The Builder Magazine
April 1923 - Volume IX - Number 4
TABLE OF CONTENTS
FRONTISPIECE PRESIDENT - WARREN G. HARDING
MASONIC EDUCATION ADMITS ONE TO THE GLORY AND GREATNESS OF MASONRY - By Bro.
Joseph Fort Newton, New York
NEWTON ASKS FOR MATERIALS CONCERNING ALBERT PIKE
STORY OF THE FOUNDING OF THE HARVARD LODGE - By Bro. Guy H. Holliday,
TEACH HUMANS WHAT HUMANS ARE IS THE HIGHEST DUTY OF HOMES AND SCHOOLS - By Dr.
Cassius J. Keyser, New York
TO EDUCATE MASONS IN MASONRY - By Seven Grand Masters
THEY TOOK HIM, AND SLEW HIM AT THE PASSAGES OF THE JORDAN!" - By Bro. Walter
Booth Adams, M. A., M. D., Syria
DR. JOHNSON A FREEMASON? SOME PHASES OF HIS LIFE - By Bro. Arthur Heiron,
MEMORIALS TO GREAT MEN WHO WERE MASONS - ROBERT E. PEARY - By Bro. Geo. W.
Baird, P. G. M., District of Columbia
STUDY CLUB - Chapters of Masonic History - Part II, Freemasonry and the Men's
House - By Bro. H. L. Haywood
EDITORIAL - Lack of Trained Leaders is a Danger to Masonry
BUILDER is One Hundred Months Old
LIBRARY - The Hermetic Mystery
Important Work on the Kabbalah
Speech Making Made Easy
IS FREEMASONRY ?
QUESTION BOX - Concerning Scottish Rite Blue Lodges
Brother Kress Wants Information about Thomas Smith Webb
Quatuor Coronati Lodge No. 2076, of London
to Deal with an Atheist Member of a Lodge
Eastern Star Chapter Refuse any Applicant?
CORRESPONDENCE - An Inquiry Concerning Dr. Robert Talifferro Lively
Robert Morris as the Father of Uniform Work
Lutherans are not Opposed to Public Schools or to Masonry
Italian National Grand Lodge
Presents Bible to Public School
on Letters of the Keystone
VOLUME IX NUMBER 4
DOLLARS FIFTY CENTS THE YEAR
TWENTY-FIVE CENTS THE COPY
Published Monthly by The National Masonic Research Society
Masonic Education Admits One to the Glory and Greatness of Masonry
BRO. JOSEPH FORT NEWTON, NEW YORK
following address was delivered before A great company of Masons in Chicago,
on the evening of March 21, 1917, at a reception accorded the speaker just
before he sailed to begin his ministry at the City Temple, in London, Grand
Master Wheeler presiding. The Editor of THE BUILDER has unearthed it from
somewhere and asks me to allow him to publish it. If I hesitate, it is for two
reasons: it reads like ancient history today, and it has too much of the
personal element in it. Yet perhaps my experience of losing interest in
Masonry, and then regaining it, may be of value as a warning to lodges to give
young men something more than the Ritual of the Order.
these words were uttered the Great War and the Little Peace have swept over
us, leaving desolation and disillusionment in their wake. They have gone,
those years, dark, dreadful, and confused; but the ideals of this address
still glow and abide in the heart of the speaker, and he makes bold once more
to commend them to his brethren. In a day when the brotherhood of the world is
broken, our great and gentle Craft has an opportunity, the like of which it
has never known before, to use its influence and power to spread that
fraternal righteousness without which the future will be as dark as the past.
I was a little child about seven years of age, I came to know several men who
were wont to visit the home of my mother about once a month. She was a widow,
and had a little family to look after, and we lived in the South in the midst
of the poverty that followed in the wake of the Civil War. At first I did not
know the purpose that these men had in mind in visiting our home. But one day
I asked my mother, and she told me that they were members of the Masonic
Order. They had just come to learn if there was any way in which they might
help her in her struggle to keep her family together. Happily, aid was not
needed, but every month, and sometimes more than once a month, those men would
come with a quiet and kindly knock to see if we wanted anything.
grew older, I learned to know these men, and I learned also to know the story
of my father who had been a member of their lodge - had, I believe, been a
Master of it - and I learned something in connection with his Masonic
experience that would perhaps interest you if I recite it very briefly. He was
a soldier of the South, as some of you, or your fathers, were no doubt
soldiers of the North in our Civil War. He wore the gray uniform, and you wore
the blue. He was captured at one of the battles in the State of Arkansas, and
as a young captain in the army of the South was brought up the Mississippi
River to Rock Island, where he was detained as a prisoner of war for quite a
while. The northern climate was very severe on southern men in prison. How
severe, you may learn by looking into the archives of the War Department. My
father fell ill, desperately ill. He made himself known as a Mason to an
officer of the prison at Rock Island. The officer took that young brother
Mason out of the prison to his home, and nursed him back to life. When the War
closed, and his freedom had again come, that officer, his brother Mason, put
money into his hand, and a little pearl-handled pistol in his pocket, that he
might find his way back home midst unsettled conditions following the war.
was the spirit of Masonry in our Civil War, and if the real story of its
service in softening the horrors and terrors of war, in sweetening to some
degree its bitterness, is ever told, it will be a volume that men will open
with trembling hands, and close with weeping eyes. Indeed, at a time when
churches were rent in twain, when states were torn asunder, the only tie that
remained unbroken in the hour of the Civil War, was the tie of Masonic
Having this tradition of the beauty and service of Masonry in my own family,
is it a wonder that when I grew to be a man I had a desire to be a Mason? And
it so happened that the son of this soldier of the South was initiated into
the Order of Freemasonry not very far from where his father had been a
prisoner of war, under the Grand Jurisdiction of Illinois, in old Friendship
Lodge No. 7. Now, that was a night that I can never forget. While I was in
college I suffered from a lightness of purse that was so painful that I did
not belong to any fraternities. I had no time to waste, no money to spend on
anything but bare necessities of life - and sometimes they were rather bare,
so that I came into this Order to receive my first impression of a secret
fraternity, and it was profound and lasting. Somehow, as I have further
discovered the many beauties in Masonry, all of them benign and exalting, I
still think that perhaps the most beautiful thing in all Masonry is its First
other degrees followed. and at the close of the Third Degree there was a
little banquet, as was the custom of that lodge, and the candidate of the
evening was asked to express his impressions of Masonry. Well, they were so
many, so vivid, and so deeply spiritual, that I found difficulty in putting
into words what was in my mind. But I did manage to ask if there was any
little book that would tell a young man entering the Order the things that he
would most like to know about Masonry - what is it? whence it came, and what
it is trying to do in the world ? No one present that evening knew of any such
little book. So I began to ask questions of the Master of the lodge, as to
what the meaning of the lodge was, of what it was a symbol, what was the
meaning of the exercises in the preparation room, the knocks at the door, the
movements about the lodge, and the different symbols that I became aware of
when I entered the Light? I asked him why he did this, why he did that, and
why he did the other? "Well," he said, "we do it because that is the way
Masons have always done things." Which is only saying that we do it because we
satisfied with such an answer, I asked, "Why ? What do you mean by it?" Alas,
he could not tell me. I did not blame him then, and I do not blame him now;
but I was full of innumerable questions, because I came into old Friendship
Lodge fresh from Harvard University, and it seemed to me that a thing so
impressive and so stately must have a long history, must have a deep meaning;
and I wanted to know both. I had made some study of Egyptology, and I saw
about me certain signs and symbols that brought echoes from a long past. And
so, receiving no satisfaction from the Master of the lodge in answer to those
questions, I ventured to ask a member of the Grand Lodge of Illinois. While he
told me of the moral suggestions of the symbolism of the Order, and gave me
very briefly and in vague outline the story of modern Masonry, from the
founding of the Mother Grand Lodge of England down to our day; back of that he
could not go; deeper than that he did not dig.
