The Builder Magazine
January 1922 - Volume VIII -
The Lincoln Memorial
IN 1911 the Congress of the United States appointed a
commission to erect in the city of Washington a suitable memorial to Abraham
Lincoln. President William Howard Taft was made chairman. By the time these
words appear in print the Memorial will have been opened to the public.
The Commission chose as chief architect Henry Bacon. Mr. Bacon
selected as his co-workers Daniel Chester French, who was given charge of all
sculpturing; and Jules Guerin, who was appointed to make the mural paintings.
From the very first these three artists, each of international distinction in
his field, worked in a spirit of unity so complete that it sets at naught the
cheap canards about the temperamental egotisms of such men. Each linked hands
with the other two, and the three together, after years of daily familiarity
with the mind and soul of Lincoln, at last produced a new parthenon which will
remain in the long hereafter of this nation an adequate and appropriate
monument of him who is the chief treasure of these people.
The building stands in Potomac Park on a line due east and west
with the Capitol and the Washington Monument. There is nothing of vulgar
display about it, and it cost only about two million dollars, but every stone
in it has been selected and wrought with loving care. Down to the last workman
the great undertaking has come to completion unmarred by break or accident:
there was no strike; no man was killed, or even seriously injured; not even
when the great caissons were sunk beneath the ground, or when the twenty-three
ton stones were brought from their quarries in the Colorado mountains. Artists
and workmen wrought together in the fraternal spirit of the ancient guilds, as
though the kindly and human presence of Lincoln himself were somehow real to
every one of them.
The building is simple but impressive. The key to it is unity
expressed through beauty and preserved in majesty. It is lovely to see from
whatever point one may behold it, and the view from the old home of Robert E.
Lee, as the writer himself will ever remember, is singularly appealing,
especially as one bears in mind how much alike in soul were the two heroes
whose paths diverged so widely. It is good to know that a bridge is planned to
connect the site of the Memorial with the opposite shore, thus bringing the
old north and the old south visibly and symbolically together, as they really
are in these new times.
The central and dominating space in the Memorial building is
reserved entirely for the great statue which has received from Lord Charnwood,
the distinguished English biographer of Lincoln, the encomium of being the
statue. It exhibits Lincoln as President, filled with unobtrusive but
conscious power, a man who has grown up to his almost superhuman tasks, who
neither shrinks nor blusters, and who easily passes from repose to action. The
hands are expressive of capacity, but finely human; the feet are a little
drawn together, as they always are in moments of urgent thought; the clothing
is that of a man who cared little for the vanities, but who was not slovenly;
and the great sculpturesque head, with its wide but sunken eyes, its familiar
beard and its deep lines, is that of the veridical man,
unspoiled by any attempt on the part of the sculptor to appeal to us by
melodramatic exaggeration. The real Lincoln was not a man of over soft
sentimentality and melancholy, with a weak body, but one consciously strong,
whose secret was his magnificent mental power, and it is this Lincoln that
inhabits the great Memorial.
The Gettysburg Address and the Second Inaugural are engraved in
the walls. Their spirit and idea are translated into paintings by Guerin, and
altogether speak the same word, that this man, who was neither a demi-god nor
a demagogue, somehow embodied in himself that which this nation most seriously
reverences in its secret soul.
The building as a whole, with its trees, its gradings and
terraces, will become one of our national treasures, along with the Capitol
and the House of the Temple. It is unspoiled by any exotic appeal, or by that
which is merely flashy, temporary, and popular. It is, as John Hay said it
should be, "isolated, distinguished and serene." To eulogize it is as vulgar
as it is to eulogize the man whose name it has been set to commemorate
ONE of the valuable labors of the Overseas Masonic Mission was
its energetic campaign to secure the names and records of Military Masonic
Clubs. Unfortunately but a few of the itinerant clubs were secured. Unless
some active member of each of these clubs volunteers to forward the name and
history of his organization Masonic Club its record will be forever lost. Many
ot these clubs had an existence and did a splendid work. It is to be hoped
that a movement may be started to preserve their records with those already
These clubs in the Roster of the Overseas Masonic Commission
are not chronologically placed. the oldest in time I have discovered in my
search is the Knights of the Forest No. 102, Masonic Club. This club was
within the 102d Regiment F. A. Its officers were designated as
Chief-of-Section, Caisson Corporal, and Gunners. The club was organized at a
camp in Brittany, on Oct. 30, 1917, during the final training for active
service. As a part of the 26th Division, this regiment saw active service and
the members of this Masonic Club acquitted themselves in true Masonic manner.
Most of the clubs were in permanent camps, depots, and
headquarters cities. They were offered by brethren from high and low military
rank, and from among welfare workers. One club - Gondrecourt Masonic Club,
A.P.O. Kiowas offered by Salvation Army men - R.M. Dilley and a brother Hale.
These brethren together with other brethren working in this welfare
organization did awn active Masonic work for the Craft.
The following roster is as complete as any yet attempted by any
Masonic writer. It comprises the list secured by the Overseas Masonic Mission
together with nasnes of clubs secured by the writer through various channels.
The rosters of these clubs are mostly in the hands of the brethren of Sea and
Field Lodge No. 1, New York, from whom information can be had.
American Masonic Club
A. P. O. 708
Pres., Lieut. Edgar Butler
Capt. Frank A. Starr
American Consistory Club, No. 1 Verneuil,
Maj. Earl H. Rosemere
American E. F. Masonic Club
Marseilles, A. P. O. 5
Pres., C. M. Conant, Y. M. C. A.
F. G. Redwine, A. P.
Tours, A. P. O. 717
Pres., Lt. Col. G. E. Newell
American Masonic Club
LeMans, A. P. O. 762
Pres., Harry B. Meek
American Masonic Club of Beaune
Pres., Maj. Hotchkiss
A. Peterson, Y. M. C.A
Acacia Club, 110th Eng., Brest
Pres., O. W. McLanahan
A. L. Moon
Masonic Club of Brest
Pres., C. J. Irwin, Y. M. C. A.
H. H. Wallman
Masonic Club of 503rd Eng.
Pres., Sgt. H. Stevenson
Pvt. L. C. Bowes
Masonic Society, Infantry School
Clamecy, A. P. O. 78
Pres., Maj. S. A. Merril
H. C. Bishop
Masonic Club, 114 Field Sig. Bn.
W. C. Soab
Masonic Club, Evac. Hosp. 1
Lt. H. B. Pool
Masonic Club, Camp EIosp. 26
Pres., Capt. C. B. Winn
Masonic Club, Base Hosp. 63
Masonic Club of Vichy
Hosp. Center 5
Masonic Club of Verneuil
Pres., Capt. Van Hise
Middle West Masonic Club
Amer. Army, Gez
C. C. Kusick
Masonic Club, Lamadon De Bains
Sec'y,C. Ferguson, Y.M.C.A.
Masonic Club of Camp Meueon
Pres., W. E. Hunter, Y. M. C. A.
A. Wilson, Y. M. C
Montoir Masonic Club
Pres., Chaplain C. F. Ir gin
Charles J. Novak
Montriehard Masonic Club
Lt. Wilkes, Q. M. C
Masonic Club of Angers
Pres., Maj. V. A. Hall
Lt. H. G. Finley
Nettal Masonic Club
Pres., Lt. Col. S. B. Philpot
F. A. Masonic Club
Pres., Chas. O. Jasp, Jr.
C. B. Jones
Paulliae Masonic Club
Riviera Masonic Club
A. P. O.
Pres., J. C. Gipe, Y. M. C. A.
Lt. E. R. MacDonald
Overseas Masonic Club, Paris
Pres., Col. H. H. Whitney
C. Connoway, Y.M.C.A.
of Line Masonic Club
A. R. Hayes
Square and Compass Club
Pres., Capt. Holmes
W. H. Rigby
Square and Circle Masonic Club
Pres., Maj. Nels Rasmussen
Sgt. D. Jones
Pres., Cpl. Beard
Social Ten Brothers
R. S. Naresh
Square and Compass Club
Pres., W. A. Weidel
H. G. Bergdoll
Stonewall Masonic Club
Cpl. E. Youngs
Almond Masonic Club
Sunset Overseas Masonic Club
Pres., Maj. W. R. McCathran
Capt. A. D. Hathaway
Scottish Rite Club, Tours
Pres., Col. Winton
Lt. Col. B. R. Gamble
Pres., W. R. Bristow
A. B. MacBean
Army Masonic Club
Pres., Maj. W. S. Solomon
E. M. Myers
F. A. Masonic Club
Pres., N. McMurry
Sgt. A. C. Stevens
Engineers Masonic Club
Pres., A. W. Provost
F. J. Welti
Washington‑Lafayette Masonic Club
L. A. Wilcox
University de Toulouse Masonic Club
P. O. 948
L. A. Berlin
Div. Masonic Club (Rainbow Div.)
Trowel and Triangle Club
Pres., J. G. Pollard
L. Dugout No. 1
O., M. B. Carman
H. H. Porter
L. Dugout No. 2
L. Dugout No. 3 (Gievres)
L. Dugout No. 4 (Paris)
L. Dugout No. 5 (St. Nazaire)
O., Capt. Robt. Murphy
Chas. H. Huntley
L. Dugout No. 6 (Brest)
O., Chaplain C. F. Irwin
Lt. W. W. Preisch
Acacia Club, University Grenoble
H. Manheim, Jr.
Pres., W. Boaz
Pres., Senator Benson
Bourges Masonic Club
Pres., Lt. Col. E. G. Smith
B. W. Flack
Pres., Maj. J. F. McGill
Sgt.‑Maj. J. H. Hay
Pres., P. A. Calkins
Espoir Masonic Club
Pres., Lt. G. S. Schaller
W. E. Shephard
Sub‑Post Masonic Club
Pres., M. T. Carr
E. S. Passwaiter
Fellowcraft Club, A. E. F.
Pres., J. D. Hatch
F. A. Kampfer
Fellowcraft Club, Montierchaume
Pres., Sgt. T. J. Phillips
Fellowship Masonic Club
Pres., Capt. A. C. Howard
Gondrecourt Masonic Club
Pres., R. M. Dilley, Salv. Army
Sec'y,Hale, Salv. Army
Pres., Capt. E. C. Lay
Heather Hill Mas. Club (13th Eng.)
Pres., Lt. Geo. S. Case
Sgt. A. G. Wyant
Isseudun Fellowcraft Club
Pres., Lt. R. J. Williams
A. C. Eizenach
Knights of the Forest, No. 102
Pres., F. W. Foss
Cpl. L. Pittman
Laigne Masonic Club
Pres., Maj. F. W. Butler
Pvt. B. C. Rounds
Langres Masonic Club
F. J. Stone
Libourne Craftsman's Club
G. A. Nordgren
Masonic Club, A. A. A. P. 1
Masonic Club, Base Sect. 1
Pres., Dr. Jouett, Y. M. C. A.
Capt. R. C. Murphy
Masonic Club of Blois
Pres., E. Q. Jackson, Capt.
Rivage Masonic Club
Pvt. G. P. Eberle
Masonic Club, 66th Eng.
Pres., R. E. McKee
G. A. McCollister
Masonic Society of Mars-sur-Allier
Pres., Capt. James W. Loughlin
Cpl. P. Neu
Gren Masonic Club, Base Sect. 1
FRANK C. HICKMAN, MICHIGAN
beauty this that I behold!
means this burning, smoking urn!
carved and tasseled pot of gold;
meaning I cannot discern.
fraceful, tho' inanimate!
silent, yet bespeaking good, How stately too: I venerate!
I would I
Ah! Now I
hear a still small voiee.
whispers wisdom unto me.
Enraptured, oh, how I rejoice!
the truth, to know, to see.
emblem of a pure heart;"
sacrifice of good report;
"Acceptable to Deity."
this glows with fervent heat,"
"Continually our hearts should glow,"-
gratitude" and love replete,
from Whom all blessings flow.
FOR THE HISTORY OF THE DlONYSIAN ARTIFICERS" BEING REPRINTED
We have had many requests for copies of this work, which was
published in London in 1820. It has been out of print since a short time after
its publication and copies have been unprocurable at any price. Now those
brethren who are interested in securing a copy may do so by writing the
publisher of The Montana Mason, Great Falls, Montana, in which publication it
being reprinted in serial form in the issues for November, December, January
The fountain of beauty is the heart, and every genero thought
illustrates the walls of its chambers. - Emerson.
WILDEY E. ATCHISON, IOWA
OFTEN noted that Masonic writers hesitate to offer any explanation of the term
"due guard," averring that it is merely a form of words which was once in use,
but is now grown obsolete, as if that were genuine explanation. Scholars
should not close the book of interpretation merely because a thing has fallen
out of use. Mackey's Encyclopedia, so it seems, has dropped into this error.
On page 222 of the first volume of that useful compendium we read that "Due
Guard" is a mode of recognition which derives its name from its object, which
is to "duly guard" the person using it in reference to his obligation. Dr.
Mackey then goes on to say that this term is "an Americanism" and therefore of
recent origin, though he refers to a ritual of 1757 in which it is used.
is reason to believe that "due guard" goes back to a time long prior to 1757,
or to 1727, or to 1717, and that it came very reasonably from a phrase which
was once the name of a town, whereby hangs a long tale, too long for the
telling here, though it may be attempted at a later date.
have read aught of the history of book-and paper-making know that these two
trades were in the very van of those enlightened ones who led that great
movement against the papacy, and all connoted thereby, which resulted at last
in the Reformation and the Renaissance. Now it happens, as has been shown
conclusively by various scholars working as specialists in this field, that
these "Reformers before the Reformation" had to work in secret, and by means
of signs and watchwords, lest they be detected by the authorities and
therefrom suffer grievous evils.
there was a movement against the seven tyrannies of Rome but it was not until
the beginning of the thirteenth century that this movement assumed such
formidable movements as led the Holy Father to send out Bulls of destruction,
which Bulls and their carrying out, left on the pages of history the reddest
and angriest scars that Clio has to look upon.
wrote books, those who printed books, and those who manufactured the paper and
binding of these books, were naturally in the closest federation so far as all
intellectual aims were concerned, and the members of these allied trades, so
it may be safely said, formed a kind of great unorganized fraternity which
worked underground in behalf of enlightenment. The paper-makers were in the
habit of watermarking their stock with emblematic devices which were
understood by the initiated; and the printers used for head-pieces and
tail-pieces, and for initial ornaments, such cunning figures as, to those on
the inside, meant very much; and the authors themselves, by a clever use of
capital letters and such makeshifts, were able to flash to the scattered
friends of Learning that they had many brethren here and there though they
might know it not. A watermark was very often a call across the dark by one
brother to another in order to carry a word of hope, recognition, and
happens that one of the towns at the very centre of the French paper-making
trade was called "Dieu le garde," which, in our more familiar speech, connotes
"God Guard It." In after years usage changed the name to various forms, such
as Dulegard, Daulegard, etc., but it is evident that the French of that
community never forgot the origin of the unusual name.
natural thing than that the Albigensian paper-makers should hit upon this name
of one of their towns as an excellent device to use in their water-marks! Many
such watermarks exist. One of them, a copy of which lies before me as I
write, carries an elaborate symbolism in which one may detect the emblems of
Light, of Brotherly Love, of the Bright and Morning Star, of the Spirit of
Truth, etc., with a band across the bottom in which are the letters that spell
has this to do with Freemasonry? This, that it seems very reasonable to
suppose that among the various institutions the members of which in those days
had completely outgrown the puerile superstitions enforced by the papacy must
have been the Masonic lodges. I believe that this will some day be proved by
documentary evidence. I am convinced myself that others of the fraternities
existing in secret at that time, such as the various schools of the
Alchemists, and, later, the Rosicrucians, had some connections with the
Masonic Fraternity, and left in its symbolism certain emblems and ideas of
their own. In other words, Freemasonry in the fourteenth, fifteenth, and
sixteenth centuries was one of many secret fraternities the members of which
were devoted to a campaign of enlightenment (which in those days meant
anti-Rome) and it therefore fell heir to a whole stream of occult and
symbolical lore which was devised to meet the situation at the time, which
situation was that men could not, except at the peril of their lives, speak in
public what every man of intelligence knew in his private mind.
these devices, symbols, or emblems thus inherited was this favourite
paper-maker's device, "Dieu le garde," "God Guard It." This hypothesis seems
reasonable to me; it has a host of facts behind it; and it gives to the
expression as we have it a meaning and some significance, a thing that cannot
be said of the Mackey hypothesis that "Due Guard" means to "guard
that Christian grace abounds
chaity is seen; that when
to Heaven, ‘tis on the rounds
BIBLIOGRAPHY BY BRO. SILAS H. SHEPHERD, WISCONSIN
homely adage that one cannot make rabbit soup until he has captured his rabbit
is brought home to the Masonic student times without number, for if there is
anything difficult to capture it is a Masonic Bibliography. And they who
undertake to fashion the same, and who succeed therein, even in small measure,
deserve the plaudits of the Craft. All this by way of introducing one of the
most successful essays in Masonic Bibliography that has ever come to the
ink-stained ye editor. The literary engineer responsible for the success of
this venture is Bro. Silas H. Shepherd who has been for years a member of the
Committee on Masonic Research of the Grand Lodge of Wisconsin, and whose name
is familiar to our readers, albeit not as familiar as it should be, and will
be, we trust. "Masonic Bibliographies and Catalogues" is published in paper
bindings by the above mentioned Committee, and is number 11 in the series of
their publications. Bro. Shepherd has been assisted by Brothers Henry A.
Crosby and George C. Nuesse, his colleagues on the Committee.
of Masonic study is more fascinating than to acquire an intimate knowledge of
its books, their authors, or the several editions of the more important works,
such as the "Book of Constitutions," "The Pocket Companion," Preston's
"Illustrations of Masonry," the "Old Charges" and the Webb "Monitors."
following list of bibliographies and catalogues, and the few references to
works containing information of bibliographical nature may be welcome to those
who realize the importance of securing this information, not only for their
own pleasure, but that they may be better prepared to lead those who are
taking their first steps in the pursuit of Masonic knowledge. It may also be
of assistance to lodge librarians with limited experience.
compilation of the present list is the first of its kind since H.J. Whymper's
"Catalogue of Bibliographies, etc.," issued in 1891. Only 100 copies of that
work were printed, consequently it is very scarce and practically unavailable.
The following list was first published in "Masonic Tidings" by our Committee,
and has since been revised and enlarged.
der Freimaurerischen Literatur," by August Wolfstieg, published by A. Hopfer,
Burg, B.M. 1911-1913, 3 volumes, is the most complete Masonic bibliography
ever compiled. It is printed in Roman type, with the titles and authors of the
listed works given in the language they were written in, which makes the
compilation of value even to those with a knowledge of English only. It was
published at 73.50 marks, but is now quoted to American buyers at 850 marks.
