities of
Masonry," Blake, 1879; "Records of the Hole Craft and Fellowship of Masons,"
Condor, 1894; "Masonic Bibliography," Carson, 1873; "Origin of Freemasonry,"
Bro. G. Alfred Lawrence, 142 West 86th St., New York, N. Y.: Proceedings of
the Scottish Rite Body founded by Joseph Cerneau in New York City in 1808, of
which De Witt Clinton was the first Grand Commander, and which body became
united, in 1867, with the Supreme Council of the Northern Masonic
Jurisdiction, A. & A. S. R. Also Proceedings of the Supreme Council founded in
New York by De La Motta, in 1813, by authority of the Southern Supreme
Council, of which he was Grand Treasurer-General, these Proceedings from 1813
Bro. Frank R. Johnson, 310 Dwight Building, Kansas City, Mo.: "The Year Book,"
published by the Masonic Constellations, containing the History of the Grand
Council, R. & S. M., of Missouri.
Bro. Ernest E. Ford, 306 South Wilson Avenue, Alhambra, California; Ars
Quatuor Coronatorum, volumes 3, 6 and 7, with St. John's Cards, also St.
John's Cards for volumes 4 and 5; "Masonic Review," early volumes; "Voice of
Masonry," early volumes; Transactions Supreme Council Southern Jurisdiction
for the years 1882 and 1886; Original Proceedings of The General Grand
Encampment Knights Templar for the years 1826 and 1835.
Brother N. W. J. Haydon, 664 Pape Ave., Toronto, Ont., Canada: A set of
Gould's History, six volume edition preferred.
Bro. E. A. Marsh, 820 Broad Ave. N. W., Canton, Ohio: "The Traditions of
Freemasonry," by A. T. C. Pierson, published at St. Paul, Minn., 1866.
Bro. Silas H. Shepherd, Hartland, Wisconsin: "Catalogue of the Masonic Library
of Samuel Lawrence," "Second Edition of Preston's Illustrations of Masonry."
Bro. H. H. Klussmann, 310 Monastery St., West Hoboken, N. J.: "Traditions of
Freemasonry," by A.T.C. Pierson; "Illustrations of Masonry," by Preston.
FOR SALE OR EXCHANGE
Bro. Silas H. Shepherd, Hartland, Wisconsin: "Stray Leaves from a Freemason's
Note Book," by George Oliver. This volume also contains "Some Account of the
Schism showing the presumed origin of the Royal Arch Degree." Univ. Mas. Lib.
edition. Price $3.00. "Lights and Shadows of Freemasonry," by Robert Morris.
(Fiction and anecdotes.) Price $3.50.
THE QUESTION BOX
THE BUILDER is an open forum for free and fraternal discussion. Each of its
contributors writes under his own name, and is responsible for his own
opinions. Believing that a unity of spirit is better than a uniformity of
opinion, the Research Society, as such, does not champion any one school of
Masonic thought as over against another, but offers to all alike a medium for
fellowship and instruction, leaving each to stand or fall by its own merits.
The Question Box and Correspondence Column are open to all members of the
Society at all times. Questions of any nature on Masonic subjects are
earnestly invited from our members, particularly those connected with lodges
or study clubs which are following our "Bulletin Course of Masonic Study."
When requested, questions will be answered promptly by mail before publication
in this department.
SOLOMON'S TEMPLE ONCE MORE
Some time ago I read a statement to the effect that prior to the seventeenth
century there was no existence in our traditions or other literary matter of
any claim for descent or other connection with the Temple of Solomon - that
the appearance of this claim dates from the arrival of a learned Jew in
England who appeared before the court of King Charles I with a model of the
Temple and impressed his views as well on those who formed the Accepted part
of the Order so that their influence caused his story to be incorporated into
our legends. What evidence is there for this?
