The Builder Magazine
February 1922 - Volume VIII -
Memorials to Great Men Who
GEO. W. BAIRD, P.G.M. DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
FAMOUS General Officer of the Revolutionary Army was a member of
Fredericksburg Lodge No. 4, in Virginia - the lodge in which George Washington
was made a Mason. General Mercer was a close personal friend of Washington,
and the idol of the people of Fredericksburg. Not only was he held in high
esteem by the Fredericksburg citizens, but they also raised a monument to him.
In Philadelphia, where he died, the Saint Andrew's Society (Scotch), with 3000
others, followed his remains to the grave, and erected a monument to his
memory in Laurel Hill Cemetery.
Hugh Mercer was born in Aberdeen, Scotland, in 1870; received
his education in the Aberdeen University, and graduated a Doctor of Medicine.
It is remarkable how many medical men were General Officers in our
Revolutionary War. Mercer was an Assistant Surgeon in the Army of Prince
Charles Edward, and was in the battle of Colloden in 1745. His participation
in that rebellion, it is thought, was the reason for his migrating to the
Colony of Virginia, in 1747. He made his first home at Mercersburg,
Pennsylvania, where he practiced medicine.
The so-called French and Indian War was well understood by
Mercer - it was a war between the Protestant Colonists and the French Romish
Colonists, and it did not take Mercer long to see that his future religious
liberty was at stake.
In 1755-56 Mercer became a Captain in the Company of Colonel
George Washington. In the expedition of General Braddock, and at his terrible
defeat at the battle of Monongahela, July 9th, 1765, Mercer was severely
wounded and left on the field for dead. But he revived in a few hours and made
his way to a stream of water and thence to a thicket. He was weak from loss of
blood, and hungry, and managed to kill a rattlesnake which he skinned and on
which he subsisted until he had gained a little strength and finally was
enabled to reach Fort Cumberland.
The Corporation of Philadelphia afterwards gave him a gold
medal in appreciation of his conduct during that that campaign.
When the Provincial forces were reorganized in 1758 Mercer was
promoted to a Lieutenant-Colonelcy, and accompanied the Army of General Forbes
to Fort Duquesne (Pittsburg) where he commanded the Post until relieved. He
then fixed his residence at Fredericksburg, Virginia, and resumed the practice
When the Revolutionary War broke out Mercer warmly espoused the
cause of the Colonists, quitted his profession and became the commandant of
three regiments of Minute Men, in the year 1775. In 1776 he organized and
drilled the Virginia Militia. On February 13th of the same year he was
promoted to be Colonel of the Third Virginia Regiment, and on June 5th, 1776
was commissioned a Brigadier General by the Continental Congress, at the
request of General Washington.
When the American Army retreated through New Jersey General
Mercer was with it, and he led the
column to attack the enemy at
Trenton on December
6th, 1776, and it is claimed that he advised the daring night march on
Princeton, on January 3rd, 1777.
The situation of the American Army on the evening of January
2nd was extremely perilous, Washington having but five thousand men, half of
whom were militia who had been in camp but a few days. To fight the veteran
soldiers before them looked like madness - to attempt to recross the Delaware
river under the fire of the enemy would have been futile. The march to
Princeton having been decided upon, the advance command was given to Mercer.
This was at the time when the British regiments at Princeton
were about to begin their march to reinforce Lord Cornwallis in the south, and
it was these regiments that discovered the approach of Mercer, at Princeton.
Mercer attacked, but was repelled, and the enemy followed the Americans until
they were reinforced by Washington's Regulars and the Pennsylvania Militia.
During the fighting Mercer was felled by the blow of a Briton's musket, for
the fighting was hand-to-hand. Mercer rose, refused quarter, and defended
himself with his sword. He was bayoneted, and left on the field for dead.
After the battle a farmer carried Mercer to his house, where he suffered great
pain until his death, which occurred on January 12th.
In the year 1773 Congress made provision for the education of
the younger son of General Mercer, in appreciation of the great services the
General had rendered to his country.
The Secretary of Fredericksburg Lodge No. 4 has gone to great
pains to search out and give to the writer the Masonic history of General
Mercer, and, I may say, it was recorded in no other place. From the excerpt
furnished the writer, and its wording, it is evident that the brother who
served as Secretary of that lodge during the particular period mentioned in
this article, set a splendid example. Fredericksburg changed hands at least
twenty times during the Civil War, but not a Masonic possession was
disturbed. Those were days of gallant men.
SILAS H. SHEPHERD, WISCONSIN
The homely adage that one cannot make rabbit soup until he has
captured his rabbit is brought home to the Masonic student times without
number, for if there is anything difficult to capture it is a Masonic
Bibliography. And they who undertake to fashion the same, and who succeed
therein, even in small measure, deserve the plaudits of the Craft. All this is
by way of introducing one of the most successful essays in Masonic
Bibliography that has ever come to the ink-stained desk
ye editor. The literary engineer responsible for the success of this venture
is Bro. Silas H. Shepherd who has been for years a member of the Committee on
Masonic Research of the Grand Lodge of Wisconsin, and whose name is familiar
to our readers, albeit not as familiar as it should be, and will be, we trust.
"Masonic Bibliographies and Catalogues" is published in paper bindings by the
above mentioned Committee, and is number 11 in the series of their
publications. Bro. Shepherd has been assisted by Brothers Henry A. Crosby and
George C. Nuesse, his colleagues on the Committee.
(Concluded from January Issue)
Masonic Publishing Co. *
Semi-annual Catalogues of Masonic Works, sold by the Masonic
Publishing Co., in their salesroom in the City of New York, from June, 1877,
to May, 1899. 8vo. 1000 pages. (Listed in Catalogue No. 46 of the Masonic Pub.
Co., Nov., 1899.)
The writer has an incomplete set of 21 of these old "auction
catalogues" from 1877 to 1902. They afford a fund of information in regard to
the works then offered for sale. It causes regret that many of the items
listed are now impossible to procure at any price.
Masonic Publishing Co. *
Semi-annual Catalogues of the Masonic Publishing Co., dating
from 1899 to 1902. (Numbers 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51.)
No. 51 was the last eatalogue issued in the series. The
business changed hands and has since been conducted by the Macoy Publishing
and Masonic Supply Co., which has issued many catalogues.
Miner, William Harvey *
Freemasonry. A Catalogue of Books, for the most part of Masonic
interest, with a selection of standard and important works on allied subjects.
No. 65, The Torch Press Book Shop, Cedar Rapids, Iowa. (No date - about 1915.)
The Torch Press Book Shop is no more. William Harvey Miner now
issues catalogues for The William Harvey Miner Co., Inc., St. Louis, Mo., and
still sells Masonic books, although the No. 66 of the Torch Press had more
scarce items than have since been offered, and was of more value to the
student than the ordinary trade catalogue.
Miner, W. H. *
Catalogue No. 6 from the William Harvey Miner Co., Inc.,
Antiquarian Booksellers, 3518-20-22 Franklin Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 36 pages.
Practically all of this catalogs is devoted to Masonic items, and is well
Miner, W.H. *
Catalogue No. 11. The William Harvey Miner Co., Inc. 20 pages.
Missouri, Grand Lodge of
A correct list of the works collected and bound for the use of
the Grand Lodge of Missouri, as referred to in the Grand Secretary's report of
1872. By George Franz Gouley, Grand Secretary. St. Louis, 1872. 8vo. paper, 6
Catalogue of the Masonic Library of C. Moore, editor of "The
Masonic Review," Cincinnati. (No date - about 1865.) 15 pages.
This catalogue contains 264 numbers and is noted in the Masonic
Bibliography by E.T. Carson. "The entire collection was purchased by the
Masonic Library Association of Cincinnati."
Morgan, W. W.
A Catalogue of Rare, Interesting and Curious Books pertaining
to the Craft Universal, by W.W. Morgan, London, 1889. 8vo. 16 pages.
A Catalogue of the Rare and Valuable Collection of Masonic
Books. Sold by Mr. Bernardy. London, 1850. 8vo. 27 pages.
Morton, John Metcalfe *
A Catalogue of Books, Rare, Curious, Occult, Masonic and
Miscellaneous, etc., for sale by John Metcalfe-Morton, Antiquarian Bookseller
of Ye Olde Booke Shoppe, No. 1
Duke Street, Brighton, England. No. XLVIII. 192C
This catalogue contains 72 Masonic works, some of considerable
interest. The catalogues of John Metcalfe-Morton are issued quite frequently,
and always contain enough to make them very desirable to the Masonic collector
York Grand Lodge Library
Report of the Librarian:
pages 1888 16 pages
pages 1889 11 pages
pages 1890 12 pages
pages 1891 12 pages
6 pages 1906 not paged
pages 1908 36 pages
series is probably continued
York Grand Lodge Library
of the Grand Lodge of New York. (Catalogue.) Included in the proceedings of
the Grand Lodge of N. Y. of 1888. A catalogue of additions in the 1891
Collection made by Committee of Antiquities of the Grand Lodge of F. & A. M.
of New York. 1905.
Scotia Grand Lodge
of Ancient Masonic Documents, in possession of Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia, A.
F. & A. M. Halifax, N. S., 1890. 74 pages.
Catalogue is the subject of a bibliographical article in the “Northern
Freemason" of 1906, by R.F. Gould. (See "Gould, R. F.," in second section.)
Freemasonry, lately published by George Oliver. London: Spencer. (1842.)
Freemasonry by George Oliver. Published by Richard Spencer, London, 1860. 22
Oriental Consistory Library *
of Oriental Consistory Library, S. P. R. S. 32d, Chicago, Ill., 1919, by Miss
Mabel K. Dixon, Librarian. 61 pages.
Catalogue was compiled and arranged according to the Dewey Decimal System, and
is strictly a catalogue. The Catalogue compiled serially by George Warvelle
may be used to advantage in connection with this one. See "Warvelle, George."
(No. 166.) Parvin, Theodore Sutton
Masonic Library." (Nos. 70 to 75.)
Pennsylvania, Library of the Grand Lodge of
of the Library of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania. Phila., 1881. 66 pages.
Pennsylvania has been among the foremost of Grand Lodges in the promotion of
its literary phases this Catalogue is of more than ordinary interest. The
Grand LoIge of Pennsylvania is now compiling an up-to-date catalogue, and this
will be a boon to the Pennsylvania brethren. as well as a very welcome help to
librarians and bibliophiles in sister jurisdictions.
of the Museum and Library. Peterborough, 1915. 20 pages.
Supplement and Catalogue. Peterborough, 1920. 15 pages.
Pope, A. Winthrop
on some Masonic book-plates and their owners. By A. Winthrop Pope. Boston,
1908-1911. 61 pages. In two parts.
Prescott, Winward *
Book-plates. Boston. The Four Seas Co., 1918. By Winward Prescott. 29 pages.
booklet which tells the book lover’s life through his book-plate. Many of the
illustrations contain studies in symbolism of more than ordinary interest.
Purnell, Jesse R.
of Standard and Rare Masonic Books Pamphlets, Proceedings, etc., contained in
the library of the late Jesse R. Purnell. 10 pages. (No date.)
three catalogtles of the Library of Pythagoras Lodge viz., 1869 and May and
Nov., 1887. These three catalogues tell the story well known to the book
lover. The first Catalogue represents the collection and classification, and
the last two the final dispersion that other libraries may be enriched.
Pythagoras Lodge (1)
of Books and Medals, collected by Pythagoras Lodge, No. 1, in Brooklyn. New
York, 1859. 8vo., pages XII - 145.
Catalogue contains 1,395 numbers, many of which are in foreign languages, and
most of which are of a philosophical and occult nature.
Pythagoras Lodge (2) *
Twenty-first semi-annual sale Catalogue of the Masonic Publishing Co.,
embracing the extensive collection of Rare and Antique Masonic Books,
Catalogues, Magazines Periodicals, etc., in the late Masonic Library of
Pythagoras Lodge, No. 1 of N. Y., to be sold at their salesrooms, 63 Blenker
Street, N. Y., on Wednesday, May 18th, 1887. New York. Masonic Publishing Co.
attracted such collectors as Hughan, Lawrence, Watson and others, and such
works as "Multa Pancis" (1763) were included in the many rare bargains they
obtained. The catalogue of Not., 1887 (No. 3) contains a reprint from the
London Freemason describing the May sale.
Pythagoras Lodge (3) *
The Masonic Library of Pythagoras Lodge No. 1, Free and
Accepted Masons of New York. New York, (November.)
This is one of the "Auction Catalogues" of Geo. A. Leavitt &
Co., and contains the remainder of the Library of Pythagoras Lodge after the
previous sale in May, 1887. See No. 122.
Quatuor Coronati Lodge No. 2076, London*
Classified Index to the Catalogue Slips, Lodge of the
Quatuor Coronati, No.
2076, London. Edited by G.W. Speth, Secretary. Margate, 1893.
The index of 105 pages gives ready aceess to the 2247
"Catalogue Slips," many of which are enriched by the notes of Brother Speth
Quatuor Coronati Lodge No. 2076, London*
A List of Articles Contained in Ars Quatuor Coronatorum,
volumes I to XXX, with an Enumeration and Roll of Authors, compiled by Rodk.
H. Baxter. Margate, 1919. 23 pages.
This is a valuable asset to the student fortunate enough to
have access to the "Ars," and makes reference to the many distinguished
A Catalogue of the Library in the Masonic Hall, Reading.
Reading, 1896. 12 pages.
Reeves, James S.
Catalogue of the Masonic Library of the late Dr. James S.
Reeves, East Tawas, Mich. 103 pages. (No date.)
An interesting Catalogue in manuscript in the Library of
Supreme Council, S. J., at Washington, D. C.
Riggs, W. H.
Catalogue of Standard and Rare Masonic Books, Magazines,
Pamphlets, Proceedings, etc., contained in the library of W. H. Riggs,
Martinsburg, W. Va., 1884. 14 pages.
Rough list of Books, Pamphlets, etc., bearing upon the Morgan
Controversy, by Peter Ross. 1902. 7 pages.
See "England, United Grand Lodge." (No. 36.)
Grand Lodge of Scotland. Catalogue of Books and Manuscripts in
the Library at Freemasons' Hall, Edinburgh. Published by authority of Grand
Lodge by the Grand Secretary, 1906.
This catalogue is of particular value to the student on account
of containing the valuable library which Dr. Charles Morison, who
died in 1849,
bequeathed to the Grand Lodge of Scotland. “The
Books and Manuscripts
consisted of over two thousand works, mainly in the French language. They
chiefly consisted of the larger part of the library of the Grand Lodge of 'The
Scots Philosophic Rite' at Paris." The objects of this rite were Masonic
archaeological research, etc.
Simons, John W.*
of Masonic and Miscellaneous Books, Pamphlets,
Magazines, etc., contained in the library of John W. Simons, of New York. N.
Y. Masonic Publishing (No. date.)
This is one of the "Auction Catalogues," and was issued
subsequent to 1870, as works up to that date are included. Brother Simons is
best known through his "A Familiar Treatise on the Principles and Practice of
Masonic Jurisprudence" (1864). The catalogue shows the interest he took in
this phase of Freemasonry by the large percentage of Constitutions, Ahiman
Rezons, Monitors and manuals it contains.
Masonic Exhibition held at "The Chalet," Pylstone, Shanklin.
Catalogue of exhibit edited by Alfred Greenham, with archaeological notes by
Wm. J. Hughan, Shanklin, 1886. 102 pages.
The custom of holding these exhibitions combined the raising of
funds for benevolent purposes with improvement in historical and
archaeological phases of Freemasonry.
Sheffield Masonic Library Scheme. Sheffield, 1876. 15 pages.
Pages 10 to 15 contain list of Masonic Books.
of Books in the Library of the Hallamshire College. (Soc. Ros. in Anglia.)
Sheffield, 1917. 72 pages.
Catalogue of William Snyder's Masonic Library. Lafontaine,
Indiana. (No date.) 9 pages.
of a valuable collection of books on Freemasonry (500 titles). London. (No
Catalogue of a valuable collection of books on Freemasonry,
comprising many curious, rare and interesting works relating to the Order in
this and foreign countries; including Histories of the Knights Templars,
Malta, and of St. John of Jerusalem; the Rosicrucian Brethren, Mystic Writers,
etc.; also a small collection of Masonic engravings, portraits, etc., the
whole illustrating the origin, principles and progress of Masonry throughout
the world. 8vo., 31 pages. London. Spencer. (No date - about 1860.)
Enoch T. Carson describes this catalogue as "A fine collection,
the largest and best that has been offered for sale in England. It contains
about 600 numbers of books, manuscripts and engravings, in English, French and
German. It was sold en bloc."
of Books sold by R. Spencer. London, 1875.
Richard Spencer was one of the foremost promoters of the
Masonic book trade, and his catalogues are of great interest. The older ones
are now very scarce. The firm of Spencer & Co. still do a large business in
Masonic books. The first Richard Spencer published Masonic books in 1799.
"Early in the next century he was succeeded by the second Richard Spencer, his
nephew. He in turn was succeeded by Walter Spencer, his (the second Richard’s)
son, and since about 1878, the firm has been known as 'Spencer & Co.' "
Spencer & Co.*
Co.'s Masonic Illustrated Price List of Jewels, Clothing, Furniture, Banners,
and all Requisites for Freemasonry. London. 19th edition.
A Portion of this catalogue is given to books (a large
percentage of which are rituals). To the American Mason the advertising of
rituals "in a form intelligible only to the initiated" appears a strange
Spencer & Co.
of a valuably collection of books on Freemasonry.
pages 1874 31 pages
pages 1885 43 pages
pages 1892 30 pages
Spencer & Co.*
of Standard Works on Freemasonry, Music, etc., Spencer & Co., 19-20-21 Great
Queen Street, London, W. C. Established 1801. 25 pages. (No date.)
A full set of all the catalogues issued by this old firm would
be a splendid treat for the Masonic bibliophile.
Coronati Lodge, No. 2076, London." (No. 124.)
Speth, G. W.*
Curriculum, by G. W. Speth. American edition, published by the Palestine
Bulletin, Detroit, Mich., 1901.
An English edition was issued several years before this one.
This work is a proposed course of study and refers the student to the best
works to be read and consulted on the many phases of Freemasonry and allied
subjects. It is one of the best works of one of the most profound and thorough
Masonie scholars. It is now out of print. but we hope to see a reprint soon.
Staton, James W.*
of the Masonic Library of James W. Staton, deceased. Now offered for sale by
his administrators, R. E. & H. W. Staton, Brooksville, Ky. 1904. 155 pages.
This catalogue is largely made up of "proceedings," and when
the library was placed on the market it afforded an opportunity for many
libraries to obtain numbers of proceedings they desired. It is of considerable
interest in having the proceedings well classified.
Staton, James W.
Bibliographical notes on the proceedings of the Grand Council of Royal and
Select Masters of the State of Kentucky. By James W. Staton, Brooksville, Ey.,
1881. 5 pages.
Staton, James W.
Bibliographical memoranda relating to reprints. By James W. Staton,
Brooksville, Ky., 1887. 19 pages.
The reprints of early proceedings are of great value to
students, and it is now very difficult to obtain many of the reprints.
Steinbrenner, G. W.*
of Important Masonic Books. Being a private collection gathered during many
years, with much care and at a large cost, comprising choice and scarce works
in several languages, on the Origin, History, Usages, etc., of the Order of
Freemasons throughout the world. Bangs, Merwin & Co., New York, 1867. 17
This is one of the many "Auction Catalogues" which were issued
during the last half of the Nineteenth century. These old catalogues are of
interest in showing many works which are now extremely scarce advertised for
sale. At present it is customary for the one desiring a rare book to advertise
for it. Such rare works as Preston's Illustrations of Masonry (2nd edition)
and Thory's Acta Latomorum are advertised in this catalogue. This was the
collection of the Masonic historian and writer, G. W. Stembrenner.
of a valuable Library founded by the late Dr. H. B. Leeson, to be sold by
auction. London, 1873. 31 pages.