Antoine Thory, a French Masonic writer of the Nineteenth century, included in
his "Acta Latomorum" (1815), a bibliography of the principal Masonic works
from 1717 to that date, and was the pioneer in this field. H.J. Whymper says:
"The bibliography in Thory's Acta Latomorum is the first genuine bibliography
George B. F. Kloss, a distinguished German Masonic writer, compiled "Bibliographie
der Freimaurerie und der mit ihr in Verbindung gesetzten geheimen
Gesellschaften" in 1844. This contained a list of over six thousand works in
many languages, with critical notes on the more important, making it of great
value even at present.
recent production of Wolfstieg's Bibliography culminates a series of
bibliographical works in France and Germany of which Reinhold Taute's "Maurerische
Bucherkunde" (Leipzig, 1896), and Paul Fesch's Bibliographie de la Franc-Maconnerie"
(Paris, 1912) good examples.
English translation of Wolfstieg's work would receive a warm welcome, but a
complete and thorough bibliography of Masonic literature in English would be
of greater value if it contained ISCONSIN entary notes as have been given by
Hughan, Dring, Carson, Whymper, Parvin, Mackey and others.
the catalogues listed in this compilation are out of print and scarce. Copies
of those marked * are possessed by the writer, and have only been acquired
after several years of search and at considerable expense.
and Accepted Scottish Rite
and Accepted Rite See "Supreme Council." See "England, Supreme Council."
"California, Library of the Grand Lodge of." (No 10.)
of works in the Library of St. Alban's Lodge No. 38, Adelaide, So. Australia,
catalogue is listed as "No. 295," in Wolfstieg's "Bibliographie."
"England, Supreme Council." (No. 33.)
of Masonic Books, Engravings, Medals, Jewels, Curios and Certificates in
possession of George Washington, Bain, Durham. With interesting Archaeological
Notes by W.J. Hughan and J.R. Riley. 8vo. Sunderland, 1893, 39 pages.
of Masonic Books offered for sale by Brother G.W. Bain. Sunderland, March,
copies offered for sale.
Merwin & Co.*
of Important Masonic Books.
See"Steinbrenner, G. W." (No. 147.)
Barthelmes, R. (M. D.)
Bibliography of Freemasonry in America. New York, 1856. 8vo.
Coronati Lodge No. 2076."(No. 125.)
of the Library belonging to the District Grand Lodge of Bengal, 1910. 26
Manuscriptorum Angliae, Oxford, 1697, contains earliest known record of the
Rev. Henry S.
"Leicester, England." (No. 84.)
Masonic General Library
of the Bombay Masonic General Library, Bombay, 1868.
A list of
special Masonic wants of Robt. F. Bower. (MS.) Keokuk, Iowa, 1878.
Classification of the Literature of Freemasonry and Related Societies. By
William L. Boyden, Washington, D. C.,
this is not a bibliography, it shows the vast ramification of the literature
of Freemasonry, and is intimately connected with bibliography. "A system of
card membership record for Masonic bodies and a scheme of classification for
Masonic books," by Frank J. Thompson, Fargo, N. D., 1903, and the "Librarian's
Report" of the Grand Lodge of Iowa for 1918 may also be noted as of interest
California, Library of the Grand Lodge
of the Books on Masonry in the Library of the Grand Lodge of California.
October, 1872. By A. G. Abell Grand Secretary, San Francisco, 1872. 8vo.
paper, 17 pages.
California, Library of the Grand Lodge
of Books on Masonry in the Library of the Grand Lodge of California. San
Francisco, April, 1879. 41 pages.
California, Library of the Grand Lodge
of the Library of the Grand Lodge of California, 1881. 62 pages.
California, Library of the Grand Lodge
of Books on Masonry and Transactions of Masonic Grand Bodies in the Library of
the Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of the State of California, as
compiled by the Grand Secretary thereof. March, 1883. San Francisco, 1883. 59
fire in San Francisco destroyed the library and the Grand Lodge of California
has not yet acquired many books.
Carson, Enoch T.*
Bibliographical and Descriptive Catalogue of the rare and valuable collection
of Books, Pamphlets, Manuscripts and Engravings, on the subject of Freemasonry
and other Secret Societies, to be found in the Library of Brother E. T.
Carson, Cincinnati, Ohio.
catalogue was published serially in the American Freemason of Louisville, Ky.,
in 1864, and is the earliest descriptive catalogue we have noted. Carson's
"Masonic Bibliography" (1874) is a more complete and longer work.
Carson, Enoch T.*
Bibliography, by Enoch T. Carson, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1874. 224 pages. From A to
Unfortunately, this work was never completed from Picart to Z. Its title is
misleading, as it is a bibliography of the works in the Masonic Library of
Brother Car on. His Library being one of the best of its time, it is a very
valuable work, and made extremely so by the comprehensive and illuminating
Carson, Enoch T.
Bibliography of Books and Manuscripts on the Orders of Knights Templar and of
the Knights of Malta, etc., by Enoch T. Carson. Prepared and edited for and
published by the Grand Commandery of Knights Templar of Ohio. Dayton. Dayton
Journal Office, 1879. 55 pages.
This is a
very complete and useful work to all who are interested In the older
literature pertaining to the chivalric orders.
Dr. Paula *
Catalogue of Books on Sciences, Religions, and Philosophies. Published by the
Open Court Publishing Company, Chicago, 1916. 118 pages.
catalogue is of particular assistance in the subjects closely allied to
Freemasonry, and while not strictly Masonic, may he of exceptional value to
many Masonic students.
catalogue of the Manuscripts of the King's Library London, 1734. 8vo.
a description of the Regius manuscript
Cassill, Austin A.
Masonic Library of Austin A. Cassill, Mount Vernon, Ohio, 1885. 65 pages.
a pamphlet of 66 pages, mostly books, circulars, and proceedings gathered by
Cassill. No great value. Collection now boxed up in Southern Iowa, at
Celebration. 1877 catalogue, London. (Q.C. 681.)
Chase, George Wingate
of Masonic Books, Magazines, etc., for sale by George Wingate Chase,
Haverhill, Mass., May 1,1860. Haverhill, 1860. 32vo. 16 pages.
Cincinnati Masonic Library Ass’n
of the Masonic Library of the Masonic Library Association; with an account of
its Organization and By-Laws. Cincinnati. Caleb Clark. 8vo. paper, 19 pages.
Cincinnati Masonic Library Ass'n
of the Masonic Library of Cincinnati, Ohio. Masonic Library Association. 1904.
the most ardent Masonic students and bibliophiles was Brother Scott Bonham,
who for several years lent his real and ability to this association. This
library had as its nucleus the small but well selected library of Cornelius
"England, United Grand Lodge." (No. 86.)
Crawley, W. J. Chetwode
Masonic MSS. in the Bodleian Library. Reprinted from "Ars Quatuor Coronatorum."
Margate, 1898. 42 page
Crowe, Fred J. W.
of over 300 Masonic certificates in the collection of Brother Fred J.W. Crowe
- with archaeological not and introductory notices by Brother W.J. Hughan and
Brother J. Ramsden Riley. Torquay, 1894. 32 pages.
book-plates. (Reprinted from the Ex Libris Journal, December, 1903.) 8 pages.
and Cornwall Masonic Exhibition *
Exhibition for Devon and Cornwall, June 27th to July 1st, 1887. Catalogue of
Exhibits. Edited by W J. Hughan. Catalogues 1s. each. 50 pages.
exhibition many rare volumes were included as loans from private collections
of R.F. Gould. John Lane and many others. The bibliographical notes are in
Brother Hughan's incomparable style of furnishing much information in few
District of Columbia Grand Lodge Library
Classified catalogue of the Library of the Grand Lodge F.A. A. M. of the
District of Columbia. Wash., 1886. 48 pages.
Miss Mabel K.
"Oriental Consistory Library." (No. 114.)
Masonic Literature before 1751, with a tentative list of English references to
and works on, Freemasonry before 1751. By Edmund H. Dring, London, 1913. 41
bibliography of this era, this is indeed a splendid work which will long
remain an authoritative reference work on the subject of early Grand Lodge
literature. (Also in Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, vol. 25.)
Drummond, Josiah H.*
Historical and Bibliographical memoranda. Brookville, Ky., 1882, by Josiah H.
Drummond. 127 pages.
This is a
scarce work and a valuable one, containing a bibliography of the "Proceedings"
of the Masonic bodies in the U. S., the Masonic periodicals: and monitors,
manuals and constitutions. It is also rich in historical data.
"Masonic Library Association of Allegheny Co., Pa” (No. 97.)
England, Supreme Council
of books in the Library of the Ancient and Accepted Rite of the 33d, London.
Collated BIBLIOGRAPHY r the Supreme Council by Ill. Brother H. W. Hemswort
London, 1870. 32 pages.
England, Supreme Council
of Books in the Library of the Supreme Council of the Ancient Accepted Rite
33d, London, 1874.
England, Supreme Council
of Books in the Library of the Supreme Council 33d, Ancient and Accepted Rite,
London. By Edw. Armitage, London, 1900. 111 pages.
England, Supreme Council
of Books. (Masonic; in the Library of the Supreme Council, London.)
Interleaved with manuscript catalogue of Masonic books in the British Museum.
England, Grand Lodge
(MS.) of works on Freemasonry, in the library at Freemason's Hall. London,
England, United Grand Lodge *
Grand Lodge of Ancient Free and Accepted Masons of England. Catalogue of Books
in the Library at Freemasons' Hall, London. Compiled by order of the Grand
Lodge, June 1st, 1887. Supplementary Catalogue containing the additions made
from 1888 to 1895. Compiled by Henry Sadler, Grand Tyler and Sub-Librarian.
1895. 48 and 94 pages. The first part was compiled by Shadwell H. Clerke.
Finch, Nelson L.*
of Scarce Books on Freemasonry. For sale by N. L. Finch, Broadalbin, N. Y.
parts. Part one, 6 pages, 61 books. Part two, 12 pages, 112 books.
Fitch, William E.
of the Library of the late Col. William E. Fitch of Albany, N. Y., consisting
of a large collection of works on Freemasonry (etc.), to be sold at auction
February 4th and 5th, 1907, by the Merwin-Clayton Sales Co., N. Y. 52 pages.
Public Library, Reference Department." (No. 168.)
Gardner, F. L.*
Catalogue Raisonne of works on the Occult Sciences, by F. Leigh Gardner.
Volume 3 - Freemasonry. A Catalogue of Lodge Histories, with a preface by Dr.
Wm. Wynn Westcott. London, 1912. 37 pages.
Catalogue is well compiled and has many helpful reference notes.
Gardner, F. L. *
Catalogue Raisonne of works on the Occult Sciences. Vol. 1. Rosicrucian books,
with an introduction by Wm. Wynn Westcott. London, 1903. 82 pages.
of Books from the Library of Wm. Wynn Westcott. '
Dr. Wm. WYnn." (No. 168.)
of Books on the Masonic Institution in public libraries of twenty-eight states
of the Union, Anti-Masonic in arguments and conclusions. By distinguished
literary gentlemen, citizens of the United States, with introductory remarks
and a compilation of records and remarks, by a member of the Suffolk Committee
of 1829. 8vo. pp. XI - 270. Boston, 1852.
was published by Henry Gasset of Boston, and was widely distributed as
Anti-Masonic propaganda. The catalogue contains the so-called exposes of that
period. It is of little value, except as a curiosity.
"Missouri, Grand Lodge of." (No. 103.)
Gowans, William *
Catalogue of Books on Freemasonry, and Kindred Subjects, compiled by William
Gowans, New York, 1854. 33 pages.
Catalogue is bound up with "Jachin and Boaz" (a reprint).
Catalogue of Books on Freemasonry and Kindred Subjects, by William Gowans. New
York, 1858. 59 pages.
interesting to compare the notes on this Catalogue in Enoch T. Carson's
"Masonic Bibliography" with the article in the "American Bibliopolist" of
March. 1872, on "the late William Gowans." Mr. Gowans was a dealer in
second-hand books and had an immense stock.
books presented to the Gordon Lodge, 2149. Hanley, 1894. 7 pages.
Biographical and bibliographical catalogue of the Charlesworth Masonic Library
at Hanley. Hanley, 1900. 122 pages.
of the Haigh collection of Masonic Books, comprising the remaining portion of
the library of the late John Haigh, 33d, of Somerville, Mass.; also Masonic
engravings and prints, together with a small collection of Masonic pitchers
(etc.). 76 pages.
catalogue of C. F. Libbie & Co., Boston, Mass., 1901.
of the Coombe Masonic Library, 1901. 22 pages.
"England, Supreme Council." (No. 31.)
Catalogue of Books on Freemasonry and Kindred Subjects, on sale by Hills &
Co., Sunderland, Eng. May, 48 pages.
Catalogue of Books on Freemasonry. Hills & Co., Sunderland, May, 1913. 31
of an extensive Library of scarce and curious books - sold by auction by
Messrs. Hodgson & Co., London August, 1885. 50 pages.
A. F. A. Woodford's library.
Catalogue of the Library of the late F.W. Lavender - comprising a collection
of books on Freemasonry. Sold by Hodgson & Co., London. Feb., 1917. 37 pages.
Catalogue of the Library of A. M. Broadley, comprising the collection of books
on Freemasonry - sold by auction by Hodgson & Co., London. June, 1917. 35
of a valuable collection of books on Freemasonry - on sale by John Hogg,
London, 1876. 22 pages
of a Valuable Collection of Books on Freemasonry - on sale by John Hogg,
London, 1876. 10 pages
Hollings, Frank *
of Rare and Beautiful Books, for sale at Frank Holling's Book Shop, 7 Great
Turnstile, London. Cat No. 112.
Holling's catalosues contain Masonic items of more than ordinary interest.
Hughan, William James *
Constitutions of the Freemasons. London: R. Spencer, 1869. 8vo. pp. XXX - 8.
earliest bibliographical work of Hughan, whose many Masonic writings are
particularly interesting to the bibliophiles.
Hughan, William James *
Charges of British Freemasons, by Wm. J. Hughan, with valuable appendices. A
Preface by the Rev. A.F.A. Woodford, M. A. London, 1872. 90 pages. Same,
Second edition, 1895. 191 pages.
Hughan, William James *
Sketches and Reprints.
History of Freemasonry in York. 2. Unpublished Records of the Craft.
William James Hughan, Hull and Truro, 1871 (American edition, New York, 1872.)
work, and "The Old Charges of British Freemasons," are the best bibliography
of the Old Charges we have. Hughan and Begemann made possible the study of the
documentary history of Freemasonry before the Grand Lodge era. See "Begemann,
W.” in second section.
Hughan, William James
Bibliography, London, 1892. 2 pages.
from The Freemason of July 30th, 1892. An article on the subject of
Hughan, William James
of Lodges (England), by W. J. Hughan, London, 1892. 8vo. 20 pages.
copies of this Bibliography of Histories of English Lodges were all subscribed
for within a few days of publication (sold on behalf of the Royal Masonic
Benevolent Institution Jubilee Fund), and is the only compilation of the kind
ever issued." (Gardner has since issued a more up-to-date work. (See No. 39.)
Hughan, William James
Supplement to Histories of Lodges (England). Reprinted from The Freemason,
December 21, 1893. 4 pages
Hughan, William James
of Lodges (Scotland), 1892, by W. J. Hughan
Hughan, William James
Provincial Masonic calendars. (Reprinted from Freemason, December 22, 1894.) 4
Hughan, William James *
of Articles on the Constitutions of Freemasonry, by W. J. Hughan, P.G.D.
Printed privately for Whymper, by Ram Saran. 1889. 31 pages.
pamphlet containing the reprint of descriptions of the Book of Constitutions
of 1723, and the editions thereafter authorized by the Grand Lodge of England,
to and including the 1888 edition. The original articles appeared in The
Hughan, William James *
Bibliography of Hughan. Chief Masonic Works. George Kenning & Son, London,
1896. 8 pages.
from The Freemason, Christmas number, 1896.
Hughan, William James
Unidentified or missing MSS. (Reprinted from "Ars Quatuor Coronatorum.")
Margate, 1891. 4 pages.
(John) Memorial Library." (No. 82.)
"Worcester, England." (No. 170.)
"Worcestershire Masonic Library and Museum." (No. 172.)
Hurlburt, Frazier W.
of Books on Freemasonry and Kindred Subjects, and including Masonic medals,
badges, aprons, baldrics, etc., belonging to Frazier W. Hurlburt, of Utica, N.
Y., 1889. 20 pages.
Hyneman, Leon *
Library of the late Leon Hyneman. New York, 1879. 46 pages.
Hyneman was a Publisher and Masonic journalist of exceptional influence, and a
perusal of the contents of his library is a pleasure every bibliophile will
India, Stewart Lodge No. 1960
Catalogue of the Library belonging to "Stewart” Lodge No. 1960, E. C., holding
at Rawal Pindi and Muree, in the Punjab, compiled by Brother J. H. Leslie, up
to November 30th, 1894. Calcutta, 1894.
number 128 in "Catalogue of Books on Freemasonry in the Library of Thos. M.
Woodhead, 'Ver Mont,' Manningham, Bradford."
of its collection of books and the contents of the museum, with a brief
tribute to its founder, Dr. Theodore Sutton Parvin, by Herbert S. Fairall.
Cedar Rapids, Iowa, 1899.
of the Iowa Masonic Library. By T. S. Parvin. 1st edition, 1849. 4 pages.
of the Iowa Masonic Library. By T. S. Parvin. 2nd edition, 1854. 9 pages.
of the Iowa Masonic Library. By T. S. Parvin. 3rd edition, 1858. 22 pages.
Masonic Library *
of the Library of the Grand Lodge of Iowa. June 1st, 1873, by Theodore S.
Parvin, Grand Secretary, Iowa City, 1873. 144 pages.
catalogue is superior in some respeeb to the 1883 edition. The reproduction of
title pages makes it very useful to the student. The distinguished compiler
was an ardent book lover, and it was through his ability and zeal that Iowa
took a foremost place in Freemasonry.
Masonic Library *
of the Works on Freemasonry and Kindred Subjects, in the Library of the Grand
Lodge of Iowa, A. F. & A. Masons. Fifth edition. (1849, '54, '58, '73) June
1883. To which is prefixed a Separate Catalogue of the Bower Collection. By T.
S. Parvin, Iowa City, 1883. 135 pages.
"Bower Collection" was a choice Masonic Library, collected by Robert F. Bower,
of Eeokuk, who was an ardent collector and had many extremely rare and in some
cases only copies of old Masonic books and manuscripts. This is the last
catalogue which has been issued by the Iowa Manonic Library.
of the Jamaica Masonic Library and list of Masonic works Kingston, Jam., 1884
of Books and Manuscripts relating to Freemasonry, on sale by Geo. Kenning,
London. 1878. 15 pages.
of valuable Books and Manuscripts relating to Freemasonry, etc., on sale by
Geo. Kenning, London. 1886. 8vo. 32 pages. Same, 1887, 15 pages. Same, 1888,
28 pages. Same, 1889, 15 pages. Same, 1892, 31 pages.
Kenning, George *
Catalogue of Books on Freemasonry, published or sold by George Kenning,
Freemason office, 16 and 16a Great Queen St., London, W. C. March, 1893. 30
the best of the Kenning catalogues.
Kenning, George 12 Son *
Illustrated Catalogue of Masonic Clothing, Jewels, etc., by Geo. Kenning &
Son, London, 1915.139 pages
catalogue of Masonie publications. This is one of a long series issued by this
old Masonic publishing and supply house.