There is no evidence. The story is absurd and obviously is founded on the
exhibition of the model of the Temple of Solomon designed by Gerhard Schott,
rathsherr of Hamburg, and finished by him in 1694. On his death, his heirs
found difficulty in selling the model at what they regarded as a just sum, but
finally disposed of it to an Englishman. The date of 1717 for this transaction
is given by Schott's biographer. It was exhibited in London for years and
ultimately found its way back to Germany. In 1890 it was in Dresden. (See Dr.
Hagedorn's letter, Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, vol. xiii, 1900.) As to a "learned
Jew" appearing with such a story, he would have encountered even at the merry
court of Charles I, Hebraists whose learning was quite equal to that of any
student of the Hebrew language, whether born to the tongue or not. It was
English bishops who gave us King James' version of the Bible, and the
Universities certainly would not forget Hebrew because King James did not live
forever. If you will refer to THE BUILDER for September, 1920, page 3, you
will find a summary of views on the legend of Hiram and its introduction into
Freemasonry, written by Brother H. L. Haywood, that very fully covers the
question, and you will be inclined to adopt Brother Haywood's conclusions. To
this it might be added that the late Sir Walter Besant believed the legend to
have come to us from the Alchemists, Rosicrucians and perhaps Gnostics, while,
on the contrary, W. H. Rylands, the great Masonic authority of England,
believed it was derived from the miracle plays of the Middle Ages. The
researches of E. Conder, Jr., as published in the Ars Quatuor Coronatorum,
went far later to convince Brother Rylands that it could not have originated
in miracle plays, English, at any rate, but the field is still open to the
THE CARDINAL VIRTUES
What are the Cardinal Virtues? Are they supposed to be based on the New
Testament; if so, on what text or texts?
The Cardinal Virtues were enjoined by the Greek and Roman sages long before
the advent of Christ; therefore, though they are met with in one form or
another in every part of the New Testament, they do not rest, for their
sanction, upon any one or more of its texts. See the thoughtful comments on
these Virtues, which are Temperance, Fortitude, Prudence, and Justice, in
Brother Oliver Day Street's article, THE BUILDER, August 1918, page 242.
Cicero gives a characteristically Roman account of them in his De Inventione
Rhetorica, Lib., II, cap. 63, 64; if you will consult that reference you will
discover that these Virtues do not mean the same thing to us that they did to
the Romans. The word "cardinal," in this connection, means "principal," or
"pre-eminent," and oftentimes is applied to more than the conventional four,
as, (the case is noted in Mackey's Encyclopedia) in the dome of Ascension of
St. Mark's at Venice fifteen are given. It was Plato (see his Republic IV,
427) who first gave currency (or so it is supposed) to the four Virtues with
the list of which we are so familiar, and it is said that St. Ambrose was the
first Christian theologian to adapt the list to the Christian system of
morals, though it was with misgivings and with a full understanding of the
limited and arbitrary character of Plato's list. Roman Catholic theologians
formed the habit of describing these Cardinal Virtues as "natural" in
contradistinction to Faith, Hope, and Charity which they, for obvious reasons,
described as "theological." Henry Sidgwick, in his "History of Ethics," goes
thoroughly into all this (pp. 44, 133, etc., 6th edition). St. Augustine loved
to work over all the old "pagan" ethical doctrines, especially the Cardinal
Virtues, into the phraseology of Christianity and in this he has been followed
by Christian theologians ever since. Thomas Aquinas, the master of all the
Scholastics, preferred to follow the lead of Aristotle, the god of the
Scholastics, in his interpretation of the Four, as will be found in the
"Nicomachean Ethics," which is a volume you should consult if you are
interested to pursue this subject very far. It is a curious fact that the
melancholy and unfortunate Belgian sage, Arnold Geulinex, whose principal
works were published posthumously, held that all virtues flow from the one
supreme fount of the love of right reason; and that the cardinal virtues are
diligence, obedience, justice and humility. It will be seen that there is no
very fundamental importance in the arbitrary list that Plato gave us of the
four Cardinal Virtues; other ethical thinkers have chosen other lisp, and so
may we. One virtue so often leads to another that one could select almost any
three, or any other number for that matter, and from those selected deduce a
whole system of morals, and wholesome, perhaps, as well as whole. Nevertheless
it remains true that when they are properly understood the orthodox four will
furnish one with a pretty complete foundation structure for a good working
moral system. In the Masonic system the Cardinal Virtues are referred to in
the work of the First degree.