Supreme Council, Southern Jurisdiction, U. S. A.*
of the Library of the Supreme Council, 33d, for the S. J. of the U. S.
Washington, D. C., 1880. 42 pages.
Supreme Council, Southern Jurisdiction, U. S. A.*
of the Supreme Council of the 33d for the Southern Jurisdiction of the U. S.
A. at Washington, 1st Jan., 1884. J. J. Little & Co., 1884. 267 pages.
Supreme Council, Southern Jurisdiction, U. S. A.
Taylor Collection in the Library of the Supreme Council 33d, A.A.S.R.
Washington, D. C., 1905. 98 pages
the best collections of occult works in the United States.
Supreme Council, Southern Jurisdiction, U. S. A.
Collection in the Library of the Supreme Council, Washington, D. C. Press of
the Wilkin-Shiery Printing Co., 1907. 82 pages.
Catalogue of Books, Ancient and Modern, 1914. Freemasonry, Kabalah, Mythology,
Oriental Religions, Symbolism. William Tait, Bookseller and Publisher,
Belfast, Ireland. (No. 16.) 40 pages.
one of the best catalogues issued as a trade catalogue recently.
of the Library of the late W. Kelly, to be sold at auction by W.H. Tarratt,
Feb., 1895. Leicester. 21 pages. Taylor, George
"Worcestershire Masonic Library and Museum.” (No. 172.)
Catalogue of Books on Freemasonry, the Templars, Astrology, Platonists, by T.
Taylor, London. Gardner, 1897
"Leicester, England." (No. 84.)
Triibner & Co.
of American Books on Freemasonry, on sale by Trubner & Co., London, 1857. 8
of Oriental Consistory, Chicago, Ill. A serial catalogue in ten parts, by
George Warvelle. (No date. 156 pages.
catalogue was compiled by an ardent book lover who was thoroughly conversant
with Masonic literature, but did not compile it with sufficient system to make
its valuable contents readily available to those who used it. It is, however,
an interesting bibliographical treasure to the student and may be used to
advantage with the later catalogue of Oriental Consistory.
of Masonic Works. The property of W. Watson, Leeds. Leeds, 1890. 12mo. 24
catalogue is noted in "Catalogue slip" 1053, of Speth's "A Classified Indent
to the Catalogue Slips."
Westcott, Dr. Wm. Wynn*
of Books from the Library of Dr. Willian Wynn Westcott, by F. L. Gardner, 14
Marlborough Road Gunnersbury, London, W. 4. 1919.
Westcott was a Masonic and Rosicrucian student, whose library reflects the
zeal and labor of his quest for Light.
Provincial Library Report, West Yorkshire.
Provincial Library Report. Leeds, 1890, 19 pages.
Provincial Library Report, Leeds, 1891, 12 pages.
Provincial Library Report, Leeds, 1892, 16 pages.
Provincial Library Report, Leeds, 1894, 28 pages.
Liverpool. (No. 88 and 89.)
Yorkshire Provincial Priory
Annual Report of the Provincial Librarian. 1912 18 pages.
lists of Masonic books donated.
Whymper, H. J.
Parliament, referring to Freemasonry, by H. J Whymper, 1892. 20 pages.
Whymper, H. J.
of Works on Freemasonry. Gora Gali, 1888 8vo. 19 pages.
Whymper, H. J.
of works on Freemasonry. H. J. Whymper, London, 1899. Printed by Ram Saran.
First edition. 54 pages.
edition was issued in 1891, which was enlarged to 66 pages. Both editions were
limited and are now very scarce.
Whymper, H. J.
of works on Freemasonry, by H. J. Whymper, London, 1891.(See No. 163.)
Whymper, H. J.
A Catalogue of Bibliographies, Lists, and Catalogues of Works
on Freemasonry, by H. J. Whymper, London, January, 1891. Only 100 copies
of only two copies of this catalogue in America, being the one in the
Congressional Library at Washington, D. C, and one owned by F. H. Marquis of
Whymper, H. J.
Minutes of the Proceedings of Lodge "Albert Victor," No.2370,
E. C., of a Regular Meeting held on the 31st January, 1891. Lahore. Printed at
the Albert Press, 1891. Appendix B. Catalogues and Bibliographies, by H. J.
Whymper, C. E. I.
This is a
choice bibliographical item, and is an address on Masonic literature by H. J.
Whymper, who was among the very few students who have left records of their
knowledge of the literature of Freemasonry. This pamphlet is included in
"'Masonic Miscellany," second series, vol. 1, of Oriental Consistory Library,
Chicago, Ill., catalogued as 366.1 M. 3.
Whymper, H. J.
Early Printed Literature Referring to Freemasonry, by H. J.
Whymper, 1892, London.
work special reference is made to Academie of Armorie (1688) by Randle Holme
Natural History of Staffordshire (1686) by Dr. Plot Diary of Elias Ashmole.
Wigan Public Library*
Works relating to Freemasonry catalogued by Henry Tennyson
Folkard, Public Librarian, Wigan, and Secretary Wigan Lodge No. 2326, Wigan.
Privately printed for presentation only, by Strowger & Son, 1892. Third
edition. 64 pages. Only 100 copies printed. 1st edition, 1880, 12mo. 2nd
Manchester Association for Masonic Research has discovered records which
warrant their claiming a Grand Lodge being established at Wigan, in 1823,
which makes this catalogue of further interest, as Wigan is to most American
Masons an unknown place
Occult Literature: catalogue of 1000 works, all curious and
interesting and many of great rarity. London, 1884. 8vo. 32 pages.
Woodhead, Thos. M.*
Catalogue of Books on Freemasonry in the Library of Thomas M.
Woodhead. Bradford. 1903. 96 pages.
are catalogued with the full title pages of most of them. The compiler says,
“If it is successful in arousing some interest in Masonic Literature in the
minds of the brethren it will have fulfilled the purpose for which it has been
Masonic Soiree and Exhibition, held at Guild hall, Worcester.
Catalogue of exhibits edited by George Taylor, with archaeological notes by
Wm. J. Hughan. Kidderminster, 1884. 73 pages.
Worcestershire Masonic Library and Museum*
Catalogue of Books, Manuscripts, Articles, Engravings, Aprons
and other curios relating to Freemasonry, and now forming the Worcestershire
Masonic Library and Museum. Edited by George Taylor, with bibliographical
notes by Wm. J. Hughan. London. Published by George Kenning, 1891.
pages of this catalogue which are devoted to Masonic books are of the greatest
value to the student. The library contains some very rare works, and all the
works of importance are given attention in the notes by Brother Hughan.
A Catalogue of Books on Freemasonry. By John Yarker. Belfast,
catalogue is included in “The Guild Charges," by Yarker. (1909.) Only 600
Masonic Conversazione and Exhibition held at York, 20th July,
1884, under the auspices of York College (Society Rosecrucia in Anglia).
Catalogue of exhibits. York, 1884. 24 pages.
Catalogue of Masonic Exhibits at reception to the British
Association at York on Sept. 6, 1881. York. 19 pages.
Zacharias (Bro. Ernest)
of the Masonic Library of. Dresden, 1847.
References to bibliographical notes in other than strictly
bibliographical works or catalogues.
Supplemental to the list of Catalogues and Bibliographies, a few references to
articles of interest to bibliophiles, and portions of standard Masonic works
dealing with its literature are here given. This reference portion might be
made much longer with the information in the hands of the compiler, but the
present list will point the way to the best sources, without becoming
burdensome with details.
Attempt to Classify the Old Charges, by William Begemann.
in "Are Quatuor Coronatorum," volume 1, page 162.
Calvert, A. F.
Lodge of England, 1717-1917, by A. F. Calvert, London, 1917.
contains a facsimile reproduction of the first 33 pages of the 1738 edition of
the "Book of Constitutions": eighteen frontispieces of the "Engraved list of
Lodges": a frontispiece of "The Freemason's Calendar" for 1775, a frontispiece
of Dermott's "Ahiman Rezon" (1764): and three frontispieces of different
editions of the "Book of Constitutions."
Masonic Bibliography, by Hyde Clarke.
in “The Freemasons Magazine" of Feb. 16th and 23rd 1859 pages 307 and 348.
Referenee to it in Ars Q.C. vol. 18 (1905).
Fred J. W.
address. Q. C. Lodge.
Ars Q. C.
volume 22 (1909).
Inventory of Ancient Craft Documents, by R. F. Gould.
article in The Northern Freemason of 1906 reviewing a catalogue of the Grand
Lodge of Nova Scotia entitled "Ancient Masonic Documents." The Nova Scotia
catalogue has 74 pages.
Essays and Papers Relating to Freemasonry, by R. F. Gould, Belfast, 1913.
XV. “Notes on Historical Freemasonry " and XVI "On the Masonic Press" contain
much of bibliographical interest.
Bibliography of the Old Charges, by W. J. Hughan.
in Ars Q. C. volume 9 pages 85 to 87.
Oliver's Unpublished Masonic Works, by W. J Hughan.
article in the Masonic Review No 48 page 8 (1876) describing 18 of Oliver's
then unpublished works. Three have since been published viz.:
Discrepanices of Freemasonry.
Dissertation on the Grand Hermesian Anaglyph.
Rosicrucian Works, by W. J. Hughan.
of articles in The Freemason of London in 1869. The first of the series
commences on page 227.
Hughan, W. J.
of notable Masonic works, by W. J. Hughan.
of reviews in the Freemasons' Magazine and Masonic Mirror of 1868 and 1869.
Hughan, W. J.
Bibliography, by W. J. Hughan.
of articles in The Voice of Masonry commencing October, 1876. Among the
splendid reviews which Hughan wrote in this series the 22 page description of
Godfrey Higgins' "Anacalypsis" is of particular interest. Richard Carlile
asserts that Godfrey Higgins once observed to him that there were but two
Masons in England himself (Godfrey Higgins) and the Duke of Sussex.
Hughan, W. J.
Bibliography, by W. J. Hughan.
general artiele making reference to the leading catalogues" in The Freemason
of 1898. No. 29 page 52.
International Bureau for Masonic Affairs
of the International Bureau for Masonic Affairs, 1917.
contains a list of books which the compilers deemed the most important. It is
particularly valuable in giving the English reader an acquaintance with the
standard foreign works.
Bulletin of the Iowa Masonic Library. Volume 1, No. 1, January, 1898.
quarterly until Nov. 1906 when it became an "occasional" bulletin. Resumed as
a quarterly January 1, 1911. This publication is largely devoted to
bibliographical items, and no attempt will be made to more than mention that
W. J. Hughan was a contributor from the first issue and the first volume
contains some of his best articles among which is "The Spencer Masonic Sale
Mackey, A. G.
Encyclopedia of Freemasonry, by A. G. Mackey and Chas T. McClenachan. Revised
edition, by Edw. L. Hawkins and W.J. Hughan
Concluding pages of this work are given to bibliography and while the list is
comparatively short it is the most
available one to the average reader.
Mackey, A. G.
on the Selection of a Masonic Library, by A. G. Mackey.
article In The Masonic Trowel No. 6 (1867).
Marquis, F. H.
Editions of Webb's Freemason's Monitor, by F. H. Marquis.
This is the best description of the Webb Monitors available. It
is contained in Vol. 1, No. 9, of "The Masonic Bibliophile." (Dec.
Marquis, F. H.
Pocket Companions, 1735-1831, by F. H. Marquis.
This is a description of the many editions of Pocket Companions
and will be appreciated by all who desire to become familiar with this
important textbook of our brethren when the Pocket Companion served as a
history, monitor, music manual, and in fact every function that was utilized
by a book on a large percentage of the brethren. The article is contained in
The Masonic Bibliophile. vol. 2, No. 8 (Nov., 1913).
A Catalogue of Masonic Books in the British Museum.
April, 1879, to March, 1880. Believed to have been compiled by
Universal Masonic Library Advocate, a bimonthly publication devoted to the
single interest of establishing a library of Masonic literature in every
lodge. Vol. 1, No. 3 Robt. Morris, Fulton, Ky. 1855.
In addition to the notices of The Universal Masonic Library,
the publication contains catalogues of the E. T. Carson, John W. Leonard,
Iowa, and Georgia Masonic libraries. The History of Freemasonry in Kentucky,
by Robt. Morris (1859), contains many bibliographieal notes.
Institutes, by George Oliver.
The introduction of 21 pages is entitled, "Remarks on the
Masonic Literature of the Eighteenth Century," and contains many interesting
features, among which the list of spurious works is one. Oliver's Revelations
of a Square has many notes of bibliographical interest.
Freemasonry, by George Oliver, pub. by R. Spencer.
Contained in Oliver's "A Dictionary of Symbolic Masonry.'
History of Freemasonry in Europe. By Emmanuel Rebold. Amer. Ed. Cin. O. 1869.
J. F. Brennan.
Chapter on "Documentary Evidence" contains a list of 24 works
Steinbrenner, G. W.
Origin and Early History of Masonry, by G. W. Steinbrenner, New York, 1864.
Chapter 2, "The Historical Literature of Masonry." Chapter 3,
"The Legend of the Guilds." Reference is made to the "Old Charges" and the
Thorp, John T.
List of 29 early editions of Prichard's "Masonry Dissected.”
ed." 1907 Masonic Reprints of Leicester Lodge of Research.
Thorp, John T.
History of 23 editions of "Pocket Companions." Trans.
Leicester Lodge of
Waite, A. E.
An Alphabetical Catalogue of works on Hermetic Philosophy
Contained in “Lives of Alchemystical Philosophers," by A. E
1888. Pages 276 to 306.
STUKELEY, F. R S.
DUDLEY WRIGHT, ENGLAND
lesser figures that live in our memories because of their association with
early English Masonry there are few more lovable, or more picturesque, than
the erudite Dr. Stukeley, of whom Brother Wright gives us a speaking likeness
in this brief sketch. It is urged upon the careful Masonic student that he
pay especial heed to the extracts from Dr. Stukeley's diary, for therein he
will find items of much importance, inasmuch as they furnish us with certain
undeniable facts about early eighteenth century Freemasonry, facts that are
WILLIAM STUKELEY may well be described as "a man of many parts," although it
cannot be said that he mastered thoroughly any of the subjects on which he
posed as an authority. From his earliest days he was imbued with an earnest
desire for knowledge of all kinds of subjects, but he was not successful in
becoming as he wished, and, indeed, claimed to be, an authority on any one in
particular, least of all, a number of them. He was born at Holbeach,
Lincolnshire, on 7th November, 1687, the son of John Stukeley, an attorney,
and his wife, Frances, the daughter of Robert Bullen, of Weston, Lincolnshire,
who was descended from the same ancestors as Annie Bullen, or Boleyn, the
ill-fated queen of Henry VIII. His father was also the descendant of an
ancient family, his ancestors having been lords of Great Stukeley, near
William Stukeley was sent to the Free School at Holbeach, where he received a
good preliminary education. It is recorded that as a boy he was fond of
retiring into the woods to read and also to collect plants. A pen picture has
been drawn of his listening occasionally behind a screen in his father's study
to his learned conversation with a Mr. Belgrave, whom the son describes as "an
ingenious gent." and in refutation of whose arguments he says he wrote a small
manuscript book. Young Stukely says that he also collected coins, bought
microscopes and burning glasses, and learned something of wood-carving,
dialling, "and some astrology withal."
November, 1703, William Stukeley was admitted as a pensioner to Bennet (now
Corpus Christi) College, Cambridge, of which he became a scholar in the
following April. He was intended by his father for the legal profession, but
the study of law and its attendant subjects was distasteful to him and he
turned early to scientific subjects, and particularly anatomy. He says that
in his undergraduate days he "went frequently a simpling and began to steal
dogs and dissect." When at home he "made a handsome sceleton of a cat."
Stephen Hales of the Royal Society and Dr. John Gray of Canterbury were among
his botanical associates and he made large additions to Ray's Catalogus
Plantarum circa Cantabrigiam. On 21st January, 1709, we find his name among
the graduates as a Bachelor of Medicine. On leaving Cambridge in that year he
studied medicine under Dr. Mead at St. Thomas's Hospital and Anatomy Under
Rolfe, a surgeon in Chancery Lane.
he set up in practice at Boston, in Lincolnshire, where he, remained until
1717, when he removed to Great Ormond Street, London, next to Powis House. On
the 20th March of the same year he became a Fellow of the Royal Society on the
nomination of Dr. Mead. In 1718 we find him taking a part in the
establishment of the Society of Antiquaries, of which body he acted as
Secretary for nine years. On the 7th July, 1719, he graduated at Cambridge as
a Doctor of Medicine and on the 30th September of the same year he was
admitted as a candidate of the College of Physicians, becoming a fully-fledged
Fellow exactly twelve months afterwards, i.e., on 30th September, 1720, the
same year in which he published in account of Arthur's Oon and Graham's Dyke.
this time he began to turn his thoughts to Freemasonry. Masters, in his
History of the College of Corpus Christi, says that "his curiosity led him (Stukeley)
to be initiated into the mysterys of Masonry, suspecting it to be the remains
of the mysterys of the antients, when with difficulty a number sufficient was
to be found in all London. After this it became a public fashion not only
spred over Brittain and Ireland, but all Europe."
himself refers to this fact in his Common Place Book, wherein he says: "I was
the first person made a free mason in London for many years. We had
difficulty to find members enough to perform the ceremony. Immediately after
that it took a run and ran it self out of breath thro the folly of members."
Stukeley's initiation took place on the 6th January, 1721 at the Salutation
Tavern, Tavistock Street, with Mr. Collins, Capt. Rowe, who wade the famous
time, at any rate, Stukeley appears to have taken a great interest in the
doings of the Craft. At any rate he seems to have become sufficiently
prominent and active to secure an invitation to the Quarterly Commiunicatian
of Grand Lodge held in the June following his election, judging from the
following entry in his Diary:
24th June. The Masons had a dinner in Stationers' Hall. Present, Duke of
Montague, Ld. Herbert, Ld. Stanhope, Sr. And. Fountain, &c. Dr. Desaguliers
pronounc'd an oration. The Gd. Mr. Mr. Pain produc'd an old MS. of the
Constitutions which he got in the West of England 500 years old. He read over
a new sat of articles to be observ'd. The Duke of Montague chose Gd. Mr.
next year. Dr. Beal, Deputy."
following extracts from his Diary are also of interest: "27th December, 1721.
We met at the Fountain Tavern, Strand, by consent of Grand Mr. present. Dr.
Beal constituted a new Lodge there, where I was chosen Mr."
Commenting on this entry in The Freemason of 31st July, 1880, Bro. T. B.
Whyteheid wrote: "Nothing is named about the qualification for the chair, and
as Bro. Stukeley had not been twelve months a Mason, it is manifest that any
Brother could be chosen to preside, as also that the verbal consent of the
Grand Master, or his Deputy, was sufficient to authorise the formation of a
May, 1722. Met Duke of Quensboro, Lord Dunbarton, Hinchinbrok, &c. at Fount.
Tav. Lodg. to consider Feast on St. John's."
1722. The Duke of Wharton & Ld. Dalkeith visited our Lodg. at the Fountain."
1722. Order of the Book Instituted."
Dec. 1722. I dined with Ld. Hertford introduced by Ld. Winchelsea. I made
them both members of the Order of the Book or Roman Knighthood."
be interesting to know more about this Order, of which Stukeley gives no
further particulars. In 1722, also, he became a member of the "Gentlemen's
Society" at Spalding, a literary association which was patronised by many
members of the Craft, including Dr. Desaguliers, the Earl of Dalkeith, and
Lord Coleraine, Grand Masters in 1719, 1723, and 1727 respectively; Martin
Folkes and Dr. Thomas Manningham, Deputy Grand Masters, 1724 and 1752-1756;
Francis Drake, Grand Master of All England, 1761-1762; Joseph Ames, David
Casley, Sir Richard Manningham, and Andrew Michael Ramsay.
he was Gulstonian Lecturer when he delivered a discourse on the spleen. About
this time he began to suffer from the gout, which he partly cured by using Dr.