Dr. Geo. B. F.
of the Library of Dr. Kloss of Frankfort, including many original and
unpublished manuscripts, and printed books with ms. annotations. London, 1825.
bibliography of 1844 is in German, but this is a rare and precious item.
(John) Memorial Library
of the John Lane Memorial Library, by Wm. J. Hughan, Torquay, 1902.
Lawrence, Samuel C.
of the Masonic Library belonging to Samuel C. Lawrence, Medford, Mass. Printed
by Carl H. Heintsmann, Boston, 1891. 320 pages.
library is now a part of the Library of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts.
Leicester, England *
Catalogue of the Library in Freemason's Hall, Leicester. Compiled by Rev.
Henry S., Biggs and J. T. Thorp. Leicester, 1891. 64 pages.
library, though not large, contains a number of searce works, and with a
number of well chosen works provides a splendid opportunity for the research
work being done in Leicester.
anything difficult t 1960. (No. 69.)
Standard Masonic Rituals, London, 1916. 36 pages.
catalogue of rituals of "Stability," "Oxford" and "Emulation" working.
Lewis, James & Co.
of 4,000 volumes of works on Freemasonry, Astrology and Hermeticism, sold at
auction by James Lewis & Co. London, 1885. 62 pages.
Libbie, C. F. & Co.*
No. 931 of Masonic Books, 1920. 78 Bedford St., Boston. 32 pages. me to the I
student times without number, for if there is anything difficult tuseum
catalogue. Liverpool, 1909. 42 pages.
of Library and Museum of Prov. Grand Lodge of West Lancashire, Liverpool,
Angeles Masonic Library
of Los Angeles Masonic Library, Los Angeles Calif., 1914. 2b pages.
of the Masonic Museum in connection with the Lurgan Masonic Bazaar, by F. C.
Crosse, Newry, 1895. 15 pages.
Z. C. '
of standard and rare Masonic books, etc., contained in the library of Z. C.
Luse, Iowa City, Iowa, 1881. 40 pages.
Mackey, A. G. *
of Books on Freemasonry and Kindred Subjects belonging to the Library of the
late Albert G. Mackey, M. D., and now offered for sale at the figures affixed.
Washington, D. C. (no date). 46 pages.
catalogue offers us an opportunity to know the main sources from which the
foremost Masonie writer of his time drew his information and inspiration. He
had access to the Library of the Supreme Council and many others, but it was
the books which he deemed necessary for his private collection which best
reflect the man. It appears strange to the collector of today to see "Acta
Latomorum" quoted at $3, and the "New Book of Constitutions" of 1788, at $20.
Publishing & Masonic Supply Co. *
Masonic and Eindred Subjects, by Macoy Publishing and Masonic Supply Co., New
York, 1920. 24 pages.
catalogues of the firm have been issued regularly since the business was taken
over from the Masonic Pub. Co.
Publishing & Masonic Supply Co.*
Masonic and Kindred Subjects (etc.), Macoy Publishing and Masonic Supply Co.,
New York, 1913. 30 pages.
the last catalogue of this firm which contains descriptive notes of value.
of Marvin's sale of Masonic Medals, 1881.
Masonic Library Association of Allegheny. Co., Pa.
of the Library of the Masonic Library Association of Allegheny-County.
Compiled and arranged by Agnes M. Elliott. Pittsburgh, 1897. 54 pages.
N.W.J. HAYDON, ONTARIO
brethren who read this noble paper may care to pursue the meditation further
by turning to "Our Eternity," by Maurice Maeterlinck, published by Dodd, Mead
& Company, New York City; and to "The New Death," by Winnifred Kirkland,
published by the Atlantic Monthly Press, Boston. The latter first appeared as
an essay in the Atlantic Monthly Magazine and there received so much
commendation that the author enlarged her paper to make a book of it. In this
day of the free mind when men are learning to think by means of facts and
ideas rather than by means of traditions the great and sombre fact of Death is
receiving an examination hitherto undreamed of.
instructs us how to die." In common with the older Mysteries, so far as we
have relies of their teachings, Masonry offers its votaries a method of
approach to this final test of our philosophy of life, one worthy of human
dignity and in harmony with our honored motto, "Follow Reason."
Seagar wrote for all of us:
a rendezvous with Death At midnight in some flaming town, And I to my pledged
word am true- I shall not fail that rendezvous."
have a rendezvous with the Reaper, by no means to be escaped, no matter how
much science may help us to postpone it. And though to but few is it given to
meet him with those feelings voiced for us by Horatius
a man die better Than when facing fearful odds For the ashes of his fathers
And the temples of his gods?"
need not watch his sure approach with only a bitter recognition of our human
weakness. Such an attitude is unworthy of those who truly follow reason, and
have worked out a philosophy of life, which in death sees but a change of
circumstance, however important that may be.
adapt to our own use the salute offered by the gladiators of old, save that
instead of hailing a human Caesar who viewed their struggles as an amusement,
we should as bravely regard the Ancient of Days, saying each one of us "Ave,
Maoister Vitae, moriturus te saluto," and go forward fearing nothing.
have been many noble expressions of attitude towards Death, and amongst them
that remarkable poem, "Thanatopsis," written a century ago by a young man of
18, holds a high place with its sonorous phrases, its confidence that finds in
facts a firm foundation for faith. Naturally, it reflects at first the sombre
New England upbringing of its author, but none surpass its conclusion in
". . .
sustained and soothed By an unfaltering trust, approach thy grave, Like one
who wraps the drapery of his couch About him, and lies down to pleasant
examine our grounds for this trust, that our hope may be reinforced by reason
as concrete as by iron rods and, to this end, let me draw attention to an
essay by Maeterlinck, to which I am deeply indebted. ("Death," published by
Dodd, Mead & Co., 1912.) He writes:
a salutary, thing for each of us to work out his idea of death in the light of
his days and the strength of his intelligence and learn to stand by it. He
would say to Death: 'I know not who you are, or I would be your master; but,
in days when my eyes saw clearer than today, I learnt what you are not; that
is enough to prevent you from becoming my master.'
thus carry, imprinted on his memory, a tried image against which the last
agony would not prevail and in which the phantom-stricken eyes would take
fresh comfort. Instead of the terrible prayer of the dying, which is the
prayer of the depths, he would say his own prayer, that of the peaks of his
life, where would be gathered, like angels of peace, the most limpid, the most
pellucid thoughts of his hfe. Is not that the prayer of prayers? After all,
what is a true and worthy prayer, if not the most ardent and disinterested
effort to reach and grasp the unknown."
the key to our problem; let us learn what Death is not; by this time-honored
method we shall strip off the masks wherewith our imagination has disguised
it. It is not sickness, nor suffering, nor the stern agony. It is not shroud,
nor pall, nor grave, nor the horrors of disintegration. All these have to do
with the methds and usages of life. The errors and weaknesses of nature or
science caused their beginnings; Death emphasizes their futility. Should we
convalesce, we forget them; should we not, our survivors abuse Death that
Spencer so carefully explains, our life is a continual adjustment of internal
relations to external relations, of growth from within to pressure from
without; and when we can no longer adjust ourselves, why blame Death for
clearing the board and giving us a new deal ?
accuse Sleep for the fatigue which overwhelms us if we resist it? It seems
that all our knowledge only helps us to die in greater pain than the animals
that know nothing, and we add to our troubles by imputing to Death those
salvaging operations whereby our elements are restored to usefulness in Life's
Earth, that nourished thee, shall claim Thy growth to be resolved to earth
again, And. lost each human trace, surrending up Thine individual being, shalt
thou go To mix forever with the elements."
We do not
view. with horror or anguish the fading flower, or the crumbling wall, but,
where our bodies are concerned, we usually strive to delay by all means
possible their natural dissolution. Embalmings, coffins, graves, and vaults
are brought into action, and that which happens therein poisons our thoughts,
offends our senses, daunts our courage. Yet all this is of life and
impossible without life. How much, then, has our boasted civilization
increased the ethical value of our funeral ceremonies?
then but one terror associate with Death, that of the unknown into which it
seems to force us; but this also can be dissolved considerably if not totally,
by following reason. There are at least four methods of solution open to us:
annihilation. Survival with our present consciousness. Survival without
consciousness. Survival with universal consciousness.
nothing to be gained by including any religious dicta herein, for the fact of
Death is no more-and certainly no less-subject to that mode of thought, than
any other of the activities of life. Birth is equally as important as Death,
but only in some "pagan" and "uncivilized" peoples do we and the solemnity and
dangers of birth regarded as occasions for priestly action, so we have still
much to learn.
Annihilation is not only unthinkable, it is a blunder. Infinite change, yes,
of him that doth fade But doth suffer a sea-change Into something rich and
diversity of place and condition, but to suppose non-existence is to try to
limit infinity, and since a state of nothingness cannot be at all, that at all
events it cannot make Death terrible. As Sir Edwin Arnold has written:
the Spirit was born, the Spirit shall cease to be never; Never was time it
was not, end and beginning are dreams. Birthless and deathless and endless
endureth the Spirit forever, Death hath not touched it at all, dead tho the
house of it seems."
alternative - survival with our present consciousness involves that ancient
puzzle, "What am I?" For most of us, "I" becomes identified with memory. "I"
cannot be body or mind, for we know they are constant only in chaning. The
body provides, and the mind organizes, our sense perceptions, whereas our
conscious memory preserves such residue of these as establish experience and
build character. Memory seems to be a sheath for the "I," most easily
disturbed by sickness, yet most clamorous for an unbroken existence. What
cares it that through the alchemy of Death, "I" can participate in the whole
range of natural forces? Neither knowledge, nor beauty, nor power attract it,
if they are not aceessible through its agency.
If "I" am
greater than, and within, memory then bodily sufferings and desires must be
petty to this surviving consciousness, for with the loss of body its services
are lost too, deprived of sense perceptions on which to build them, mental and
moral pains and changes must go, and the personal mind is dissolved. Remains
then of our present consciousness, only memory, so pitiably finite and, cut
loose from its former co-workers, how shall it continue to know itself ? We
know how easily it fades while in full physical health, what then will it be
like when the great change comes? Yet the hope that this alternative conveys
has done much good service to the brave souls of our predecessors, and is well
expressed in the "Song of Odysseus" as he lay awaiting death by torture:
my heart; not long shalt thon endure The shame, the smart. The gogd and ill
are done, the end is sure; Endure my heart.
stand two golden vessels by the throne Of Zeus on high, From them he scatters
mirth and moan To men who die. And thou of many joys hast had thy share, Thy
perfect part; Battle and love, and evil things and fair; Endure my heart.
"Fight one last greatest battle under shield, Wage that war well, Then join
thy fellows in the shadowy fields Of asphodel. There is the kingly Hector,
there the men Who fought for Troy; Shall we not fight our battles o'er again,
Were that not joy? "Tho no sun shines beyond the dusky west, Thy perfect part,
There shalt thou have of the unbroken rest! Endure my heart."
(Translated by Andrew Lang.)
approach, then, our third alternative, survival without consciousness. This
also contains nothing of terror, or even regret. Dreamless sleep we welcome
as "Nature's sweet restorer," but not as a lasting condition. Such an
expectation does not consort with ideals fit for ordinary healthy men and
women much less for Builders. A little further analysis shows us that by this
alternative we imply really the direct negative of our second alternative;
rather we feel opening to our vision that which contains the offly possible
satisfaction for which all seem to be struggling, the only possible completion
of that urge from within which is the mainspring of our evolution.
as when one layeth His worn out robes away, And, taking others, sayeth 'These
will I wear today.' So layeth off the Spirit Lightly its garb of flesh, And
passeth to inherit A residence afresh."'
then, we approach our fourth alternative, survival with the Universal
Consciousness and at this point Maeterlinck's own words alone are adequate:
begins the open sea. Here begins the glorious adventure, the only one abreast
with human curiosity, the only one that soars as high as its highest longing.
Let us accustom ourselves to regard Death as a form of life which we do not
yet understand; let us learn to look upon it with the same eye that looks upon
birth; and soon our mind will be accompanied to the steps of the tomb with the
same glad expectation that greets a birth. If, before being born, we were
permitted to choose between the great peace of non-existence and a life that
should not be completed by the magnificent hour of death, which of us, knowing
what we ought to know, would accept the disquieting problem of an existence
that would not end in the reassuring mystery of its conclusion? Which of us
would care to come into a world, where there is so little to learn, if he did
not know that he must enter it if he would leave it and learn more? The best
part of life is that it prepares this hour for us, that it is the one and only
road leading to the magic gateway and into that incomparable mystery where
misfortunes and sufferings will no longer be possible, because we shall have
lost the body that produced them; where the worst that can befall us is the
dreamless slumber which we count among the number of the greatest boons on
earth; where, lastly, it is almost unimaginable that a thought can survive to
mingle with the substance of the universe, that is to say, with infinity
which, if it be not a waste of indifference, can be nothing but a sea of joy."
It is to
this that we, having "Followed Reason," make our approach, "sustained and
soothed by an unfaltering trust." Heretofore we have seen through a glass,
darkly; the narrow limits of our being conceal infinity from our view, as
Pascal has said, or, to use a Western idiom, we cannot see the forest for the
trees. We must prepare ourselves in advance by learning how to change our
focus. For example, when we look through a screen door we see the garden
through a faint blur of lines; or we can, instead, see the screen filling our
vision with a faint blur of light and greenery filtering through.
of us Death is but a screen, and for most of us it fills our vision. Can we
readjust our focus, and strengthen our unfaltering trust, by attempting to
understand infinity? The effort, even if unsuccessful at present, will be as
useful as those of our talented brother of Rochester (Mr. Claude Bragdon) in
his illuminating books on "The Fourth Dimension."
analogy let us condder the experience of the human embryo when the time of
birth approaches. How limited is its experience of life! A little space and
power for movement, but in no other mode can its volition express itself!
Sight, hearing, choice of food, protection from accidents, are all beyond its
power. It knows nothing but a soft, warm, darkness, and even these qualities
are not so known to its consciousness, for it has no basis of comparison with
anything different. Could one communicate to it news of the great change soon
to take place in its condition, with what terror and reluctance would it
regard this entire loss of all it knows, for a state of being so much more
comprehensive as to be incomprehensible! Yet we adults are in the same
position as we approach the gateway to another life. And if, as we know, the
embryo by virtue of its inherent life-quality casn change from a speck of
zooplasm to a human being, there appears no reason at all why it should not go
on yet further and enter into tune with the Infinite. Death to us can be no
worse than birth to the embryo, and all evolution affirms that
soul's ephemerally housed in Nature's depths."
is this Infinite, as our reason tests it that is to say, as we compare it with
life as we know it? Mostly negatives. It has neither beginning nor end. It
can have no purpose nor destination, for the one would have been accomplished
and the other reached in the long train of ages that has passed, had it been
other than self-contained. If it be not conscious always, then it never will
be, for it must know all or nothing since it has only itself to know.
however, we try to understand, Infinity through our senses, how different is
the result. At once the hard diamond becomes a mass of activities. Every
part is going somewhere, complete knowledge is endlessly experimenting for new
discoveries, accomplished purpose seeks continually some new fulfilment.
right, is this inconsistency real or only apparent? Here our limits force us
to change from Operative to Speculative. We are, for the most part unable to
attain exact knowledge in advance of the fact but we can hope, for we have
laid the foundation thereof. We cannot deny infinity, but we can see that all
its parts (for lack of a better word) must be of the same nature. There would
then be, as yet, no unchangeable finality of perfected knowledge or
accomplished purpose. Rather an infinite series of transformations and
combinations, an ever growing consciousness striving to know itself, seeking
to express an idea hidden in its own nature, requiring all the worlds of all
the universes as fields for its experiments, all form of life as instruments,
as coworkers to that discovery as pioneers in that great adventure. Here is
man and his thought may appear, he has exactly the value of the most enormous
forces that he is able to conceive, since there is neither great nor small in
the immeasurable. The mind alone, perhaps, occupies in infinity a space which
comparisons do not reduce to nothing."
not, then, childish to talk of eternal happiness or sorrow, where it is
infinity that is in question? Our ideas of these conditions are so human so
specialized, they are based so entirely on the implication that the laws of
our life here shall govern our life under all other conditions. Yet, we must
admit that our ideas proceed entirely from the sensibilities of our nervous
system, which is tuned to but a small range of perceptions, and which could as
easily have felt everything the reverse way, and taken pleasure in what now
wiser, then, is it to "Follow Reason," and recognize that it would need but a
trifle, a few papillee more or less to our skin, the least modification of our
eyes and ears, to turn the temperature, the silence, and the darkness of space
into a delicious springtime, an unequalled music, a divine light. We can,
then, readily persuade oursleves that the catastrophes we think we behold are
the acts of life itself, that even the collision and pulverising of worlds
marks the beginning of some new and marvelous, experiment, that all is but
birth and rebirth, a departure into an unknown filled with the anticipation of
thast far-off divine event to which the whole creation moves: some immense
festivasl of mind and matter in which Death, the Liberator, thrusting aside at
last our two enemies, time and space, will soon permit us to take our proper
part, as Fellows of the Craft of which the Great Architect is the Master.
RELIEF NEEDED AT FORT BAYARD, N. M.
FRANCIS E. LESTER, GRAND MASTER, NEW MEXICO
relieve the distressed is a duty incumbent on all men, but particularly on
Masons, who are linked together by an indissoluble chain of sincere affection.
To soothe the unhappy, to sympathize with them in their misfortunes, to
compassionate their miseries, and to restore peace to their troubled minds, is
the great aim we have in view. On this basis we form our friendships and
establish our connections."
BAYARD, New Mexico, is the largest government hospital of any kind in the
United States and yet it is confined to the treatment of tubercular patients,
of which there are at present 1075 under treatment. These men are nearly all
veterans of the war and they come from almost every state of the Union. They
are given good treatment and attention, so far as general conditions in Fort
Bayard are concerned; and they are in all stages of tubercular condition.
Masonic conditions at Fort Bayard constitute an appeal to the very heart and
soul of Masonry.
Bayard is a permanent institution. It is a city in itself. For the coming
year, a total of approximately one million dollars will be spent by the
government for additional permanent buildings alone which are needed to
relieve the present crowded conditions. It is anticipated that these
over-crowded conditions will continue for the next five years or more and the
number of occupied beds increase to 1200; after which it is hoped to reduce
the number of beds to about 700.
who takes his teachings seriously can visit this institution without wondering
what Masonry is doing in the way of relief, for the need of the kindly word of
encouragement, the handclasp of brotherhood, the little attentions that do so
much to relieve the monotony of the invalid, and the assistance in a practical
way that many of these boys need, was never greater, not even during the war
that ruined their health. The excitment and stress of warfare is past and is
succeeded by the deadly monotony of chronic invalidism; and many of these boys
are thousands of miles away from home and relatives. The need for practical
relief at Fort Bayard is a challenge to the Freemasonry of our country.
do we find? These brother Masons, flat on their backs in the wards, see fifty
times more evidence of relief measures carried out by the Knights of Columbus
than by their own brotherhood. The Knights of Columbus occupy one of the
finest buildings of its kind at Fort Bayard, with large and well equipped
entertainment hall, library, billiard tables and adjoining chapel, and a
thoroughly organized relief force of salaried men who keep in daily touch with
the patients in all the many wards. Flowers, fruit, and the many little
attentions are dispensed by them to the sick, and the practical evidences of
Knights of Columbus relief are seen everywhere. Is it any wonder that many a
Masonic brother, helpless on his cot, seeing these things, questions the
sincerity of his lodge teachings about relief and concludes that Masonry
stands in truth for relief - on paper and in the lodge room only?
case after case where Masonic relief was needed. Here is one case typical of
many. A brother comes as an inmate from a distant state, sent here by the
Public Health officer for tuberculosis, in the hope and expectation that his
application for government compensation would be promptly acted upon and funds
made available for the support of his wife and children. His application is
delayed, - by red-tape and congested conditions, - and before long our brother
Mason receives letters from his wife back home advising that she and the
children are in need of the necessities of life; and worry in its worst form
is added to this brother's afflictions. It is little wonder that in some of
these cases, the patient gives up his fight for life, or gets away, in one way
or another, from the hospital in a last desperate effort to support his
may ask, is local Masonry doing for these men? In view of the fact that the
Freemasons of the United States are doing nothing, it is doing what it can.