GILES FONDA YATES
a Masonic speech which I heard last Sunday the speaker mentioned a certain
Yates with so much feeling that I was led to believe that this man must have
been a figure in Freemasonry at one time. But I have never before heard of
him. Can you guess who he might have been?
Your orator must have referred to Giles Fonda Yates - his name sounds like a
line from some melancholy poem, does it not ? - who was so zealous and
influential an apostle of the A. & A. Scottish Rite in the early days of that
Order. Brother Albert Mackey was a close friend of Yates and writes of him
with feeling, as you will discover if you will turn to the brief sketch in the
Encyclopaedia, Volume II, page 864. In addition to what you will find there it
may be said that Yates was for some years editor of the department called
"Horae Esotericae" in the famous old "Freemason's Quarterly," which journal,
as Dr. J.F. Newton has put it, died of too much excellence. Also, Yates was a
tireless student of Indian lore, more especially of the secret societies and
rites of those people, and he was for a number of years a sub-chief in one of
the sections of the Mohawk tribe. Yates was born in Schenectady, New York, in
1796; he died in New York City on December 13, 1869. For a brief time in the
height of his Masonic career he was Sovereign Grand Commander.
GRAND OFFICERS OF THE ACACIA FRATERNITY
Will you please give me the name and address of the Grand Secretary or the
head of the Acacia Fraternity ?
W. P., Maryland.
The present officers of the Acacia Fraternity are:
Grand President - Harry L. Brown, 1670 Old Colony Building, Chicago, Ill.
Grand Counsellor - Howard T. Hill, Box 1, Manhattan, Kansas.
Grand Treasurer - Carroll S. Huntington, 1428 Lunt Ave., Chicago, III.
Grand Secretary - W. Elmer Ekblaw, 711 W. Nevada St., Urbana, Ill.
Grand Editor - T. Hawley Tapping, The Press, Grand Rapids. Mich
ARTHUR BRISBANE NOT A MASON
Will you please advise me if Arthur Brisbane, editor of the Hearst newspapers,
is a Mason?
reply to our personal inquiry Mr. Brisbane replied: "I wish to say that I am
not a member of the Masons or of any other fraternal organization. I am
plainly and simply a newspaper man."
"THE UNIVERSAL ENGINEER"
was very much interested to read Brother Pomeroy's article that appeared in
THE BUILDER for March, and note that he speaks of a large engineering magazine
published by Masonic Engineers. Can you please give me the name and address of
the same ?
Gladly. The journal referred to, one of the best in the world, is "The
Universal Engineer," which is described as the "Official Publication of the
Universal Council of Engineers of the World." It is edited at 160 Nassau
Street, New York City, and printed at Cooperstown, New York. The office of the
Corporation is 784 Broad Street, Newark, N.J.
BOOKS ON CONFUCIUS
find it hard to discover good books on the life of Confucius, and would like
to ask if you could furnish me with the title of a good one.
H. T., Alabama.
The best, perhaps, is "The Life and Teachings of Confucius" by James Legge,
the great sinologist. It is volume I of the series called "The Chinese
Classics: Translated into English, with Preliminary Essays and Explanatory
Notes." The volume was published by Began Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., Ltd.,
Dryden House, Gerard Street W., London, England, 1909.
HOSEA BALLOU A FREEMASON
have had it in mind to ask you for some time if Hosea Ballou, the founder of
the Universalist Church, was a Freemason. I am a member of that denomination
and find its teachings very much in harmony with those of the Order. Will
thank you for this information.