I LOST INTEREST IN THE CRAFT
a time, while I enjoyed the ceremonies of the various degrees, I lost some of
my interest in the Order. Years later I went to live in Iowa, and I found
there, as Grand Master at that time, a remarkable man, as big in body as he is
in mind, who had appointed a committee to investigate the literature of the
Order. if perchance he might discover such a little book as I had asked on the
night on which I received the Third Degree in Masonry. He was looking
NEWTON ASKS FOR MATERIALS CONCERNING ALBERT PIKE
preparing a biography of Albert Pike. inasmuch as the Pike family has
authorized me to undertake this work, and the proper Scottish Rite authorities
have given me most cordial encouragement, l shall Cope in the course of time
to prepare a volume that will be more or less authentic. May l ask you to
co-operate with me? I should like f or you to make the request through your
columns that your readers supply me with any literature, letters, diaries,
books, or any other matter that may throw any light whatever on the career of
our great and distinguished brother. l shall take pains to preserve any such
material in good condition and return it promptly."
such a book in order that he might put it into the hands of all young men who
were received into the fellowship of Masonry in Iowa. Unable to find just what
he wanted, it fell to my lot, after fourteen years, to prepare the little book
that I felt the need of years before; and that is the story of The Builders.
If I have done nothing else, I hope I have made it a little easier for young
men entering the Masonic Fraternity, and whose minds are filled with so many
questions that lead into so many interesting fields of study, to find such a
little book; and I hope my labor is not in vain.
of the first things that impressed me when I entered old Friendship Lodge was
the fact that it contained in its fellowship men of every political party;
and, later, when looking into the history of the Order, and its principles, I
learned that questions of politics that divided men and sometimes estranged
and embittered them, were not permitted in a Masonic lodge. To me that was a
very eloquent fact. Knowing something of the bitter partisan spirit in the
history of American politics, it seemed to me a wonderful thing that there
should be a great, kindly fellowship that eliminated such questions, and
permitted men of all parties to meet as man to man in the simple, fundamental
fellowship of humanity without regard to party.
looked further into the history and philosophy of the Order, I learned the
deep reason why the ancient Masons prohibited political discussions in their
lodge rooms, and it seems to me that time has only confirmed the wisdom of our
fathers in that regard, as in so many other regards. Just now there is a
tendency in some parts of the country, under one pretext or another, in one
form or another, to bring political issues within the Masonic fellowship. It
would be a great blunder; it would make our Masonry something different,
something dangerously different from the Masonry of our fathers. It will cease
to be an Order which unites men, and will become only a tiny atom in an
indistinguishable blur of partisan feuds. So, brethren, let us use words in
their right meanings, and not try to stretch or twist the word "politics" so
as to bring in under any kind of excuse the thing which our fathers so wisely
excluded from our lodges.
Another thing that impressed me that night in old Friendship Lodge, was the
presence of men of nearly all the religious persuasions represented in the
community. There is a certain stage in the growth of a town – a certain
gosling stage, as I sometimes describe it - when it is neither a town nor a
city; when it is divided up into cliques and parties, and when sectarian
rivalry is very acute. It was so in that community at that time, whatever may
be its state of mind now. In that lodge room were gathered men who were
supposed to be rivals on the outside of the room, and yet they met in a spirit
of fraternity and good will. As I passed through the degrees, I found that the
Order placed emphasis only upon those profound, fundamental things that
underlie all religions, over-arch all creeds, and that upon that platform,
these men, however they might differ in the details of dogma and ceremony,
stood together man to man, brother to brother, in the spirit of fellowship.
MASONRY ASKS, "WHAT IS YOUR NEED?”
Later, when I studied the story of the Order, and particularly the founding of
the Mother Grand Lodge of England, and looked at the background of sectarian
bitterness, confusion and bickerings, which marked that time, and against that
dark background saw the men who founded the Mother Grand Lodge, and the
fundamental principles of religion which they enshrined into their
constitution, it seemed to me that such an event was forever memorable and
am letting the hounds get ahead of the hare. As I pondered over my initiation
that night, it seemed to me that I had come into an Order which was prophetic
of a time when men would discover outside the lodge, as they discovered
inside, that the things that they have in common, the things upon which they
do agree, are of so much greater importance that they will overshadow the
things about which they have debated so long. It seemed to me that I stood at
an altar which was prophetic of a time when the estranged religious units of
the world would be brought closer together, and men would ask not, "What is
your creed?" but, "What is your need?" And when they thus arrive, the scene
will be presided over by the beautiful genius of Freemasonry, which has
prophesied it for centuries.
Naturally, I wished to know something of the story of such an altar, and so I
went back into the past as far as literature and records would take me.
Perhaps you will let me tell you a few of the things that I discovered. I
found that primitive society had three great institutions with which we are
familiar, and one that we need to rediscover. First, it had the home, crude
indeed, as all things were in the beginning of the world, yet that rude home
had in it the prophecy of the home in which you were born, with its
tenderness, its beauty, and its memories. It had the church, not then a
church, nor a great temple, but only an altar of unhewn stone, its rites
crude, its - smoke of incense ascending in a cloud of fear. Yet in the
darkness of it all was a gleam of that light which and never was on land or
sea. Third, there was the state or tribal form of government - very rude at
first, very imperfect, but the basis and prophecy of this great republic in
which we live.
there was another institution, of which I had known nothing at all, and the
very existence of which I had not guessed. It was called the "men's house." It
stood at the center of every village, and was really the center of the life of
primitive society. It was the secret house of initiation, in which every man
of the tribe, when he became of age, was initiated, trained, sworn, and then
entrusted with the law, legend, history and religion of his people. Here is
the origin of all secret orders, of whatever kind, and this is what our
Masonic fathers meant when they said that Masonry is as old as the race.