Some years ago a handful of loyal, large-hearted Masons organized what is
known as the "Sojourners' Club" of Fort Bayard, similar in character to the
organization by the same name at other government institutions. The
Sojourners' Club of Fort Bayard has at present a membership of 165 Masons,
representing forty-two different states, who pay their monthly dues to the
club and work together as best they can to extend what help is possible to
assist their brother Masons. All work is voluntary and given from the true
Masonic hearts of these brethren, freely and unselfishly. If a member is
unable to pay his dues, he still receives the benefits of his organization.
All members are active so far as their physical condition permits. They raise
their funds for relief purposes by appeals to Masons, and entertainments at
nearby lodges, and by any legitimate means at hand; but the aggregate receipts
of a year are but a drop in the bucket in comparison with the urgent needs of
the conditions existing.
one typical case of how these Masonic brethren work. A brother Mason patient,
failing to receive the compensation due him from his government, was about to
let his insurance policy lapse. The Sojourners' Club had no available funds, -
its treasury is always in an "exhausted" condition, - so the boys went down in
their pockets to make up their brother's insurance premium. That case is
typical of what is going on practically every day in the Sojourners' Club of
Fort Bayard, N. M.
some 200 Masons among the patients at Fort Bayard and about an equal number,
or more, who are sons or brothers of Masons. There are a still larger number
of those who, normally, would like to become Masons some day, and there are a
still larger number, - all the remainder of the patients at Fort Bayard, - who
see just how little Masonry is doing for even its own members who have been
made invalids through service for their country. Is it any credit to Masonry
to see the Sojourners' Club compelled to meet in a disreputable little shack,
which constitutes its sole quarters, while the Knights of Columbus occupy
ideal quarters? Is it any credit to Masonry to note the pitiably inadequate,
though wonderfully faithful work of the Sojourners' Club, supported solely by
voluntary local collections from men who can ill afford the expense, while the
Knights of Columbus have ample funds, all kinds of equipment, and paid workers
with private automobiles? And is it any credit to Masonry to find that we have
no organization through which the needs of these Masonic war veterans are made
known to their home lodges, and the crying need for organized relief made
known to every Grand Lodge of Masons in our country? Conditions at Fort Bayard
as they are today are enough to put Masonry to shame in the heart and mind of
any true Mason who investigates them.
we do about it? For one thing, let's get back of the plan adopted by the Fort
Bayard Sojourners' Club to erect a Club House. They have had their plans drawn
for sometime for a permanent and attractive building. to cost $25,000. When
erected, the maintenance expenses of heat, light, water, sewer connections,
etc., will be provided by the government. We, the Masons of America, must see
to it that not only is this building provided, but that finances are provided
to properly conduct the work of relief. An appeal for aid in constructing the
building has already been made to every Grand Lodge of the country. It should
not fall on deaf ears. This is a national problem, not a local or state
question; the patients at Fort Bayard are from all parts of the country. If
Freemasonry does really stand for relief in any other form than a subject for
ritualistic lip-service, here is a chance for its big heart to awaken and
perform a real service.
when all life's lessons have been learned,
and stars forevermore have set,
things which our weak judgments here have spurned,
things o'er which we grieved with lashes wet,
flash before us, out of life's dark night,
shine more in deeper tints of blue,
shall see how all God's plans were right,
what seemed reproof was love most true.
OF MASONIC SERVICE
the last sessions of its Grand Lodge, North Dakota Freemasonry issued an
affirmation of belief and program of action well worth the careful attention
of every Freemason in the land. The Craft in North Dakota is very much alive,
as the citizens of the state are already learning, and the end is not yet, as
this manifesto will indicate. The following Program of Masonic Service is a
good one to model by, by Grand Lodges as well as by subordinate bodies:
Lodge of Ancient Free and Accepted Masonry of North Dakota recognizes and
reaffirms its belief that the two great Masonic principles, the Fatherhood of
God, and the Brotherhood of Man, form the only basis upon which social order
can exist; the happiness of the individual and the welfare of the state
depends upon the definite application of these principles to human conduct.
Therefore, it is the purpose of this statement to bring to the Craft in a
concrete way, the means by which Masons individually and collectively can
properly serve their fellow men:
Loyalty to country is a Masonic principle, yet too frequently this is
construed to refer only to times of war and national crisis. The Grand Lodge
of North Dakota believes that loyalty carries with it the highest obligation
of citizenship; obedience to law, respect for constitutional authority, a
recognition of the right of every human being to the enjoyment of life,
liberty and the pursuit of happiness. The rights we enjoy as citizens carry
with them corresponding duties. Among these duties is the proper exercise of
the franchise, the careful and intelligent consideration of men and measures
coming before the people for approval. No good Mason will fail to be a good
citizen, and to be found on the side of Decency, Civic Righteousness and
Masonry believes in Democracy. Democracy depends upon the wide-spread
intelligence among the people. Intelligence depends in America upon the Free
Public School system. The Grand Lodge desires to record again its unswerving
devotion to the American ideal of education; equality of opportunity for all
children from kindergarten to university. We demand that in all elementary
education one language only shall be used, and that the English as spoken by
Americans, also that both private and parochial schools shall be subject to
the supervision of the educational authorities, local and state. We record our
unequivocal support to the Smith-Towner Bill, now known as the Towner-Sterling
Bill, providing for national recognition and leadership in American education,
not national control, and we pledge the efforts of the Master Masons of this
Grand Jurisdiction to secure the enactment of this measure into law.
Grand Lodge believes that the hope of any nation lies in its youth. In these
days when there are so many ways of corrupting our youth, Masonry must stand
back of any constructive effort to furnish the boys of our various communities
the right kind of ideals and leadership, whether it be through the Order of
DeMolay, the Boy Scouts movement or the effective work for boys done by city
or county Y.M.C.A.'s. Where there are Chapters of the Order of DeMolay care
must be taken to have them properly sponsored. In large communities the boys'
work of the Y.M.C.A. and of the Boy Scouts is well organized. Masons should be
generous supporters. In the small towns Masonic lodges should not hesitate to
take the lead in these splendid enterprises. Any Masonic lodge could with
profit and propriety get back of a Father and Son banquet and make it an
annual affair. The boys of today are to be the men and Masons of tomorrow, and
in saying this for boys, we recognize also the special need of the same right
ideals and leadership as well for our girls. The future of. the race depends
upon the character of the boys and girls of today.
first sentence of the Ancient Charges of a Freemason is that "A Mason is
obliged by his Tenure to obey the Moral Law." The principle tenets of our
order are Friendship, Morality and Brotherly Love. There can be no
misconstruction or misunderstanding of the meaning of these Masonic
Fundamentals. Therefore the Grand Lodge of North Dakota knows of no better way
to serve than to summon its members to that high conception of personal and
moral conduct which alone means stability in human society. Men and Masons
must recognize that the same standards of conduct are expected of them as are
demanded of our women, and if Masons fully realize the importance of high
moral character, they will not condone the conduct or retain the membership of
the profligate or the libertine.
Grand Lodge of North Dakota believes in the doctrine of the square deal; in
social justice as opposed to the socialistic ideas of no God, and no law. Any
theory, economic or governmental which fails to recognize the Supremacy of
Almighty God and the rule of law is inimical to the welfare and happiness of
mankind and ought not have the approval of intelligent Master Masons.
Brotherly Love, the last of that great Trinity of Tenets of our Order, is not
exclusive, it is inclusive. Brotherly Love includes all mankind; it carries
with it Good Will, Justice, Tolerance, Forbearance and high regard for the
rights of others. With this thought in our minds we deprecate the spirit of
mobviolence that has flamed up in our country so often in the recent past. We
are opposed to all efforts to stir up class or race hatred. We believe that
any effort that would involve this nation in war with a friendly nation or
nations is un-American and calls for most vigorous protest and denunciation.
America has problems of her ovum to solve without attempting to solve the
internal problems of other nations.
just come through a great World War, - its cost in blood and treasure to us
has been enormous, but only a fraction of what it has cost other friendly
nations. America is not too proud to fight for a great principle, but she is
too just, and too honorable to wage war for mere gain.
Lodge of North Dakota desires to record its unqualified approval of any and
all efforts designed to bring about World Peace and the reduction of the
crushing burdens of armament which are now taking the very life-blood of the
people of every nation. There will be no reconstruction, no return to normal
life so long as the greater portion of the revenues of the nations of the
world are absorbed by huge armies and navies. Let us see and think straight.
No one is so visionary as to believe that the world has reached the stage when
force is no longer necessary, yet the fact remains, that as Masons, we can at
least show the power of Love - Brotherly Love - among men.
"Masons are to work and receive Master's wages," therefore it naturally
follows that as a body of Masons the Grand Lodge recognizes the dignity of
labor. No Mason is worthy of that title unless he is making a real
contribution to the upbuilding of his community, his state and his nation. We
do not recognize any artificial distinctions, neither do we differentiate
between those who work as the common laborer, the skilled mechanic, the
professional man or the business man. So long as each acts on the square and
is honestly striving to take his part, that is sufficient.
Community betterment is a general term. It includes the best schools,
opportunities for wholesome recreation, the spirit of cooperation and good
will. Masons and Masonic lodges ought to identify themselves with any movement
which means the improvement of the community of which they are a part, and
where Masonic lodges have Temples or commodious lodge rooms, these should, so
far as consistent with the necessary work of the lodge, be offered in service
to the community. The more closely a Masonic lodge identifies itself with the
highest welfare of the community the less will be the misunderstanding of and
opposition to our great Fraternity.
Leadership, not boss control, is the crying need of our day. Public Service
needs real men. The Grand Lodge of North Dakota calls upon its membership to
stand forth and lead the way to a better day. Any Mason who would refuse the
call to serve has not learned the lesson which Masonry has to offer. The
challenge to every Mason is clear-cut - it is Service. We can best serve our
God by serving His children - our Brothers.
part of beauty is that which a picture cannot express. - Bacon.
BRO.LEWIS A. McCONNELL,COLORADO
visions dark, and worldly strife,
savage nature then instilled
ignorance and passion rife
with superstition filled;
filtering through his teeming brain,
Spirit, all pervading, spread
faint, dim dream of God
paths of savage nature led.
firmament its lessons gave
wonders to his eyes revealed;
from ignorance to save,
his mysteries concealed.
sought her stricken spouse
the searcher after light,
her son, with typhon strove
legions put to flight.
Indian Prince renounced the throne
the lowly cast his life;
by that same spirit shown
peace and love have conquered strife.
millions of his fellow men,
by words and acts of love,
sordid woes and vice, began
their thoughts to things above.
Brahma's faithful advocate
mission served in love and peace;
shepherds born in humble state,
from bondage to release.
by Chrisna's mission dear,
dying on the cross of hate,
power of love and duty clear,
his chronicles relate.
centuries had passed away
the Word was sparsely spread
Mankind beheld the light
fair Redeemer shed.
Nazerene, like Chrisna born,
bigots' persecuting hate,
love's sweet mission rudely torn
shared the Brahmin's cruel fate.
Moslem Prophet later strove
Allah's name, his plans replete
revelations from above.
through their winning grace
straying wanderers abroad
Of many a
rude, benighted race
worship one true, living God.
fabled past the tale recites
strange, mysterious writings shown,
thoughts oft garbed in fancy's flights
living truths to reason known
though in allegory wrought,
breathe of that inspiring power
attributes are vainly sought
meditation's holy hour;
who labors truth to prove
spreads the light by tongue or pen,
the almoner of love,
of his fellow man
this thing to be grandly, true-
noble deed is a step toward God,
the soul from the common sod
purer air and a broader view."
TEACHINGS OF MASONRY
H.L. HAYWOOD, IOWA -
The following paper is one of a series of articles on
"Philosophical Masonry," or “The Teachings of Masonry," by Brother Haywood, to
be used for reading and discussion in lodges and study clubs - From the
questions following each section of the paper the study club leader should
select such as he may desire to use in bringing out particular points for
discussion. To go into a lengthy discussion on each individual question
presented might possibly consume more time than the lodge or study club may be
able to devote to the study club meeting.
In conducting the study club meetings the leader should
endeavor to hold the discussions closely to the tenet of the paper and not
permit the members to speak too long at one time or to stray onto another
subject. Whenever it becomes endent that the discussion is turning from the
original subject the leader should request the members to make notes of the
particular points or phases of the matter they may wish to discuss or inquire
into and bring them up after the last section of the paper is disposed of.
The meetings should be closed with a "Question Box" period,
when such questions as may have come up during the meeting and laid over until
this time should be entered into and discussed. Should any questions arise
that cannot be answered by the study club leader or some other brother
present, these questions may be submitted to us and we will endeavor to answer
them for you in time for your next meeting.
Supplemental references on the subjects treated in this paper
will be found at the end of the article.
A MAN can
never hurt or help natural forces. He can spread his sail, but that does not
affect the wind. He can overturn the sod with his plow but the sod does not
scream back at him with pain. He can send his wireless messages through space
but that does not change the structure of the atmosphere. A man does not have
much choice in his dealings with nature. If he steps from a roof he
immediately falls to the earth, whatever be his opinions of gravity. The sun
shines, night darkens, seasons change, rain falls, the ocean moves through its
tides, but the will of man has nothing to do with all this.
relationship with his fellow men is very different. He can hurt or help them,
bless or curse. What he says may change the course of another's fortunes:
what he does may be a matter of life and death to a fellow. And all that he
does to and with his fellows is largely under the control of his own will, for
he can choose to act or not to act, to think or not to think, to speak or not
to speak, and he can so choose when he knows that his thoughts, words, or
deeds will influence them greatly one way or another. This is also true of a
man's own self, and his relationship with himself: he can make his own person
the object of his thoughts and acts for good or ill, and, as these thoughts
and acts are of his own choosing, he is responsible, and they become a part of
his conduct. All the ways in which a man affects himself, and in which men
affect each other, for which men are responsible, comprise the materials of
morality, of which ethics is the science.
Freemasonry has its own interpretation of the principles of morality. It has
its own ideals of human conduct. For reasons of its own it emphasizes certain
duties, and encourages certain ideals. In order to persuade men to act in a
certain way it brings to bear up them certain influences and strives to
neutralize other influences which may oppose its purposes. It knows what it
wants a man to be, and human society in general to be, and it bends its
efforts towards that end. Masonic Ethics is ethics studied from this
particular point of view, in the light of Masonic principles and ideals, and
in behalf of Masonic purposes. It is the study of ethics as it bears on
Masonry and of Masonry as it bears on ethics. Such a study bulks large in
literature of the Craft, in its philosophy, in its teachings, its ritual, and
its traditions, because Masonry is above all other things a moralistic
institution, which strives to realize on earth a definite ideal of conduct,
both private and public. It is unfortunate that no modern Masonic scholar has
yet attempted to make a careful study of Masonic history and literature in
order to build a System of Masonic Ethics, in the same way that numberless
other students have built up systems of Christian ethics, or Chinese ethics,
or Jewish, etc.
a difference between "morality" and "ethics"? Do you agree with the
definitions given in the paper? Do you believe that every man is responsible
for his acts? Could a man's acts be blameworthy or praiseworthy if be had no
choice about them? What has the human will to do with morality? Does the Bible
define morality? Does it anywhere define righteousness? How would you define
"right" and "wrong"?
majority of men know as little of moral science as of any other science, and
their conceptions of "right" and "wrong" are, accordingly, often as valueless
as their conceptions of astronomy, or physics. From tradition,
church, or from hearsay, without ever having submitted it to careful scrutiny
of sound thinking, they have accepted into their minds a rough code of morals.
This code consists, for the most part, of two contrasted lists of actions:
one, of actions permitted; the other, of actions forbidden. Whenever the
question arises, Is such and such a proposed action good or bad? they refer
the matter to their "lists" and act accordingly. A man says to himself, Shall
I gamble? Shall I send money to the missionaries? Shall I tell this untruth to
my neighbour? Shall I use tobacco? If he finds gambling to be listed with his
mental category of things forbidden he will look upon it as a sin. If
missionary gifts are in the list of things permitted, such gifts are right,
procedure works satisfactorily until the man comes into conflict with an
entirely different code. One example of this will suffice. A Frenchman, let
it be supposed a Christian also, finds that drinking wine is permitted by his
own moral code. An American Methodist, on the other hand, finds wine among
the things most violently forbidden by his own code. Who, or what, is to
decide between them? The Frenchman may appeal to the authority of the New
Testament: so may the Methodist. The Frenchman may say, My church has long
ago decided this matter: the Methodist may reply, Mine also has decided the
matter. If the Frenchman appeals to the tradition of his group, the Methodist
can retort in the same way, and to an opposite conclusion. It is plain that
this simple-minded "list" or code system of morality is one that breaks down
the moment a man seeks the ground that lies beneath it.
nothing other than the age-old search for the seat of authority in morals.
When a man is in moral predicament, and does not know whether or not a given
course of action is right or wrong, to what final authority can he refer his
problem? In the writer's opinion there can be but one answer. Human
experience, of the individual and of the race, is the one final authority in
morals. If a man does something that injures his own body; or needlessly,
destroys something of human value; or hurts another in any way; or
deliberately makes himself or others unhappy, that man does wrong. Wrong is
whatever hurts human life, or destroys human happiness; right is whatever
helps human life, and tends to sustain or increase human happiness. There is
but one way to learn what it is that hurts or helps and that is by experience,
and whenever one is not sure what experience has to say he is obliged to make
a moral experiment. Acts are not right or wrong intrinsically, but according
as their effects are hurtful or helpful. The purpose of right living is not
in order to render obedience to some code, or to some supposed authority, but
to enable a man to live richly, healthfully, happily. A wise man may
therefore often do something that may not be approved by others, but the man
who does something which his own experience shows to be hurtful is a fool.
Masonic Ritual anywhere define "righteousness"? How would you describe
"Masonic ethics"? What duties are emphasized by the Craft? What ideals are
encouraged? Is there such a thing as a Masonic Code? What is it? How do you
yourself determine whether or not a thing is "right"? What is the conscious?