P. F., Illinois.
Brother Hosea Ballou was admitted to Mount Lebanon Lodge, Boston,
Massachusetts, on October 27th, 1817; was appointed its chaplain in the
following December, and remained a loyal and consistent member of the Order
until his death in 1862. Are you quite accurate in describing him as the
founder of the Universalist Denomination ? Universalists themselves accord
that honor to the English immigrant preacher, the Reverend John Murray, do
Ballou was born in Richmond, New Hampshire, in 1771. After experimenting with
churches in various centers he at last settled in Boston in charge of the
Second Universalist Church, which office he held for thirty-five years, or
until his death. He founded and edited two Universalist journals, and it is
estimated that he wrote about 10,000 sermons. His best known work was his "A
Treatise on Atonement," issued in 1806. He was a great and good man, as much
an ornament to Freemasonry as to Christianity.
you not think it possible that the world should utterly lose some things of
great wisdom? Do you not believe that some of these things, once believed
lost, are really preserved in Freemasonry?
The world has lost many ideas, truths, and sound philosophies. The writer was
only yesterday reading some remains of the old Greek, Isocrates, who lived in
the fourth century, B. C., and who was telling what he believed a real
education should be; among his other specifications was this, that an educated
man "as seldom as possible misses the golden mean." What is meant by the
"golden mean"? How many know? Very few, because the idea is almost lost out of
the world, though at one time it was a living part of the fabric of Greek
everyday thought, and satisfied the minds of some of the noblest thinkers that
the world has ever known, or ever will know. And in the future we shall hear
less and less of the golden mean until there may come a time that the most
learned will be puzzled to know what it signifies. It is possible that some of
the symbols in our ritual are, as it were, fossiliferous deposits of ideas
equally true and equally fruitful which have been forgotten, so completely
forgotten, that we do not even possess clues to their meaning. If you believe
yourself to have recovered some such forgotten tfuths still enshrined in
Freemasonry why not tell us about it?
HUBERT WORK, FIRST ASSISTANT POSTMASTER GENERAL
the First Assistant Postmaster General a member of the Masonic Fraternity?
Hubert Work, First Assistant Postmaster General, is a member of Pueblo Lodge
No. 17, A. F. & A. M., Pueblo, Colorado.
THE POPES THAT HAVE ISSUED BULLS AGAINST FREEMASONRY
The question came up in a meeting of the Study Club of which I am secretary as
to how many popes have issued bulls against Freemasonry. Can you kindly let me
have the answer soon in order that I may report at the next meeting?
Here is the list with the date of the bulls, or first bulls. If there is an
error in this list will the brother who detects it be sure to write to us ?
Clement XII, 1738.
Pius VIII, 1829.
Benedict XIV, 1751.
Gregory XVI, 1832.
Pius VII, 1821.
Pius IX, 1846. This pope attacked the Order in five different bulls.
Leo XIII was the most tireless enemy the Order has yet encountered. He issued
his first bull in 1882, then followed with others in the years 1884, 1890,
1894, and 1902.
countries where the pope maintained temporal power these bulls were effectual,
and were often carried to the point of literal fulfillment, as witness the
case of Spain, in which country many brethren underwent death, imprisonment,
fines, and other sufferings for the sake of Freemasonry. Between 1780 and 1815
there were 19 cases in Spain; in 1816 there were 25 cases; in 1817 there were
14 cases; in 1818 there were 9; and in 1819 there were 7.
THE FUTURE LIFE
Why is it that things we hear and read about the future life are often so
vague? Can you tell me where I can find a book that deals with the teachings
of the Bible on that subject in a definite and scientific manner?
Why so vague ? Because, in all probability, we know so little about the
subject. The book you are after is "Eschatology; Hebrew, Jewish, and
Christian," by R. H. Charles; published by Adam and Charles Black, London. The
first edition was published in 1899. Dr. Charles is one of the most
illustrious of all authorities on Eschatology, in which branch of theology the
problems concerning the future life are usually classified. Dr. Charles has
embodied some of the more important portions of his material in a smaller book
called "Religious Development Between the Old and the New Testaments,"
published by Henry Holt and Company, New York, as volume No. 88 in The Home
University Library of Modern Knowledge. Chapter V of this work, which deals
with "Man's Forgiveness of His Neighbor - a Study in Religious Development"
has become famous. It should be read by every Mason.