Certainly the idea, necessity and practice of initiation goes back to the
beginning. For years I have followed the different ceremonies of initiation
used in different primitive secret societies, and I have found that while they
differed, each having a certain local color of its own, they had certain basic
things in common; that the purpose was always the same, the spirit was always
the same, and that nearly always the climax was the same. Nearly always there
was a degree which represented, in a dramatic form, the death and the
resurrection of the candidate.
early initiations were frightful, brethren. Men were exposed not only to
physical dangers, but to spiritual terrors, in order to test their physical
courage, their mental power, and their moral trustworthiness. When they were
so proved, they were admitted into the secret order of primitive society, and
given certain words and tokens and grins and signs whereby they could make
themselves known everywhere; and I was much interested in discovering how
universal are the signs and tokens which we use in our lodges. If you think
about it, they are the natural gestures of greeting, of distress or of
brotherliness, and because they are so natural they have been used the world
over. For Masonry has as a part of its genius the wisdom to use what is old
and wise and human.
Continuing my study, I have followed the history of this men's house of
primitive society down the years until it became associated with the art of
building, because of the importance of architecture. I traced the Order of
Builders out of Egypt into Asia Minor, where they built the Temple of King
Solomon; then westward into Rome and the College of Architects up to the time
when the Roman Empire reeled to its ruin. Then they seem to have taken refuge
on an island in Lake Como, and from there-I traced them to the great Order of
the Cathedral Builders who uplifted those shrines of beauty and prayer which
the great war has destroyed. After the cathedrals were built the Order began
to decline. They were called Freemasons because they were permitted to go
wherever their work called them; because they were free from taxation; because
they enjoyed many legal privileges not granted to other bodies; because of
their exceeding importance as master builders. Free, also - to distinguish
them from guild Masons - because a guild Mason could not go outside the town
in which he lived, whereas Freemasons could journey far and near.
ACCEPTED MASON ENTERS THE CRAFT
the Order began to decline, men who were scholars and thinkers and students,
but not architects, began to ask to be received in its membership; men like
Ashmole, who founded the Museum at Oxford, England. They were accepted, and
hence the name, "Free and Accepted" Masons. These men sought membership in the
Order because they found in it a rich deposit of symbolism which was worth
their study, and in some lodges the Accepted Masons were in the majority. Such
was the feet in 1717 - a date which will be celebrated in every jurisdiction
of the world - the founding of the Grand Lodge of England. That date, June 24,
1717, gave a new impetus and a new emphasis to Masonry, and it spread rapidly
all over the world.
so Masonry came to our shores, very early, long before our Republic was
founded, before even the name “United States" was ever spoken. It was a great
day when this kindly and friendly Order, with its spirit of justice, liberty,
tolerance, intellectual courtesy, brotherly love and spiritual refinement, put
its foot upon our shores. To tell the story of the connection of Masonry with
the history of this country, and particularly with the history of our
Republic, would be to repeat ma romance. It was not an accident that the Tea
Party in Boston Bay was planned in a Masonic lodge and executed by the members
of that lodge. It was not a mere coincidence that the first President of this
Republic was also a Master Mason, and that so many of those who united in
forming the organic law of this Republic were Master Masons. And, because the
spirit of Masons had become a part of their thinking and living, they wrote it
into the fundamental law of our land. So it has been all down our history.
This Republic has never had a better friend than the Ancient Order of
Freemasonry, and it never will have. In every great hour of national trial in
the past, our Order has stood true to our Republic, as it will stand true
today in the crisis through which we are now passing - perhaps the greatest
crisis in all our history - when the flag will need the love and loyalty of
every true American. Masons from one end of the land to the other will insist
that the flag shall protect every citizen, and that every citizen shall
protect the flag.
Naturally my study of Masonry increased my zeal for promoting an interest in
the study of it among my brethren; and hence my association with this movement
in behalf of Masonic education. What is education? Let me put together two
famous definitions, one by Huxley and the other by Milton, and they will tell
us what it is. Education is the training of the intellect in the law of
nature, and the fashioning of the affections and of the will into an earnest
loving desire to live in harmony with those laws, that a man may be fitted,
justly, skillfully and magnanimously to perform every office, both private and
public, of peace or of war.
you would sum it up all in one word, it could not be better described than by
the one word used by that mighty German genius - the greatest man Germany has
known, except Luther - Goethe, when he used the word "Reverence." Reverence
first, for that which is below us, for the tiny, teeming, swarming forms of
life at our feet. Such reverence led a poet to say that he would not count
among his friends a man who would needlessly put his foot upon a worm, or
wantonly and cruelly take life from any living creature. Reverence, in the
second place, for that which is on the level with ourselves, for the human,
for all that wears the human shape, however deformed or sin-bespotted, or far
fallen; the insight to see behind every face, however scarred or blackened,
something noble and divine. And reverence, in the third place, for that which
is above us, which out-tops our knowledge, and upon which we are every moment
dependent. That one word, so expounded, might be used as a synonym for
education - Reverence.
do we mean by a profane? Why do we so describe a man who is not a Mason? What
is the difference between this lodge room and the street? Answer that
question, and it will describe the difference between a mind that is reverent
and one that is irreverent. Anything and anybody can go through the street, a
cow or a cat or a dog; but not so in our lodge room. Here certain thoughts and
things are excluded. Just so, a man who is profane will allow any kind of
thought, no matter hove slimy, to go wiggling and squirming through his mind;
but if he is a Mason in the true sense, his mind is a place of reverence, and
there are some thoughts that will not be permitted to enter when they knock,
no matter how many knocks they give at the door. Some sentiments will be put
out as cowans and eavesdroppers, and not be permitted to pollute the sancity
of his mind and of his heart.
MULLER'S PARABLE OF EDUCATION
Perhaps a description of education is better than a definition, and there is a
story translated from the literature of the Ancient East by Max Muller which
is a perfect parable of what I have in mind. The gods, so runs this story,
having stolen from man his divinity, met to decide where they should hide it.
was a long, solemn, secret council. One suggested that it be buried in the
earth, but the caution was expressed that man might dig there and find that
pearl of great price. Another suggested that it be taken and dropped into the
depths of the sea, but the same fear was expressed that man, being a great
wanderer, and having an insatiable curiosity, might go even to the depths of
the sea to find the lost treasure. Finally the oldest and wisest of the gods
said in a whisper, lest it be heard outside the council chamber, "Let us hide
it in man himself, as that is the last place he will ever think to look for
it." And it was so agreed. Man did dig into the earth, bringing up gold and
silver and precious ore, and he did go over the sea and down under the sea,
seeking high and low, and far and near, before he thought to look within
himself to find the God whom he sought. Evermore the Lost Word is near us,
even in our hearts, and happy is the man who finds it. It is more precious
than all the gold in all the tempted hills.
Education, then, in the Masonic sense, as I understand it, is this discovery
of whence we came, who we are, and where we are going. What is the first
question that Masonry asks you at the door ? Is it not just this question ?