Roger's "oleum arthriticum" and partly by long rides in search of
antiquities. The first fruits of his antiquarian expeditions appeared in
1724, when he published his Itinerarium Curiosum. About the same time he
became one of the Censors of the College of Physicians, a member of the
Council of the Royal Society, as well as of the Committee appointed to examine
into the condition of the astronomical instruments of the Royal Observatory at
Greenwich. He was well known to the Earl of Pembroke, the Earl of Winchelsea,
and to "all virtuosos in London" and had a particular friendship with Sir
Isaac Newton. He went on long expeditionary tours with Roger Gale, whose
brother-in-law he afterwards became, the twain visiting various parts of
England. He traversed the whole length of the Roman wall and drew out plans
and descriptions of numerous old cities, roads, altars, etc. In 1723 he
presented an account of a Roman Ampitheatre at Dorchester to a Masonic lodge
which had that year honoured him by appointing him Master.
Stukeley went to live at Grantham where he quickly secured a lucrative medical
practice. Here he laid out a garden and a sylvan "temple of the Druids," with
an old apple tree, overgrown with mistletoe in the centre. It was at Grantham
where Sir Isaac Newton received the first part of his education and where he
intended to have ended his days if he could have met with a suitable house.
Stukeley was consulted by the Dukes of Ancaster and Rutland, the families of
Tyrconnel, Cust, etc., indeed, most of the principal families in the county
were glad to seek him for advice. He declined an invitation from the Earl of
Hertford to settle as a physician at Marlborough.
in his Common Place Book to his life at Grantham in the following words:
1726, being sadly plagu'd with the gout, I retired to Grantham, thinking by
country exercise to get the better of it, and by means of that, and a method
of life and management which I found out, I was not disappointed in my
expectation. Here I set up a lodg. of freemasons, wh. lasted all the time I
in the Diary he also wrote: "In two years time I lost an incredible number
of my most intimate friends there, Sr. lsaac Newton, Ld. Winchelsea. . . . my
friend Mr. Ja. Anderson, a scotsman, a learned & ingenious Antiquary . . . My
Land lord Lambert of the Fountain Tavern, Strand, where I was Mr. of a new
lodg. of Masons: & many others."
February, 1727, he wrote from Grantham to Samuel Gale, as follows: "In the
town we have settled a monthly assembly for dancing among the fair sex, and a
weekly meeting for conversation among the gentlemen. We have likewise erected
a small but well- disciplined Lodge of Freemasons."
he married Frances, daughter of Robert Williamson, of Allington,
Lincolnshire. Whether this had anything or not to do with his decision is not
stated, but a few months afterwards he decided upon a change of profession,
giving as his excuse "being overcome with fatigue in his profession and
repeated attacks of gout." He decided to enter the Church and in this decision
he was encouraged by Archbishop Wake, who ordained him at Croydon on 20th
July, 1729. Almost immediately he was offered the living of Holbeach, his
native place, by Dr. Reynolds, Bishop of Lincoln, while the Earl of Winchelsea
also offered him another, but he declined them both, accepting that of All
Saints, Stamford, to which he was presented by Lord Chancellor King, and to
Stamford he removed, but on his removal from Grantham to Stamford he appears
to have ceased all Masonic activity.
he publised his Palaeographia Sacra, the object of which was to demonstrate
"how heathen mythology is derived from sacred history, and that the Bacchus of
the poets is no other than Jehovah in Scripture." Four years later he
published his book on Stonehenge, as the outcome of his frequent visits.
Druidism was to him "the aboriginal patriarchal religion" and his intimate
friends called him "Chyndonax" and "the Arch-Druid of this age." In 1739 he
was given the living of Somerby by Grantham, which he held in conjunction with
that of Stamford until 1747, when he accepted from the Duke of Montague the
rectory of St. George the Martyr in Queen Square, Bloomsbury. From 1748
onwards he lived in Queen Square and at a house in Kentish Town, over the door
of which he placed the following inscription:
this rural solitude receive And contemplation all its pleasures give The
had passed away in 1737, leaving him with three daughters, but, in 1739, he
was married to Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Gale, Dean of York, and sister to
Roger and Samuel Gale, the celebrated antiquarians.
Stukeley's interest in his original profession and in the College of
Physicians continued right up to the end of his life. He not infrequently
attended meetings and took part in business of the College, as seen from
several notes made by him in his own copy of the Pharmacopoeia of 1746. As a
clergyman, he was noted for his unconventionality. It is said that on one
occasion, in April 1764, he postponed the service for an hour in order that
the congregation might go outside the church and witness an eclipse of the
sun. When he was nearly seventy-six years of age he preached for the first
time in spectacles, selecting for his text the words: "Now we see through a
glass darkly," while, in his discourse, he dwelt on the evils of too much
seized with paralysis on 27th February, 1765, and passed away on 3rd March
following at his rectory in Queen Square, in his seventy-eighth year. He was
buried in the churchyard of East Ham, and, according to his special request,
without any monument.
was undoubtedly a clever man, but in many instances he gave expressions to
opinions before they were matured and before he had carefully weighed the pros
and cons. As a result he made some curious and amusing blunders. He
published a pamphlet on "Oriuna, the wife of Carausius" through his misreading
of the word Fortuna on a coin of that emperor. It was he, however, who drew
up the plans, prospectus, and rules of the Society of Antiquaries, so that he
is entitled to be claimed as the principal founder of that body. His Diary
contains some interesting notes and reminiscences of famous people. He tells
us, for instance, under date of 22nd August, 1754 that "Sir Christopher Wren
smoaked to his death. I have smoaked a pipe with him when he was almost 100.
(He was 91 when he died)." Later, he vouches the information that Wren was a
great drinker of coffee. Munk, in his Roll of the CoRege of Physicians,
refers to Stukeley as "that learned and indefatigable antiquary," and Canon
Richard Parkinson, the editor of some of the publications of the Chetham
Society, says that "his learning was extensive and profound, and his writings
prove him to have been a divine, philosopher, and antiquary of a high order."
There is in the possession of the Chetham Society a Manuscript collection of
poems by Dr. Stukeley which have never been published.
Warburton, the learned author of the Divine Legation of Moses, writing on 4th
March, 1765, to Richard Hurd, afterwards Bishop of Worcester, said: "Poor Dr.
Stukeley, in the midst of a florid age of eighty-four, was last Saturday
struck with an apoplectic fit, which deprived him of his senses. I suppose he
is dead by this time." A few days later he wrote: "You say true. I have a
tenderness in my temper which will make me miss poor Stukeley; for, not to say
that he was one of my oldest acquaintance, there was in him such a mixture of
simplicity, drollery, absurdity, ingenuity, superstition, and antiquarianism,
that he often afforded me that kind of well-seasoned repast, which the French
call an Ambigu, I suppose for a compound of things never meant to meet
together. I have often heard him laughed at by fools, who have neither his
sense, his knowledge, nor his honesty; though it must be confessed that in him
they were all strangely travestied."
Evans, in his Ancient British Coins, wrote: "Dr. Stukeley, prior to his death
in 1765, had prepared twenty-three plates of the coins of the ancient British
kings, which were published by his executor Richard Fleming. They are not
accompanied by any letter-press description, but on the first fifteen plates,
which appear to have been engraved from Dr. Stukeley's own sketches, many of
the coins have inscriptions beneath them, giving the names of the princes to
whom he attributed them. The coins themselves are most inaccurately drawn,
and in many instances are merely bad copies of the engravings in Camden and
his History of the Royal Society, has another criticism. He says: "It is to
be feared that Stukeley's love for Geology did little to advance the Science:
for it appears that he communicated some geological papers to the Society,
containing so many absurd hypotheses, that even at that period (1751) when
Geology was so little understood, the Council determined that they should not
be printed. He also made several communications in which he asserted in the
most positive manner that corals were vegetables. These papers were likewise
rejected, whch made the sturdy antiquary very angry. He gives vent to his
feelings in forcible language and concludes: 'Whoever has eyes must see that
they are vegetables.
Stukeley's library, which consisted of 1121 items altogether, occupied in its
sale the six evenings of the week commencing Monday, 28th April, 1766. It
contained nothing of Masonic interest, unless an excepti is made in favour of
the two "Catalogues of the MSS. of Thomas Rawlinson, Esq."
SAM H. GOODWIN, GRAND SECRETARY, UTAH
BUILDER for February and March, 1921, appeared two articles on the subject of
Mormonism and Freemasonry, which attracted much interest and received many
laudatory comments. We consider it a matter of great good fortune to be able
to present herewith a third and concluding article by the same writer.
several articles by Brother Goodwin have been reprinted in pamphlet format and
will be found listed in the monthly book list on the inside back cover of the
circumstances great care should be exercised in the selection of material for
membership in Masonic lodges. This holds true everywhere and at all times and
is a duty that in an especial sense devolves upon those who in a
representative capacity first pass upon the qualifications of applicants for
our mysteries. A number of reasons for this might be given some of which it
is the purpose of this article to set forth.
general way it may be said that the historic, well known and consistent
position held by the Craft of this jurisdiction, practically, from the very
inception of organized Masonry - back in '65 - to the present time furnishes
one reason for caution on the part of Utah investigating committees. (1)
Further, there is a noticeable tendency on the part of some who are young in
Masonry - and of others who, though older, are inclined to be lenient toward a
relaxation of requirements - to take account only of the superficial and to
base their conclusions upon an imperfect apprehension of facts which cannot be
ignored with safety. In what follows attention is directed to certain facts
no one of which, perhaps, taken alone may seem to be of any great consequence,
but which in the aggregate are worthy of serious consideration. In seeking to
attain the object in view we may pass boundaries which, somehow, have acquired
a pseudo-sanctity and find ourselves in fields too rarely entered by those
who, for the time being, are charged with the duty of guarding well our outer
there may be no uncertainty as to what is here undertaken, it may be stated
that we are dealing with the general subject of "Mormonism and Masonry," and
that the particular phase of the subject upon which we now enter relates
itself to any would-be applicant who at the same time is a member of the
Latter Saints organization.
requires of its initiates, among other things, that they shall come of their
own free will accord. By implication, principle and teaching it assumes that
those who come into its fellowship are, and will remain, free from any
influence or agency that might interfere with the performance of such duties
as may devolve upon them. With this in view the petitioner is required to
declare that he is not a member of any organization whose rules are
incompatible with membership in the fraternity. This is not done in criticism
of any organization that curtails the freed of thought or action of its
adherents. Such criticism does not lie within the province of Masonry. But
Masonry, like other organizations, does claim and exercise the right to erect
such standards as may seem to be necessary; to fix upon and apply tests; to
pass upon the qualifications of would be members, and to decide in any and
every case, whether its requirements can be, or have been satisfactorily met.
In the exercise of these, as of all other functions, Masonry is a law unto
ground thus cleared we may proceed the consideration of certain facts the
bearing and significance of which can hardly be mistaken.
If we do
not mistake the meaning of the words those who are authorized to speak, the
Latter Day Saints organization makes such demands upon those who accept its
principles and leadership as to produce results which do not accord with the
genius of Freemasonry. For example, great stress is laid upon the authority
and power of the priesthood. We are told that a man may not honestly differ
from the "presiding priesthood" without being guilty of apostasy and subject
to excommunication. This principle was declared in no uncertain phrase by
Brigham Young and George Q. Cannon, and in effect it has frequently been set
forth since. Said Cannon, on one occasion when Brigham Young was present: "It
is apostasy to differ honestly with the measures of the President. A man may
be honest even in hell." (2) And President Wells, on the same occasion,
declared in no less unmistakable terms that one "might as well ask the
question whether a man had the right to differ honestly with the Almighty."
(3) Presumably these rather startling assertions rest upon the doctrine
frequently promulgated, that the president of the church is "the very
mouthpiece of God" (4); "His vicegerent on earth, (5), and the sole channel
through which He communicates His will and purpose concerning all that
pertains to His Kingdom on earth." (6)
Illustrations of the practical application of the principle under
consideration are not wanting and these furnish convincing proof of the
vitality of the doctrine. W.S. Godbe and his colleagues were cut off from the
church because they presumed to deny the right of Brigham Young to restrict
freedom of thought and speech or to discipline them for opinion's sake and
because they did not accept his financial policy. (7) Moses Thatcher held
opinions concerning his rights and privileges as an American citizen which did
not accord with those of the First Presidency and the other members of the
quorum of Apostles and he "declined to take counsel," and he was
disfellowshipped for his temerity. (8) Smurthwaite felt that the President of
the church should not enter the commercial field in competition with persons
less highly placed, and he gave voice to his opinion to his Bishop and was cut
off from the church. (9) B. H. Roberts, noting an unmistakable partiality in
the application of a church rule in the interest of one political party and
against the other, entered politics at once without the approval of the church
authorities and was made feel the sting of their displeasure, but later was
"reconciled" with his brethren. (10) Roberts, who is perhaps the brainest man
in the church, as he is the most independent thinker and most prolific writer,
recently gave frank expression - in a conference address - to his belief that
the Mormon people had not always been blameless; that their conduct had not
always been defensible; that on the part of some individuals narrowness and
fanaticism and bigotry and unwisdom had been exhibited; that the disasters
which overtook the followers of the prophet in Missouri were due, in part at
least, to boastfulness, overzeal, fanaticism and unwisdom on the part of the
people, and that "In his early experiences even the prophet Joseph Smith made
his mistakes and was several times reproved of the Lord because of them." (11)
For this frank avowal of facts, of the truth of which his historical studies
had convinced him, he was taken sharply to task in the same session of the
conference by the President of the church, Joseph F. Smith. (12) Such results
as are here indicated, need occasion no surprise, for it must be remembered
that the authorities - the Priesthood - are "in very deed a part of God" (13)
and as such they can fix, irrevocably, the ultimate status of man, for to them
belongs the power "to bind on earth that which shall be bound in heaven and to
loose on earth that which shall be loosed in, heaven" (14) ; "to remit sin"
(15); "to say what shall be done and how it shall be done and on what
occasions it shall be done," (16) and when the President of the church speaks
"anything as the mind and will of the Lord, it is just as binding upon us as
if God spake personally to us." (17)
are at familiar with the teachings and literature of the Mormon church need no
proof of the necessity of absolute obedience to the Priesthood on the part of
adherents, or of the insistence upon this from the beginning to the present.
As already indicated, denial of this principle was one of the chief offenses
of those who were responsible for the "Utah Schism." (18) "It had been argued
that we must passively and uninquiringly obey the Priesthood because we could
not otherwise build up Zion," complained E.L.T. Harrison, in "An Appeal to the
People and Protest." (19) And such obedience appears to be required in all the
relations of life - in things spiritual and temporal. (20)
us who are unacquainted with the refinements, or modifications, or
qualifications to which such teachings may be subjected in their application
to individual cases may well be pardoned if we question whether a member of an
organization which makes such unusual demands is, or really can be, in a
position to act freely in determining what course shall be pursued. And if he
is not really free in this particular could he, being so circumstanced, be
considered good material for our Rites? Could he answer, honestly and
satisfactorily, that question in our petition to which reference has already
familiar with the fact that leaders of the Latter Day Saints organization have
repeatedly declared that their followers are as free to act in all the affairs
of life (21) as are the votaries of any other faith or philosophy of life.
But when issues of the most vital concern - having to do with time and
eternity - are made to hinge, absolutely, upon acceptance of this fundamental
principle we are forced to confess such assertions make an unwarranted and
impossible demand upon our credulity. (22)
set of facts which cannot or ought not to be ignored in this study has to do
with the matter of polygamy. The writer understands that by many this is
regarded as a dead issue. He is mindful of the further fact that a Manifesto
was issued by the President of the church in 1890, which advised the people to
refrain from the practice of this principle, (23) and that later this famous
document was construed a s prohibiting not only new marriages, but also those
who had previously entered this relation from living with their plural wives.
(24) It is to be remembered, too, that the present head of the church recently
declared - with so much earnestness that he afterwards apologized for the
manner in which he had spoken, having been, as he expressed himself,
"gloriously mad" - that "No man on earth has the power to perform plural
marriages," and, "We have excommunicated two patriarchs who have pretended to
perform plural marriages." (25) All this and these - for reasons that follow -
do not remove the subject beyond the purview of the Mason, or the Lodge, that
may be seeking information as to the fitness of material to come into our
fellowship. It is conceded that this subject does not have the importance for
the Mason and citizen that it had when Grand Secretary Diehl sent out his
Circular in which he set forth the position of the Grand Lodge of Utah with
reference to the Latter Day Saints, their teachings and practices. (26) But
after all allowances have been made there still remain considerations that are
pertinent to our purpose - at all events, such is the conviction of the
writer. He is not convinced that this subject is a "dead issue," for he
recalls the fact that a President of the church - the "very mouthpiece of
God," as we have seen - declared concerning this practice and doctrine: ". . .
It is one of the most vital parts of our religious faith; it emanated from God
and cannot be legislated away. . . . Take this from us and you rob us of our
hopes and associations in the resurrection." (27) And hardly less pertinent is
the fact that this principle, like the revelation which established it, still
holds its place in the teachings, beliefs and literature of the Mormon people.
uninitiated may experience some difficulty, perhaps, when they undertake to
reconcile one set of facts with another set of facts which appears to be at
the opposite pole. This is the situation. It is known that the practice of
polygamy has been abandoned - according to repeated statements made by those
who are in authority - and that this principle is no longer taught by the
church. Yet, it is a matter of common knowledge that the present head of the
organization is a polygamist - as also was his immediate predecessor in that
position and all who preceded him - at least, such was his status it the time
of the Smoot investigation when he was "a fugitive from justice" (28) on
account of his marital relations. (29) There are other leaders associated with
the President of the church who are similarly situated. These men are the
leaders of the thought and exemplars of the principles of the organization and
are "living their religion." (30) This is referred to here, not in any spirit
of criticism, but for the purpose of calling attention to the teaching value
of such facts. "Your actions speak so loud that I cannot hear what you say,"
is an adage which is not without suggestiveness in this connection. The
influence of the First Presidency, and more particularly of the President of
the church, is greater than that of any other man or set of men. How could it
be otherwise in view of his alleged relationship to Deity and of the great and
unusual powers he exercises by virtue of that relationship. It must follow
that the words, the actions, and the daily life of one vested with such
singular prerogatives exert a tremendous influence in the direction of shaping
opinion and belief; of determining the attitude of multitudes of people toward
the institutions and the laws of the land, (31) in fact, of making the
individual what he is. For a man or for men, so placed, to take the position
for any considerable length of time, that a law with which they do not find
themselves in accord is unconstitutional and therefore is to be ignored, (32)
as was done for nearly two decades; to insist that the practice of polygamy
"is ordained of God, . . . is ecclesiastical in its nature and government,"
and because of this "it is therefore outside constitutional law," and so,
"being within the pale of the church, its free exercise cannot be prohibited,"
(33) again, for the "vicegerent of God" to testify in the conspicuous manner
(though not of his own free will and accord) that he had been, and was then,
living in known violation of the laws of his country church and his God, (34)
that he expected to continue so doing and that he was willing to take his
chances the laws of the State, (35) and for other leaders, only a little less
prominent than the President to testify the same conditions in their marital
relations (36) - for such a situation to develop and exist and be taken as a
sort of matter of course, or even approved and mended, by so large a body of
people, cannot be productive of results that are far from being reassuring.