THE FAITH OF JACQUES G. BLAINE
Please inform me if you can what was the religious holding of James G. Blaine,
and who made the speech about "rum, Romanism, and rebellion."
The parents of James Gillespie Blaine were descended from North Ireland
immigrants. His mother, Maria Gillespie, an intelligent and very charming
lady, was a Roman Catholic, and secured a priest to perform her wedding
ceremony. His father, a brilliant but somewhat unsteady man, was a
Presbyterian of the old Covenanter type. Blaine himself grew up in a religious
atmosphere, but was never a Roman Catholic, though it was passed about often
during his political campaigns that he was a Roman Catholic in disguise; this
canard was absolutely groundless, because, in his early life and while he was
living at Augusta, Maine he united with the Congregationalist church, as you
will learn from the biography written by Russell Conway. An accurate account
of the famous "rum, Romanism, and rebellion" episode is given in the authentic
biography by Stanwood, whose "History of the Presidency" should be read by
every Mason for the sake of its excellent treatment of the anti-Masonic
excitement. On page 289 of Stanwood's "Life of Blaine" (it was published in
1905 by Houghton, Miflin & Company) we may read:
"But a still more untoward incident was to mark this visit to New York. On the
29th of October a large number of clergymen assembled to meet Mr. Blaine and
to assure him of their support. Their spokesman was the Rev. Mr. Burchard, who
made a brief address which closed with these sentences: 'We are Republicans,
and don't propose to leave our party and identify ourselves with a party whose
antecedents have been rum, Romanism, and rebellion. We are loyal to our flag;
we are loyal to you.' Mr. Blaine apparently did not notice the alliterative
clause, but it would have been difficult to rebuke the attempt to introduce a
sectarian issue into the canvass, if he had been aware of it, without giving
offense. His political adversaries at once took advantage of the unfortunate
remark to detach from his support all whom they could persuade that the
election of Blaine would be a blow at the Roman Catholic Church. Some of the
most unscrupulous of his opponents represented the words as those of Blaine
himself. It is said that leaflets ascribing the sentiments to him were
distributed at the doors of Roman Catholic churches on the following Sunday.
There is no doubt that the heedless remark caused him the loss of more than
enough votes to have changed the result in New York and thus to have elected
MASONRY AMONG THE CHIPPEWA INDIANS
"Do you know whether any Chippewas are members of the Fraternity? There are
quite a few Chippewas in the portion of Minnesota near the Red Lake
Reservation who are educated."
S.S.H., North Dakota.
to whether any of the Red Lake Chippewas, or more properly, Ojibway, belong to
our own order of Free and Accepted Masons, I am unable to state, although this
is not at all improbable. That is a question which the secretaries of the
local lodges can best answer. As to the Indians being members of their own
primitive Masonic order, yes indeed.
Among the Ojibway the secret society known as the Midewin is highly developed,
and possesses ceremonies, rituals, and rites of initiation and raising very
similar to that described in my article "Little Wolf Joins the Mitawin," in
the October, 1921, number of THE BUILDER; in fact, many students of ethnology
believe that it is among the members of this tribe that the oldest form of the
rites occurs. Unfortunately, although considerable time and money have been
devoted to the study of this very organization among the Ojibway, the
scientists who have hitherto done the work have not been Masons, and hence
much of the most significant facts have escaped attention. The late Mr. W. J.