She wishes to know whence you came, and what is your purpose here on earth.
Without waiting to receive your answer, for you are not then truly qualified
to give an answer, she admits you into her Temple, tells you whence you came
and why you are here upon earth - the reason for your life, its excuse for
being. She helps you towards that self-discovery which is the awakening of the
soul, the beginning of its advance, morally, intellectually, and spiritually.
Moreover, in the First Degree she trained you in the simple, old, homely,
fundamental morality which underlies not only individual character, but is
also the strength and support of society.
the Second Degree she asks you who you are, and adds another lesson, another
step, in that process of self-discovery by teaching you that you are an
intellectual being, that you have intellectual powers that must be developed
and put to the highest uses. Hence her recommendation that you look into the
arts and sciences and master the great problems of life, climbing up slowly
but surely to wider intellectual outlooks, where there are longer vistas and
lifting skies. For this reason, as in the olden time, every lodge is a school
for the training of the mind in the moral Geometry of God - training us to
think truly, clearly, justly, kindly. For as a man thinketh in his heart, so
is he, and so is the world to him - luminous and lovely, or dark and dreadful.
Finally, in the Third Degree, Masonry asks that most solemn of all questions,
which every man who thinks asks his own heart again and again: "Whither goest
thou?" What is the meaning of all this stream of human beings pouring in upon
the earth, passing swiftly across it - some sadly, some gladly - and
vanishing into the beyond? Whither do they go? What is the destiny of this
endless procession? Masonry seeks, in her Third Degree) to make you realize,
my brother, that you are an immortal spirit hereto now, upon the earth. It
initiates us, symbolically, into the Eternal Life in Time. If we are immortal
at all, we are as immortal now as we ever can be, and to know that fact, and
to govern ourselves accordingly, is the supreme human experience. It takes
away the fear of death. It makes you a Master of life and time. For surely
there is no tyranny like the tyranny of time. Give a man one day in which to
live, and how cramped he is. The tick of a watch sounds like a gong. Give him
a week and you have liberated him, insofar, and he can breathe more easily.
Give him a year, and he can move with more leisure and more amplitude. But let
him know that he is divine; that above him there hovers and waits an infinite
time; let him know that he is an immortal being and he is free! He can spread
his wings and think as far and as fast as his mind can go. He can lay out
great plans, and labor for their fulfilling; he can dream great dreams. It
adds to the dignity, worth and glory of life. And this is the great insight,
prophecy and experience which Masonry would awaken in our hearts – the master
truth of the Master’s Degree. And so, while teaching us how to live, Masonry
would fortify us against the Shadow that waits for every man - teaching us, as
Dante said, "how to make our lives eternal."
MASONRY ASKS A YOUNG MAN GREAT QUESTIONS
beautiful it is that an Ancient Order, coming down to us from the earliest
time, should win elect young men to its fellowship, and ask them such great
questions. And as they bow at its altar, upon the Bible which their mothers
read, it exacts from them high and solemn vows of chastity, of charity, of
brotherly love, relief and truth. What is it that makes a man great? It is a
great faith and a great idea. Ideas rule the world. Above the battle lines in
Europe, if you have eyes to see, you can discover two wars now raging, as long
ago Homer saw two battles above the city of Troy - one between the Greeks and
Trojans, and one in the viewless air between gods and goddesses. Just so,
above the long battle lines you can now see a battle of ideas. Ideas migrate
like birds. They hide in crooked lines on a printed page. They force us into
the arena to fight for them. Ideas rule the world. Get a right and true idea
into the mind of a young man, and you have done more for him than by giving
him any treasure of silver or precious stones. When Masonry brings a young man
to an altar of prayer, in an atmosphere of reverence, and before the open Book
which is the moral manual of civilization, and plants in his mind great,
simple, luminous and valid ideas of what it is to be a man, and what life
means, it has rendered to him the highest service that any institution can
render to a man.
is what I mean, brethren, by Masonic education, not some dry digging into
dusty old documents which have no practical relation to the human life of
today. I mean that we should study the story of this Order, its origin and
growth, its uses, its great principles and their expression in ritual; but
still more the expression of those principles in character and their
application to every day life. Truth is for life, and we know as much as we
do. I believe that this is worth while for the future of Masonry, for its
increased efficiency, and for a deepening of interest in it. Numbers do not
count. Size does not signify. It is quality of manhood, quality of thinking
and feeling that counts in the long result of time. And Masonry, by bringing
men together and teaching them to be friends, without regard to creed, or
sect, or party, and training them in the service of great ideals, in loyalty
to the great truths, is doing more for the safety and sanctity of this great
Republic than both its army and its navy.
the cedars of Lebanon glow at our door,
the quarry is sunk at our gate;
the ships out of Ophir, with golden ore,
our summoning mandate wait;
the word of a Master Mason
the house of our soul create!
the day hath light let the light be used,
no man shall the night control!
ever the silver cord be loosed,
broken the golden bowl,
we build King Solomon's Temple
the true Masonic Soul!"
STORY OF THE FOUNDING OF THE HARVARD LODGE
BRO. GUY H. HOLLIDAY. MASSACHUSETTS
HARVARD University, there was instituted, on May 18, 1922, a lodge to be known
as "The Harvard Lodge." This is a lodge of a new type in the United States, a
"college" lodge; a lodge with great possibilities for future usefulness to
Harvard and to the Craft.
Harvard University with its many graduate schools brings together student
brethren from every State in the Union, and, in fact, from nearly every part
of the world. These men find little opportunity to enjoy the fellowship of
their home lodges during the whole period of their academic and professional
courses, and they hesitate to visit to any extent the local lodges in
Cambridge and Boston, so that at the very time when they should enjoy the
pleasant association with their brethren the most, and improve themselves in
Masonry, they are to all intents and purposes masonically dead. For such men,
and from the moment they enter the University, The Harvard Lodge will furnish
a common meeting place; it will furnish for them, through its special
committees, a place to turn to for advice and help in all matters relating to
the life and work of the University. More important still, they will learn at
once that they have friends by the score in their new surroundings.
expected that the men who have known Harvard Masonry, those who have taken
their degrees in, or who have affiliated with the new lodge, and those who
have known the lodge only as welcome guests, will eventually spread over the
country, and wherever they may find their lot cast take up Masonic work with
renewed interest and earnestness.
establishment of a lodge at Harvard has been the subject of discussion for
some years, but until now no steps have been taken to accomplish it. In March
of last year, however, an amendment to the Massachusetts Grand Constitutions
was unanimously adopted, providing for "college" lodges, which should be
relieved of the burden of obtaining releases, as other lodges are required to
do, on candidates residing beyond the limits of the city or town where the
lodge is situated, but on the other hand limiting their held for candidates to
the college itself. This amendment was to the section relating to local or
territorial jurisdiction of lodges, and reads as follows:
however, the jurisdiction named in the charter shall be a college, university
or other institution of like character and standing, such jurisdiction shall
be limited to and include only, the following; viz., concurrent jurisdiction
with the lodge or lodges having regular territorial jurisdiction over any
candidate who, at the time of application is an officer, instructor, student,
or employee in, and who in addition to having a Masonic residence in
Massachusetts, shall have been on the rolls of such college, university, or
institution for six months continuously preceding the date of his application.