Do you consider it a separate faculty? Should the paper have discussed the
conscience in order to present the subject? Have you been unconsciously making
use the of mental "lists" of right and wrong actions? Is that the wisest moral
procedure? Or should a man prefer to trust his own "moral judgment" from time
to time? What is meant by "moral judgment"? Are you acquainted with any
Masonic book that interprets Masonic Ethics?. If so, will you write to THE
BUILDER about it?
not mean that a man can safely trust to his own experience alone: far
otherwise, for often a man's own experience is too meagre to be of any value.
Others have lived longer or more richly than he, or more wisely, and he can
heed their counsels. Others, by virtue of some special training, may better
understand the effects of a given course of action, and consequently have a
right to direct conduct, as a physician has a right to prescribe remedies.
Nor can a man dare to set his own private experience against the experience of
a nation, or of the race, as may be proved by a reference to slavery days,
when many planters found in their own experience that slavery seemed to be a
good for themselves and their slaves, whereas the experience of the United
States as a whole proved slavery to be a curse to all concerned. But, whether
the individual can trust to his own private experience, or must defer to the
larger and wiser experience of the race, it is human experience which, in the
last analysis, approves or condemns any given course of conduct.
courses of action have always and everywhere been found to be hurtful or
harmful. Wilfully to deceive another will be found hurtful in China as in
America, in the first century as well as in the twentieth: so also with habits
of gluttony or intemperance that destroy health; with extravagance, laziness,
cruelty, etc. One, can't conceive of any social condition under which men
would not find these things to make for unhappiness. These permanent verdicts
of human experience become at last crystallized into principles which nobody
questions, and these principles, taken together, comprise a system of
morality. But, even so, all such principles are found to root in human
experience and its verdicts. Should the constitution of man come under some
mysterious change so that men would be made happier by gluttony, and life made
richer and stronger, then would gluttony become a good and not a bad.
majority of moral problems, however, have not been, and never can be,
permanently settled: always the individual, so far as these things are
concerned, must decide for himself. Is the use of tobacco injurious? Some
physicians say it is, others say not: some men seem to smoke with impunity as
well as pleasure: others get headaches and nights of sleeplessness after a few
cigars: in such a case the individual must decide for himself, and, so long as
the question remains strictly a matter of private experience, he has no right
to decide for another. It is not the submission to a traditional code of
action that sets one apart as a man of principle and character; the strong
man, from the moral point of view, is he who, when experience decides, abides
the verdict, though it may oppose many selfish interests and interfere with
many cherished pleasures.
you been in the habit of adjusting your own moral code to the moral code of
others when the two conflict? How would you settle the controversy between the
Frenchman and the Methodist given in the text? Do you agree with the paper in
its description of "the seat of authority in morality"? Would the churches
agree with such an interpretation? If not, why not? If so, which churches? Do
the Roman Catholics teach such a doctrine? What moral authority is recognized
by the Society of Jesus? Why do you disagree with it? Do you believe the Bible
to be the final court of appeal in moral questions? If so, why? How would you
justify that position to an intelligent Buddhist, Mohammedan, Confucianist, or
to one who rejects the supernatural character of the Bible? Are all the moral
teachings of the Bible consistent with themselves?
of experience is equally valid when applied to the more religious and
idealistic questions of human conduct: self-sacrifices, heroisms, martyrdoms,
these, like the more commonplace matters of daily life, are approved or
condemned according as they make for or against human life. The monks who
went off to live cenobite lives in the Thebaid considered themselves very holy
men, but the verdict of the subsequent centuries has been against them, for
such a life proved itself to be harmful to the healthfulness and happiness of
the world. The thousands who went away to the Crusades considered themselves
divinely commissioned, but today a saner judgment, though it admires the
element of heroism in the Crusaders, condemns the enterprise as a whole as
having been a useless piece of costly fanaticism. Emerson and Thoreau,
inflamed by the enthusiasms of the hour, hailed John Brown as the hero of the
nation after his wild attempt on Harper's Ferry: James Ford Rhodes, in the
light of the full consequences of the old Puritan's campaign, shows that John
Brown let loose a train of bloody and unfortunate consequences, from which the
slaves themselves were the chief sufferers. All this is to say that ideals,
aspirations, heroisms, self-sacrifices, and all other similar acts and aims
are not in themselves any more "righteous" than are other more familiar
matters of conduct, and that they are to be adjudged "right" or "wrong" only
in light of the conditions under which they are done and the consequences that
flow from them.
philosophizing about moral conduct is of great value to us in our periods of
leisure and reflection but a man can't stop to philosophize, often he cannot
even stop to weigh probabilities, and to balance motives, while he is in the
midst of his daily living, for usually decisions must be made on the spot, and
often they are made unconsciously, like an instinctive action. The thing that
determines a man in all such decisions is his moral "nature," and that nature
is the man's fixed system of habits, reactions, judgments, emotions, etc.,
that has been built out of all his past experience. A good man is one who has
in the past so lived that he habitually acts so as to be happy himself and
make others happy (the word "happy" here is used in tis widest possible
meaning). He may now and then do something that he knows to be wrong, but his
"nature," the constant bias of his will, is toward those things that make for
the welfare of human life. A bad man is one whose very nature is such that he
instinctively does things that hurt others or himself, though he often be
capable of tenderness, self-sacrifices, or so momentary nobility.
acts from his nature. This fact is recognized in the account of the
conversation Jesus had with Nicodemus whom the Master told that he had first
be "born again." This phrase has passed into theology as the doctrine of
"regeneration," or "new birth," it is a sound doctrine, for many men are so
ingrained with badness that their whole nature must be radically changed
before they can be trusted to live in harmony and happiness with their
doctrine of a "new birth" seems to lie at heart of Masonry's great drama of
Hiram Abiff. Masonic interpreters have differed greatly among themselves as to
the meaning of that acted parable, but they nearly all hold in common the
belief that it somehow means that, in order to be a just and true brother a
man must be "born again" so that his nature is changed to act in unison with a
new world. How can this be brought about? It is one of the points where
morality melts into religion, for nearly all the religions have applied
themselves to creating a new nature in man, they all seek to do it by bringing
Divine Power to be upon the individual. Freemasonry is here at one with
religion, for it also resorts to prayer, to the seeking the will of God. It
also makes use of the powers brotherhood, of reasoning, of ritual, and all the
offices of fraternity. The whole ceremony is in itself an attempt to create a
new nature in the candidate, and it is also, from another point of view, a
symbol of those influences in this world which have such regenerative powers;
these influences, of course, are numberless, and many of them have no direct
connection with religion, as for example, the affection for a parent,
education, misfortune, etc., any one of which may, under certain
circumstances, bring about a profound change in some individual's moral
been said of the individual's moral life may be said, in some degree or other,
of society at large. How is a great social institution judged? By social
experience: by its influence on the life of the community. If some
institution, however long established, or however venerated, begins to cause
unhappiness among men, dissension, unrest, poverty, or what not, that
institution, though it may be sanctioned by the law of the land, becomes evil,
and all right thinking men must become its enemies. Whatever social force
makes against the welfare of men and women, that social force is evil, though
it wear the name of morality itself; whatever social force makes for the
welfare of society, that is good, though it be as new as the morning. That an
institution is old, or religious, or legal, a fact to be taken into careful
consideration, but such a fact has no weight as against the plain influences
of that institution as it works among men. For this reason there is such a
thing as a social morality. It is the study of social forces in the light of
their results and effects in the community; it is the moral appraisal of
social institutions. It is the fostering of the forces that make for common
welfare, and the opposition of those that make against life.
morality is for the sake of men and women: it is here in order that they may
have life and have it more abundantly. Each man lives in a community where he
acts and is acted upon, where he is influenced by others and himself
influences others. His own nature is a bundle of energies and influences upon
which happiness depends. To so adjust one's self to others, to so learn to
govern one's self, and to so adjust one's life to the forces of nature, in
order that one's life may be full, rich, happy, that is the aim of morality.
It is also the aim of Masonry, for that great institution exists in order that
men may live happily together and in order that human life, individual or
social, may evermore rise to high and higher issues.
meant by "experience"? How many thing, can you think of that have always and
everywhere been wrong? Has slavery, according to the "experience doctrine"
given in the paper, always been wrong? Has polygamy? Make a careful study of
some important moral problem, such as the problem of the double sex standard,
in the light of this doctrine. Do you believe that John Brown did more harm
than good? How would you decide on the prohibition question in the light of
the interpretation of right and wrong given in the paper? Have you ever been
"born again"? Are men ever born again as the result of Masonic influences?
What is Masonry's ideal for human life? For society at large? Would it make
men and women happier?
Freemasonry, p. 253. Treats of the service of the good, the teaching of moral
duties, their formation, the distinction between acts obligatory and acts
offending, the essence of initiation, and the vast scope of the lodge.
Eleusinian Mysteries, p. 237; Initiation, p. 353; Mysteries, Ancient, p. 497;
Mystery, p..500. Describes the earliest uses of drama to teach philosophical
truths by the rite of initiation, the obviously probable entrance to any
secret society. The power and prominence of such ancient organizations
related to some extent with Freemasonry in performance and in purpose are
described up to their decline when the work was continued by other agencies of
like objects and of more successful plans.
p. 44; Morality of Freemasonry, p. 492. Both of these relate to the lesson of
Divine Truth and the formation for a system of morality taught by the old
philosophers with whom we Freemasons are so much in accord by the use of a
similar symbolism and having a like objective, the Fatherhood of God, the
Brotherhood of Man.
104; Scriptures, Belief in the, p. 672; Scriptures, Reading of the, p. 672.
These three references emphasize the meaning of the Bible to a Freemason, the
Book of Books being to him a symbol and a guide setting forth the Divine Will
as revealed to mankind.
Resurrection, p. 621; Landmarks, p. 421; Legend of the Third degree, p. 437;
Aphanism, p. 68, Euresis, p. 254. These five references treat of the
essential features in the climax of the Craft ceremonies, the summing up for
the individual candidate of the experience and the aims of those who are
faithful even unto death. Freemasonry rightly understood gains from ritual
and monitor the spur of endeavour and the solace sure of reward.
Bulletin Course of Masonic Study," of which the foregoing paper by Brother
Haywood is a part, was begun in THE BUILDER early in 1917. Previous to the
beginning of the present series on "Philosophical Masonry," or "The Teachings
of Masonry," as we have titled it, were published some forty-three papers
covering in detail "Ceremonial Masonry" and "Symbolical Masonry" under the
following several divisions: "The Work of a Lodge," "The Lodge and the
Candidate," "First Steps," "Second Steps," and "Third Steps." A complete set
of these papers up to January 1st, 1921, are obtainable in the bound volumes
of THE BUILDER for 1917, 1918, 1919 and 1920, and the remaining papers of the
series may be had in the 1921 bound volume which will be ready for delivery
early in December. Single copies of 1921 back numbers are not obtainable, our
stock having become exhausted.
is an outline of the subjects covered by the current series of study club
papers by Brother Havwood:
TEACHINGS OF MASONRY
General Introduction. - A. Reasons for a course explaining what the "teachings
of Masonry" mean. - B. How one can arrive at his own Philosophy of Masonry. -
Conclusion. The Philosophy of Masonry is not a study of philosophy in general,
but a study of Masonry such as a philosopher gives to any great intellectual
2. - The
Masonic Conception of Human Nature.
3. - The
Idea of Truth in Freemasonry.
4. - The
Masonic Conception of Education.
Ritualism and Symbolism.
Initiation and Secrecy.
Masonry and Industry.
12. - The
Brotherhood of Man.
13. - The
Fatherhood of God.
Schools of Masonic Philosophy.
systematic course of Masonic study has been taken up and carried out in
monthly and semi-monthly meetings of lodges and study clubs all over the
United States and Canada, and in several instances in lodges overseas.
course of study has for its foundation two sources of Masonic information, THE
BUILDER and Mackey's Encyclopedia.
ORGANIZE AND CONDUCT STUDY CLUB MEETINGS
clubs may be organized separate from the lodge, or as a part of the work of
the lodge. In the latter case the lodge should select a committee, preferably
of three "live" members who shall have charge of the study club meetings. The
study club meetings should be held at least once a month (excepting during
July and August, when the study club papers are discontinued in THE BUILDER),
either at a special communication of the lodge called for the purpose, or at a
regular communication at which no business (except the lodge routine) should
be transacted - all possible time to be devoted to study club purposes.
lodge has been opened and all routine business disposed of, the Master should
turn the lodge over to the chairman of the study club committee. The committee
should be fully prepared in advance on the subject to be discussed at the
meeting. All members to whom references for supplemental papers have been
assigned should be prepared with their material, and should also have a
comprehensive grasp of Brother Haywood's paper by a previous reading and study
FOR STUDY CLUB MEETINGS
Reading of any supplemental papers on the subject for the evening which may
have been prepared by brethren assigned such duties by the chairman of the
study club committee.
Reading of the first section of Brother Haywood's paper.
Discussion of this section, using the questions following this section to
bring out points for discussion.
subsequent sections of the paper should then be taken up and disposed of in
the same manner.
Question Box. Invite questions on any subject in Masonry, from any and all
brethren present. Let the brethren understand that these meetings are for
their particular benefit and enlightenment and get them into the habit of
asking all the questions they may be able to think of. If at the time these
questions are propounded no one can answer them, send them in to us and we
will endeavor to supply answers to them in time for your next study club
foregoing information should enable study club committees to conduct their
meetings without difficulty. However, if we can be of assistance to such
committees, or any individual member of lodges and study clubs at any time
such brethren are invited to feel free to communicate with us.
ACCOMPLISHMENT AND FUTURE OUTLOOK
dignified and conservative an organization as The National Masonic Research
Society may for once be pardoned if it flourish its own trumpets, especially
if it have so good cause as now. When the movement was launched in 1914 it was
not at all certain that such an attempt could succeed, for there were many
stum bling blocks in the path that led to the future, even ad numberless
wrecks bestrewed the path behind. But the brethren who dedicated themselves to
the attempt were of stout heart and daring spirit, so they went forward
fearing nothing and working hard.
with the official endorsement of one Grand Lodge, and with only a few hundred
members pledged to its support, the Society manifested remarkable signs of
vitality from the first, so that within two short years it had become the
largest association of Masonic students ever before enlisted under one banner,
and THE BUILDER had made a distinctive place for itself. And all this was not
a flash in the pan, or a sudden burst of sensationalism, for the stewards and
editors had set before themselves in the very beginning the highest
practicable standards and to these standards they adhered, even though there
came times when it appeared as if less costly methods might attract more
attention. The temptation to ride the pages of other journals was always
resisted. The custom of publishing materials without consent from the authors
was outlawed. No resort was made to advertising; and in the darkest days of
the war the typographical attractiveness of the journal was sustained
were some dark days during the war, especially after the United States had
begun to mobilize its own forces. Prices on print paper, ink, and labor began
to mount until it seemed at last as if the sky itself would be the limit.
Multitudes of the young men among whom THE BUILDER had won its largest number
of friends were drafted for some kind of service, civil or military, so that
their attention became focussed on other matters, and heavy drains were laid
upon their purses. Many Study Clubs necessarily went out of existence, and
lodges everywhere became too absorbed with the unprecedented press of
initiation to have time or thought for Masonic education. Nor was this all,
for the war robbed the Society of the active assistance of some of its most
valued and needed helpers. Nevertheless, work went forward in The House of
Light at Anamosa, Iowa, and THE BUILDER appeared as regularly as any other of
the most solidly established magazines. It is a record of which every member
of the Society may feel justly proud: and when to all that is added the fact
that the Society has just reached its very highest peak of membership, and THE
BUILDER entered the lists thereby of the larger journals of the world, it is a
record that should arouse all manner of enthusiasm the future.
reader could go through the editor's manuscript files would discover that
there are now in existence very substantial reasons for such cheerful
anticipations. The editor already has on hand awaiting publication a larger
outlay of high class Masonic material than has ever before appeared in THE
BUILDER, and there is more in the offing. The results of an intensive effort
to mobilize the most expert group of contributors possible under the
circumstances has met with success, and forthcoming issues of this journal
will demonstrate as much.
readers will remember with pleasure the very intersting articles on Mormonism
and Masonry published early the 1921 issues. In the February number we shall
print an article by the author of the preceding ones, Brother Sam H. Goodwin,
Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of Utah, to treating the subject from a
different angle. Arrangements are being made with the Grand Lodge of Utah to
reprint the entire series of these articles in pamphlet for for the benefit of
members of the Society who may so desire it.
A few of
the subjects to be covered in the 1922 issues are as follows:
the Life of Confucius.
of Connaught, Grand Master of England
Notes on the Eleusinian Mysteries.
Anglo-Irish Grand Lodge
and French Masons Together
of the Popes.
Egyptian Influence on our Masonic Ceremonial and Ritual. (With about 50
Lights of Freemasonry.
Sketch of the Life of Buddha
Temple of Solomon.
Masonic Career of Franklin.
prepared for itself so happy a New Year THE BUILDER can wish for all its
readers, and that with the most sincere cordiality, a Hail and Good Luck for
the twelve months to be. May they discover anew how good and pleasant a thing
it is for Masonic students to dwell together, to work together, and to joy
together, the while our great Fraternity lends its assistance to the
rebuilding of the world.
* * *
MASTER AS A SOCIAL ENGINEER
Worshipful Master of Blue Mound, Illinois, read a letter to his members which
startled them very wide awake, as one may guess from this typical paragraph:
these 134 members I have checked the names of ninety-six who live within easy
distance of the lodge. NOW MARK THIS STATEMENT! Out of those ninety-six I
count nine men who have done ALL (note the capitals) ALL the degree work this
year and I am counting myself as one of the nine. Do you not believe me when I
say there is something wrong! What is it that is wrong? - that is what I have
been asking myself all this year. Is it the Master? It might be the case this
year but the Master was not the reason during the few years past and these
conditions existed then.... The degree nights show an average of fourteen.
Then out of the fourteen count out the nine who do the work. What does that
leave ? How many of you members attended lodge just once during the past
be impossible to put the problem confronted by the Master of the average small
lodge more forcefully or more simply. It is almost entirely a question of
keeping his membership in action.
Master finds his lodge lagging behind, it is a good thing for him to remind
himself that human nature is as much subject to the laws of cause and effect
as anything else, and that men and women, for all the capriciousness of their
behavior, can be depended upon to react in a certain way under certain
conditions. For this reason is it true that the management of a lodge may be
considered as a piece of mechanics, and the Master as a social engineer. If he
rightly understands the materials and forces with which he deals, and
understands how to bring the right kind of pressure to- bear on that material,
he will always gain a certain response and result. The thing will work with
the inevitability of a natural law.
science of social mechanics is as yet in its infancy, but it is one of which
we already can know something, and it may be that a few suggestions of that
order will not be altogether thrown away. Let it be supposed that a Master
takes charge of a lodge in a city of 5,000 inhabitants, and that he is
desirous of succeeding: the question arises, What can he do to succeed?
begin by ascertaining the just standard of success. What sized lodge should he
have in a city of 5,000? Let him learn the total membership of his State, and
let him divide that by the number of lodges to get the average size. In all
probability he will discover that there is one Mason in every fifty of the
total population, which would indicate a lodge of one hundred members for a
city of 5,000. If a country population of 3,000 lies contributory to his
lodge's territory he can add sixty to get the ideal size.
he wishes to discover if he is getting out a normal number of visitors and
workers let him learn what is the average in his State. It will very probably
run around ten per cent. Therefore if out of a membership of 160 all his
meetings average sixteen in attendance he can feel that he is up to standard.
can learn from his Grand Secretary what is the total income of all the lodges
in his State. Dividing this by the Masonic membership he can ascertain the per
capita contribution of every Mason. This will very probably average about ten
dollars, so that if his lodge has an income of $1600 per year it is doing what
may reasonably be asked of it. The overhead cost of maintaining a lodge, the
average of charity expenditures, etc., etc., all these figures may be
discovered in the same way.
should make these investigations in order to know where he stands and what he
should rightfully ask of himself for it is as unwise to ask too much as too
comes to the amount of work that he can justly require of his brethren it is
not so easy to be guided by the law of averages, for conditions differ too
much among various communities. But even so there is no need to trust to
chance in this, and an intelligent Master can rather easily make out a form
chart for his lodge.