Hoffman has written a monograph entitled "The Midewiwin or 'Grand Medicine
Society' of the Ojibway," based largely on studies made among the Red Lake and
Leech Lake Indians, and published in the Seventh Annual Report of the Bureau
of American Ethnology of Washington, D.C. in 1885-6. He, however, entirely
failed to grasp the significance of what he saw and heard, and, if I remember
correctly, got no inkling of the true meaning of the underlying ritual, or the
myth of the death and resurrection of the ancient founder of the lodge.
have myself spent some time among some of the bands of Ojibway in Manitoba,
Ontario, and Seewatin, in Canada, and obtained some data on the subject, but,
as I was not then a Mason - or rather was only an Entered ApprenticeCI too,
was blind to the facts.
Here is a fine opportunity for an original piece of work for someone who has
had Light, and who possesses the patience, tact, and diplomacy to get really
close to the Indian.
The Ojibways are a very numerous people, as North American Indian tribes go,
there being some 20,214 in the United States, and many more in Canada,
according to the census of 1910. Of these, some are civilized according to our
ways, others are still very primitive. The conservative old-style bands all
possess the Midewin or Midewiwin, and the old leaders possess birch bark
scrolls upon which are written in mnemonic characters, or picture writing,
symbols referring to the songs and ritual of the lodge, the meaning of which
is known only to them. It must be remembered that not all the members of any
tribe are brethren, and the rites are often as unknown to the majority of any
given group as they are to us, also the non-members are quite as given to
speculation of an erroneous nature as to what goes on in the lodge as are
white non-Masons. To obtain information, go to headquarters, and, as
information and membership is commonly bought by the Indians themselves from
the officers on joining, it can sometimes be bought by a white man who has the
confidence of the Indians, and in whose sincerity they firmly believe.
Other tribes having a form of this primitive society to my knowledge are: The
Cree, Potawatomi, Menomini, Sauk, Santee Sioux, Winnebago, Iowa, Oto, and
perhaps the Ottawa. Formerly the Miami, Peoria, and perhaps other tribes of
the lllinois confederacy had it, and the Ponca and Omaha had an aberrant form.
Practically nothing is known of the rites among the majority of these tribes
except that all those of Siouan stock - i.e., the Santee, Iowa, Winnebago,
Oto, Ponca and Omaha, are much farther from Masonry as we know it than the
others. The Iroquoian tribes, that is the Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida,
Mohawk, and the Wyandot, and perhaps others, have or have had, a different
society which in some respects still more strongly resembles our Masonry.
All readers of THE BUILDER who have in their possession important (as they
would consider it) books on Freemasonry that have never been reviewed or
noticed in THE BUILDER are requested to send to the editor titles, authors,
publishers, and publishers' dates. Please.
THE BUILDER would like to hear from Study Clubs that have devised courses of
study for themselves. Also, it would like to have the names of the secretaries
of active Study Clubs.
One of the editors of THE BUILDER would like to get in touch with brethren who
have made a thorough, or systematic study of architecture; of architecture,
that is, without necessary reference to Freemasonry.
Can anybody tell us where a complete set of the bound volumes of The American
Freemason's Monthly Magazine may be obtained ? It was begun, we believe, in
1886, and was cried on for quite a while by J. F. Brennan. Albert Mackey was
editor for a time.
MASONIC COLLEGE FRATERNITIES
notice in the Question Box of the December number, in answer to brother
L.I.F.'s question as to the number of Masonic college fraternities you state
there are two, The Acacia, and Square and Compass. I knew of the Acacia but
did not know of the Square and Compass - that is, as a fraternity. In many of
the colleges and universities there are Masonic Clubs, usually designated as
"Square and Compass Clubs." We have two here at the University of Southern
California, one in the College of Law and one in the College of Liberal Arts.
There is also a flourishing Masonic Club, but not called Square and Compass,
at the University of Arizona, Tucson. The question of federating these
different Clubs into some kind of general organization has been frequently
discussed at the meetings of the local clubs here, and we have been hoping
that some scheme would be put forward in the near future acceptable to all.
What you say of the Square and Compass fraternity is true of these individual
clubs, as far as I am acquainted with them, but so far as I knew they were
still unfederated local clubs. Please advise me more fully on this point.