How can it be otherwise than that such attitude toward law, and such examples
on the part of such influential men, should have a powerful effect upon young
manhood and womanhood of the Latter Day Saints organization? We are of the
opinion that it is not desirable - certainly, it is not in accord with Masonic
ideals and teachings - to subject young people to character-forming influences
which must tend to make them indifferent to law. Many thoughtful Craftsmen
earnestly believe that these are times in which regard for law should be
emphasized on all suitable occasions, and that the too general practice, in
effect, of nullifying and repealing law by individual disregard of law,
instead of making use of the means provided by law, is a proceeding dangerous
beyond calculation, a positive, subtle menace to the very foundation of those
institutions which are our boast.
angle of this phase of our subject should not be overlooked. Not only is the
doctrine taught by example, and that by the most influential men in the Latter
Day Saints organization, but it appears in the literature, and often in the
instruction given the people. The "Doctrine and Covenants" is one of the four
standard works adopted by formal action of this organization. It is the word
of God and is of equal authority with the Bible, the Book of Mormon and the
Pearl of Great Price. Sometimes Latter Day Saints controversialists have
strenuously objected when their opponents have quoted statements made by
Conference speakers in place of adhering strictly to these standard works of
the church. (37) Now, as noted above, the Doctrine and Covenants is
authoritative and standard. Section, or chapter, 132, of this book records
the Revelation on plural marriage. If it ever taught this principle - and
there is no controversy on this score - it still teaches it, for the late
President of the church, Joseph F. Smith, testified under oath that it had not
been annulled or repealed, (38) and so far is known to the writer, no action
of this sort has ever been taken. It is still part and parcel of the
authoritative teachings of the church, as also is the rather severe sentence
which it pronounces upon those who fail to accept this teaching. (39)
material provided for study by the young people's organizations of the church
considerable stress is laid upon the "Lives" of Joseph and Hyrum Smith,
Brigham Young and others of the leading men in the history of this people, all
of whom "lived their religion." These men are held up as heroic characters
whose words and example are presented for instruction and emulation. (40)
Sometimes speakers when addressing large numbers of this faith declare their
adherence to the principle under consideration. (41) Some years after the
Manifesto was issued an Apostle declared that the principle of plural marriage
is as true today as it ever was, and asserted that those "who prevent you from
obeying are responsible to God for so doing." (42) B.H. Roberts, in a church
periodical published for the guidance and instruction of young people -
members of the Mutual Improvement Association - has a long article in defence
of this principle. (43) Other illustrations of the matter under consideration
could easily be assembled if they were deemed necessary but enough has been
said, it would seem, to show what is being done along this line. We do not
undertake to reconcile the contradictions which must be apparent to every
observant Craftsman - we are simply calling attention to facts.
pages are being written in the hope that they may prove to be helpful, in a
measure, to investigation committees, there is another point of view that
should be presented here. Sometimes it is asserted with reference to one who
has applied, or is desirous of applying, for the degrees: "He does not
practice polygamy; never has done so, and though a member of the Latter Day
Saints organization he never has accepted it even in principle. Why, isn't he
good material?" Such a question would
call for an affirmative answer and, other things being equal, to leave little
room for objection. But even in such a case there are certain considerations
which should have weight, and it is not any one thing, but all those matters
which have to do with conduct and character - which really help to place a man
- that should be laid on the scales. There is, we believe, such a thing as -
for want of a better term - group responsibility. By this it is meant that a
man can hardly cut himself off, relieve himself of, responsibility by
declining to hold to one principle at the same time that he claims the
privileges and accepts the benefits accruing from membership in an
organization of which that very principle is fundamental. To illustrate: The
writer might claim affiliation with the I.W.W., for example, but strenuously
insist that, while a member of that organization and ready to aid in the
promulgation of its principles and philosophy of life, be does not now, and
never has, believed in the use of dynamite for the destruction of life and
property in order to gain the ends which this particular organization his in
view. Could he, justly, be shrived of responsibility when the organization of
which be is a member uses dynamite? Perhaps, in the payment of dues and
assessments which, among other things, were to keep him in good standing in
the organization, his money helped to buy the dynamite used in the destruction
of life. Should his protest of disbelief in a principle outweigh the
practical, concrete assistance he gave to the organization which does hold to
the principles he disclaims? Whether the analogy is close and satisfactory in
all particulars or not, there is a suggestion here which investigating
committees should not ignore when arriving at a conclusion.
another objection, and one that at first blush would seem to be conclusive,
that is sure to appear when the suggestion is made that one's belief is to be
considered when passing upon the qualifications of an applicant. The
impression prevails quite generally that Masonry does not assume the right to
question a petitioner on this score - that, in effect, he may "believe what he
pleases," and, if all right in other respects he may be received into our
fellowship. Of course, a moment's reflection must convince us that this is not
the case. We do claim - and constantly exercise - the right to demand that a
man must believe certain things or his petition will not even be presented to
the lodge. It must be evident, too, to the well informed that the range of
inquiry touching what must be accepted by applicants is not fixed by any
so-called "immutable landmark," for the requirements in this respect vary in
different jurisdictions. Further, one can hardly follow a candidate through
the ceremonies of the several degrees without noting how often, by direct
question and scarcely less direct implication, the matter of belief is
involved. Some years ago a prominent leader in the Latter Day Saints
organization when taken to task by critics for his avowed belief in the
principle under consideration - and be was "living his religion," and still is
doing so - responded: "Well, gentlemen, whose business is it? What are you
going to do about it ?"(44) We are not prepared to say that, under the
circumstances, that is not a proper and sufficient answer. But here the
situation is very different. Masonry has erected certain standards to which
applicants must conform; does pass upon qualifications; necessarily must pass
upon character, and in order to judge character, it is needful to know
somewhat of the material, as it were, that has gone into the making of
character. Hence, many questions are asked, or should be if the information is
not at hand, that do not appear in our petitions. And so, on occasion and
when in doubt, we make inquiries concerning the habits and practices of an
applicant. Circumstances might arise which would lead us to satisfy ourselves
whether or not the applicant is a "dope-fiend," or "booze-fighter," or
libertine; whether he abuses his wife, or neglects his children, or defrauds
his creditors, or is wedded to the gaming-table. And we do not hesitate to
satisfy ourselves as to his physical condition; whether he is crippled, or
defective in any respect, or is subject to ailment or disease which might
bring him to be a burden upon the lodge. These intimate matters of health and
character are not our business until application is made for admission to our
fraternity. Then the candidate says in effect: "The bars are down; ask any
questions needful, for I am desirous of meeting the conditions in order that I
may be made a Mason." That one of the most powerful character-shaping
influences should be excluded from consideration would be absurd, if it were
required, or even permitted. Our right to make such inquires, and the
necessity for them, appear to be beyond question.
connection, and as further emphasizing the importance that may be attached to
a state of mind not an overt act - to a "belief," as a determining factor in
estimating character, the decision of a Salt Lake Judge in the Third District
Court is illuminating and suggestive. The matter came up on the petition of
an alien to become a citizen of the United States.
framing the naturalization laws under the statute certain requirements are set
forth. Failure to satisfy any one of these conditions results in defeating
application for citizenship. Among other declarations required the petitioner
must state under oath that he is not "a polygamist or believer in the practice
of polygamy," and further, he must make it "appear to the satisfaction of the
court" that be is attached to the principles of the Constitution of the United
States. (45) In the case under consideration the applicant for citizenship
took the oath as required, with reference to being a polygamist and his belief
in the practice of polygamy. At the hearing, however, he was interrogated
with respect to fulfilment of conditions required for admission to
citizenship. The testimony showed - with reference to belief in the practice
of polygamy - that the petitioner based his disbelief in the practice upon the
conviction, and upon no other ground, that so long as they exist, the
prohibitory rules of church and state should be obeyed. He did not disbelieve
in it because of any objection to the practice itself: apart from its
relationship to ecclesiastical and legal prohibitions he does believe it now."
(46) He was willing to obey the law, and to have it obeyed, but it was shown
that he did not believe in, and was unsympathetic with, the forbidding canons
of both church and state. The Court held that "One cannot honestly believe in
a practice apart from the fact that it is against the law, and at the same
time be honestly attached to the law forbidding it." And further, that since
his testimony shows a lack of attachment to the law against polygamy, a law
fundamental in our scheme of government, he has fated to fulfil that important
condition requiring petitioners to show to the satisfaction of the court that
they are attached to the principles of the Constitution.'" (47) Admission to
citizenship was therefore denied him.
to which attention is especially directed in this incident is the significance
attached to a "belief," as disclosing an unfavourable attitude of mind toward
the laws of the land. Masonry, like citizenship acquired through
naturalization, is a privilege, not a right, and a privilege conditioned upon
compliance with certain requirements and those requirements are fixed by the
written and unwritten laws of the Fraternity.
now to another matter. Masonry directs the attention of its initiates to the
Bible as "God's inestimable gift to man as a rule and guide to his faith and
practice." In Anglo-Saxon Masonry the "Great Light" occupies a prominent and
well-known position in the ritual. The attitude of the Latter Day Saints
organization toward the Bible is not without its significance for us.
is accepted as the "Word of God, so far as translated correctly." (48), The
Book of Mormon is equally the word of God, as also are the Doctrine and
Covenants, and Pearl of Great Price - these are the "standard books" of the
Mormon church.(49) In this particular, of course, there could be no criticism,
for "a Book of the Law" on the, altar meets the requirements. But, as we
understand the matter, a fundamental teaching of the church is what may be
termed the principle of a continuous or "immediate revelation." By this is
meant that the President of the church who, as we have seen is the "very
mouthpiece of God," (50) may at any time substitute something better than any
one of the four books named or than all of them together, and such
pronouncement would be the very word of God, binding alike upon all the
adherents of that faith. "The whole of them (i.e., the four books listed
above) are not all we need. . . . the Lord has his mouthpiece to say what
shall be done and how it shall be done and on what occasion it shall be
done.'"(51) The authorities of the church are the "living oracles of God and
they are worth more to the Latter Day Saints than all the Bibles, all the
Books of Mormon and all the Books of Doctrine and Covenants that are written.
If we could have but one of them give me the living oracles of the Priesthood
for my guidance." (52) "When compared with the living oracles," declared
Brigham Young, 'those books are nothing to me; those books do not convey the
word of God direct to us now, as do the words of the Prophet or a man bearing
the Holy Priesthood in our day and generation. I would rather have the living
oracles than all the writing in the books." These words - quoted by President
Woodruff (53) - were spoken in the presence of Joseph Smith, who immediately
arose and said: "Brother Brigham has told you the word of the Lord and he has
told you the truth." (54)
We do not
call attention to these things by way of criticism. These teachings
concerning the Bible, in relation to the "living oracles," are for those who
can, and who care to, accept them. But we do suggest, that such ideas concern
us when they are held by those who would apply to our lodges for the degrees,
and who, because of the source whence such principles emanate, might feel
moved at any time to substitute some man's dictum for the Great Light in the
affairs of life. Under these circumstances we submit that the word that might
be declared by the "living oracles" might not accord in any particular or
respect with the fundamentals of Masonry. And this might very probably be the
case in as much as the Latter Day Saints organization is opposed to all secret
societies - except its own. (55)
matter is worthy of passing notice, at least, in this connection. This
relates itself to Deity. Masonry requires of its initiates an avowal of
belief in God. It does not undertake to say what one's conception of God shall
be, so that in this particular a member of the Latter Day Saints organization
can meet the requirements. But this fact does not preclude a consideration of
conceptions so fundamental in life and character as one's apprehension of
Deity. Here also is disclaimed any attempt or thought of criticism. The
purpose is simply to get as much light as possible upon the influences and
forces and beliefs which work together in the great task of shaping character.
Day Saints are taught, and, we assume, believe in, a plurality of gods. "The
head god organized the heavens. In the beginning the heads of the gods
organized the heavens and the earth." (56) In the beginning the Bible shows
there is a plurality of gods beyond the power of refutation." (51) "The head
of the gods appointed one God for us." (52) The Deity of the Latter Day Saints
". . . is an exalted man." (59) He has parts and passions like men, including
the procreative power, which he exercises, having With Him, as "He sits
enthroned in yonder heaven," a female Deity. (60) Whatever allowance may be
made, in the matter of leaving every man at liberty to conceive of God as he
may, this much may be said: Such a materialistic idea of God differs so widely
from that held by Masons generally, but more particularly in this country,
that the question night well arise whether those holding it would fit into the
Masonic institution. The peace and harmony of a lodge is of prime importance.
has been made to the fact that the Latter Day Saints organization is opposed
to secret societies and the reason for this "must be clear to every
well-informed, intelligent Latter Day Saint." Masonry, according to the late
President Joseph F. Smith, is an "institution of the evil one," as is
abundantly shown by many passages in the four standard books of the church.
(61) Now, this being true, it must follow that a member of that organization
who would join the fraternity in the face of these facts would act in direct
opposition to the positive declarations of church leaders, and no less
explicit injunctions of the four standard works of the church, which he has
accepted as the very word of his God. This being true, such a person would
necessarily be a "bad" Mormon, and Masons may be excused for seriously
doubting if a "bad Mormon" can make a good Mason.
briefly to summarize the principal matters presented in the foregoing pages so
that there may be seen at a glance some of the reasons which have weight with
Utah Masons today:
Historical: Attitude of the Nauvoo Masons toward Masonic customs and law.*
Clandestinism: Temple ceremonies and use of language and symbols.
Priesthood: Unlimited power of and right to direct and dictate in all things,
temporal and spiritual the "mouthpiece of God."
Polygamy: This is taught:
original revelation which has not been annulled or repealed, nor can it be.
positive declarations of belief in it by leaders and prominent teachers.
c. In the
literature of the organization, and,
d. By the
example of the leaders who "live their religion."
Attitude toward law: Enforcement of law against polygamy was "persecution,"
and is still so held and taught
Petition: Inability of applicant honestly to answer one question in petition.
Light: Substitution of "living oracles" (Priesthood) for the Bible.
Conception of male and female deity out of harmony with that of Anglo-Saxon
Membership prohibited: L.D.S. organization holds Masonry to be "of the evil
one" and is opposed to members having any connection therewith.
BUILDER for March, 1921, p. 36.
New., 1866, pp. 120-121; Proc. Utah, 1882, pp. 28-53; 1883, pp. 24-26.
Tullidge's Quar. Mag. 1881, Volume 1, p. 33; On the general subject of
obedience to the priesthood, see George Q. Cannon, "Contributor," 1894, volume
29, p. 745.
Tullidge's Quar. 1881, Vol, 1, p. 33
Mutual Impv. Assn. 1901-2, pp. 81-82; 69th Annual Conf. Rept. 1899, pp. 5, 6,
7; 70th Annual Conf. Rept. 1900, p. 52; "Outlines of Ecclesiastical History,"
Roberts, p. 368.
Annual Conf. Rept. 1899, p. 5.
Thatcher Episode," 1899 (B. Young, Jr.), p. 14; Salt Lake Tribune, April 4,
1921, p. 1.
Tullidge's Quar. Mag. 1881, Vol. 1, p. 32.
Thatcher Episode," 1896, p. 19, Cf. pp. 29-31.
Investigation, 1906, Vol. IV, pp. 78-81.
Thatcher Episode" 1896, p. 35; Smoot Investigation, 1904, Vol. I pp. 723,
Semi-Annual Conf. Report, 1909, pp. 103-104.
Semi-Annual Conf. Report, 1909, pp. 124, 125.
Witness for God," Roberts, p. 187; Cf. Smoot Investigation, Vol. I, 1904,
Note 1, p. 1; Doc. & Cov., Sect. 107:5.
Semi-Annual Conf. Report 1901, p. 2; 75th Semi-Annual Conf. Report 1904, p. 5;
Doctrine and Covenants, See. 124:93.
Semi-Annual Conf. Report, 1904, p. 5.
Annual Conf. Report 1899, p. 17.
Des. News, Oct. 4, 1896 Geo. Q Cannon.
Tullidge's Quar. Mag. 1881, Vol. 1, p. 33.
Tullidge's Quar. Mag. 1881 Vol. 1, p. 32.
Desc., Vol. 12, p. 59, Vol. 5, p. 100 Vol. 6, p. 345; "An Epistle to the
Presidents," etc., by President John Taylor, 1882, pp. 7, 8, 9, 10; "Inside of
Mormonism," 1903, p. 67; Doct. & Cov., Sec. 124, p. 436; Deseret Apr. 25,
1895; Logan Journal, May 26, 1898.
"Thatcher Episode," 1896.
Refercnce No. 15, above.
Woodruff's Manifests; Proc. of the Semi-Annual Conf., Oct. 6, 1890. Pamplet,
entire; Smoot Invest., 1904, Vol. 1, p. 332-333; Doct. & Cov. Ed. 1914,
"Defense of the Faith of the Saints," Roberts, 1912, Vol. 2, p. 333; Cf.
Smoot Investigation, 1904, Vol. 2, p. 968.
Lake Tribune, Apr. 5, 1921.
Utah, 1883, pp. 24-26.
President John Taylor, Tullidge's Quar. Mag. 1883, Vol. 2, pp. 7, 8.
Investigation; D. H. Roberts, 1904, Vol. 1, pp. 74-211. (F.M. Lyman).
Investigation, 1904, Vol. 1, p. 712.
Investigation, 1904, Vol. 1, p. 336.
Epistle of the First Presidency," etc., 1886, entire; "An Epistle of the
Apostles," etc., Oct. 10, 1887, p. 4; "The Mormon Problem," 1882, Opinion of
Supreme Court, U. S., p. 70.
"Handbook of Reference," A.H. Cannon, 1884, p. 102
Investigation, 1904, Vol. 1, p. 334. (Jos F. Smith)
Investigation, see No. 34, above.
Investigation, (B.H. Roberts), 1904, Vol. 1, p.718. (F. M. Lyman), p. 430;
Cf. Jour. Disc. Vol. 5, pp. 1-38, 100; "Inside of Mormonism," pp. 79-80; Des.
News, Jan. 16, 1889.
of the Faith," etc., 1921, Vol. 2, p. 293.
Investigation, 1901, Vol. 1, p. -; Apostle Hyrum M. Smith, son of President
Joseph F. Smith, some time after his father testified as above, declared that
the revelations could not be changed. His words were: "These revelations are
written in the Doctrine and Covenants, Book of Mormon and Pearl of Great
Price. . . . They were proclaimed by revelation as I have stated, and up to
this time, after over seventy-seven years of existence of the Church, not one
principle or doctrine thus revealed has been receded from by the members of
the Church. We have never repudiated any of the truths revealed to the
Prophet Joseph Smith and to his successors in the office of Prophet, Seer and
Revelator to the church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. We have never
relinquished our belief in any one of these doctrines and principles. . . . We
have never been called upon or found it necessary in any stage of our progress
to eliminate any revelation from the record. Neither have we ever denied any
of them. We testify in all soberness that these revelations are from God.
They are therefore the same yesterday, today and forever, and are everlasting
and essential to the salvation of those unto whom they are given."
Seventy-eighth Annual Conf. Report 1907. Page 31.
Doctrine & Convenants, 1914, Sect. 132:4, p. 464.
Annual Conf. Rept., 1917, pp. 6, 7.
Lake Herald, Apr. 5, 1918 (2000 people present).
Journal, Jan. 20, 1898.
Improvement Era, 1898,.Vol. 1, pp. 472, 475, 478, 482.
of the Faith," etc., 1912, Vol. 2, p. 331
"Naturalization Laws & Regulations," 1915 p. 5.
Decision of Judge Harold M. Stephens, (Mss.) 1917, pp.
p. 8; Cf R.W.Young, Smoot Investigation, 1904, Vol 2, p. 968.
"Articles of Faith," Talmage, 1899, p. 240 f.
Investigation, 1904, Vol. 1, p. 179.
Annual Conf. Rept, 1899, pp. 5, 6, 7, 17.
Annual Conf. Rept, 1899, p. 17.
Semi-Annual Conf. Rept., 1897, pp. 23-24.
F. Smith, Improvement Era,,1900, Vol. 4, pp. 8, 9.
"Mormon Doctrine of Deity," Roberts, 1903, p. 231. Quoted from Joseph Smith's
words, spoken June 16, 1844. Mil. Star, Vol. 24, p. 108.
Doctrine of Deity," Roberts, 1903, p. 231.
Cf. p. 42.
"Mormon Doctrine of Deity,"- Roberts, 1903, p. 10; Jour. of Disc., Vol. 6,
Disc. No. 3; Improvement Era, Vol, 1, 1898, p. 755.
69th Annual Conf. Rept. 1899, pp. 18, 20; "Defence of the Faith," 1912, Vol.
2, p. 270.
"Improvement Era," 1900, Jos. F. Smith, Vol. IV, pp. 58-59.