He can go
over his membership roll member by member and ascertain the number still in
good standing but no longer residents: adding to these the infirm, the old,
and those so situated otherwise as to make participation impossible, he can
subtract this number from his total membership and thereby learn what is the
amount of live material available.
can take a good street map of his community and by a system of pins can form a
graphic chart of the accessibility of his membership to the lodge room, and
thereby learn who could come, other things being equal, if they had the
can analyze individual by individual the corps of potentially active men and,
by conference with a group of brothers, preferably his wardens and deacons,
can classify this list according to the character of the men so as to learn
how many he can depend on for ritualistic work, how many for social
activities, how many for sick visiting, etc., etc. Having made this
classification he can next write letters to each individual thus classified
and place upon his shoulders responsibility for doing some appropriate task.
done the Master can next make a thoughtful analysis of the general conditions
in his town in order to discover what form of service his lodge can most
successfully and fruitfully engage in. The town may have an unemployment
problem; the lodge can undertake that: or it may have a poverty problem; or,
if it should chance to be a health resort community, it may have an illness
problem; or it may lack music; or its politics may be of the dirty variety; or
it may lack a chamber of commerce, or what not: each and every one of these
conditions constitutes an opportunity for a lodge imbued with the Masonic
spirit, and it is at one of these points that a Master should attack.
very much averse to wearisome repetition, to idly sitting about doing nothing:
they take pleasure in activity, they like to see difficult things attempted,
and they enjoy the zest of a conflict. It is not to be expected - for it is
not in keeping with human nature - that grown men will attend a lodge night
after night that does nothing but grind at the degree mill. Moreover, such a
lodge becomes selfish, inbred, and seclusive, and that is the flattest
contradiction to the spirit of Masonry, and every real man in the membership
will have the half-repressed feeling that his lodge (as a lodge) is a
hypocrite, professing as it does an ideal of unselfish service but DOING
nothing for the community which it professes to serve.
is to say that the majority of Masters fail (our energetic brother at Blue
Mound is nowise included in this for he belongs to the successful side of the
ledger) because they undertake their tasks blindly, vaguely, and without due
and proper investigation of the conditions. A business man knows that a
business cannot successfully be carried on "sight unseen": a lodge is equally
subject to the ordinary laws of human society, and will fail as surely as any
business despite its high ideals, if it is not goverened by the same
common-sense, scientific manner. The wise Master will study social mechanics,
and train himself to be a good social engineer.
* * *
OFFICE OF THE GRAND MASTER
Freemasonry as we now know it is only two hundred years old, which period
though it would be long in the life of an individual, is a brief hour in the
life of a race. It is difficult for us to realize how rapidly the Fraternity
has grown, or from what meagre beginnings it has won its vast and indomitable
power. We who belong to lodges numbering, perhaps, a thousand members, and who
dwell in a jurisdiction which may contain five hundred subordinate lodges,
find it difficult to imagine how it was in the early days of the eighteenth
century when all the members living anywhere under the authority of the first
Grand Lodge could be gathered together under one roof: when the Grand Master,
as was often the case with any one of the first five or six of them, often
made it his habit to go about from lodge to lodge and in his own person
install the officers thereof! Oftentimes the Grand Master in those first
decades didn't even concern himself with the duties of his office but left
them wholly to a deputy, known as the Acting Grand Master. In many, many cases
the Grand Master, - and this holds true of many Grand Masters of this country
as some of the old brethren may still remember - was chosen, not for his
abilities, but because of the prestige of his family, or because he was a
fluent speaker, or a man of wealth and leisure, or what not.
was a secret of principle of growth in early Freemasonry; what that secret was
a Freemason knows but finds it difficult to describe; and he finds it quite
impossible to convey it to another. It is one of the mysteries which belong,
not to the ritual or to the obligation, but to the very nature of Freemasonry
itself. Whatever it is, that principle of growth was there, and a mighty thing
it proved, for within a century of its origin this Fraternity was become a
world power. It played such a part in the liberation and the consolidation of
the Italian States that Pope Leo firmly believed it to have been wholly
responsible for the isolation of the Vatican, and the complete loss of the
church's temporal power. It was a leaven which worked through the German
States until there arose the Kulturkampf, the war of a free culture against
the culture propagated by the Jesuits at the behest of the Roman Curia. It
worked like nitroglycerine in the hidden life of the French people and helped
at last to wrest them loose from the dead ground of the Ancient Regime. It
helped, its influence helped, to gain constitutional governments, or at least
the beginnings of such, for Portugal, for Belgium, and Spain; and to gain self
government for Brazil, Mexico, and many of the Latin countries to the south.
It was a factor in the beginnings of the American Revolution. It would have
broken the hands of the czar had it ever succeeded in gaining a foothold in
Russia. It became a world-shaping power working about the roots of modern
civilization to gain for the masses their liberty, their honor, and the
freedom for the normal exercise of their human faculties.
it may seem that the entire history of this irresistible influence is one that
is complete: one that may be written in the past tense. Not so. Masonry knows
no past tense. Its work is scarcely begun. And that work is by no means to be
confined to what is known as lodge work; for though Masonry is the Mother of
Fraternities, and in this country alone has been the direct or indirect
scource of more than six hundred other societies, its real arena is in the
great world, where men live their lives in the open, and struggle to gain or
to preserve their rights, their liberties, and their goods. In the larger
areas of the world there is still a tragic lack of liberty; of enlightenment;
of schools for the young, and self government for the adults: there are still
vast mountain ranges of ignorance and superstition resting like titanic
nightmares upon the lives of men. And in the more favored countries there is
still, God knows, enough of the spirit of strife, of the law of the tooth and
the fang, and brutish ignorance; there is still enough strength left among the
enemies of constitutional government; there are still abroad so many enemies
of the common weal; centuries of work remain before the Fraternity.
Freemasonry is a world power, a national power, a social influence of
incalculable potency. And such a power, as Freemasonry itself is ever teaching
to each of its devotees, is something that must be thoroughly understood,
sagaciously managed, and wisely applied. The energy tied up in the brains and
the muscles of the builders will wreak havoc if left without direction: there
must be a design upon the Trestle Board; there must be a Master to oversee and
Master, to a pre-eminent degree, occupies such an offlce. He is no longer a
figurehead, a mere title bearer, to lead an idle parade; no longer a merely
amiable personage with grace to propose the toasts at table; he is a man
called to be a statesman, for a statesman is nothing other than a wise leader
who understands to direct and shape the forces at work in society. He must be
a social engineer. He must understand the Spirit of the Age. He must know the
human world as it now is, so that he can know when, and how, and where to
apply the titanic force of which he is the custodian.
CONCISE HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY
"Concise History of Freemasonry" holds a unique place in our literature. It is
far the best known of all the histories of the Craft: it is quoted more
frequently than any other; and as a reference book it is more widely used, no
doubt, than any other work save Mackey's Encyclopedia. Its sale, in spite of
the dry and almost repellent nature of its style continues ever to increase.
These facts show what an enviable position it holds in the minds of Masonic
students the country over, and how great will be the interest in this "Revised
Freke Gould bore the same name as his father, who was rector of Stoke Pears,
Somerset. He was born at Ifracombe, Devon, in 1836. At nineteen he entered the
army and saw many years of service, some of it in war time. He was variously
stationed at Malta, Gibraltar, Cape of Good Hope, in India, and in China;
while in the last mentioned country he took part in the famous Taiping
same year that he entered the army he was made a Mason at the Royal Naval
Lodge No. 429 of Ramsgate, and during his military career was active in the
affairs of the Craft wherever fortune might lead him. In 1870 he left army
life to engage as a lawyer in London, but abandoned this career at the end of
ten years in order to devote all his time to the study of Freemasonry, a task
made easy by the nearness of the Grand Lodge Library and the fact that the
subject had become a ruling passion. It was in 1880 or thereabouts that his
Masonic career, specifically so called, began, and it did not end until his
death, March 26, 1915. It was during this period that he won his fame as a
Masonic leader of the first rank, as much by his multiform personal activities
in English Masonic lodges as by his writings, for he was one of the nine men
who founded the Quatuor Coronati Lodge of Research, an epochal event in the
modern history of Freemasonry. Many honors were conferred upon him in
recognition of these labors, among them Grand Lodge rank and honorary
membership in many American Grand Lodges. He died full of years and greatly
honored, and left behind him a name that will endure in our circles for
generations to come.
hear it said that Gould is hard to read. This is true and untrue. He is not
difficult in the same sense as Kant or Marx, both of whom were unable to
clarify their thoughts sufficiently to achieve that simplicity which is the
last grace of expression. But he is difficult in the sense that his style is
obscure. He seemed wholly unconscious of the reader. He was a savant who wrote
for savants - the generality of readers, who require of a book that its style
flow on like a stream which floats them without much effort of their own, were
always absent from his mind. "If you are interested in this, and know enough,"
he seemed to say within his own mind, "you can follow me. If not, so much the
worse for you." But what of all that! Many a man puts more effort into one
day's fishing than is required for the reading of Gould. After one has become
accustomed to him and grown familiar with the little twists and quirks of his
mind there is no difficulty in following him, and after one has read and
reread him there is a pleasure in being able to keep pace with him. His style
is abrupt, pebbly; he loves to take sly digs at others; his humor usually has
a barb in it; he takes sudden leaps from topic to topic; and is never more
happy than when wandering off in remote digressions. He is possessed of a hard
Yankee-like shrewdness and dreads nothing so much as being taken in a
sophistry. Like a man crossing a swamp he stops ever and anon to stamp the
ground with his foot to see that he has something to stand on. The bishop who
had carved on his tombstone that he had been an enemy to all enthusiasm was
not more cold-blooded. Always he leaves a gate open behind him so that he can
escape from an uncomfortable position, and he has a horror of selling himself
out to any theory. His lawyer habit of mind permitted him to accept any
probability as such but forbade him to call it a fact. The great jury of
critics, who are always there ready to judge a learned book, seemed ever
before his mind's eye, and no casuist could have been more careful not to
transgress upon the canons of strictest reasoning and scholarship. Hence is it
that often one is hard put to catch his point, as is well illustrated by the
fact that one of our own most prolific American writers not long ago
completely misinterpreted his well known chapter on the Rosicrucians. But he
was no "materialist" as one critic has described him: nor was he a utilitarian
preaching the "trade union theory of Freemasonry." He was a firm believer in
the antiquity of the spirit and symbolism of the Craft, but he would commit
himself to no position that did not base itself upon reasoning and sufficient
astonished at the range of his Masonic interests. All phases and branches of
Masonic history - ancient, medieval and modern - and anything and everything
having a possible bearing upon the same: folklore, mythology, medieval law,
occultism, theology, and military lore, one always finds him dealing with some
one or more of these, or a dozen other subjects, and always as a man who knows
whereof he speaks.
the range of his interests is the volume of his output. Beside his histories,
one of which appeared in six volumes; there are "Four Old Lodges"; "The Atholl
Lodges"; "Collected Essays," and numerous magazine articles to boot. To this
must be added the great amount of work he did in the Quatuor Coronati Lodge of
Research. To the Transactions of that learned body he contributed a dozen or
so treatises of the first class, not to mention a score or more letters of
critical comment, etc.; and in helping to organize it, in assisting in the
management of it, and in his share of steering it through the first years of
difficulty, he did enough real work to set up an ordinary man in a first-class
reputation. Nearly all this was accomplished after his fortieth year. Measured
by volume and quality alone this output, taking into consideration all the
factors involved, reveals Gould as a tireless worker; measured by the effect
it produced it proves that Gould was the maker of a new epoch in the
intellectual life of the Masonic Fraternity.
Hallam once wrote that "The curious history of Freemasonry has unfortunately
been treated only by its panegyrists or calumniators, both equally
mendacious." If that famous jibe has lost its sting it is owing to Gould more
than to any other one man. When he arrived on the scene there had been no
Quatuor Coronati at work, no group of scholars such as Hughan, Crawley, Lyon,
Waite, Sadler, etc. There was only the jungle that had sprung up so
luxuriously in the wake of Dr. George Oliver. What Niebuhr was to the writing
of Roman history, Gould was to Masonic history, and the passing of our Dark
Ages coincides with the advent of his "Complete History."
of our indebtedness to Gould has not been often noted, and this is of especial
- interest to those of us who are members of the National Masonic Research
Society. When he laid the true foundations for Masonic history he at the same
time and by the same act laid the true foundations for Masonic symbology and
Masonic philosophy. As he himself somewhere says, the study of the symbols and
of the history of the Craft must be proceeded with conjointly. It is no longer
in order for our symbologists to catch up with any idea that may chance to
appeal to their fancy and apply it to a Masonic symbol: the truly Masonic
meaning of a symbol, wherever that is possible of discovery, can be learned
only through the history of its use by the Craft. Many of our symbols have
been, or are, in universal use: surely it stands to reason that what one of
these symbols means to us is determined by the interpretation that has been
put upon it by the Craft itself.
published the various parts of his complete "History of Freemasonry" between
the years 1882 and 1887. This magnum opus almost immediately won a place among
scholars and thereby gained the respectful reverence of the laity; but the
work was too long for the latter, who demanded something more nearly inside
the compass allowed by the reading time of busy men. To meet this command
Gould prepared the "Concise." As he himself wrote in the preface: "There has
been a demand for an abridged edition, or for a History of the Society on the
same lines, but in a more compendious form." And then he goes on to say: "In
the meantime, moreover, the boundaries of the historic domain embraced in my
own work have been greatly enlarged, by the successful investigations of many
distinguished contemporaries, and by the organized labor of the Quatuor
Coronati lodge. In the preparation of the present volume, therefore, my object
has been to reconsider those portions of the original Work which have been
carefully criticized by careful writers since its publication, to illustrate
and elucidate some passages which were imperfectly or obscurely treated, to
incorporate the results of the latest discoveries, and to acknowledge with
candor my own mistakes. In the execution of this design the whole subject
matter has been entirely recast, rewritten and brought up to date."
preface was written in 1903. The reader's attention is particularly called to
the last sentence which makes it clear that the "Concise Edition" was not a
mere condensation of the former work but a new book, complete in itself, and
resting on its own foundation. This should correct the misapprehension, which
is not uncommon, to the effect that the one-volume work is a mere abstract of
the larger work, and is therefore not to be taken as seriously as the six
the larger number of Masonic savants with whom Gould was associated had passed
away between 1903 and 1920, by the latter year a vast amount of research work
had been done in addition to that done when the Concise History first
appeared. Moreover, the Masonic Fraternity grew more rapidly during those
seventeen years than ever it had grown before and this rendered useless, save
for purposes of comparison, the statistics included in the Concise in 1903.
This progress in knowledge and growth very naturally created a demand for a
new edition of the work in 1920. Accordingly, the publishers, Gale & Polden,
secured the services of one of the premier Masonic authorities of the day,
Fred J. W. Crowe, and published "The Concise History of Freemasonary, by
Robert Freke Gould, Revised and Brought up to Date by Fred J. W. Crowe," F. R.
Hist. Soc., Author of "The Master Mason's Handbook," "Things a Freemason
Should Know," "What is Freemasonry," etc., etc., (Bro. Crowe's little book on
the Apron should have been listed.)
Crowe's own preface, dated June 1920, makes perfectly clear what he has done:
"At the request of the publishers, I have brought the Concise History up to
date, and made certain alterations in the body of the work. The alterations
are mostly in the way of condensing the matter of the earlier chapters, which
was often in danger of becoming tedious and irrelevant, but the principal
change I have made is to rewrite the first part of Chapter VII. Since Mr.
Sadler made his most valuable researches in the archives of the Grand Lodge
and elsewhere, it has become clear to all students of our history that his
view of the Irish origin of the Grand Lodge of the Ancients is the correct
one, and I feel sure that I shall be supported by all lovers of truth in the
changes that I have made.
regard to the 'Higher' or 'Additional' degrees, the notices of them are so
meagre and so scattered that I have thought it advisable to add Chapter VIIa,
giving a compact summary of the degrees usually worked in Europe and America
and the Dominions and Colonies."
freely and safely award this venture one compliment in the very beginning: the
new volume is a handier and more attractive book than the old; it is not so
cumbersome, and it contains twice as many illustrations. Also, one can
compliment Bro. Crowe on his brevity; he has succeeded in the art of
condensation as well as Gould himself. As regards other compliments one cannot
be so certain.
Chapter seven to ten inclusive which chiefly called for a "bringing up to
date," for it is in these chapters that recent history and statistics are
given, which history and statistics have necessarily changed during the past
thirteen years. Brother Crowe's changes consist, for the most part, of
alterations in statistics: except in a few cases very little history is added
to the meagre facts given by Gould. The figures so far as I have been able to
check them up, are accurate, with the exception of an item on page 349 where
in the text Western Australia is given a total of thirty-six lodges while in
the table above it is credited with ninety-four. I believe that a date should
have been prefixed to the U. S. statistical table on page 345 which is
described as "of date of writing": the reader has no way of knowing whether
Brother Crowe wrote this in 1919 or in 1920. It would have been better still
had he incorporated in the table itself the date for each state, because in
this country the Grand Lodge sessions overlap the New Year, and therefore some
of the membership data that he gives will fall in one year, some in another.