The special jurisdiction conferred by this section shall not be subject to
waiver on the part of the lodge enjoying it."
Following this action by the Grand Lodge, the Harvard Masonic Club, an
association of Masons in the University numbering some 120 members, took up
the question of a Harvard lodge at its Annual Meeting in April. As a result,
and with the advice and active assistance of Rt. Wor. George B. Colesworthy,
(A. B. 1901) District Deputy Grand Master for the Second Masonic District, a
petition for a dispensation to establish a lodge was prepared and presented to
the Grand Master, who in May ordered that the lodge be instituted.
petition was headed by the District Deputy, and there followed the names of
his two immediate predecessors in office, both Harvard graduates; those of
Professor Roscoe Pound, Dean of the Law School, Past Deputy Grand Master in
Massachusetts, of Professor Kirsopp Lake of the Divinity School, of a
Presiding Master, and of several Past Masters and other officers of the
Cambridge lodges. The petitioners were in all one hundred and twenty in
number, of whom thirty were graduates, sixty students, twelve from the Faculty
members and instructors, and eight officers or employees of the University.
petitioners named as their Master Rt. Wor. Guy H. Holliday (A. B., '89, LL.
B., '92), Past District Deputy Grand Master of the Second, or Cambridge,
Masonic District, and an honorary member of the Harvard Masonic Club; as
Senior Warden, Milo G. Roberts, a Junior in the College; and as Junior Warden,
Jess H. Jackson, an Instructor in the College.
officers appointed later were: Treasurer, Assistant Professor Edwin A. Shaw,
of the Graduate School of Education; Secretary, James E. Bagley, a special
student in the College, Senior Deacon of Euclid Lodge of Boston; Chaplain,
Professor Kirsopp Lake, of the Divinity School; Marshall, W. Arnold Hosmer,
Instructor of the Graduate School of Business Administration; Senior Deacon,
Dr. Donald V. Baker, '08; Junior Deacon, Dr. Frank A. Hamilton, Instructor in
the Medical School; Senior Steward, E. Stanton Russell, '19; Junior Steward,
Albert A. Schaefer, '06; Inside Sentinel, David W. Wainhouse, '24; Organist,
Charles A. Young; Tyler, Arthur E. Conant, College Bell Ringer.
"line" of officers is in accord with the democratic character of the new
lodge, which includes not only men coming from widely separated places, but
also represents every grade and variety of academic rating.
reception of The Harvard Lodge by the other Cambridge Lodges has been most
cordial. It has been received into the family of lodges occupying the
beautiful Cambridge Temple, and is at present using regalia loaned by Charity
Lodge. The youngest of these lodges, "Richard C. Maclaurin" ("The Tech.
Lodge") instituted in 1920 and by an amendment of its charter in June, also a
"college" lodge, has presented the new lodge with a gavel; and the oldest,
"Amicable," dating from 1805, has given the Great Lights.
has been well said that a University is a place of opportunities: Harvard
University is peculiarly a place of opportunities for this newly added School
of Friendship and Brotherly Love - The Harvard Lodge.
TEACH HUMANS WHAT HUMANS ARE IS THE HIGHEST DUTY OF HOMES AND SCHOOLS
DR. CASSIUS J. KEYSER
Adrain Professor of Mathematics, Columbia University, New York
publication rights reserved by author.)
from winning a place as the dean of American mathematicians, loved and revered
for his ability in teaching teachers a most difficult science, Dr. Keyser has
long been a pioneer in that region where mathematics merges into logic or into
philosophy. His great work, Mathematical Philosophy: A Study of Fate and
Freedom, was reviewed by Ye Editor on page 319 of THE BUILDER for October
last. A similar review of Korzybski's Manhood of Humanity, referred to in the
following paper, was published on page 256 of THE BUILDER for August. Dr.
Keyser's article does not have an immediate reference to Freemasonry as such,
but it throws so much light on some problems that arise out of our Masonic
thinking and activities, that it has been published here as offering much help
to Craftsmen who take their Masonry seriously, and desire to see it win its
way in the world.
OUR education there is much that is good and much that is bad. What is good in
it is due to human nature - to what man is. Much of what is bad in it is
primarily due to our thinking and teaching that man is what man is not, and to
our not knowing and not teaching what man is.
teach boys and girls to understand and to feel what they as humans really are,
is the highest duty of the home and the school. But the home and the school
have not kept that obligation. Why not? Because parents and teachers have
themselves never been taught to understand and to feel what they as humans
recent bulletin of the Cora L. Williams Institute for Creative Education, Miss
Williams has said that "time-binding should be made the basis of all
instruction" and that Alfred Korzybski's book, The Manhood of Humanity, should
be a textbook in every college throughout the world. These fine brave words
are just. Why? Because that book, which all fathers and mothers and all other
teachers should read, reread and digest, tells us for the first time in the
history of the world what that is in virtue of which we humans are human.
is that thing ? The answer is that humans are human because they are by nature
"time-binders." But what does Korzybski mean by "time-binding?" Nothing can be
more important than to get the meaning of that mighty term into the heads of
men and women, for when it gets into their heads it will get into their hearts
also; and once it begins to work in the heads and hearts of men and women
everywhere, there will be at hand a great new epoch, not only in education,
but in all the cardinal concerns of our human kind.
me try to make the meaning of the term clear, for, strange to say, some of
those who have read the book (or think they have) have missed the term's
meaning and yet that meaning is the book's very lifeblood and core. Please be
Food enough to meditate upon the following considerations. They are simple and
obvious, but very significant:
BEAVER AND A MAN
of a beaver and a man. The beaver makes a dam; the man makes a bridge. Both
the dam and the bridge embody three factors - raw material, toil and time. I-
draw special attention to the factor, time, because it has never been duly
considered in the study of civilization, nor in the philosophy of human
education and human nature, For by fathers, mothers, and other teachers of the
young or the old. We shall suppose the dam and the bridge to outlast their
makers, so that the dam is present to the next generation of beavers, and the
bridge to the next generation of men. That means that a new beaver is
confronted by an oldtime factor (embodied in the dam) and that a new man is
similarly confronted by an old-time factor (embodied in the bridge). What
happens? What are the effects, upon the new beaver and the new man, of the
old-time factors ? The importance of the question cannot be exaggerated, for
the answer discloses an infinite chasm between beaver "mind" and man "mind" -
an infinite difference, not in degree merely, but in kind. And what is the
answer? The reader knows what it is. It is that the new beaver makes a dam,
but it is no better than the old one, while the new man makes a bridge that is
better than the old one, or he perhaps invents a ship or a flying machine.