H. L. HAYWOOD, IOWA
O God is
a Judge, O God is a King,
almighty Monarch who rules everything;
O God is
a Warrior, O God is a Lord
terribly flasheth the might of His sword:
I affirm for I certainly know it
above all other things is a Poet.
I listen, His melody streams,
always I'm hearing Him crooning His dreams;
whatever it is that He chooseth to say
in a poet's own beautiful way.
COMMITTEES OF INVESTlGATION
Masters have complained during the past year of great laxity in the matter of
investigating petitioners for the degrees. The principal reasons assigned for
this apparent Masonic neglect are to be found in the overwhelming number of
petitions which are sent to lodges and the inability to get members to devote
proper time to look up those who apply for the privileges of the Fraternity.
It cannot be doubted but this is an age which demands the careful scrutiny of
everyone who knocks at the door of the lodge. There are so many individuals in
the country at the present time who hold ideas which are at variance to those
of Masonry that the admission of such would be a most serious calamity. It is
believed that the problem of proper investigation of petitioners for the
degrees is one which ought to be worked out along new and more progressive
lines. The old idea of secrecy in appointing an investigating committee and
the present practice of picking anybody as a member of such committee does not
comport with present day conditions. It is believed that we have reached a
period in our Masonic development when a single committee on petitions
composed of men who have the time and ingenuity to devote to the cause would
be desirable. It is an old saying that what is everybody's business is
nobody's business, and this seems to be largely true in the matter of
investigating candidates for the privileges of the Fraternity. This is a
problem with which we must grapple sooner or later and it is believed that it
can be worked out in due time when thoughtful men give to the subject that
attention which it should receive.
Grand Lodge of Illinois
of the hour is education - American education, Masonic education, synonymous
and interchangeable terms. We as Masons, must bend our energies to influence
public opinion not only by precept, but by example. Public opinion is the
force that rules the country. With a warped and jaundiced public opinion the
country is diseased and in danger; with a correct and righteous public opinion
the country is healthy and safe. Public opinion is but the crystalization of
individual opinion. We must therefore, work upon the individual, and in aid of
that work the individual Mason must thoroughly learn the principles, the
tenets and lessons which are taught him in the lodge room, and then he must go
out into the highways and by-ways of the community and exemplify the practice
of these principles in his dealings and actions with his fellow men. Every
Masonic lodge must become the center of good influence and wise counsels in
the community in which it is established. In this way will our noble Order
justify its existence and secure and safeguard American principles and
American institutions to the end of time and to the uttermost generation.
Grand Lodge of Louisiana.
TO THE LAMBSKIN
toast to the Lambskin, more ancient by far
fleece of pure gold, or the eagles of war;
badge of a Mason, more noble to wear
garter of England, or order so rare.
king wear his purple, and point to his crown
fall from his brow when his throne tumbles down
badge of a Mason has much more to give
kingdom so frail that it cannot long live.
field marshal boast of the men he can guide,
infantry column and heroes who ride,
white leather apron his standard outranks
floats from the east to the death's river banks
shield of the orphan, 'tis the emblem of love,
charter of faith from the Grand Lodge above.
TEACHINGS OF MASONRY
H.L. HAYWOOD, IOWA .
The following paper is one of a series of articles on
"Philosophical Masonry," or “The Teachings of Masonry," by Brother Haywood, to
be used for reading and discussion in lodges and study clubs - From the
questions following each section of the paper the study club leader should
select such as he may desire to use in bringing out particular points for
discussion. To go into a lengthy discussion on each individual question
presented might possibly consume more time than the lodge or study club may be
able to devote to the study club meeting.
In conducting the study club meetings the leader should
endeavor to hold the discussions closely to the tenet of the paper and not
permit the members to speak too long at one time or to stray onto another
subject. Whenever it becomes endent that the discussion is turning from the
original subject the leader should request the members to make notes of the
particular points or phases of the matter they may wish to discuss or inquire
into and bring them up after the last section of the paper is disposed of.
The meetings should be closed with a "Question Box" period,
when such questions as may have come up during the meeting and laid over until
this time should be entered into and discussed. Should any questions arise
that cannot be answered by the study club leader or some other brother
present, these questions may be submitted to us and we will endeavor to answer
them for you in time for your next meeting.
Supplemental references on the subjects treated in this paper
will be found at the end of the article.
IT IS not
often that one of the subjects of speculative thought becomes the burning
issue of the hour but that is what happened in our own national history
between 1850 and 1861 with the doctrine of equality. The whole matter,
needless to say, was brought to the front by the slavery issue. Anti-slavery
orators never wearied of reminding their southern friends that the fathers of
the nation, in their Declaration of Independence, had openly proclaimed "that
all men are created equal": if that is true, they argued, then negroes deserve
the rights of citizenship, for negroes are men. The pro-slavery advocates
retorted by saying; that the fathers of the country, many of them, had
themselves been slave holders, and that they had really meant to say that "all
men are created equal except negroes." He who reads through the more important
debates on that subject - such a one will be richly rewarded - will learn how
exceedingly difficult it is to frame any definition of human equality that
will at once do justice to things as they are and to things as they ought to
be. Equality is an aspiration, (in Masonry as elsewhere) a hope, a dream, an,
ideal, hard to capture in a net of words, difficult to envisage by the mind,
and one must remain content after all his thinking about the matter he has not
yet been able to think it through.
believe that the "negro" is the equal of the white man? If you do not how do
you reconcile such a disbelief with the Masonic teaching that "we meet upon
the level" and with the Declaration of Independence? If negroes are equal why
is it that when left to themselves they are so backward? What was Lincoln's
theory of the negro in this connection? What was his scheme for solving the
It is as
difficult to arrive at a clear conception of equality from the history of
Masonry as it is from the history of this nation. The old Craft Mason did not
have any equality except in a very special sense. His guild was a helpless
part of an aristocratic social order. He himself had a place in his own guild
determined by the most rigorous regulations laid down from above. The guilds
themselves were graded in importance, and the members inside each guild were
held fast in a similar hierarchy. There is no evidence to show that at any
time prior to 1717 any form of Masonry explicitly taught and enforced the
doctrine. Subsequent to 1717 the doctrine has come to the fore, and in some
countries has almost occupied the first place among Masonic teachings. But
ever, so there have been many exceptions. In the Masonry of Latin countries
equality has not, for obvious reasons, been very much emphasized. Even in
England, the home of democracy, it has never had a very rigorous application
to the social classes of an aristocratic society. When the Earl of Carnovan
inducted King Edward VII into his seat as Grand Master he was careful to
remind that Potentate that English Masonry had never been subversive of the
monarchical system as it had been in other countries.
It is in
France and in America that we find the Masonic doctrine of equality most in
evidence, and most influential. The part played by Masonry in the French
Revolution is, and perhaps will ever remain, pretty much of a mystery. But
there is sound evidence to prove that Masonry had much to do with convincing
the French masses that they had rights of their own. To this day liberty and
democracy is widely understood in France in the equalitarian sense. "Liberty,
Fraternity, Equality" is a slogan that has not yet lost its power of appeal.
But it is
in our own land that equality has played its major part in Masonic history.
It may be that it as Masonry itself (though this point is hotly disputed) that
wrote into the Declaration the words "All men be created equal." It is certain
that Masonry had with the strain of equalitarianism that runs the
Constitution. It is certain that the Craft forefront in demanding for the
negro the of that principle. And it is certain that at present moment
equality and Masonry are almost synonymous in many, many minds.
Russia, strange to say, that now finds equality a living issue. Sovietism,
unless we have been all deceived as to its nature and purposes, goes in for
equality as the chief good. To level all classes, to do away with
distinctions, even such distinctions as those at exist between the learned and
the unlearned, to be a part of the Lenine program. It would be a curious
experiment to send a questionnaire around our Masonic leaders and spokesmen to
ask them what they think of the Soviet program, and if they would be willing
to see Equality really tried out. The answers might not throw much light on
the Russian experiment, but they would surely help us all to learn just what
equality means to Masons.
kinds of guilds were there? Was Operative Masonry a guild? Do you, consider
England a democratic country where equality is a fact? What do you know about
the connection between Masonry and the French Revolution? Are Bolshevists in
Russia aiming at equality? or at Communism? what is the difference, if any,
between the two? Is equality, as Soviet Government understands it, a
I have my
own theory as to what Equality means a Masons, and I shall give it: but I give
it as nothing other than my own private opinion, and not as an expression of a
generally held formulation of the doctrine. I wish that such a general
interpretation could be made because Masonic thinking demands it. Until we
can work out such an interpretation the whole matter will ever remain as foggy
as it seems to be now (if one may from Masonic literature, speeches, and
journalism), and not many Masons will understand what is it is said that all
Masons "meet upon the level."
easiest to approach the subject by a process of elimination. By equality we
cannot mean that all men are equal in the original endowment of their nature.
There are big men and little men, and we all know that in many cases a big man
"was born that way," and that a little man cannot become big by ever so much
effort. Why this is so is a mystery, and appears to be (though it doubtless
is not) a fundamental injustice in the very structure of the universe. I had
brought to mind recently while reading the third volume of "The History of the
United States" by James Ford Rhodes, wherein he carries through several pages
a comparison of Lincoln and McClellan. McClellan was spiteful, vainglorious,
and ill-mannered; he was a good organizer but he did not have the courage
which naturally belongs to a general. He treated the President with rudeness,
and wrote to his wife in such strains of pride as made her believe the fate of
the Union depended on him alone. Lincoln was a great incarnation of human
power who could be magnanimous, meek, patient for that very reason. In
contrasting the two men one cannot help but believe that the sundering
difference was a matter of original nature, and that at birth Lincoln was more
of a human being than McClellan. An inequality like that, one that goes down
to the roots of being, is one that is hard to reconcile with our sense of the
evenhanded justice of Nature. But the fact is there, and it is everywhere, for
no two men have the same aboriginal endowments, let abstract theorists say
what they may.
say that men are equal in nature: neither can we say that they are equal, or
can be equal, in opportunity. That may possibly happen in small circles all
the members of which live under the same conditions, as in the case of a
family, or a neighbourhood, but it is untrue of the race when viewed in the
large. The Australian Bushmen, to take an extreme example, never can have the
opportunities for education, for wealth, for pleasure, fame, what not, as are
enjoyed by the average American youth. Men should have equal opportunities
but they do not have them. They never can have them because the earth itself
varies too much over its surface ever to make it possible for all men
everywhere to be born into equal opportunities for the goods of life.
not born equal in abilities. On this it is not needful to say much because
that kind of inequality is one that confronts us everywhere. It used to be
the fashion among theorists to teach that if only all men could receive the
same education and have the same chances at wealth, and live under equal laws,
and be freed from unnatural restrictions, all would come up to the same
average. Horace Mann firmly believed that if all the boys and girls of this
nation could get into college all of them would turn out scholars, proficient
in Greek, Latin, and the arts. But those who have had any experience with
boys and girls in college know that nothing is more certain and unvarying than
differences of ability. One student, no matter how hard he tries, cannot
master mathematics; another seems to be mathematical by nature.
last place - there is no need further to multiply instances - there can be no
such thing as social equality, if by that term one means social uniformity.
Social classes there are, and always will be, because social needs and
instincts are so various. If a social class (I use the word in its largest
sense) is based on caste, or aristocratic privilege, or any other kind of
special privilege, then it is an evil. But there are many social classes that
are based not on the principle of the superiority of one group of persons to
another but upon the fact of difference among men. I shall use a very homely
example. In a small town a group of fifty persons organize themselves into a
literary club, and in the activities of such a club meet each other socially,
get acquainted with each other, and all share in the common enjoyment of
literary art. Let us suppose, for clearness of illustration, that admittance
to this club rests purely on the desire to share in the study of literature.
It is plain that there will be a great number of persons in the community who
will never desire membership, because in every community there are so many who
care nothing for literature. This example, as I said above, is of trivial
character in itself, but,it may serve to remind us of how many social
gradations, classes, cliques, clubs, etc., there are everywhere which rest not
on any fact of superiority but upon the fact of the difference of interests,
tastes, and aims among people. As long as such differences exist (which will
probably be as long as there is a human race) there will never come a time
when such social groupings will vanish away, and there will consequently never
come a time when all men will enjoy the same social advantages. To work for
the advent of such a social state, as the Communists have ever done, as in the
case of Owen, Fourier, St. Simon, etc., is to strive for the impossible. Such
social communism is not equality in any possible sense.
consider yourself equal in endowment to a Jesus or to a Socrates? Were those
men "great" in nature from birth on? Do you believe the same opportunities as
those enjoyed by the son of J. D. Rockefeller? Why not? Do you believe, that
you could paint as great a picture, as Raphael if you "had the chance"? Do you
have social equality in your community?
then, is Equality? Instead of attempting any exhaustive definition, I shall
make a generalization concerning it, and then trust to a series of examples to
do the defining for me. The statement is follows:
is entitled to the right, equal to the right enjoyed by other men, to the
unhindered and normal functionings of his own nature.
Newton had a great intellect, one of the very greatest, all historians agree,
that has ever appeared on the earth. My intellect cannot in any sense be
spoken of as equal to his. Nevertheless I claim the same right to use my
intellect, such as it is, that he enjoyed; and he, if he were living, would
have no right whatsoever, merely because of his own superiority, to deny me
the prerogatives of thought. For him to do so, and for me to submit to such
abasement would be a crime against nature. The right to use the mind is for
all men everywhere and always the same right, whatever may be the inequalities
of mental ability. Whenever this right is interfered with, or controlled in
the interests of some clique or class, as has often happened, society suffers,
individuals suffer, and a wrong is done that merits condign punishment.
thing holds good of practical ability. William Morris had an extraordinarily
versatile genius. He could weave tapestry, carve wood, paint pictures, write
poetry, make speeches, model in clay, print books, and a score of things
beside, and do all with rare skill. There are few of us who could claim any
such ability, but even so, we have the same right to use our powers that
Morris had to use his. In that fundamental and all-important regard, William
Morris was no better than the awkwardest apprentice in his workshops.
of us is social by nature, and nearly every one of us appreciates the rare
privilege of friendship. But some men seem to have a genius for friendship.
Theodore Watts-Dunton, comparatively unknown himself, was the centre of a
circle of friends almost every one of whom became famous in some line. Our
own Charles Eliot Norton, than whom no rarer spirit has ever dwelt in this
land, numbered among his close friends such men as Ruskin, Carlyle, Emerson,
Lowell, George William Curtis, Charles Darwin, Leslie Stephen, and nobody
knows how many more such outstanding personalities. You and I may number our
friends on the fingers of one hand, and they may be the humblest imaginable so
far as attainments go, but for all that each of us has the right to friends,
the same right as that enjoyed by Watts-Dunton and Eliot Norton. Such a
statement may seem banal enough, but there are places in the world now, and
have been many places in the past, where social life has been so rigidly
classified and graded that custom and aristocratic dictation have made
impossible to all but a few the unhindered exercise of so fundamental a thing
in human nature as the cultivation of friendship.
agree with Brother Haywood's description of equality? If not, will you send
your criticism of his description to THE BUILDER? Can you furnish types of
equality, to Harmonize with his description, which he has not given? Do you
possess the same rights to have friends as any other men? In what countries is
it impossible for men to be free in their choice of associates? What is the
cause of those restrictions?
of human equality has been oftenest violated, it seems, in religion, the one
field in which men should enjoy the largest measure of it. What a tale of
unrightful usurpation, tyranny, and aristocracy has been the history of the
world's churches. One no sooner thinks of the matter than examples flock to
the mind in unmanageable numbers. During one great period of their history the
Egyptian people were entirely abased beneath the feet of a priestly hierarchy
that crushed out in the masses the very instincts of worship, or made use of
that instinct for the advantage of their own class. After Buddha had unveiled
to the eyes of his people the sacredness of each individual soul before the
ineffable and eternal realities of the universe, the Brahmans came back with
their castes and their engines of oppression and the people lost once again
all uses of their own religious faculties. Jesus camp forth to make each man
know himself is a son of God, bound together in the great circle of brethren,
but after time went on, and the priestly leaven had its opportunities to work,
it required a Lutheran revolution to restore to Christians the "liberty of a
Christian man." The old lady across the street, who reads her Bible morning
and evening, who arises and retires with prayer, and, who lives in her humble
and unlearned way such a religious life as she is capable of conceiving of, is
worlds removed in religious faculty from a Buddha, a Jesus, a Luther: but she
is as much entitled as they to think her poor religious thoughts, and to lead
her life of little pieties.
it will be seen that equality is not a utopian theory which men have dreamed
as being desirable in this harsh world. Far from it! Equality is a necessity
of our nature, without which we live mutilated unhappy lives. It is a
necessity, when properly understood, like food, clothing, and shelter. He who
robs men of that equality which Nature ordains is committing a crime against
human beings. He does something that must necessarily be followed by tragic
consequences, as is true of the violation of any other condition made
necessary by Nature herself. It is because this that the doctrine is not a
mere plaything for erudites but a pressing problem for every man, however busy
he may be.
some reader may here rightfully interject, is all, very good, and nobody will
deny that equality is a right but what about equality as a fact? One needs
only look about him to see that even the simple and basic equality which you
have described, is not being enjoyed by the masses of people to any degree at
enough," I should reply, "but you have merely stated the complementary fact
(complementary, is, to what I have hitherto said) that equality is a task as
well as a right, and it is precisely because equality is a right that it is
for us all a task" "By that I mean, that if we are clear in our mind that
every man is justly entitled to a reasonable measure of equality then it is
for us all, insofar as we are good Masons and citizens, to see that every man
gets it. To see that man gets it is precisely one of the great missions in
which Masonry is engaged.
other examples in which men have been denied religious equality. How would you
define religious equality? What does
teach about religious equality? Can you give specific examples to illustrate
what Brother Haywood says about equality being a necessity of human nature? In
what way does that make the problem a pressing one, and resting on the
shoulders of every man?
consider a moment equality before the law. There was a time in England when
only the rich had access to the protection of the "law" at all, and when
priesthood had its own courts where priest administered the law to priest.
Poor men were arrested without warrant; sentenced without being tried; and
often executed without evidence. It all depended upon the whim of the earl,
or the baron, or bishop, or king, or what-not. But very gradually there was
developed in England a genuine equality before the law, as may be traced
through the following important watermarks of the evolution of the freedom of
English-people: 1. Magna Charta; 2. The petition of Rights, 1628; 3. Habeas
Corpus, 1679. In our Colonial days these gains made by the people of England
naturally were enjoyed by the early settlers and they at last, after writing a
Declaration of Independence, incorporated basic equality before the law in the
Constitution, and in the first seven or eight amendments thereto.
As may be
expected, equality before the law is not yet a realized fact for all. The
lawyer for a great corporation told me that his employers were so powerful
through their wealth that he would guarantee to keep any case indefinitely in
the courts, and thus wear out any adversary, however just might be that man's
claims. "The law's delays," is often a sad calamity for a poor man. In my
own old home community I knew of two men whose opposite experiences illustrate
this unfortunate fact. One was the president of a great corporation who in a
federal court was found guilty on ten serious counts, but being a corporation
president, and very wealthy, and very prominent, he paid not a cent of fine
and did not spend a day in jail. When he returned to his home city he was met
at the depot by a band and a long procession. The other man about whom I knew
was a poor fellow who stole a coil of copper wire from a car-barn in the same
city and served two years in the penitentiary for so doing! The reader knows
of such cases, I have no doubt, and so does everybody. But this is only to
say that any right which humanity gains is always imperfectly held and must be
evermore completely won, and that every right must evermore be carefully
guarded, for the whole tendency of human society, if men relax their
vigilance, is to slide backwards. Equality before the law as we now enjoy it
in this country is found nowhere else in the world save in England, France,
and a few other nations. In the great portion of the world it is a thing
unknown. If that equality is not yet a perfect thing, the challenge is to us;
it is no sense a proof that the doctrine of equality is an impossible thing.
narrate the history of the winning of such political equality as we know have?