He has made very few changes in the chapter on Masonry in the Far East; as one
reads this section he has the feeling that much more has happened in that part
of the world than is indicated in the Revision. Moreover, there are a few
statistical records left as incomplete as when Gould wrote, Negro Lodges, the
Fiji Islands, the Hawaiian Islands, etc.: surely, with a little more work the
definite facts for these matters are obtainable.
defects, if they may be so considered, are in themselves trifling. I believe
that the revisions made in the above mentioned chapters are in themselves of
value sufficient to warrant a student in purchasing the new volume, even
though he already possesses the old. But I am sure that the student (I here
speak for the American) will in an equal degree welcome the changes made in
"the first part of Chapter VII," and that for two or three reasons. The work
done by Sadler has not yet made its way through the rank and file of American
Masonic readers, and therefore these same readers will receive a distinct
shock to find Gould's own interpretation set entirely aside and a new, and to
them strange, account put in its place. I believe that Brother Crowe's
innovation (it is the major change in the volume) would have met with a more
kindly reception on this side had he left Gould's account to stand as it was
and relegated his own newer version to an appendix: or, had he preferred the
device, to a footnote. Also, many of these same readers have read Sadler's
"Masonic Facts and Fictions" but are not convinced that Sadler was right, and
they will feel that Brother Crowe is taking undue liberties with their own
opinions by so summarily deciding the matter as to completely throw out the
older, and more generally held theory. I speak here for the generality of
readers, and I may presume on knowing something of what this generality reads
and thinks because my work is of a character to put me in constant touch with
the same. I myself agree with Sadler; and I am sure "that all lovers of truth"
who are well informed on the matter will welcome the dissemination of the new
theory. But even so I can't help but think that these same men will believe
that the new account should have been placed alongside of the old instead of
being made to replace it.
more damaging criticism of the Revision is that it mixes up Gould and Crowe in
such wise that one can't be sure whether he is reading one or the other. The
reviser has done something that very few revisers of books that are of such a
standing have had the temerity to do: he has not added his corrections and
revisions in footnotes and appendices where such matter should normally go; he
has rewritten much of the text itself, and done it in such wise as to leave
the reader quite in the dark as to which is the new and which the old. A
quotation from each edition will tell its own story: The following is from
page 349 of the original:
Lord Zetland retired from the Grand East, and was succeeded by Earl de Grey
and Ripon, who, however, subsequently became a Roman Catholic, retired from
Masonry in 1874. The office of Grand Master was then accepted by the Prince of
Wales, who had been initiated by the King of Sweden in 1869, and the Heir
Presumptive to the throne was installed amid the plaudits of a vast assemblage
of British Masons in 1875. Two years later the Dukes of Connaught and Albany
were invested as Senior and Junior Grand Wardens respectively, and in 1885
Prince Albert Victor, eldest son of the Prince of Wales, was initiated by the
Grand Master in person. King Edward VII, on his recent accession to the
throne, laid down the Grand Mastership, in which he was succeeded by the Duke
of Connaught, but graciously consented to act as the Protector of the Craft.
number of lodges on the roll at the present time is 2,350. Of these 512 are
held in the London District, 1,374 in the Provinces, and 464 (which includes
three in Military Corps) in places beyond the seas.
Gould. In Crowe's edition the following paragraphs are inserted between the
two paragraphs as given above:
death in 1910, King George V became Patron of the Boys' and Girls'
Institution, whilst Queen Mary became Patroness, and Queen Alexandra Chief
Patroness of the Girls' Institution. Prince Arthur of Connaught was initiated
Grand Lodge acquired the Crowe Collection of historical documents, warrants,
diplomas, etc., the unique results of nearly thirty years' world-wide search
Freemasons' War Hospital was opened in Fulham Road in August, 1916, and after
doing invaluable work during that terrible period, is now a permanent Masonic
Grand Lodges were held in the Albert Hall on June 24, 1917, to commemorate the
bicentenarY of the forming of the First Grand Lodge of the World in 1717; and
in 1919 for the celebration of peace; each being attended by some 8,000
brethren, and many deputations from other English-speaking Grand Lodges in the
Colonies and America.
connection of our Royal Family with the Craft was further strengthened by the
initiation of H. R. H. the Prince of Wales in 1919, followed after a short
interval by his brother Prince Albert."
be interesting to note the changes in statistics since Gould wrote: "The
number of lodges on the roll to June, 1920, 3,566. Of these 810 are held in
the London District, 2,028 in the Provinces, and 728 (which included two in
Military Corps) in places beyond the seas."
reader of the Revised Edition will doubtless be grateful enough for the new
information but what about the ethics of the thing? What right has one author
to interpose his own material, without explanation or identifying marks, into
the pages of another man's book? Once a reader of the Revised Edition learns
what trick has been played on him he will be suspicious all through, and feel
uncomfortable from not knowing, at any given point, whether he be reading
Crowe or Gould. Brother Crowe could have placed all his new facts and figures
in foot-notes and left the original text untouched, as it should have been
especially since the man to whom it rightfully belongs can't now have a say
concerning his own.
unfortunate thing still, according to my own view of the matter, is the fact
that Brother Crowe has cut out of the original text some seventy-five or so
pages of text! That appears to be a rather extraordinary liberty to take with
a man's book! a book that has become a classic in its own field! Moreover, the
ethics of the matter aside, the pages excised were entitled of their own right
to remain where their author placed them. I cannot agree with Brother Crowe
that they were "tedious or irrelevant." Consider, for example, the closing
pages of Chapter II, which deals with Medieval Operative Masonry: Brother
Crowe has completely dropped out there whole pages of Gould's text which dealt
with the very important matter of the decline of the Operative Guilds and the
reasons therefore, along with a brief criticism, often noted, of the views of
Fergusson's "History of Architecture."
"great chapter" on the Rosicrucians - or rather the section of that chapter
which deals with them - Brother Crowe has dropped twenty-one pages! Why, it is
hard to guess, and I am sure that the great number of Masonic students in this
country, who have access to few books, and who so frequently have only the
Concise History to refer to, and who read so often in our journals that some
things in modern Masonry have come from the Rosicrucians, will have just cause
for complaint when they discover that the new edition gives them less
information than ever on a subject on which it is so difficult to get any
information at all.
Furthermore, the excisions just noted include most of what Gould had to say
about the Kabbala (Cabala, he spelled it), and that also is unfortunate,
especially since there seems to be a tendency on the part of scholars of the
day to believe that from Kabbalism we have received certain of the major items
of the Master's Degree, The Lost Word, Solomon's Temple, The Great Pillars,
etc. Ever since I first tried to study the symbols of the Craft I have been
convinced that we are greatly indebted to that strange literature, and I have
been glad recently to see that gifted and well equipped contemporary students
are holding the same positions. From a regular reading of the Masonic press of
this nation I know that the Kabbala comes up for frequent mention and
discussion, and I feel sure accordingly that many who purchase the Revised
Edition of the Concise will feel a disappointment that Gould said so little
about it, that most of what little he did say has been excised, and that the
erudite editor has not added something on the subject by way of footnote or
thing may be said about the Comacini. Gould himself believed the whole
Comacine hypothesis to be a cloud castle, at least such is the impression I
have gained from his too brief remarks on the subject. In the Revised his
remarks are briefer still: they are brief almost to the vanishing point.
Considering how the Comacines have come to the front of Masonic attention (I
am speaking for this country) and how much has been said about them in recent
books and outstanding treatises, it is a matter for regret that Brother Crowe,
in bringing the Concise History up to date, did not give us a brief appendix
on the matter. His presentation of the subject would have been richly worth
I came to
the reading of the Revised Edition entirely predisposed in favor of Brother
Crowe's efforts: first, because I was glad to see the old Concise once again
brought to the attention of Masonic readers: secondly, because I have read
enough from Brother Crowe's pen, and heard enough about his Masonic
activities, to believe him abundantly capable of doing such a task as the
Revision of Gould with entire credit to himself and satisfaction to us all. My
dissatisfaction with his work, now that I have gone through it (and that with
considerable care, if I may be permitted to say as much) rests not on grounds
of personal feelings but on grounds of fact. He should not have mutilated
Gould's own original work: changes, comments, corrections, additions should
have been placed in footnotes and appendices, as is the rule in such cases. He
should not have dropped anything from the original and should not have added
anything in the body of the text. To bring the work "up to date" involved
something more than merely changing the statistics. There has been growth in
fact and theory as well as numbers. I can't use the Revised Edition with any
comfort because I can no longer feel that it is Gould's book that I read: it
is neither Gould nor Crowe, but a hybrid compilation that has done violence, I
can't help but believe, to one of the master works of a Masonic teacher whose
fame lengthens and broadens from year to year.
said as much, and turning from the unpleasant matters of criticism, the reader
will be is ested to compare the Masonry of 1903 with the Masonry of to-day, as
the latter has been made possible by Brother Crowe's revision. On relations
between English and German lodges he writes (on page 283) as follows: "Owing
to the Great War, and the attitude adopted by the German lodges, no
intercourse between them and the Allies is allowed at present (1920), nor is
this likely to be quickly altered."
interest is this paragraph describing the fortunes of Masonry in Hungary:
the foregoing was written the present (1920) Government has suddenly closed
all the lodges, and forbidden Freemasonry in Hungary. The furniture and
properties have been seized, and the funds distributed in other directions,
whilst all officials found to be members have been dismissed and imprisoned."
Freemasonry in Sweden has fallen off in membership but gained in number of
lodges. Gould wrote in 1903: "The Crown Prince of Sweden and Norway is the
National Grand Master, and there are in the jurisdiction twelve St. Andrew's
and twenty-one St. John's Lodges, with a total membership of 10,985." On page
304 of the Revised Edition we read: "The King of Sweden, Gustav V, is the
National Grand Master, and the Crown Prince his Deputy; there are in the
jurisdiction thirteen St. Andrew's and twenty-eight St. John's Lodges, with a
total membership of about 8,000."
now belongs to the Masonic family as an equal among her peers: "The Grand
Lodge, however, became independent again when the Kingdoms separated in 1905.
The King is no longer Grand Master, but the rule is democratic. There are
three St. Andrew's Lodges and thirteen of St. John, with a membership of
5,812" (Page 305).
also furnishes an interesting contrast between 1920 and 1903: on the earlier
date Gould wrote, page 387, as follows:
jurisdiction of the Grand Orient extends over ninety-three lodges, of which
twenty-three are in South Africa, and seventeen in the Dutch Colonies. The
membership is estimated at 4,269."
Revised Edition, page 307, gives the present statistics:
jurisdiction of the Grand Orient extends over 108 lodges, of which thirty-one
are in South Africa, and twenty-two in the Dutch Colonies. The membership is
estimated at 4,800."
Belgium's Grand Orient governed nineteen lodges with a membership of about
3,500: today "There are twenty-four lodges under its jurisdiction, with a
total membership of about 4,100. There is also a Supreme Council 33/ which
controls a few Craft lodges in addition" (Page 308).
Brother Crowe writes: "The resuscitated Kingdom of Poland may again achieve a
Grand Lodge, [the reader will recall that Freemasonry was destroyed in Poland
in 1821. - H.L.H.] but at present things are in abeyance."
Freemasonry is on the up grade: the Grand Orient, with headquarters at Rome,
has 482 lodges with 20,000 members. Freemasonry in Greece has dropped from
2,000 to a,000. Since Gould wrote, Bulgaria has joined the circle, with a
Grand Lodge, which was founded in 1917, eleven lodges, and a membership of
about 1,000. Servia, also, has joined the family of Grand Lodges: in 1903
there were a few private lodges in Belgrade but no Grand Lodge: in 1919 the
Grand Lodge of Serbia, Croatia, and Jugo-Slavia was forrned, with seven lodges
and 270 members.
It is of
interest to note, on the basis of the new statistics furnished by Brother
Crowe, that in Europe the tendency seems almost everywhere to be toward
PUBLICATIONS WANTED, FOR SALE, AND EXCHANGE
constantly receiving inquiries from members of the Society and others as to
where they might obtain books on Masonry and kindred subjects, other than
those listed each month on the inside back cover of TEIE BUILDER. Most of the
publications wanted have been out of print for years. Believing that many such
books might be in the hands of other members of the Society willing to dispose
of them we are setting apart this column each month for the use of our
members. Communications from those having old Masonic publications will also
Postoffice addresses are here given that those interested may communicate
direct with each other, no responsibility of any nature to be attached to the
requested that all brethren whose wants may be filled through this medium
communicate with the Secretary so that the notices may then be discontinued.
D. D. Berolzheimer, 1 Madison Ave., New York, N. Y.: "Realities of Masonry,"
Blake, 1879; "Records of the Hole Craft and Fellowship of Masons," Condor,
1894; "Masonic Bibliography," Carson, 1873; "Origin of Freemasonry," Paine,
Ernest E. Ford, 30S South Wilson Avenue, Alhambra, California; Ars Quatuor
Coronatorum, volumes 3, 6 and 7, with St. John's Cards, also St. John's Cards
for volumes 4 and 5; "Masonic Review," early volumes; "Voice of Masonry,"
early volumes; Transactions Supreme Council Southern Jurisdiction for the
years 1882 and 1886; Original Proceedings of The General Grand Encampment
Knights Templar for the years 1826 and 1835.
David E. W. Williamson, P. O. Box 764, Reno, Nevada: Perdiguier's "Livre du
Compagnonnage," and W. H. Rylands' "Freemasonry in the Seventh Century,"
quoted in Gould's "Concise History of Freemasonry."
E. A. Marsh, 820 Broad Ave., N. W., Canton, Ohio: "The Traditions of
Freemasonry," by A.T.C. Pierson, published at St. Paul, Minn., January 1865.
Silas H. Shepherd, Hartland, Wisconsin, "Catalogue of the Masonic Library of
Samuel Lawrence," "Second Edition of Preston's Illustrations of Masonry."
Silas H. Shepherd, Hartland, Wisconsin, "Stray Leaves from a Freemason's Note
Book," by George Oliver. This volume also contains "Some Account of the Schism
shoveling the presumed origin of the Royal Arch Degree." Univ. Mas. Lib.
edition. Price $3.00. "Lights and Shadows of Freemasonry," by Robert Morris.
(Fiction and anecdotes.) Price $3.50.
F. R. Johnson, 3425 East 61st St., Kansas City, Mo., "The History of
Freemasonry," by Robert Freke Gould, published by the John C. Yorkston Co.,
silk cloth binding, first-class condition, four volumes, $17.00; "History of
Freemasonry," by J. W. S. Mitchell, P. G. M. of Missouri 1844-45, full morocco
binding, $15.00; "The History of Freemasonry," by Albert G. Mackey, seven
volumes, practically new, $30.00; "The Standard History of Freemasonry," by J.
Fletcher Brennan, published in 1886, one volume; "Gems from the Quarry," by
John H. Brownell, Editor of the American Tyler, 1893, $6.00; "Antiquities of
the Orient Unveiled," by M. Walcott Redding, 1877, $5.00; "History and
Cyclopedia," by Oliver and Macoy, full morocco binding, $10.00.
BUILDER is an open forum for free and fraternal discussion. Each of its
contributors writes under his own name, and is responsible for his own
opinions. Believing that a unity of spirit is better than a uniformity of
opinion, the Research Society, as such, does not champion any one school of
Masonic thought as over against another, but offers to all alike a medium for
fellowship and instruction, leaving each to stand or fall by its own merits.
Question Box and Correspondence Column are open to all members of the Society
at all times. Questions of any nature on Masonic subjects are earnestly
invited from our members, particularly those connected with lodges or study
clubs which are following our "Bulletin Course of Masonic Study." When
requested, questions will be answered promptly by mail hPfere publication in
MacNIDER, NATIONAL COMMANDER OF THE AMERICAN LEGION
newly-elected National Commander of the American Legion a member of the
Masonic Fraternity? A good many of us in the Legion are anxious to know this.
D. F. W.,
MacNider, the newly-elected National Commander of the American Legion, was
born at Mason City, Iowa, October 2, 1887. He attended the public schools in
that city, and graduated from Milton Academy, Milton, Massachusetts, in June
1903, and from Harvard University in 1911.
was a member of the Iowa National Guard, and served as First Lieutenant in the
Second Iowa Infantry on the Mexican Border. At the beginning of the World War
he went to the Officers' Training Camp at Fort Snelling, Minnesota, and was
given a commission as Second Lieutenant and assigned to the Ninth Regulars, U.
S. Army. He was ordered to France and arrived there September 20, 1917. The
Ninth Infantry fought through all the great battles of the War, alongside the
famous Sixth' Marines, both regiments being in the Second Division of the U.
promoted from Second Lieutenant to Lieutenant Colonel and Divisional Adjutant
of the Second Division, and remained with the Army of Occupation, returning
with his regiment at the same time that General John J. Pershing returned.
received many decorations, among them the following: Distinguished Service
Cross and One Cluster, Chevalier d'Legion Honneur, Croix de Guerre (five
citations, 5 palms, one gold and one silver star), Fourragere, and the Italian
War Cross. In addition to these he was given three other citations in General
MacNider is a member of Benevolence Lodge No. 145, A. F. & A. M., Benevolence
Chapter No. 46, R. A. M., Antioch Commandery No. 43, all of Mason City, Iowa;
El Kahir Temple A. A. O. N. M. S., Cedar Rapids, Iowa, and DeMolay Consistory,
A. & A. S. R., Clinton, Iowa. He is a Past Eminent Commander of his Commandery.
* * *
MEDILL McCORMICK'S LODGE
advise me whether or not Senator Medill McCorrnick is a Mason and, if so, the
name and number of his lodge ?
J. B. F.,
Medill McCormick is a member of Albany Park -Lodge No. 974, A. F. & A. M.,
located in Chicago. Illinois.
* * *
NAST, "FATHER OF THE AMERICAN CARTOON"
Thomas Nast, "Father of the American Cartoon" (1840-1902), a Mason?
Nast," by Albert Bigelow Paine, (The MacMillan Co., 1904), contains many
interesting cartoons. There are several of Giuseppe Garibaldi, one on page 457
commemorating his life and career. Nast fought in the Garibaldian expedition.
On page 451 is another cartoon, "After All," commemorating the death of
President Garfield. Can you tell me the name of the author of the poem
contained in it, which is as follows:
the prayers and tears and earnest pleading
piteous protest o'er a hero's fall,
the hopeful signs our hearts misleading,
cometh after all!
bright scenes are clouds descending;
soars highest ere its deepest fall;
glorious day has all too swift an ending;
cometh after all!
bloom or beauty now in our possession
the shadow of the funeral pall;
Love and Life make tearful intercession,
cometh after alll
interest, too, is the cartoon on page 191, "The American River Ganges." Of
this Paine says "Nast summed up the Ring's (Tweed) attempt to retain power
through concessions to the Church in the 'American River Ganges' which stands
today as the most terrible arraignment of sectarianism in the public schools,
as well as one of the most powerful pictures that Thomas Nast ever drew."
J. J. T.,
of Thomas Nast does not appear on the membership rolls in the Grand
Secretaries' offices in either New York or New Jersey.
some of our members can enlighten us as to whether or not Nast was a
Freemason, and also as to the author of the poem quoted by Brother J. J. T.
* * *
AND SPECULATIVE MASONIC TEACHINGS
your efforts Masonry has been traced far back. Was original and ancient
Masonry the same as we have it today ? I understand the ritual is not so old,
but were the teachings the same and the lessons the same when it existed only
in an Operative sense?
V. D. R.,
question covers so large a field that it is necessary to answer it in a very
general way. Speaking in that fashion it may be safely said that the Operative
Masons, so far as we have knowledge of them, taught the same things that we
now teach: a high standard of morality; trust in a personal God; the broth
erhood of man, and life eternal. But in a more specific way they differed much
from us. They were attached to the Roman Catholic church, and accordingly made
oath to be true thereto. They did not stress democracy and equality in
political and social life as we do; neither did they strive to become a
universal fraternity. The principal purpose of an Operative lodge was the
erection of a building, and all other matters were naturally made subordinate
to that. With us, on the contrary, the building process has been reduced to a
system of symbolism, and our principal purpose is the building of men in
moral, spiritual, and social life. Also, it should be ever borne in mind, at
the time of the formation of modern Speculative Masonry many things came into
Masonry from non-Masonic sources, and these greatly enriched the ritual and
philosophy of the Fraternity so that, as compared with the Order as we now
know it, the Freemasonry of the old Operative days was very meager.