That is a fact. Do not fail to think about it again and again.
does it teach us? It teaches us the vast difference between the relation of
animal "mind" to time and the relation of human mind to time. It teaches us,
if we will but open our eyes to the lesson, (1) that the "mind" of animals is
such that the presence of old-time factors in the surviving achievements of
the dead does not enable the living to make improvement, and (2) that the
human mind is such that the presence of old-time factors in the achievements
of bygone generations does enable the living to surpass the deeds of the dead.
Does this ability to surpass the dead mean that the living have more native
ability than the dead possessed? No. It means that human beings have the power
to add to their native ability by absorbing the intelligence embodied in past
achievements and so to do greater things than they could do if their native
ability were not thus reinforced. The capacity for thus making the past live
and work in the present, the capacity for making the intelligence and talent
and genius of the dead cooperate with the living so that humanity can go
foreward as if each generation had native ability equal to the combined native
abilities of all past generations - it is that strange familiar human
capacity which Korzybski calls time-binding capacity.
writing this article for such readers and only such as are both able and
willing to pause and reflect. Those who reflect upon what "time-binding" means
will see more and more clearly that they are here in the presence of an idea
that is truly momentous. No idea in the literature of science or philosophy is
or can be more momentous, for the time-binding capacity of man is the most
precious thing in the world. It is the power that has created civilization and
goes on creating it more and more rapidly. And that power belongs to man and
man only; animals do not have it. That is why Korzybski has defined "Humanity"
as "the time-binding class of life," and it is also why he denies that humans
I spoke of an infinite chasm between human mind and animal "mind". It is the
chasm between having time-binding power and not having it; it is the chasm
that yawns between endless progressibility in humans and the utter lack of it
in animals; it is the immeasurable difference between a human world clad in a
great and growing civilization and a non-human world where there is, rightly
speaking, no civilization at all; for what I said respecting the making of a
better bridge applies equally to all the elements and forms of both material
and spiritual wealth. Wherever we see art or science or invention or
philosophy or wisdom or ethics or institutions of justice or education or
religion, we behold something that owes, not only its existence, but the
possibility of improving it, to the time-binding capacity of our human kind.
IS NOT AN ANIMAL
weeks ago I discussed this matter with a biologist. He agreed that humans are
"time-binders." He agreed that time-binding power is the power that makes
civilization and makes it progress. But, said he, humans are animals,
time-binding animals. "Please tell me," I said, "why you say that humans are
animals." Notice his answer, for he said: "I call humans animals because
humans have certain animal organs and certain animal propensities." "You
know," I replied, "that animals have certain organs and properties that plants
have - they take food, for example, and grow and die. Why, then," I asked, "do
you not say that animals are plants or that plants are animals ? And a cube,"
I said, "has surfaces and some surface properties, but you do not say that a
cube is a surface. Why not ?" The questions are questions of logic. My friend,
the zoologist, had not considered them, and I am still waiting for his answer.
Another biologist, an eminent one, came to me and said that Korzybski's
conception of man is "crazy." "What," I asked, "is his conception of man?" "I
don't know," he replied impatiently, "and I don't believe Korzybski knows." "Korzybski,"
I replied, "knows precisely what he means; so do I, and I can make the meaning
perfectly clear to any intelligent inquirer." But that eminent biologist did
not wish to understand the idea; he wished to call it crazy. From which the
reader will rightly infer that even an eminent biologist may be a bigot.
Happily not all biologists are so contemptuous of ideas that did not happen to
originate with them. For example, in his presidential address (Science,
December 30, 1922) at the last annual meeting (Toronto) of the American
Association for the Advancement of Science, Dr. L. O. Howard, eminent
entomologist, said: "Count Korzybski, in his recent remarkable book, The
Manhood of Humanity, gives a new definition of man, departing from the purely
biological concept on the one hand and from the
mythological-biological-philosophical idea on the other, and concludes that
humanity is set apart from other things that exist on this globe by its
time-binding faculty or power or capacity." Dr. Howard adds that "it is indeed
this time-binding capacity which is the principal asset of humanity."
what, pray, is the "principal asset" of animals? It is their ability to move
about in space. For this ability, (which plants have not) to run or crawl or
creep or fly, enables the animals to gather the natural fruits of the earth in
many different localities. That is why Korzybski defines animals to be "the
space-binding class of life." Like humans, animals can bind space but, unlike
humans, animals cannot bind time (in the sense explained). To teach that
humans are animals is just as stupid as to teach that animals are humans. And
it is not merely stupid; it is very harmful, harmful to ethics, and every one
knows that to teach bad ethics is the worst possible kind of education. For
bad ethics means bad economics, bad politics, bad industrial management, bad
government, bad individual life, and bad community life.
people have said that ethics can not be taught. They are mistaken. Ethics is
something that we can not avoid teaching. All persons and especially fathers,
mothers and teachers are teachers of ethics. And the kind of ethics they teach
depends upon their conception of humanity, upon their philosophy of human
nature. Every home and every school in which humans are regarded as animals
is, consciously or unconsciously, a nursery of animalistic ethics,
space-binding ethics, the ethics of tooth and claw, of combat, violence,-and
war. It is the brutal ethics of survival of the fittest where fittest means
strongest, not best. This is zoological ethics. There is another kind that is
Just as bad. I mean mythological ethics, the selfish and insolent ethics of
Gott mit uns. . So long as individuals or states are fashioned and controlled
by zoological ethics or by mythological ethics or by the two combined, we may
expect individuals and states to leap upon their neighbors like infuriated
IS A MOMENTOUS lDEA
us glance at the other side of the shield. I wish to ask the reader a very
important question. Suppose that everywhere throughout the world the home, the
school and the press were to unite in teaching boys and girls and men and
women to understand and to feel that they are neither animals nor mysterious
hybrids of animals and angels, but that they are by nature humans and that the
proper life of humans is the life of civilizers, not the animalistic life of
mere space-binders, but time-binding life - Life-in-Time. The question I wish
to ask the reader is, "What would be the effect of such world-wide
instruction?" It is one of the questions I have dealt with in my new book of
lectures for educated laymen, (Mathematical Philosophy, E. P. Dutton and Co.),
but a full answer cannot be given in a word. For the answer must be given in
terms of a new ethics - the ethics of time-binding, the ethics of
civilization-building - And the effect of such human ethics upon the welfare
of our humankind. Some competent person ought to write a book upon this great
subject for the use of fathers, mothers, and teachers. A little reflection
enables one to see pretty clearly some of the things which such a book of
ethics would teach.