What is political equality? Do you have equality before the law ? Do you have
it as much as the Standard Oil Company? What should be done about "the law's
delays"? Does not the man who can hire a good law firm stand a better chance
than the poor man who cannot hire a lawyer at all? Is that right? What can be
done about it?
holds true of equality before the law holds true of equality in every right
and just sense. And we Masons are under a peculiar obligation to devote
ourselves to the task of making equality everywhere a fact. For equality is
one of our central tenets. The Fraternity never permits us to forget that;
the ritual impresses it upon the candidate in every way; the lodge is so
organized that everyone "meets upon the level." The candidate is made to feel
that without the assistance of his fellows he is a poor, naked, blind,
destitute thing without hope: the member is made to know that every Mason has
the Masonic rights equal to every other Mason, and pays the same dues, enters
on the same conditions, holds office on the same terms, and shares equally
with all others the burdens and obligations of the Order.
you can about Masonic equality. How long has Masonry taught the doctrine? How
much equality is there in the lodge room? Why is it the duty of Masons to
enforce equality everywhere?
p. 247; Level, p. 442. Freemasonry, holding to a democratic course, avoids
that anarchy-begetting confusion and asserts that equality of the Fatherhood
of God and the Brotherhood of Man.
p. 655; Russia, Secret Societies of, p. 655. Reference to the Soviet control
of Russia suggests consideration of the Masonic history of that country. For
many years the inactivity of Freemasonry has added one more curious phase to
the peculiar current events of that country.
Bulletin Course of Masonic Study," of which the foregoing paper by Brother
Haywood is a part, was begun in THE BUILDER early in 1917. Previous to the
beginning of the present series on "Philosophical Masonry," or "The Teachings
of Masonry," as we have titled it, were published some forty-three papers
covering in detail "Ceremonial Masonry" and "Symbolical Masonry" under the
following several divisions: "The Work of a Lodge," "The Lodge and the
Candidate," "First Steps," "Second Steps," and "Third Steps." A complete set
of these papers up to January 1st, 1921, are obtainable in the bound volumes
of THE BUILDER for 1917, 1918, 1919 and 1920, and the remaining papers of the
series may be had in the 1921 bound volume which will be ready for delivery
early in December. Single copies of 1921 back numbers are not obtainable, our
stock having become exhausted.
is an outline of the subjects covered by the current series of study club
papers by Brother Havwood:
TEACHINGS OF MASONRY
General Introduction. - A. Reasons for a course explaining what the "teachings
of Masonry" mean. - B. How one can arrive at his own Philosophy of Masonry. -
Conclusion. The Philosophy of Masonry is not a study of philosophy in general,
but a study of Masonry such as a philosopher gives to any great intellectual
2. - The
Masonic Conception of Human Nature.
3. - The
Idea of Truth in Freemasonry.
4. - The
Masonic Conception of Education.
Ritualism and Symbolism.
Initiation and Secrecy.
Masonry and Industry.
12. - The
Brotherhood of Man.
13. - The
Fatherhood of God.
Schools of Masonic Philosophy.
systematic course of Masonic study has been taken up and carried out in
monthly and semi-monthly meetings of lodges and study clubs all over the
United States and Canada, and in several instances in lodges overseas.
course of study has for its foundation two sources of Masonic information, THE
BUILDER and Mackey's Encyclopedia.
ORGANIZE AND CONDUCT STUDY CLUB MEETINGS
clubs may be organized separate from the lodge, or as a part of the work of
the lodge. In the latter case the lodge should select a committee, preferably
of three "live" members who shall have charge of the study club meetings. The
study club meetings should be held at least once a month (excepting during
July and August, when the study club papers are discontinued in THE BUILDER),
either at a special communication of the lodge called for the purpose, or at a
regular communication at which no business (except the lodge routine) should
be transacted - all possible time to be devoted to study club purposes.
lodge has been opened and all routine business disposed of, the Master should
turn the lodge over to the chairman of the study club committee. The committee
should be fully prepared in advance on the subject to be discussed at the
meeting. All members to whom references for supplemental papers have been
assigned should be prepared with their material, and should also have a
comprehensive grasp of Brother Haywood's paper by a previous reading and study
FOR STUDY CLUB MEETINGS
Reading of any supplemental papers on the subject for the evening which may
have been prepared by brethren assigned such duties by the chairman of the
study club committee.
Reading of the first section of Brother Haywood's paper.
Discussion of this section, using the questions following this section to
bring out points for discussion.
subsequent sections of the paper should then be taken up and disposed of in
the same manner.
Question Box. Invite questions on any subject in Masonry, from any and all
brethren present. Let the brethren understand that these meetings are for
their particular benefit and enlightenment and get them into the habit of
asking all the questions they may be able to think of. If at the time these
questions are propounded no one can answer them, send them in to us and we
will endeavor to supply answers to them in time for your next study club
foregoing information should enable study club committees to conduct their
meetings without difficulty. However, if we can be of assistance to such
committees, or any individual member of lodges and study clubs at any time
such brethren are invited to feel free to communicate with us.
POINTING TO A NAKED HEART
FRANK C. HICKMAN, MICHIGAN
thought, a mental picture, queer!
dream; as I recline
upon it s message clear:
of which survives all time.
picture is a two-edged sword,
toward a naked heart,
there's the eye of God our Lord
the planets as they dart.
which they demonstrate,
lesson that they teach to us;
justice whether soon or late,
certainly overtake us.
though our thoughts, from man concealed,
will ever be revealed.
noblest contribution which any man can make for the benefit of posterity, is
that of a good character. The richest bequest which any man can leave to the
youth of his native laned is that of a shining, spotless example.
A RECENT ISSUE of an English Masonic journal announces that the
Prince Hall Grand Lodge of New York had just celebrated its Diamond Jubilee,
and then goes on to congratulate "our colored brethren" for the earnestness
with which they "enter upon their Masonic duties." Here is a typical example
of the anomalous condition that exists throughout the Masonic world. English
Masons acknowledge the validity of Negro Masonry and welcome the Negroes into
their fraternal circles; American Masons refuse to extend the fraternal hand
and declare with an almost unanimous voice that Negro Masonry is clandestine;
and yet English and American Masonry is in the closest affiliation, and almost
all the Masonry in this country has descended from the Mother Grand Lodge
across the sea.
Thus is it with a score of equally important matters. Some of
our Grand Lodges do not like Swedish Masonry because it is specifically
"Christian," and others similarly turn the cold shoulder to the Grand Orient
because, forsooth, it is "atheistic." One Grand Lodge refuses to recognize the
Grand Lodge of Panama because it has no legitimate ancestry: another Grand
Lodge extends a fervent welcome because the Masonry of Panama is legitimate.
And so it goes.
There is no need that anybody feel much concerned about this.
The same anomalous situation may be found among churches, governments, and
every other human institution that makes any attempt to establish an
international comity. An ideal and perfect Masonic unity is, and always will
be, an impossibility. But what of it? There is a unity now existing, in spite
of all the differences above suggested, and it is quite sufficient for all
Masonic purposes, albeit this must not be understood to mean that no attempt
should be made to bring all members of the Brotherhood into closer amity.
The work advocated by The National Masonic Research Society
from its inception is one of the surest methods for bringing a common mind and
spirit into the great unequal Masonic world. The large number of our
differences and divisions spring from an uninformed comprehension of
Freemasonry; its history, nature, and mission. When the majority of Masons
know the history and evolution of the Order, and have learned the A B C's of
its philosophy, and know a little about Masonry as it has variously developed
in the countries of the world, there will be less dogmatism in their souls and
* * *
DEFINITION OF FREEMASONRY
have been the attempts to capture in words that meaning and spirit of
almost as countless have been the failures, for he must be a master of words
indeed who can succeed in such a task. For the which reason a success in this
difficult undertaking is something to make note of, and preserve, and study,
all of which will surely be done with the definition offered herewith. It was
given by Brother W.N. Ponton of Canada, in one of those address that have made
him famous throughout the Fraternity.
"Masonry, whose condition and status we are considering, is
something more than a secret society (though secrecy is an element in esoteric
work); more than ritualism (though the ritual, simple in its dignity and
quaint and rhythmic in expression, is a factor); more than symbolism (though
symbolic teaching is significant and transfigures the commonplace); more than
philosophy (though it speculatively teaches how to live wisely and well); more
than religion (but not greater than religion, yet discerning the divinity in
humanity); more than mere landmarks (though these have their defining,
historical, and traditional place); more even than brotherhood (for as in the
Pythagorean days, it is educational and intellectual as well as social and
fraternal); more than constructive and practical philanthropy (though love
crowns all); yet it is all of these together with that something more of which
language is inadequate to express the subtle mystery, even to those few choice
spirits who seek to penetrate to the heart of its often unconscious power, and
the span of life too brief to enable those who endeavor to attain the ideal
perfection of that living organism, whose countersign is 'manhood,' whose
inspiration is the God-head - that Masonic edifice of which love and truth
form base and spire - Nisi Dominus frustra."
* * *
RELIGION OF FREEMASONRY
A contemporary recently appeared with an editorial in which
occurs these astonishing statements:
"A Mason owes every conceivable obligation to support and
uphold the church. There is probably not as much need of emphasizing this upon
our Hebrew friends as the rest of us. They seem to have a deeper realization
of their obligations and responsibilities, but as they stand for their belief
in God as revealed in the old testament dispensation, we who are Christians
should be as faithful and zealous in upholding the new dispensation as
revealed to us in the life and work of Him whom we call Son of God and the
foundation of the Christian church.
"The more degrees one receives in Masonry the stronger is the
truth impressed that religion as revealed in God and His son, Jesus Christ, is
the basis of the Masonic order."
In other words unless the present writer has misinterpreted the
somewhat ambiguous language of the above, Freemasons are either Christians or
Jews ! Shades of the fathers! Does not this brother scribe know that there are
millions of men and women in this land who are neither but who for all that
are good people and true, with a firm belief in the one God and in the life
everlasting, not to mention brotherhood and righteousness? And has he
forgotten that there are thousands and thousands of Masons who are
Mohammedans, Brahmins, Buddhists, Confucianists, Behaists, etc., etc?
It raises the old, old question of the religion of Freemasonry,
which is not a question at all to one who will take the trouble to read a
little history. As plain as plain can be are the words "Concerning God and
Religion" in the Constitutions fundamental to Craft Masonry the world over,
which tell us that a Mason is bound to the moral law and will never be a
stupid atheist, but that for the rest may choose what religion he will, or no
Freemasonry is not Christian; neither is it antiChristian; nor
is it Jewish, or Mohammedan, or Buddhist. It is itself. It has its own unique
place in the world with its own unique work to do, and sadly does he
misconstrue its mission who would have it made an appanage of any one faith.
To its own principles only does it hold its children, and if they wish to add
other tenets to their faith so be it, that is no concern of Masonry. And if a
Mason is free of all religious connections, will sign no creed, and offer no
fealty to any revelation or dispensation whatsoever, but hold fast to a firm
faith in God, in Immortality, and in Brotherhood, also so be it.
* * *
MASONIC BURIAL SERVICE
There are signs here and there, if one may trust THE BUILDER'S
correspondence, that brethren are beginning to make some attempt to revise the
Masonic burial service. It is surely time! The stiff, cold, cheerless form so
widely in use, which sounds like the wailing of a winter day, and gives
expression to a philosophy of death that is as false as it is bleak, has seen
its day and should cease to be.
A burial service should above all things be sincere, for
hypocrisy in religious expression is never more deadening than at a funeral.
If brethren do not believe that the dead lie in the earth they should not say
so, and they should not convey the impression of believing that the deceased
will moulder away in the dirt until some remote future. If they really believe
in the immortality of man they should let that triumphant belief suffuse the
entire ceremony with a dignified and noble confidence. If they believe that
the ceremony is performed in behalf of the living, and especially those that
mourn, they should not address it to the corpse in the grave. Also, and much
intense earnestness goes into this "also," no mawkish poetry should be brought
in merely to give a tone of sentimentality, or to dress the ceremony up in
colors that do not belong to it. A burial service should be brief, simple,
sincere, and heartening; and it should draw its power from the adequacy with
which it expresses the hopes and faiths which enable us to conquer the fear of
Two or three years ago the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts
appointed a Committee on Burial Service which submitted a report that embodied
the true principles to govern such a rite: they are worth pondering over:
"1. The Masonic burial service should be complete in itself.
That is to say, it should be so arranged that it could be used as a complete
service in case there were no church or other service held. It should,
however, be so arranged that it could be readily shortened so as to be used in
connection with a church service if desired.
"2. It should be simple and should be accompanied by
sufficiently full directions to make it easy to be conducted by those not much
experienced in such matters.
"3. It should be deeply religious, but not exclusively
"4. It should not be a repetition, in whole or in part, of any
church service which might be used in connection with it.
"5. Its emphasis should be laid on life, hope, and immortality.
"6. Its endeavor should be to comfort and to convev the
assurance of sympathy."
L. B. MITCHELL, MICHIGAN
shall be made up of those, who, by the way of creeds
Seemed to get through St. Peter's gate, though somewhat shy on
dear pious ones who find salvation in their way
More than they do in things that bring life's best into its
I shall be disappointed much, for sentiment and cheer
all, what makes the place worth living in down here.
But this, of course, presumes that I, so human here on earth
Might be among the company that by creeds measure worth;
If not, I shall be satisfied to find, among the rest
Those who "rubbed elbows" with me here in ways that gave me
And it may be that to the place where I shall have to go
I'll find the Lodge Celestial of the ritual here below.
Concordant Orders too may in the place be found,-
the most delightful where the Brothers hang around;
Then, too, the Sisterhoods so blest, the White Shrine and the
May be near by to fashions swap with Sisters right from Mars;
So it may be that those Book-made old Jew-forged streets of
Will be the lonesome part of heaven when time its tale has
If we are
ever changed from what we are by nature made
And placed in the environment the "good folks" have essayed,
We ne'er can "carry on" the things that gave to life its cheer,
For we must as ourselves reflect the things made precious here.
And this is my apology for what herein you see,
nature's open book, as read, seems as the truth to me.
borrowing dulls the edge of husbandry.
oft loses both itself and friend,
borrower nor a lender be.
LEGENDS AND TRADITIONS
Legends and Traditions," by Dudley,Wright. Published by William Rider & Sons,
London, 1921. Copies may be had through the National Masonic Research Society,
Anamosa, Iowa. Price $1.50, Dostnaid.
BROTHER DUDLEY WRIGHT'S is a name that has become a household
word among the flourishing family of THE BUILDER, so there is little need to
introduce him at length to the readers of these columns. He is a Masonic
scholar, a writer, an editor, and a very courteous gentleman, who devotes his
time to Masonic research, for the which he has abundant opportunities and
facilities, seeing that he resides in the ancient and very bookish town of
Oxford, England. Out of the great research libraries of that favored spot he
has excavated an immense mass of materials relating to Freemasonry and to
cognate subjects, but all this weight of lore and learning he carries lightly,
so as not to let it bear down too heavily upon his readers. He writes with
ease and simplicity, and never tries to put on airs, as is often the fashion
with authors in his field; neither has he ever permitted himself to go mad
with occultism and pseudo-occultism, like Churchward and others of his
colleagues that might be named.
Brother Wright's good British sense for fact and for
straightforward narrative shows to good advantage in "Masonic Legends and
Traditions," a little book of 152 pages, done in blue cloth, and printed on
the light and attractive paper that English publishers use. Besides the
Introduction there are nine chapters, all of which deal connectedly with those
materials that may be described as "our own mythology." In the first chapter
is an account of some of the legendary origins of the Craft, prominent among
which is the Noahic account which Dr. Oliver so loved to talk about. In
chapter two - one of the most valuable in the book - is a collection of
traditions concerning the beginnings of Freemasonry in Britain: these various
accounts are collated from the Harleian Mss. No. 1942; the Lansdowne Mss.
(circa 1560); Prichard's "Masonry Dissected"; and so on, with a very long
account reprinted in full from the Wilson Ms., which A. F. Woodward dated at
1650. The chapter concludes with a list of the traditional and historical
Grand Masters of England, beginning with Albanus in 292 and concluding with H.
R. H. the Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, K. G., 1901.
Chapter three recounts several of the legends that have come to
cluster about Solomon's Temple - I imagine fhat some of this material may be
new to THE BUILDER readers. Chapter four is a kind of supplement to chapter
three, and gives an accumulation of "Solomonic Lore and Legend," a theme of
peculiar interest and human appeal. In chapters five and six Brother Wright
has pieced together all the traditions concerning Hiram, King of Tyre, and
concerning Hiram Abiff. Chapter seven is devoted to legends concerning the
Queen of Sheba; chapter eight takes up a number of the Christian legends; and
chapter nine is devoted to "Miscellaneous Legends," among which are the
traditional origins of the Winding Stairs, the Golden Fleece, etc.
Brother Wright does not clothe all these varied materials with
a dress of verbiage but sets them out one after another in rapid succession so
that a busy man need not be plagued to get at the meat of the matter. The
usefulness of the book lies in the fact it that assembles in compendious form
so many things that elsewhere lie scattered about in scores of volumes, so
that one is saved much labor. Also, one has a mass of traditions set before
him in order, and this enables him to understand the thing as a whole, like a
picture. The one fault with Brother Wright's work is that it lacks an index!
Where would Brother Wright himself have got to by this time had he not had
indexes to use?
* * *
CHILDREN OF THE SUN
"The Islanders of the Pacific, or The Children of the Sun," by
Lieut.-Col. T. R. St. Johnston, late District Commissioner of the Lau Islands,
Fiji. Published by D. Appleton and Company, 29-35 W. 32nd St., New York, N.Y.,
1921, at $6.00.
Somewhere amid the multitudinous prophecies collected into our
Book of Isaiah there lies a sentence like a pearl which reads "The isles shall
wait for his law.” In the back of the mind of ye present scribe there lies a
memory of the impression made on him by the first reading of that beautiful
and very poetical saying; it conjured up an image of something very large and
remote, of far and alien folk living on sea-washed islands in the ends of the
earth, and of dim multitudes somehow waiting for a friendly and superior
people to come to them with light and leading.
On opening the pages of this ample volume I found myself
confronted by the "isles," and saw in veridical photographs the strange faces
of these sometime children of dream, these people who, since Captain Cook
pushed his way amid their archipelagoes, have dwelt more in romance than in
reality, but who are at last being completely "discovered" by the white man
and his laws. If anyone supposes because these folk live in islands that
therefore they are few in number and negligible in consequence, let him turn
to an accurate map of that part of the Pacific which covers the equatorial
zone, and stretches from Queensland to Hawaii, from the Ladrone Islands to
Paumoto Archipelago. He will find there great swarms of islands, flung across
a vast stretch of sea, forming a kind of bridge, half marine and half land,
almost to South America. It is a mighty empire of land and people, the story
of which is as yet almost as completely sealed as "the Lamb's book of life."
The author of this three-hundred-page volume spent many years
of his life as a law commissioner amid the Pacific Islands and he is glad of
it, for he has enjoyed his life there. Also he has accumulated, throughout all
these years, a respectable amount of erudition, as the present volume bears
witness to. However, he does not bore one with overmuch learning, or with
priggishness - he is no learned pundit. "This book does not intend to be more
than a popular treatise," he candidly writes, "it is 'Ethnology from an Easy
Chair,' if you will - and dealing, for the first time I believe, with the
Pacific as a whole." There are chapters on the ancient migrations from Asia
and Europe, by means of which the Pacific archipelagoes were first populated;
chapters on religions, myths, secret societies, burial customs, tabus, tatus,
cannibalism, totems, dolmens, languages, and what not, along with three or
four dozen very excellent illustrations, all from photographs.