* * *
where, how, and by what authority did the first three degrees come to be known
as "The Blue Lodge"?
C. P. D.,
no man can be certain, though it is said, on the authority of Dr. Oliver, that
blue was made the official color by action of the first Grand Lodge in 1717.
Aprons were lined with various colors in those days and it appears that all
officers of Grand Lodge were ordered to wear aprons lined with blue silk. It
is quite possible that the term "Blue Lodge" thus originated. The majority of
Masonic scholars believe that the blue used in this connection came more or
less accidentally into use, and that the Fraternity never took formal action
as to its official color symbolism. See THE BUILDER, Volume II, page 236, and
Volume V, page 178.
* * *
is going the rounds with us that Admiral Sims is a Mason. Have we any way of
being sure of this ?
W. R. A.,
Sims has answered this question for himself in a letter addressed to The
Masonic Chronicler of Chicago. The pertinent portion of it is as follows:
"I am not
a Mason. This is doubtless another mistake (on my part), but I have never
joined the Society.
"I do not
think the error of any particular consequence; nor do I think that the Sinn
Fein attack is chiefly based upon a belief that I am a Mason. I do not even
know that they have assumed this. Insofar as I am concerned, their stock
criticism is that I have attacked the Irish people as a whole, both in Ireland
and in America, which of course is wholly untrue. My criticisms were directed
solely against the Sinn Feiners in Ireland and in America who aided our
enemies during the Great War.
American citizen who is completely loyal to his own country can have any cause
to complain of the manner in which I have denounced the disloyalty of those of
our citizens whose activities endanger the peace of the world."
* * *
been enjoying Bro. Wright's articles on Roman Catholicism and Freemasonry. In
that connection may I inquire what is the meaning of the word "bull," as used
by the Popes ?
A. W. R.,
is derived from the Latin "bulla" which means a globular object. Inasmuch as
the leaden seal used by the Pope is of that general shape it is called a
"bull" and the document as a whole has come to take its name from that.
Murray's English Dictionary, than which there is no higher authority defines
it as follows: (1) A seal attached to an official document; especially, the
leaden seal attached to the Pope's edicts. (2) A papal or episcopal edict or
* * *
quite a hero worshipper of Cecil Rhodes. Was he a Mason? Also, while I am
inquiring, I should like to ask if Dr. Jameson was a Mason.
editor of The Masonic Journal of South Africa informs us that Cecil Rhodes was
a Mason but that Dr. Jameson was not. Also, he says that he has been informed
that John Hays Hammond was a member of Columbia Lodge, Johannesburg, but that
of this he cannot be sure.
* * *
THESE VERSES DROPPED FROM OUR NATIONAL ANTHEM?
E. M. Johnston of Texas, has sent the four stanzas which follow accompanied by
a clipping from The Cambridge Tribune, Cambridge Massachusetts, which states
that when first sung there were eight stanzas in "America" and that these four
were afterwards eliminated. A search through biographies and histories of
hymns and songs has failed to give us the slightest evidence to show that this
is true, but it may be that our sources of information were inadequate. Can
any reader throw further light on the matter?
glorious Land today,
halls of learning fair,
bounties all may share,
school shall ever be
hand shall smite,
with encircling might
are taught the Right
Heaven's gracious will
stars of progress still
course do sway;
broader heights we climb
Triumphant over Time
speeds our way.
birthright of our sires,
altars and our fires
starry flag unfurled,
of all the world,
and Light impearled,
* * *
PROBLEM OF EXCLUSIVE JURISDICTION
please explain to me why it is that our American Grand Lodges get so huffy
when a foreign Grand Lodge tries to start a lodge in our territory, whereas
our own Grand Lodges, New York and Massachusetts, for example, don't hesitate
to charter lodges in other countries? It appears that what is sauce for the
goose is not sauce for the gander!
That is a
rather saucy question. In some cases it is quite true that our Grand Lodges
are not consistent with their own practices, but after all there is usually a
method in their madness. If an American Grand Lodge establishes a subordinate
lodge in a foreign country it is in order to take care of American citizens
who live in a locality where they could not otherwise enjoy Masonic
fellowship. You speak of New York: I suppose you have in mind their Sea and
Field lodges. Those lodges were organized in France because our American
soldiers could not possibly have joined a French lodge, owing to the fact that
so few of our Grand Lodges recognize the French bodies. Furthermore, the
question is one of those that cannot be decided offhand or by means of a huge
generalization: the fairness of it must be decided in each case, for in the
last analysis it is really a question of Masonic efficiency. Each Grand Lodge
in this nation is quite abundantly able to care for all residents inside its
own jurisdiction, and any duplication of sovereignty would make for confusion
and cross purposes. Usually the same facts and conditions that compel
exclusive jurisdiction in this land, will justify one of our Grand Lodges in
chartering a body in a foreign land. The inconsistency is more apparent than
* * *
Grand Lodge prohibit a Mason from belonging to some other organization ?
D. F. H.,
That is a
matter for Masonic common law, and therefore must be decided by each Grand
Lodge in accordance with its own statutes. That it is constitutional for a
Grand Lodge thus to act is affirmed by the Grand Lodge of England which in the
famous case of Sir Robert Stout ruled that it constitutes a Masonic offense
for a Mason to belong to an organization proscribed by Grand Lodge laws.
* * *
often wondered why Masonry is so strict in forbidding any use of printed
ciphers. Take a man in my own situation for example. I have a poor memory and
in order to learn even a small portion of the work I must go over it again and
again. But that takes up too much of my friends' time and too much of my own.
After coming home from a hard day's work I am too weary to go off down town
again to study. But if I had the use of a key the matter would be much easier.
R. E. G.,
that so many thousands of other busy men have learned the work without a key
proves that your difficulties are not insuperable, and that you are not quite
justified in asking for a complete reorganization of the laws, rules, and
customs of the Fraternity. It may interest you to know the will of the Craft
at large on this matter. While he was Grand Master Joseph W. Morris, of
Oklahoma, made exhaustive investigations of the subject, during which he wrote
to Grand Secretaries of all the Grand Lodges. A catena of the replies he
received was printed in the Oklahoma Grand Lodge Proceedings: you will care to
see the result. The question was, "Does your Grand Lodge permit the use of
Cipher Keys?" The answers are condensed:
Washington - I am happy to say we do not.
Carolina - We have no such thing and know nothing about it.
Massachusetts - Possession of one here is sufficient grounds for expulsion.
California - No, the obligation prohibits it.
- No, we are drastically against it.
Yes, we have it. Don't like it very well.
No, No, No!
- Forbidden in this jurisdiction.
No key of any kind is used.
Jersey - We have none.
- Its use is prohibited.
Pennsylvania - Not in Pennsylvania.
- An offense to use it.
- Our work taught orally. Opposed to key.
- We swore we wouldn't and we won't.
- We have no key in any shape or form.
Mexico - Illegal in this state.
- We have it here. The brethren in general know nothing about it, and I doubt
if one in a hundred could make anything out of it.
Iowa - We
Very much opposed to its use.
- If you decide to accept it, well and good, but we have always frowned on
- I know my advice as Grand Secretary of Wisconsin does not amount to a great
deal, but I would suggest to the brethren of Oklahoma to think a great many
times before they permit an official key to the work.
Don't have it. Always voted down.
- Yes, we use them, but they are a ghastly thing. Old-fashioned enough down
here to stick to the old way.
- Grand Lodge has never authorized its use, and I hope it never will.
Morris summed the whole question up in a forceful manner: "To adopt a key to
our esoteric work would mean that eventually the conferring of the degrees
would have little effect on the initiates and they would be possessed with the
idea that Masonry is not such a hidden treasure after all; that their
conception of its having been handed down to us from mouth to ear through the
centuries past, is but a myth, and not a reality. Adopt a key; do away with
our lecture force and schools of instruction and you will have dealt Oklahoma
Masonry a blow from which it will never. never recover."
very much interested in Brother Skinner's article in the October number of THE
BUILDER on "Little Wolf Joins the Mitawin.” It certainly would be interesting
to know the names of Indians who were and are members of the Fraternity. We
know that Red Jacket, Chief of the Six Nations of New York, was a Mason; and
Eli S. Parker, a descendant of Red Jacket, was a Mason and at one time Grand
Orator of the Grand Lodge of Illinois. The Indian Chief Tecumseh was also a
member of the Order.
the members of the Research Society add names to this list?
course, this has nothing to do with Brother Skinner's article, but the thought
came to me as I read his article.
wondered if Black Hawk, Shabbonee, Logan and other prominent characters in
history were members of the Fraternity.
* * *
IN SOUTH AFRICA
interested to learn something about the status quo of Grand Lodges and other
Masonic bodies in South Africa, we wrote for information to Brother William
Morster, Editor of the Masonic Journal of South Africa, who was kind enough to
send us the following:
has District Grand Lodges in Capetown, Natal, The Eastern Division of the Cape
Province (known as the Eastern Division, South Africa), the Central Division,
with headquarters at Kimberley, and Johannesburg, which takes in the whole of
Central Division has one lodge, I think, in the Free State, and is chiefly
concerned with the northern part of Cape Colony - Vryburg, Mafeking, etc. The
Eastern Division of South Africa takes in as far as Matatiele, in Griqualand
East, and Heilbron, in the Free State. The Western Division (Capetown)
naturally takes in the western portion of the Cape Province. Natal, of course,
takes in Natal, but has also some lodges in the Free State, at Ficksburg,
Bethlehem and Lindley. The Transvaal takes in only the Transvaal. Bulawayo and
Rhodesian lodges work direct from England, Scotland or Ireland (I am not sure
if there are any Irish lodges there), while the Netherlands lodges work from
are District Grand Lodges of the Cape, Natal, the Eastern Districts (called
the District Grand Lodge of the Eastern Province, Cape Province), and the
Transvaal. In the Transvaal we take in all the Free State as well. Natal
sticks to Natal, and the Cape Districts to their respective territories.
a Provincial Grand Lodge with headquarters at Johannesburg. There are some
exceptions (some Cape lodges dealing direct with Ireland), but otherwise the
whole of South Africa comes under R.’.W.’. Brother Dr. William Russell,
Provincial Grand Master for South Africa.
Deputy Grand Master is Worshipful Brother Silberbauer, at Capetown, and he has
the whole of the Union, excepting Transvaal which is under Provincial Grand
Master, Brother William B. M. Vogts. There is also a Provincial Grand Master
ARCH, MARK AND EXCELLENT MASTER DEGREES
worked variously. For instance, there are District Grand Chapters under the
English, but Grand Superintendents, only, (as far as the Transvaal is
concerned, at least), in the Scottish. I am at present M. E. Z. of a Chapter
under the Scottish, a member of the Alpha 18d under the English, and a member
of various Craft lodges under the English and Scottish Constitutions. We get
somewhat mixed in the Royal Arch. In the Irish one has to take the Mark before
the Royal Arch, but does not get the Excellent Master. In the Scottish you
must have the Mark and take the Excellent Master before you can take the Royal
Arch. Or, if affiliating, you must have the Excellent Master given you before
you can remain in and see the degree worked in full. In the English you need
not take either Mark or Excellent Master ( in fact the latter degree is not
worked at all) before taking the Royal Arch. A lovely mix-up, and my idea is
that one of the most useful things a Grand Lodge could do would be to simplify
and standardize these things.
Morster, South Africa.
* * *
I have in
my possession an old map of King Solomon's Temple that has been in my family
for over seventy years, and as far as I know is the only one in existence, but
I have been unable to obtain but very little information regarding it.
It is a
map about 30 x 36 inches, and at the top is the following: "A BEAUTIFUL AND
ACCURATE ELEVATION OF THE TEMPLE OF SOLOMON, TAKEN FROM THE CELEBRATED MODEL
ERECTED BY COUNSELLOR SCHOTT AT HAMBURG, ORNAMENTED WITH THE MOST INTERESTING
PASSAGES IN THE LIVES OF KING DAVID AND SOLOMON HIS SON."
reader give me information as to who Counsellor Schott was, or regarding this
considered a rare relic here, and I am desirous of learning more of its
history if I possibly can.
* * *
OF TIME IN THE REIGN OF KING ALFRED
I have in
my library an edition of Hume's History of England, a work of six volumes, by
David Hume, and I find on page 75, of volume 1, in his account of the reign of
King Alfred, the following:
usually divided his time into three equal portions; one was employed in sleep
and the refection of his body by diet and exercise; another in the dispatch of
business; a third in study and devotion; and that he might more exactly
measure the hours, he made use of burning tapers of equal length which he
fixed in lanterns."
* * *
how good and how pleasant it is for brethren to work together! Ye editor, who
is not an ethnologist or the son of an ethnologist, was unable to explain the
origin of the crosses concerning which a letter appeared on page 336 of this
Department for November last, so he passed the problem on to the members of
the Society. And now witness the results. Brother Thorp B. Jennings, Past
Grand Master of the Grand Council of Royal and Select Masters of Kansas,
writes that "The two crosses shown on page 336 of THE BUILDER for November,
are religious crosses. The one with three arms is a Bishop's cross; the one
with two arms, that of a priest, and such a cross with one arm is a layman's
following letter on the subject is from the Assistant Curator, Department of
Anthropology of the Milwaukee Public Museum. on whose article in the October
issue of THE BUILDER entitled "Little Wolf Joins the Mitawin," a large number
of commendatory letters have been received from members of the Society:
Correspondence Department of THE BUILDER for November there is an interesting
illustrated account of some silver crosses excavated near Tupelo, Miss., with
some speculations as to their origin and use. As the writer has had the good
fortune to see and handle a number of similar specimens in the course of his
ethnological and archeological investigations he is taking the liberty of
offering a little further light on the subject.
of this type came into considerable vogue among all the North American Indians
under French domination about the close of the seventeenth century, and were
largely made by silversmiths resident in Montreal for the Indian trade, and
were not, as one would naturally suppose, given out by the early Roman
Catholic missionaries, or at least not to any extent. They were made to be
attractive to the Indians, quite without regard to religious significance, and
were presented by traders and agents alike to Indians of influence, who were
often pagans. A few of these still survive in the hands of living Indians, to
whom they have descended as heirlooms, although by far the greater part of
them have been found, as were the Tupelo specimens, in graves or on old Indian
village sites. I have myself known them to have been found in the possession
of Iroquois, Ottawa, Miami, Peoria, and Sioux Indians, and there are several
double and single silver crosses in this Museum (Milwaukee Public Museum),
mainly from Wisconsin and Michigan. I have seen a few that were undoubtedly
made by native Indian silversmiths in imitation of the Montreal French work,
but most have the hallmark, or in some cases the word "Montreal" stamped on
them. The triple cross figured by Brother Riley from Tupelo has an indistinct
stamp on it, which may well be a hallmark.
Victor Malhiot, in charge of the North West Fur Company's Trading Post at Lac
du Flambeau, Wis., in a statement of goods sent for trade with one snsuans,
mentions under a list of silverware, "9 large double crosses," and "6
medium-sized do." Of these it is said that three of the former were brought
back to the post by the trader's agent in May 1805, the Indians having
bartered for the rest.
journal for Sept. 17, 1761, Sir Wm. Johnson notes that among the silver
ornaments which he left at Detroit to be forwarded to Lt. Gorrell at the
British Military Post at Fort Mackinac were ninety large silver crosses. Lt.
Gorrell left Mackinac to take charge of the similar post at Green Bay, Wis.,
on the twelfth of the month following, and probably brought many of the
crosses with him.
data on these interesting relics may be found in the Seventy-third Bulletin of
the New York State Museum, "Metallic Ornaments of the New York Indians," by
Bro. Wm. M. Beauehamp, and in Vol. 9, No. 4, (p. 104) of the Wisconsin
Archeologist, where there is an article entitled "Silver Trade Crosses,'' by
Chas. E. Brown.
connection it is interesting to note that the Iroquois Indians of New York
State formerly had many Masonic brooches, beaten out of coin silver by their
native smiths, two of which are even now in the possession of the writer.
These emblem were also used without knowledge of their significance in most
cases, the Indians often wearing them upside down. They also vary from
realistic squares and compasses flanked by the two immortal columns to such
highly conventionalized examples, with many embellishments, that the extreme
forms are hard to recognize.
well known that the famous Mohawk Iroquois chief, Joseph Brant, who flourished
during the period of the American Revolution, was a Mason, raised, if I
remember correctly, in England, and it is also known that he was prompt to
rush to the aid of worthy distressed brethren in time of battle or Indian
raids. Red Jacket, the Indian Orator (Seneca Iroquois), is often claimed as a
Mason, although I am not certain upon what authority, and doubtless there were
others at a very early date.
present time the members of the Craft among various Indian tribes are legion,
but I am not aware of any exclusively Indian lodge of Masons, all the Indian
brethren whom I know personally belonging to regularly constituted white
lodges. As I have shown in a recent number of THE BUILDER (for October) the
elements of Freemasonry, of a primitive, and I do not in the least doubt,
ancient sort, are widespread among our native tribes, quite independently of
B. Skinner. Wisconsin.
before we go to press comes another letter on the subject from a brother in
November issue of THE BUILDER an article entitled "Crosses Excavated Near
Tupelo, Miss.," notes the finding of several crosses and asks opinions as to
their origin and historical value. The writer has made a considerable study of
American Archaeology and has collected about five thousand or more articles
from field and mound in his home county, ranging from broken arrow points to
crosses in question are undoubtedly of Roman Catholic origin, and similar
crosses, especially those with two cross bars, are not infrequently taken from
mounds or other burial places from Maine to the Mississippi, and from the Ohio
to Duluth, with others occasionally found in the Spanish portions of the
South, and up and down the Mississippi from the source to the mouth.
I know of
at least four or five that have been found in this (Saginaw) county, and these
finds, as in other places, have given rise to foolish tales of buried hoards
of silver, and even gold. The crosses were distributed by missionary priests,
and were held in more or less esteem by the Indians as charms or amulets. They
were only presented to favored "converts" of influence or power, and were
then, as now, symbols of the Christian faith.
Catholic faith appealed to certain tribes of Indians, as it does to certain
nationalities of white people, for the Indians were as different, tribe from
tribe, as the French are different from the Germans, the English from the
Indians the ceremonies of the priests were more or less mummeries. Others
grasped the spiritualistic significance of that same ritualism, this
depending, as among the whites, upon the type of mind of the individual or
Riley may be assured that there is no Masonic significance in these crosses,
for Craft Masonry universal is not and cannot be sectarian. No Order which
lays aside the lambskin and adopts so purely a sectarian emblem as the Latin
cross can be Masonic in its best and noblest aspect.
DEPARTMENT OF INDIAN AFFAIRS
to announce an addition to our staff of editors in the person of Brother
Alanson B. Skinner, Assistant Curator of the Anthropological Department of the
Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee. Brother Skinner is exceptionally well
versed in Indian lore, especially as regards secret societies, initiations,
and all that, and he is an earnest Masonic student.
If you have any question to
ask about the American Indians and any connections they may have with
Freemasonry and allied themes, address your queries to Brother Skinner, care