would teach that human history (the life-history of our race) has depended and
depends upon three fundamental factors: (1) what we call environment; (2)
human nature (what man is); (3) knowledge or ignorance of human nature (what
humans have thought, and now think man is). It would teach that nothing can be
more important than to make our conception of human nature agree with what
human nature is; it would teach that the class of humanity is infinitely
separated from the class of animals by the capacity which humans have for
binding time, for thus creating and-more and more advancing civilization; it
would teach that the zoological conception of man as a kind of animal tends to
foster the brutal ethics of lust and might; it would teach that the conception
of man as a hybrid of angel and beast tends to promote the irrational ethics
of magic and myth. It would teach that a sound human ethics must be a natural
ethics based upon human nature - upon the laws, that is, of those
time-binding energies of man that produce civilization; it would teach that it
is a sovereign duty to discover those laws and to disseminate a knowledge of
them throughout the world, for conduct that conforms to them is ethically good
and that which does not is bad. It would teach us that the civilization which
we (of a given generation) have was not created by us but is the product of
the time and toil of the dead; that it is, therefore, just as natural a
resource as land or sea or sun or sky of the common air, and that for us to
quarrel and fight for possession of its goods is to descend from the proper
estate of humans to the level of beasts fighting for the fallen nuts of a
tree. A sound human ethics would teach us that by studying the works we have
inherited from the past we can understand them; that by understanding them we
absorb the intelligence and genius embodied in them; and that we are thus
enabled to produce things in the form of wisdom or material wealth which we
could not produce by our own merely native ability even if that ability were
multiplied a million fold. It would thus teach us that even what we call our
own achievements is in the main not our own but is mainly the work of
intelligence which we have absorbed from the achievements of the dead and
which still lives in us literally and works through us. Human ethics would
teach us that we are not only. heritors of the civilization produced by the
past generations, that we are not only organs for enabling the creative
intelligence of the past still to live and work, but that we are the trustees
of the great and growing inheritance for future man. The supreme law of human
ethics is the law of co-operation, for the time-binding ethics of our human
race is, not the ethics of brutal combat, but the ethics of cooperation of the
dead and the living for all the living and the yet unborn.
by home and school, boys and girls were everywhere bred in ethics thus based
upon the time-binding laws of our human nature, what would be the effect of it
upon conduct and upon the ways and institutions of human society ? I submit
the question for the reader's meditation.
TO EDUCATE MASONS IN MASONRY
SEVEN GRAND MASTERS
order that this Society might be the better enabled to keep in touch with
Masonic educational activities and needs throughout this nation, we recently
addressed to all the Grand Masters the following question: "What in your
opinion is the best way in which to educate Masons in Masonry?" Nearly all the
replies made thereto were interesting to a degree and some were of great
value, so that if there were room it would be a pleasure to publish them all
in these pages: but the limitations of space are such that we have instead
selected seven typical replies as representing various sections of the land
and varying shades of opinion. It is worthy of note that it has come to be
taken for granted in every Grand Jurisdiction that some form of Masonic
education is a practical necessity. It is respectfully suggested to chairmen
and members of new Grand Lodge educational committees that it might be wise to
borrow a leaf from the experiences of committees long in the field. This
Society will give all interested in such matters cordial and immediate
Applied Masonry is Needed in this New Day
quest for light and more light has ever been the Freemason's chief aim. The
ancient Operative Masters were students and teachers, as well as architects
and builders. The medieval guild of Freemasons conserved, developed, and
transmitted from ancient to modern times the higher mathematics and the
technique of the building arts. The Operative lodge is a vocational school,
as well as a school of morals, a self-governing community, a trades-union and
a social brotherhood. When the Operative lodges, after the Reformation, broke
away from the medieval church, amalgamated with the local guilds of Stone
Masons, and began freely to "accept" non-operative members, they inherited,
conserved, and have since transmitted in large measure to modern times and
customs and teachings of the ancient Anglo-Saxon guilds.
Later, the group of philosophers who organised the British Royal Society
interpreted the Masonic quest for light terms of that free spirit of inquiry,
with which the names of Roger Bacon and Francis Bacon are associated and which
has given rise to modern science. Desaguliers and his associates organized
the British Royal Society as a research group. They revived the Masonic lodge
as an agency for the dissemination of the results of research among the
people. From this viewpoint also Preston, himself a self-made man and a
private student, developed his celebrated lectures which, as modified and
embellished by Webb, Cross, and others, are the basis of our present
Masonic lodge, in other words, while consistently maintaining through the ages
the quest for truth, has modified both the subject matter it has taught and
its method of presentation to conform to the progress of knowledge and to the
conditions of every age.
World War has shaken to its foundations the entire structure of civilization.
New social thrusts and tensions have been brought about to which every human
institution must readjust itself. The Craft in New York believes that the
time is opportune to expand the content of its teachings to embrace the full
circle of knowledge, including the discoveries of modern science, in
application to the needs of modern life.
Committee on Educational Service has made the following declaration:
period of Operative Masonry has passed. The period of purely Speculative
Masonry is passing. May we not hope that the Fraternity is about to enter a
new period which shall combine the past teachings of both Operative and
Speculative Masonry in what may be called APPLIED MASONRY, when every member
shall be assigned by the Master to some definite task and all, in their
stations, shall cooperate in helpful, stimulating, constructive service for
the common weal?"
this end, we are endeavouring (without in anywise modifying our regular
ritualistic work or infringing the ancient landmarks) gradually to convert our
entire lodge system into a great, modern, popular university wherein brethren
of expert knowledge in all fields of learning and activity will lecture on
their respective specialties as applied to the needs of individual, family,
community, state and nation.
are now using, and intend further to develop, the use of all kinds of
projection apparatus, including slides, films and opaque projectors, for
are promoting the formation of Masonic libraries and book, periodical, and
we hope to revive the ancient relationship of Master and Apprentice. We
intend to place in the hands of the Entered Apprentice a list of recommended
readings and put him in the relation of an apprentice to some Master Mason of
expert knowledge and practical experience, whose obligation shall be to
supervise and assist him in becoming a Master Workman in his chosen field.
According to returns from my questionnaire, some twenty-seven hundred
addresses were given in New York lodges last year on a variety of subjects.
Among these were more than one hundred illustrated lectures on the part played
by our Masonic forebears in the formative days of the Republic. Our lodges
have also celebrated with appropriate patriotic exercises the Masonic birthday
of George Washington and Flag Day and interested themselves actively in the
support of the public schools.
ideal to which we look forward is the installation in every lodge of a library
of Masonic and other appropriate books; a full equipment in each lodge of
projection apparatus for visual education; regular lectures in lodges
interpreting the problems of modern life in terms of Masonic truth; the
formation of book, periodical, and study clubs; and the enrolment of every
apprentice in a course of vocational reading and study under the guidance of
one or more of his elder brethren.
believe the day has come when our young men may and should see visions and our
old men dream dreams. We have in mind, moreover the classic aphorism of
Thoreau. "If you have been building castles in the air, your work need not be
lost. That is where they should be. Now build the foundations under them."