Gaguin, the eccentric painter, by a kind of spectacular
gesture, called our attention to this world of islands; then came O'Brien with
his now famous book, "White Shadows Over the South Seas." Hawaii has become a
popular resort. In Tahiti is a lodge of Masons. The Sunday Supplements have
begun to make the Children of the Sun their property, along with other
primitive and half-dressed folk from New York and Paris. The National
Geographic Magazine and numberless books are pouring floods of information
into our ears. But it is as yet too soon for us far-of people to come to any
very real acquaintance with the Pacific Islanders, though every such book as
the present is to be welcomed as assisting to that end. They are still living,
most of them, their ancient life unbothered by the white man and the white
man's laws, and one of the charms of learning about them is that one may see
the human being as he must have been before he learned how to civilize
himself, six or eight thousand years ago.
In this connection lies the appeal of the present volume to the
Masonic reader. There is nothing, so far as I have been able to find, of any
direct interest to a Craftsman, but there is much of an indirect interest,
such as the pages on primitive mythology, symbolism, and secret societies.
More and more it is coming to be realized by our savants that though it may be
true that much of what we now know as Freemasonry came into existence in 1717
or since, there is very much else in it that is as old as man himself: and
this applies not so much to any one symbol, or emblem, or rite, as to the
deeply-rooted and oft concealed psychological roots out of which such
institutions as ours inevitably grow. If any one would discover how it comes
about that a secret society is created, of what it is made, how it functions,
and why it has its rites and initiations, let him acquaint himself with
primitive man. There he will have the process of origins going on before his
eyes; and with that in mind he can all the better understand the highly
developed and very sophisticated Fraternity of which he is himself a member.
Alike for the light it throws upon the simple psychology of the secret society
and for the information it gives relative to the most primitive uses and
developments of some of our own symbols and myths, Colonel Fohnston's "Pacific
Islanders" will have its own angle of Masonic interest for those who may care
to read it for such a purpose.
* * *
STORY OF ALBERT PIKE
Story of Albert Pike," by Fred W. Allsopp. Published by Parke-Harper News
Service, Little Rock, Arkansas, 1920.
The good genius of literature bestowed on Albert Pike living
all her choicest gifts of authorship and fame; but on Albert Pike dead she has
not, alas, showered so many of her favors. Pike's works have never yet been
carefully edited or adequately published, notwithstanding the fact that he
wrote so many thousands of pages which should be considered among the most
priceless treasures of Freemasonry; and Pike's life has not yet been written.
Indeed, he is the most inadequately biographized of all great Americans.
A perusal of the little volume named in the caption will not
cause the Masonic reader to modify the sweeping statement just made, for Mr.
Allsopp's volume is anything but a "life story of Albert Pike." It is little
more than a collection of rough notes well enough fitted to serve as a
magazine article but painfully insufficient for the uses of a volume on such a
Mr. Allsopp is evidently a prentice at the game of writing.
Note the following sentence as it appears at the top of page eleven:
"He was of the same staunch stock as Nicholas Pike, author of
the first arithmetic published in America and the friend of George Washington;
as Zebulon Pike, who explored the Rocky Mountains, and other eminent
Americans." One grows curious to learn what other eminent Americans Zebulon
On page 129 Mr. Allsopp describes the Pike monument erected by
the Scottish Rite in Washington in 1899 as "with a book in his right hand." If
one will refer to the cut of the monument published on page 112 he will see
that Pike holds the book in his left hand. There are a score or more of such
minor errors through the 130 pages of this little volume, and they tend to
distress the reader, who wonders why the author did not take more pains with
The volume as a whole is most disappointing to the Masonic
reader, especially if he has waited long for a Pike biography. Consider the
fact that in a book of only 130 pages but six pages are devoted to Pike's
Masonic career, and of these, four are filled with two long quotations from
Masonic orations! The same lack of proportion is discovered in the first
portion of the work wherein 24 pages, or three chapters, are devoted to Pike's
adventurous trip across the Staked Plains, an interesting but quite
unimportant episode in an important career.
On page 108 occurs this very curious paragraph:
"A biography should be entirely truthful, and, with a
respectful consideration for the honored dead, it must be stated that, while
most of the old settlers who knew him speak of Pike with greatest veneration,
there are some who do not. A few are inclined to shake their heads, and to
suggest that maybe Pike in his younger days did not always practice what he
preached. None, however, have been found who could cite definite instances of
remissness on his part. Every forceful man makes some enemies, and everybody
will not speak well of anybody. None of his few detractors will gainsay that
Pike was intellectually an unusual man."
Could anything be more irritating than that ? Why doesn't Mr.
Allsopp give us something specific instead of leaving in our minds a vague
suspicion that Pike may have been guilty of some serious fault or other which
had better be hushed up at the same time that it is acknowledged ? And what a
curious thing to toss aside such suspicions by saying that Pike "was
intellectually an unusual man." What has his being intellectual to do with
such a matter, and why say anything about it, unless one says something
The book as a whole is amateurish, poorly written,
disproportioned, and disappointing. Nevertheless, and all such strictures to
the contrary notwithstanding, it is a volume that every Masonic student will
care to own, because, unsatisfactory as it is, it contains a number of
references and items of fact not previously gathered into any sketch with
which the present scribe is familiar. The literarily inclined will be
interested to learn that "the Pike home (in Little Rock, Arkansas) afterwards
became the property of Colonel John Gould Fletcher, a prominent banker of
Little Rock; and his son, John Gould Fletcher, the 'imagist' poet, has given a
picture of this house, which was built in the style of the old south and
'fronts foursquare the winds, with its six white columns,' in his 'Goblins and
Pagodas.' It is to this day one of the finest old southern homes to be found
in the state." The researcher will care to make notes of the following items:
W. E. Woodruff, Jr., in his "With the Light; Guns," tells of some of Pike's
experiences with Indians. Hempstead's "History of Arkansas" treats of Pike as
a political character and as a writer. John Hallum's "Biographical and
Pictorial History of Arkansas (1887) tells the famous story of Pike's series
of "Hymns to the Gods." Mr. Allsopp refers to "The Book News Monthly" as
containing an article on Pike and Edgar Allan Poe but does not give the date.
Volume 3 of the Publications of the Arkansas Historical Society contains a
sketch of Chester Ashley by Judge U. M. Rose which includes reminiscences of
Pike. The biographer of the future (may he come speedily !) may find these
references of value.
The account of Pike's Masonic affiliations and offices is given
briefly beginning on page 113. Inasmuch as this account may be of interest to
readers of THE BUILDER for reference purposes the paragraphs will be given in
"He was initiated in Western Star Lodge, Little Rock, in 1850;
received the degree of Worshipful Master (sic. Mr. Allsopp here betrays his
membership among the profane!) in the following July; was created a Knight
Templar in 1853; served as Grand High Priest of the Grand Chapter of Arkansas
in 1852-1854; received the degrees of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite
from the 4th to the 32nd degree in 1858, and in January, 1859, was elected M.P.
Sovereign Grand Commander of the Supreme Council of the Southern Jurisdiction
of the United States.
"Upon the instituting of the Provincial Grand Lodge of the
United States of America of the Royal Order of Scotland, Sir and General
Albert Pike was named in the warrant from Edinburgh, Scotland, bearing date
October 4, 1877, as the Provincial Grand Master ad vitam.
"He was an honorary member of the Supreme Councils of the
Northern Jurisdiction of the United States, England and Wales, Scotland,
Ireland, Franc Belgium, Italy, Greece, Hungary, Mexico, Brazil, Egyp Tunis,
Peru, Canada, Colon, Nueva Granada, and Hot orary Grand Master and Grand
Commander of the Sx preme Councils of Brazil, Tunis, and Egypt.
"His daughter, Mrs. Lillian Pike Roome, state that Sovereign
Grand Commander Joseph H. Honou] his predecessor, resigned that office
expressly that Gels eral Pike might be elected as Sovereign Grand Com mander.
General Pike held that office from 1859 unti his death, a peliod of thirty‑two
years, which is a re markable record."
Mr. Allsopp's book is graced by a kindly Introduc tion by
Charles E. Rosenbaum, 33/.
PUBLICATIONS WANTED, FOR SALE, AND EXCHANGE
We are constantly receiving inquiries from members of the
Society and others as to where they might obtain books on Masonry and kindred
subjects, other than those listed each month on the inside back cover of THE
BUILDER. Most of the publications wanted have been out of print for years.
Believing that many such books might be in the hands of other members of the
Society willing to dispose of them we are setting apart this column each month
for the use of our members. Communications from those having old Masonic
publications will also be welcomed.
Postofflce addresses are here given that those interested may
communicate direct with each other, no responsibility of any nature to be
attached to the Society.
It is requested that all brethren whose wants may be filled
through this medium communicate with the Secretary so that the notices may
then be discontinued.
By Bro. D. D. Berolzheimer, 1 Madison Ave., New York, N. Y.:
"Realities of Masonry," Blake, 1879; "Records of the Hole Craft and Fellowship
of Masons," Condor, 1894; "Masonic Bibliography," Carson, 1873; "Origin of
Freemasonry," Paine, 1811.
By Bro. Ernest E. Ford, 305 South Wilson Avenue, Alhambra,
California; Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, volumes 3, 6 and 7, with St. John's
Cards, also St. John's Cards for volumes 4 and 6; "Masonic Review," early
volumes; "Voice of Masonry," early volumes; Transactions Supreme Council
Southern Jurisdiction for the years 1882 and 1886; Original Proceedings of the
Encampment Knights Templar for the years 1826 and 1835.
David E. W. Williamson, P.O. Box 754, Reno, Nevada: Perdiguier's "Livre du
Compagnonnage," and W.H. Rylands' "Freemasonry in the Seventh Century," quoted
in Gould's "Concise History of Freemasonry."
E. A. Marsh, 820 Broad Ave., N. W., Canton, Ohio: "The Traditions of
Freemasonry," by A.T.C. Pierson, published at St. Paul, Minn., January 1865.
Silas H. Shepherd, Hartland, Wisconsin, "Catalogue of the Masonic Library of
Samuel Lawrence," "Second Edition of Preston's Illustrations of Masonry."
H. H. Klussmann, 310 Monastery St., West Hoboken, N. J.: "Traditions of
Freemasonry," by A. T. C. Pierson; "Illustrations of Masonry," by Preston.
Silas H. Shepherd, Hartland, Wisconsin, "Stray
Leaves from a Freemason's
Note Book," by George Oliver. This volume also contains "Some Account of the
Schism showing the presumed origin of the Royal Arch Degree." Univ. Mas. Lib.
edition. Price $3.00. "Lights and Shadows of Freemasonry," by Robert Morris.
(Fiction and anecdotes.) Price $3.50.
By Bro. F. R. Johnson, 3425 East 61st St., Kansas City, Mo.,
"The History of Freemasonry," by Robert Freke Gould, published by the John C.
Yorkston Co., silk cloth binding, first-class condition, four volumes, $17.00;
"History of Freemasonry," by J.W.S. Mitchell, P.G.M. of Missouri 1844-45, full
morocco binding, $15.00; "The History of Freemasonry," by Albert G. Mackey,
seven volumes, practically new, $30.00; "The Standard History of Freemasonry,"
by J. Fletcher Brennan, published in 1885, one volume; "Gems from the Quarry,"
by John H. Brownell, Editor of the American Tyler, 1893, $6.00; "Antiquities
of the Orient Unveiled," by M. Walcott Redding, 1877, $5.00; "History and
Cyclopedia," by Oliver and Macoy, full morocco binding, $10.00.
THE BUILDER is an open forum for free and fraternal discussion.
Each of its contributors writes under his own name, and is responsible for his
own opinions. Believing that a unity of spirit is better than a uniformity of
opinion, the Research Society, as such, does not champion any one school of
Masonic thought as over against another, but offers to all alike a medium for
fellowship and instruction, leaving each to stand or fall by its own merits.
The Question Box and Correspondence Column are open to all
members of the Society at all times. Questions of any nature on Masonic
subjects are earnestly invited from our members, particularly those connected
with lodges or study clubs which are following our "Bulletin Course of Masonic
Study." When requested, questions will be answered promptly by mail before
publication in this department.
SOVEREIGN COLLEGE OF ALLIED MASONIC AND CHRISTIAN DEGREES OF
AMERICA - THE RITE OF MEMPHIS - CERNEAUISM - THE WHITE SHRINE OF JERUSALEM
Will you kindly answer the following questions in THE BUILDER?
1. I read in the New International Encyclopaedia that there
exists in the United States an institution by the name of the Sovereign
College of Allied Masonic and Christian Degrees of America. This institution,
according to the article, has a charter empowering it to confer academic as
well as ritualistic degrees. The highest of the academic degrees is that of
Doctor of Universal Masonry which was granted to only five Masons. Can you
tell us something more about this college? I am sure that many brethren would
be interested in it.
2. What is the rite of Memphis? Is it practiced in the United
3. What is Cerneauism ? Where is it practiced ? Is it
recognized in the United States?
4. What is the White Shrine? How far is it recognized by
Masonic and Eastern Star bodies? Can you give a short history of the same?
M. F., Wisconsin.
1. The Sovereign College of Allied Masonic and Christian
Degrees of America was organized at Richmond, Va., in 1890, by Hartley
Carmichael, William Ryan, and C. A. Nesbitt, all 33rd degree men. It is an
assemblage of various and sundry degrees drawn from various sources, and has
never become very widely patronized in this country. It is in fraternal
relations with the Royal Ark Council, the Grand Conclave of Secret Monitors,
and the Grand Council of the Allied Masonic Degrees, all of England. The five
Masons to which you refer as having received the "degree" of Doctor of
Universal Masonry are Josiah Drummond, W. J. Hughan, D. Murray Lyon, the Earl
of Euston, and Prince Demetrius Rhodocanakis of Greece. This degree is not
"academic" in the sense that it would be so accepted by a university, but in
the sense that it is similar to degrees conferred by institutions of learning.
2. On page 255 of THE BUILDER for August 1916 a member of the
Rite of Memphis gives an explanation of the nature and functions of the Order
which you will care to read. He says that it "is a branch of Masonry devoted
to the study of Philosophy and Comparative Religion and the explanation of the
ritual ceremonies and symbols of ancient Craft Masonry. As organized in the
United States, it does not confer, or work, the three symbolic or fundamental
degrees, but receives into fellowship only Master Masons of good standing. The
organization has been in existence in the United States since 1867. The late
Brother John Yarker was its Sovereign Grand Commander in England. The ritual
work in this country was one time coordinated with the Scottish Rite of 33
degrees, but was later restored to its original ninety-five degrees." It is to
be found in several states of this country. See THE BUILDER, Vol. II, pages
30, 210, 250, 255 and 285.
3. Joseph Cerneau was a Masonic charlatan, born in Villeblerin,
France, in 1763, who moved to New York in the first years of the nineteenth
century. In 1807 he launched a body claiming to confer the degrees of Scottish
Rite Masonry. By 1813 this organization had grown to some proportions, and was
opposed most vigorously by the regular Supreme Council at Charleston, and also
by a few Grand Lodges, whose jurisdiction it flouted. After a vigorous
struggle of forty years it at last gave up the ghost. What was left of it was
absorbed by the regular Consistory at New Orleans. This Masonic heresy is no
longer practiced anywhere.
4. The Order of the White Shrine of Jerusalem was founded by
Charles D. Magee of Chicago. In its early years it made the claim of being to
the Order of Eastern Star what the so-called "higher bodies" are to Ancient
Craft Masonry and this absurd claim brought it into conflict with the O.E.S.,
with the result that the White Shrine was compelled to reorganize itself. It
is now very active, and seems to flourish in the majority of states. It is an
order composed of both men and women who must be members in good standing of
the O.E.S. Where the O.E.S. is deistic, or theistic, the White Shrine is a
Trinitarian Christian body.
According to the clipping I am enclosing there must be such a
thing as "Masonic baptism";
that true ?
H. C. F.,
The Scottish Rite uses a ceremony which is sometimes called
"baptism" but should more correctly be known as "the rite of lustration." It
is an inheritance from the Ancient Mysteries, wherein the candidate had to
bathe his hands or entire body in consecrated water as a symbolical act
signifying inward purity and consequent fitness for the ceremonies. The
Scottish Rite bodies of a western city recently had a rather large affair in
which quite a number of youths received the rite of lustration. Some of the
members and all of the newspapers described it as "Masonic baptism." There is
no such thing in Masonry as "baptism." The use of that term gives needless
offense to churchmen.
* * *
QUERIES ABOUT PIUS IX
Is it true that Pius IX, prior to his election to the office of
pope, was a Freemason, and that he was expelled from the Order ?
L. E. D.,
enclosing a clipping which tells that Pius IX was Freemason before he became
pope. Is this reliable?
W. F. G.,
According to the account which has enjoyed a wide currency
Mastlai Ferritti, afterwards known as Pope Pius IX, was made a Mason in Sicily
and was later expelled by the Grand Lodge which met at Palermo on the 27th of
March, 1873. The Masonic Journal of Cologne Germany published the minutes of
the lodge of which Ferretti had been a member; they read as follows:
"A man named Mastlai Ferretti, who was initiated in
Freemasonry, and solemnly pledged his love and membership of the same, has,
now he has been crowned as Pope, and King, cursed all his former brethren and
excommunicated all members belonging to the Order. He, Mastlai Ferritti, is
hereby expelled from the Order by the Grand Lodge of the East of Palermo on
the grounds of perjury."
This account has an apocryphal odor about it, as one will
detect after several readings, but for all that it may well be true. We are
writing abroad for accurate and authoritative information and will publish the
same as soon as it is received.
* * *
OF EASTERN STAR IN ENGLAND.
Is the Order of Eastern Star recognized in any way by the Grand
Lodge of England? I sometimes hear that it is, and then again that it isn't.
Perhaps you can set me right.
S. O. R.
All matters to be brought before the United Grand Lodge of
England are first sent to the Board of General Purposes, which acts as a
sifting committee. After it has carefully canvassed every proposal the Board
makes a report of recommendations and disapprovals to the next ensuing
Quarterly Communication of the United Grand Lodge. In its last report of this
nature the Board dealt with the Eastern Star. In examining the status of the
"Star" the Board found that it touches Masonry very closely at two points,
though it is in no valid sense a Masonic body: (1) its membership is limited
to Master Masons in good standing and to their wives, daughters, mothers,
widows, and sisters; - (2) it is provided in the regulations of the O.E.S.
that a Worthy Patron must preside at meetings that confer the degrees and that
this official must be a Freemason "in good standing." The Board considered
that the latter condition, especially, is reprehensible from the standpoint of
the immemorial customs of the Grand Lodge, for, according to those customs, it
is irregular for the Secretary to tell anybody outside the Order whether a man
is a Freemason in good standing or not. As we may quote:
"As there are various bodies of great and apparently growing
popularity in the United States and some parts of the British Empire which,
while not formally claiming to be Masonic are, at the least, imitative of the
Masonic institution, the Board thinks it necessary to state the general
principles upon which it feels bound to act in regard to them. The Craft
not concerned with bodies - whether composed entirely of men, of women, or of
both sexes - which do not claim to be Masonic in either ritual or practice,
and do not make Masonry a test of membership or of participation in their
ceremonies. But it is clear that a grave risk is incurred by Brethren who
enter into association with bodies making Masonry in any way a test of
admission to membership, while admitting as members persons who would not be
qualified to join a Lodge under the jurisdiction of the United Grand Lodge of
"No Freemason is entitled to attend, as such, any nonMasonic
meetings at which Masonry by direct implication is introduced, or to
participate in any ceremony which is quasiMasonic or is held under some
pseudo-Masonic and unauthorized auspices. The Secretary or any member of a
Lodge who gives to anyone outside, and particularly to a non-Mason,
information on Masonic matters known to him because of his Masonic connection,
commits a breach of discipline which, when proved, will be severly dealt
* * *
TO AN INVESTIGATING COMMITTEE
Will you kindly refer me, through the Question Box of THE
BUILDER, to some book, pamphlet or paper that will aid an Investigating
Committee in making an investigation of an applicant for Masonry?
F. J. E., South Carolina.
We know of no book devoted to this subject, though it is
possible that some reader may. THE BUILDER has published a score or so of
articles on "Qualifications" which you will find listed under that caption in
the various annual indexes found in the bound volumes. You may get some help
from some of those Grand Lodges, New Jersey is one of them, that make use of a
formal printed questionaire. The Grand Secretary of that state will be glad to
send you a copy on request.