There is now in process of organization at the University of Southern
California the Phi Alpha Mu fraternity which will be a regular Greek letter
fraternity but with membership open only to Masons and under the same
restrictions as other Greek letter fraternities. It is hoped to make this the
mother chapter and extend the fraternity to other colleges and universities.
also beg to call your attention to the Trowel Fraternity. There is a chapter
in the Dental College of the University of Southern California here. The
Bulletin of the Masonic Information Bureau of the University for the first
semester has this item: "Trowel Fraternity, 4th year, consisting of 14
chapters - at present restricted to Dental Colleges and other professional
allies. Local chapter consisting of about 45 members. Secretary and Treasurer
- E.T. Dutkon, Dental College, 635 West Exposition Blvd., Los Angeles." I
understand that the Trowel is not interfraternal, but do not know.
THE BUILDER has been a source of great pleasure to me during the past year.
The brethren who do not subscribe are certainly missing a lot.
Aubrey 0. Bray, California.
(Through an unfortunate misfiling of information ye editor cannot recover the
information on which he based his statements concerning the Square and Compass
fraternity. Will the brothers who sent him information get in touch with him
again? Also, will any other brothers who have pertinent information about
college Masonic fraternities send their data to THE BUILDER? Brother Bray has
our hearty thanks for his letter.
THE A. E. F. MASONIC CLUB AT ABAINVILLE, MEUSE, FRANCE
send you a few words regarding A.E.F. Masonic Clubs. At Abainville, Meuse,
about 3 kilos from Gondrecourt, there was a Masonic Club. Brother Hale was the
Salvation Army Secretary at Abainville and was vitally interested in our
Abainville Club. After our meetings we generally adjourned to his Hut for
refreshments. We had good times. Abainville was the center of the American
Light Railway Repair and Assembling Shops and the Abainville Club was made up
mostly of railroad men. The Club adopted for a pocket piece a two franc silver
coin with the reverse ground off and the Square and Compass engraved in the
centre with the words "Abainville Club No. 1' around the coin. When I was at
Abainville there was no club at Gondrecourt: the men from that town came to
Abainville The President at that time was a Medical (Dental) Officer attached,
I believe, to the 22nd Engineers (Lt. Ry.) named Ross, (I am not absolutely
certain as to that name.) We initiated with paddles officers and men and we
had great times. Wish I had a copy of the ritual; if you could get one, it
would be worth while.
Out of 26 men in the Third Batallion Headquarters two officers and four men
were members of the Club.
Harry B. Formhals, Mass.
PRESENTATION OF A PAST MASTER'S JEWEL
The following was deliverd on installation night by Brother C.L. Putnam when
he presented the retiring Master with a Past Master's Jewel. Brother Putnam is
one of our Past Masters. He does not claim the thoughts as his own, but the
arrangement of them is, and I am taking the liberty of sending the same to
Brother: Your zeal for the institution of Masonry and the progress you have
made in its mysteries, have pointed you out as a proper object of our favor
From the time, ten years ago, when you knocked at the door of the preparation
room seeking admission into our order, your ambitious feet have trodden round
after round of the ladder which leads to fame in our mystic circle, and even
the purple of the Fraternity has rested upon your honored shoulders.
You have labored with us more than seven years, honestly toiling, and
encouraged and buoyed up by the promise that if you were faithful, you should
receive the reward due a Master Mason.
Behold! your temple is nearly completed, and we hope you have received your
reward in the satisfaction of having done something for others. You have
learned that a life of service to your fellow men is the only life worth
Night after night for the past seven years or more you have been present in
this lodge room. Not for the honor alone (although such ambition is truly
laudable) of having it said that you were Secretary, Junior Warden, Senior
Warden, or even Master of Alpine Lodge, with but the one idea of service; that
of teaching the brothers the principles of Freemasonry which for centuries
have made better men, better citizens, better fathers, better husbands.
Your work has been well and faithfully done, and may the G.A.O.T.U. accept and
approve your labors.