It is better, however, for you to make a careful study of the
laws and regulations of your own Strand Lodge and of the bylaws of your local
lodge, because lodges and Grand Lodges differ much among each other as to
specific requirements for membership. For your own Grand Jurisdiction you will
find the requirements very definitely specified in your "Blue Book" or
Constitutions and Regulations. Write to your Grand Secretary: he will give you
You will find a carefully compiled list of the requirements in
most general use in Mackey's Encyclopeedia, Vol. II, page 603, in an article
* * *
KAISER NOT A MASON
Kaiser - or rather the late Kaiser - of Germany a Mason ?
District of Columbia.
He is not. His father was a Mason, and so was his grandfather,
Wilhelm der Grosse. Frederick the Great, his great uncle, was a most
* * *
May I ask if natives of India are permitted to unite with
Masonic lodges ? I have received a letter from a friend who has been visiting
in India to the effect that the English lodges are too aristocratic to admit
natives, and I am writing to ask if this is correct, for I have had a
H. F. G.,
Your informant is mistaken. Since 1842, when H. R. H. the Duke
of Sussex was Grand Master of England, natives have been received into Masonic
lodges. English Freemasonry was founded in Calcutta, which is still its centre,
in 1740, by the Grand Lodge of England. At the present time all lodges under
that obedience form a Provincial Grand Lodge. The Scotch Grand Lodge
established the Provincial Grand Lodge of Western India at Bombay in 1836. In
1846, so prosperous were the Scottish lodges, another Provincial Grand Lodge
These two worked side by side until 1883 when they were
consolidated in The Grand Lodge of All Scottish Masonry (don't confuse this
with what we call "the Scottish Rite). Accordingly there are now two Grand
Lodges in India, one Scotch, the other English; and the subordinate lodges of
both bodies receive natives into membership, including both Hindus and
* * *
SPECULATIVE MASONRY BEGIN?
I have often read and heard the statement that Speculative
Masonry began in 1717. Isn't that rather inaccurate? It appears to me from
what reading I have been able to do that there was quite a Speculative element
in the old Operative lodges.
J. V. B.,
You are quite right, and the brethren who make the statement
about which you question would all agree with you, for the term "Speculative"
is used in a very broad sense to denote a period in Masonic history, and it is
therefore not to be too rigidly applied. Neither should one take in too narrow
a sense the distinction that is made between Operative and Speculative Masonry
in the Ritual. There was a living and rich element of Speculative Masonry in
the earliest Operative lodges of which we have any record, and it was that
Speculative element which survived the era of transition and revived to
propagate itself in modern Masonry, enlarged and glorified.
* * *
How can I get some good dope about the Alchemists? I don't want
something soft and sentimental written by a poet, but the real thing, done in
prose, and dependable.
C. H. K.,
You are evidently on the right track, but don't fear lest you
will overdose yourself with poetry on that subject! Consult any good history
of Medieval Europe. The Cambridge Medieval History is as good as any. One of
the best volumes on the subject, one that will exactly fit your requirements,
we believe, is "A History of Chemistry, From the Earliest Times Till the
Present Day," by the late James Campbell Brown. This is truly a noble work,
and one that may be implicitly relied upon, for there have been few better
qualified to deal with the subject. Dr. Brown was one of the patriarchs of
science in England, where, at the University of Liverpool, he was Professor of
Chemistry for many years. His book was published by J. & A. Churchill, London,
1913. You can bank on what he says, and you need have no fear of encountering
* * *
SECRETS OF FREEMASONRY
You will understand that I am not opposed to Masonic education.
I am a reader of THE BUILDER and have been for two years, and I enjoy, now and
then, a Masonic book. But isn't there danger that all this lecturing and
writing about Masonry may tell the profane world too much about the secrets of
Not at all. It is our business to read a good many Masonic
periodicals, and Masonic books, and to listen to a good many Masonic speeches,
and these, as a matter of fact, are almost always well within the obligated
bonds of discretion. It is seldom that the most loquacious Mason ever talks
too much in public about forbidden things. Moreover, it is well to remember
what are the secrets of the Craft. Masonry is not, public opinion to the
contrary notwithstanding, in the strict sense of the words a secret society;
for a secret society per se is one that keeps from the public its aims and
methods. Freemasonry does not keep from the public any of its aims and
methods. The only thing secret about it is its mode of conferring initiation;
that, along with the matters pertaining to the business of the order and to
the private fortunes of the brethren, is to be kept within the faithful
breast. But of the purposes, activities, and principles of the Fraternity too
much cannot be said. And it is about these last mentioned matters, you will
surely agree, that most hooks are written, and speeches made.
* * *
A long dispute about French Masonry at a recent lecture given
in our lodge started some of us to arguing about the various kinds of belief
and unbelief so far as God is concerned. But we get all muddled up about the
varieties of such. Won't you please, if it isn't wandering too far from the
subject, set us right about this?
R. O., Idaho.
Ye scribe is neither a theologian nor the son of a theologian
and his suggestions in these premises may lack official authority, but such as
he knows on the matter is freely offered, and quite as freely does he ask the
theologians among THE BUILDER readers to supplement or to correct his
statements on a matter of such palmary importance.
There are many men, and these usually are found in countries
having a low degree of culture, who believe that everything has a soul in it.
The elementary distinction between the living and the non-living has not yet
established itself in their minds. These folk are known as "Animists." For a
long discussion of this consult "Primitive Culture" by Tylor, the savant who,
if I remember aright, was the first to use this word.
Some believe that back of the phenomena of the world there are
many gods, or ruling spirits, or divine powers: these, as the etymology of the
word would itself suggest, are "Polytheists." Polytheism is in the background
of Homer's Iliad.
When a people select out of all the gods which they believe to
exist one favorite god whom they choose to rule over their own tribe or
nation, they are known as "Henotheists." The Hebrews, during an early stage of
their evolution, are to be so designated. They believed that "Jahwe" belonged
to them in a peculiar sense, and was their god, but they at the same time
believed in the reality of other gods.
The ancient Persians believed that the universe was ruled by
two gods or powers of almost equal divinity who divide between themselves all
existing things and who, because of their opposite characters, make war upon
each other. This is known as "Dualism." The popular notion about a personal
devil belongs to this category.
Those who believe that there is but one divine being or power
in existence that rules over all things and is to be worshipped are
"Monotheists," which word, according to its Greek origin, means "one god."
Those Monotheists who believe that God created the world, and
that in some sense He is present in it to rule and to manage, and who believe
that God may be in some relation with us men, and that He may be implicated in
our struggles, joys, and sorrowings, are known as "Theists," while those who
believe in one God but hold that He is far "above the battle" and neither
suffers nor is in any way implicated in our human fortunes, are "Deists."
During the eighteenth-century in England and parts of Europe Deism ran rife.
The poet, Alexander Pope, was a Deist, and so was Voltaire.
There are some, like the Dutch-Jew philosopher Spinoza, who
hold that there is but one Reality, and that all existing things are but more
or less illusory and phenomenal appearances, and that this one Reality is God.
These are known as "Pantheists," which term means that "God is the sum total
of all existences," or that "God is all."
Those who deny that there is such a being as God, and who
believe that they can demonstrate the same, are "Atheists." The famous Latin
poet Lucretius was an atheist; so was Charles Bradlaugh.
Those who say that they don't believe that God exists but that
there is no way of proving whether He exists or not are "Agnostics," which
word means "I do not know." Thos. Henry Huxley and Robert Ingersoll were
Those who believe that God exists in the form of three persons,
one of whom is the Eternal Son, and that this Eternal Son became incarnated on
this earth as Jesus of Nazareth are Trinitarian Christians. Those Christians
who accept Jesus as a great moral teacher but deny his deity are Unitarian
There you have it. If I have missed any variety about which you
have been disputing let me know.
* * *
Knights of the Sun degree has set me to wondering if there has really been a
connection between Magic and Freemasonry. Isn't that degree connected with
Magic in some fashion, and am I right in believing that Magic and Alchemy were
Ioriginally the same thing? I have read the article on Alchemy in Mackey's
Encyclopaedia but need more light on the subject than he gives me.
G. L. R.,
we may quote the following from "A History of Chemistry" by Dr. James Campbell
Brown, an authoritative work on the subject:
"alchemy," or, as it was spelt until the nineteenth century, "alchymy,"
derived from the Arabic, is said to have come originally from a Greek word (chyma)
signifying things melted and poured out. It is more probably derived from Khem,
"the land of Egypt," which was so named from the dark color of its soil,
composed of crumbling syenite. Alchemy, according to this derivation, is the
"art of the black country," the Black Art. In Egypt it was carried to a high
degree of development, and consequently this theory of the origin of the name
received support from the philological character of the derivatives, al, the
Arabic definite article, and Khem, dark - because the term first came into use
when the Arabian Mohammedans dominated Egypt, learned the secrets of the
temple laboratories, and spread throughout the civilized parts of Western
Europe the knowledge they had thus acquired.
application of the term has frequently, but wrongfully, been restricted to the
pretended arts of making gold and silver, and the more profitable arts of
adulterating and of imitating gold. It had, however, a wider application, and
ought to be regarded as including all the arts known in ancient times, which
dealt with things now comprehended in the science of chemistry."
* * *
It may seem like a question that I should ask of somebody else
for it may not be in your line, but I should like to ask you if you do not
think that our lodges should do something to stop the great amount of
immorality that is going on in our cities, especially among young people. I am
an old man, soon to get out of this world, but these things still worry me.
G. F. T.,
"These things" should worry us all. Moral rottenness seems to
have filtered into everything, colleges, public schools, the press, magazines,
books, and the streets, not to mention the home which seems everywhere to be
losing its old moral authority. But it does not appear that Masonic lodges can
do more than they are doing - more, that is, in the sense of performing more
functions. The responsibility rests squarely on parents. If a father and
mother can't keep a sixteen year old boy or girl off the streets at night, and
out of vile places, who can? Parents, it would appear to us, have delegated
altogether too much of their own responsibility to other agencies.
* * *
GUILDS AND TRADE UNIONS
I have long had the impression that our modern Trade Unions
have descended from the old-time Craft Guilds, but it has recently come to my
mind that there may be some doubt about the matter. Can you give me some
information on this question ?
H. G., Texas.
There is very much doubt about the matter. Modern economists
believe that there never was any real historical connection between the Craft
Guilds and our Trade Unions, and that the latter would surely have come into
being had the former never existed. The recently issued new edition of "The
History of Trade Unionism" by Sidney and Beatrice Webb, than whom there are no
better authorities, gives an emphatic negative to your question. On page 13 of
that work we may read:
"The supposed descent in this country [England] of the Trade
Unions from the Medieval Craft Guilds rests, as far
we have been able to discover, upon no evidence whatsoever. The historical
proof is all the other way."
not room to repeat "all the historical proof” as given by these authors but it
may suffice to say that they hold that the Craft Guilds were always in the
hands of Masters and that mere apprentices and journeymen seldomly had much
voice in their management; and that whatever origins of modern Trade Unions
can be found in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries are identified with
the ephemeral societies often attempted by journeymen and apprentices, but
seldomly with much success.
* * *
It seems a strange thing to me that the Pelican should be a
Masonic symbol. It is a bird strange to us and also strange, I should suppose,
to the English. In what Masonic degree is it used, and what does it mean?
In the Middle Ages, when Europe was rife with occultism,
mysticism, esotericism, and kindred interests, "The Physiologus,” by
Epiphanius, Bishop of Constantia, in the Island of Cyprus, was so widely used
and believed that it may be described as one of the bibles of the time. On
page 30 of the edition printed by Plantin in 1588 (you will find the book in
any large library you will find an account of the Pelican which, we may
believe, is the fountainhead of the popular beliefs concerning that bird. Here
is his account:
"Beyond all birds the Pelican is fond of her young. The female
sits on the nest, guarding her offspring, and cherishes and caresses them and
wounds them with loving; and pierces their sides and they die. After three
days the male pelican comes and finds them dead, and very much his heart is
pained. Driven by grief he smites his own side, and as he stands over the
wounds of the dead young ones, the blood trickles down, and thus are they made
The bishop believed all this very literally and so did his
readers. One old writer proposes to account for this nature history myth by
saying that the pelican's bill is tipped with red, and that this may have
suggested the blood-letting to an imaginative peasantry. There are many
variations of the myth, into which there is not space to go. Shakespeare uses
the idea many times, as when he makes Lear say; "And like the kind
life-rendering pelican, Repast them with my blood." He uses it similarly in
Richard II, in Henry VI, and in "As You Like It.” Paper-makers used the bird
as a waterwark. Printers works it into their symbolical headpieces and
tailpieces. Architects were fond of using it in church ornamentation, most of
which was emblematic, as in St. Savior's Church, Reading, England, where the
lectern has the pelican shape. Dante refers to Christ as "nostro Pelicano," -
The meaning of the symbol is apparent. It refers to self
sacrifice, the giving of one's very blood, or life, to another. The great
example of that, in all the symbolical systems, is the self giving of Jesus.
Also, it carries with it the idea of a resurrection from the dead, for the
young pelicans were resuscitated
the blood of the parent. It has both these meanings in the Rose Croix Degree
of the A. & A.S.R. in which it appears.
* * *
"FREEBORN" AND "FREE"
We demand of a man that he be "free," or "free born.” Why is it
necessary in this day when all men are free born? That requirement would seem
to be obsolete. Why shouldn't it be abandoned?
Your point is well made, but even so why drop the requirement?
It is one more thing that cements us to our past, and that past is one of our
greatest treasures. Also, are you quite sure that every man who knocks at our
gates is really "free"? Free, that is, in the Masonic sense? Aren't many men
already members of other organizations which would seriously interfere with
their lives as Masons ? The whole point of the requirement is that a man shall
not be in any kind of bondage that will hamper his Masonic activities. It is
not enough that a man shall not be a bondman or a slave in the old sense - it
is equally necessary that he be not bound by obligations to other interests
that would conflict with his Masonic duties and obligations.
* * *
ON THE CORNER STONE
I have been asked by our Study Class to prepare a paper on "The
Northeast Corner," including some materials on Corner Stone Laying. Can you
furnish me with some information?
H. R. B.,
Write to the Masonic Library, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, care Newton
R. Parvin, for a copy of the Quarterly Bulletin for October 1920. The entire
number is devoted to Corner Stone Laying, and matters connected therewith. On
the Northeast Corner see THE BUILDER for December 1918, Correspondence Circle
Bulletin, page three.
INTERESTING MASONIC MEDAL
Laramie Lodge No. 3. A. F. & A. M., of Laramie, Wyoming is the
possessor of the original of the very interesting meda here shown. It was
presented to the lodge by Bro. J. A. Mc Heffey, Hantsport, Nova Scotia, who
received it from a Mr. Crawford, who once acted as his guide on a fishing
trip. Bro. McHeffey had it in his possession for thirty years. The medal bears
the date "Octr, th 21, 1784," and carries the initials "G. B." Among the
familiar emblems assembled in this beautiful little medal, which was made of
silver, are a few not so well known, the Key, the Fire, the Hand holding the
Line, the sharp Hammer, and the Latin motto. What is the meaning of the queer
little house, and of what appears to be a cluster of stars just above it? Why
are there fourteen stars scattered a the top? What explains the position of
the square and com passes? Will some antiquarian among our readers throw some
light upon these emblems?
* * *
In the Christian Science Monitor for May 21st last in an
article on "Trade Guilds in Old Mexico" the statement is fount that "The
earliest guild mentioned in America was that of the Stone Masons of the island
of Santo Domingo, who began constructive work in 1510." Can any brother throw
more light on this? What was the history of this guild? Was it a fraternity?
Did it have secrets, legend, etc?
* * *
The London Daily News, for February 17, 1881, has an article in
which it is stated that a certain Herr Pietsch made "elaborate investigations
of Goethe's fifty years of Masonship." This undoubtedly refers to Goethe's
membership in Freemasonry, and is therefore of some interest to Masonic
students. Does any brother know of this Herr Pietsch or of his book ? Has any
one a copy of the Daily News in question and, if so, will he forward us the
clipping? Information on this matter will be welcome to THE BUILDER.
* * *
The following story I clipped from a daily paper of August
29th, and it was given to the public by the Associated Press:
STONE NOW HUNTED AS "FAD"
"NEW YORE, Aug. 29. - Devoting spare hours to careful
inspection of public buildings in the hope of finding satire in stone has
become a fad. It began with the discovery by a reporter that architects had
carved a dollar-sign as a twin motif to the lovers' knot over the 'bridge's
entrance' to St. Thomas’ church on Fifth avenue. A few days later some one
leaving the Sunday services observed for the first time that miniature faces
of modern men and maids of the avenue had been chiseled above the main door of
the edifice. A congregation that went to pray remained to laugh.
"Some of these caricatures wore monocles, others wore smiles;
some were surely tired business men and good housewives, while others
manifestly were flappers and boulevardiers. Everybody conceded that they
represented modern Fifth avenue 'types.'
"One face was not so modern, however. It was a year or two
behind the times. On its nose was the unmistakable bulge of a 'rum blossom.'
Another had such a bored look observers were sure it was a man who just went
to church to please the wife.
"Rumors that many well-known buildings in New York had been
subjected to jocose treatment by the artisans who worked upon them moved whole
flocks of people to sally forth, some with spyglasses or lorgnettes, to look
for sculptured jokes. Architects gave interviews explaining how serious the
satire was; this sort of humor has been practiced since the middle ages, not
in a spirit of levity, but with the design of presenting to the people
examples of right and wrong in thought and action, they said. Skeptics
persisted in believing the architects had just had their little joke, and none
would have been surprised in finding a bust of Lenine concealed in the
decorations of the New York stock exchange, or a carving of Falstaff at the
headquarters of the Anti-Saloon league.
"At New Haven it was noted that Harkness Memorial Quadrangle -
which every Yale man considers the last word in college architecture in
America - sheltered among the nooks of its buildings many faces, figures and
symbols of college life. There was the placid bulldog with horned rimmed
spectacles and a grimvisaged bulldog wearing a football helmet, and there were
many shades of Blue history revived in stone.
"The students, unlike some of the parishioners of St. Thomas
church, were pleased with the decorative work. It is believed no Yale student
will raise a single sigh of objection unless somebody discovers a Harvard man
graven in the structure.
"Designers of Gothic buildings always have been possessors of a
humorous drafting pen. Their satiric chuckles at clergy and laity have come
down through the centuries in the stone of many of the sober old cathedrals of
Europe. The medieval craftsmen were downright boisterous in some of their
caricatures. Gluttony is portrayed in clerical robes on the battlements of
Magdalen college, Oxford. In a Yorkshire church 'Eclesiastical Sincerity' is
rendered by two foxes, representing the sporting clergy of the Middle Ages
listening to a bishop's instructions. Out of their hoods peep the heads of
"Thirteenth century fun-makers guffawed mightily at all orders
of clergy in an ornamentation of the Strasburg cathedral depicting 'The
Funeral of the Fox.' This sculpture created so many irritating embroglios
among churchgoers that it was demolished in the middle of the 19th century.
Wandering minstrels of the Middle Ages were satirized for the fondness of free
meals, one of the stalls of Westminster cathedral showing a fiddling pig.
"Architects have said that many churches of America, unknown to
their congregations, contain humorous decorations. Prevailing interest in
finding them is expected to increase church attendance."
This article has a peculiar interest to Masons, it would seem
to me, for every student will recall how in the Middle Ages the Masons would
poke fun at the monks and priests by carving satirical pictures of them -
cartoons in stone - here and there amidst the ornamentation. If one is
exceedingly well versed in these matters he could, I have no doubt, interpret
a great deal of that sort of thing as a silent (and contemptuous) attack on
the ecclesiastics on the part of the builders. In short, it would give us a
little chapter in the long warfare between workers and monks, between the
Fraternity that stands for free thought and liberty and the old hocus pocus
institution that tried to destroy free thought, free speech, and liberty.
F. J. H.,