The brethren of Alpine Lodge wish to express to you, through me, their love
and appreciation for the service you have rendered. This jewel is a token of
their esteem, and the distinguished emblem of a Past Master, which they hope
you will wear with equal pleasure to yourself and honor to the Fraternity.
Fred H. Jess, Iowa.
OUR GRAND LODGE OF SORROW
(THE BUILDER is very glad indeed to give publicity to so worthy a cause as
that described in the following communication. Readers may rest assured that
the brethren behind this move know what they are about and are to be trusted
to the full. The article by Brother Francis E. Lester, Grand Master of New
Mexico, which appeared on page 14 of THE BUILDER for January, gives one some
conception of the kind of problem that confronts our brethren in the great
is the largest Masonic organization on earth, is our Grand Lodge of Sorrow.
has an average membership of 42,300.
loses an average of 4,700 members by death every year.
recruits that many members every year so that the average membership remains
about the same.
Its members never meet in the Grand Lodge and there are no subordinate lodges.
They never applied for admission and can demit only by death.
They labor unceasingly to rebuild the temple of their bodies ravaged by the
fever of disease. They walk in the valley of the shadow of death. They are the
Master Masons who have laid down or must soon lay down their working tools and
seek the aid and comfort of their brethren.
They are the Masons of America who are victims of tuberculosis. Among the
2,600,000 members of the Craft, it is estimated that there are 42,300
suffering with this disease. Of this number 4,700 die annually. There are no
Masonic Hospitals for their care and treatment.
Their own lodges are, in most cases, financially unable to give them
assistance over the year or more of time which would be required to arrest
their disease under the most favorable conditions in a hospital or sanatorium.
many cases the lodge sends the patient to the Southwest for the benefit of the
climate, with little money in excess of traveling expenses. Lodges in the
Southwest are small in numbers and limited in funds. They cannot begin to care
for the Master Masons asking for assistance. Free care and treatment can be
secured only in hospitals in connection with poorhouses, and in some few Roman
Who shall bear the burden of the care of the Mason without a lodge ? Does the
Masonic Fraternity of America owe him any duty ? If so, how shall it proceed
to administer relief ?
committee, appointed by the Grand Lodge of Texas, to confer with similar
committees to be appointed by the Grand Lodges of Arizona and New Mexico,
three of the states affected by the migration of consumptive Masons, will
attempt to fermulate a plan for the establishment of a hospital or sanatorium
for the care of these brethren. The committee will welcome suggestions from
any brethren, anywhere. Think on these things and give them the benefit of
your study and experience.
Address all communications to
ROBERT J. NEWTON, Chairman,
2130 River Ave., San Antonio, Texas.
ANOTHER "OLDEST SECRETARY"
Brother W. N. Grubb was made a Mason January 1,1879, in Ruth Lodge No. 64,
Norfolk, Virginia, and one year afterwards was made secretary of his lodge. He
has served in that capacity continuously ever since. He is still an active
Mason and most effectual secretary after forty-two years and more. Doesn't
that come near being a record?
Oscar Lloyd Steinberg, Virginia.
THE PINE CONE
BRO. H. L. HAYWOOD, IOWA
Corrugated spire of seeds,
Slender, tapering, brown as rust,
what mystic wonder breeds
this life you hold in trust!
these chambers stiffly set
What a secret thou dost keep!
Here will future time beget
Towering brothers of the deep!
Rondured columns of the pines,
Bracing up the arching skies:
Out of thee their vast designs
From what miracles arise!
Thou art dumb as any stone
Yet from thee will one day spring
Harp-like branches whence the tone
the northern winds will ring.
Thou art with such frailty bound
the merest child could spurn
Yet thy sons will clasp the ground
When our sons to dust return.
Could we but thy secret read
How 'twould start us with surprise!
Life and death their fated screed
Would unroll before our eyes.
thy humble withered pod
Lieth what no language tells;
All the secret lore of God
Hides within thy narrow cells!
good word is an easy obligation; but not to speak ill, requires only our
silence, which costs us nothing. - Tillotson.