These are the designs upon our Trestle Board and the work of laying the
foundations is well in hand.
Arthur S. Tompkins, Grand Master, New York.
* * *
Subordinate Lodge Should Take the Initiative
mind the education of the Craftsman in Masonic principles can come only from
the Fraternity. The Fraternity is primarily the Masonic subordinate lodge.
It is in the subordinate lodge that the Mason learns of his duties to God, his
country, his fellow man and himself. Every Grand Jurisdiction is only as
strong as its subordinate organizations. Therefore the problem of education
rests with its constituent lodges. A Grand Lodge can make its plans for
education, but the inspiration for and the attainment of knowledge can come
and must come from its lodge leaders.
our lodges shall learn that a ritual is only for interpretation, that symbols
are merely for explanation, and that true Masonry lies solely in the proper
application of the emblems, then shall the pregnant possibilities of learning
be put into realities.
the ritual and ceremonies are employed for the above purposes, and discarded
as simply a dramatic performance, we shall approach the full opportunity that
Georgia, we are endeavouring to get away from the grinding out of candidates
and conferring of degrees. At our 1922 annual communication in October last,
our General Welfare Committee brought in a resolution, which was adopted,
creating a Committee on Masonic Education. This committee is headed by our
Past Grand Master, N.H. Ballard, a prominent Masonic student and
superintendent of the Georgia State Department of Education.
committee will arrange a series of study courses for the various lodges. It
will present a plan that will endeavour to make Masons as contrawise to the
recent desire on the part of lodges to make members. In our Jurisdiction we
have annual conventions of districts and counties. The state is divided into
districts, and each year there are the district and county conventions. It
has been a custom to confine these conventions mostly to the "rendition of the
work." Our Committee on Masonic Education will also prepare educational
programs for these conventions, so that the Craftsman may learn of the hidden
truths and principles of the Fraternity, that he may become more than a mere
poll-parrot to recite the ritual "letter perfect."
other words, our Masonic Educational Committee, better knowing the needs of
our Georgia Craftsmen, will endeavour to provide for Georgia Masons what the
Masonic Service Association of the United States is doing through its program.
plan is young with us, but Georgia Masons are determined to make Masonry a
system for the development of its members along the best and broadest lines of
idea is, if I may take the liberty of quoting, summed up in a paragraph of the
introduction to the review of Georgia's Foreign Correspondence report of 1920,
of all the chaos, readjustment and confusion, there is being awakened in
American Masonry the ideal of a bigger, broader and better education. We
cannot say it is the birth of a new ideal; it is more of a resurrection of the
old principles of our forefathers as written in the Declaration of Principles
of our nation. It is the re-application of Masonic tenets to social and
political creeds (not through organization as a Fraternity, but by
individualistic preparedness); it is the education of the Craftsman to the
highest plane of citizenship through his Masonic ideals. This new education,
thank God, has no reference to the worn-out bromidic platitude of a 'more
beautifully rendered letter-perfect ritual...... The education that is to be
urged is an American Masonic education, having for its three-fold purpose the
conservation of the Republic, the cooperation of pure citizenship, and the
Americanization of the people......."
P. Bowdoin, Grand Master, Georgia.
* * *
Wisdom of Freemasonry Is in Its Ritual
question has demanded the attention of a great many of our thoughtful and
constructive brethren for years and their conclusions are so satisfactory,
pleasing and practical, that I deem it a privilege to pass on the result of
their labours with the hope and prayer that they may find a place in the lives
of our brethren everywhere.
Looking at the Masonic situation of today and yesterday, our future is assured
while Masons continue God-fearing, intelligent, reputable and law-abiding and
absolutely loyal to the teachings of the Masonic Ritual.
Masonic Ritual is a wonderfully comprehensive ceremonial and includes all the
instruction bestowed by lodges upon candidates and brethren.
Freemasonry is the wisdom of the Masonic Ritual when at work in the world, a
wholesome, lively vital force for good. Masonic ceremonies were never
intended as mere entertainment nor as furnishing materials only for sages or
philosophers to dilate upon, but as educational agencies which, when acquired
and applied, become potent factors of daily usefulness in the lives of the
brethren. The function of any educational plan within the lodge is to enable
the assimilation of "those useful rules and maxims" inculcated in the
hearty welcome has always been held out to any and all trustworthy information
of a genuinely Masonic character. Our Ohio Code of Jurisprudence provides that
the several subordinate lodges shall be enjoined to introduce as often as it
is feasible in their meetings, lectures and essays upon Masonic polity, our
permanent system of Craft control and government, and the arts and sciences
same section of our Code recommends that lodges should be supplied with
libraries of useful and practical books. Much tactful persuasion must be used
with the brethren to persuade them to read and study these books. The great
advantage of the personal ownership and use of reliable text-books must be
made apparent to all.
Grand Lodge not only recognizes and adopts "The Charges of a Freemason" as
containing the fundamental laws of Freemasonry, but also declares that they
should be frequently read and perused by Masters and other Craftsmen, as well
within the subordinate lodges as without, to the end that none may be ignorant
of the excellent principles and precepts which they inculcate.
provisions of our Masonic Code in Ohio prompts a rendition of the Masonic
Ritual with all possible accuracy of head and all attainable warmth of heart,
that the principles of our Institution may be deeply and indelibly impressed
upon all who come within their legal scope.
state is conveniently divided into districts and each lodge is visited at
least once a year and examined in no perfunctory way. Our District Lecturers
also hold group meetings of several lodges at a time, particularly of the
officers. Every practicable means that the progress of the Institution and
the repute of our profession may require is employed that we may thereby
sustain and promote the common welfare, prosperity, unity and happiness of the
Craftsmen in all their undertakings.
unnecessary to dwell upon the splendid Masonic Home that is maintained or
treat of any other past or present activity of ours for the Fraternity.
Prompt has always been the response to any call for service in behalf of a
brother either in or out of the state.
system of education should be conservatively directed at the individual.
Singly we initiate and singly we propose, and our initiates should be
competent to do their personal duties among their fellow men. An initiate
shall be held to no allegiance for any particular creed of party or church,
but we do seek to educationally impress our Masonic principles upon him, that
no worthy work shall lack his earnest interest nor shall the distressed lose
his loving care.
parties are many and associations of men are increasingly manifold, and world
perplexities are rapidly multiplying, there is the greater need of all
practicable insistence on Masonic instruction that the Fatherhood of God and
the Brotherhood of Man may be our individually personal pursuits; that the
symbolic reminders by simple tools and ages-old precepts be not forgotten by
any one of us; and that there shall never be lacking among us the sage counsel
of competent and faithful Masters - these are some of the legitimate
educational labours of our Craft in Freemasonry and to these high and exalted
ideals with great sincerity of prayer and purpose the Masons of Ohio pledge
their untiring zeal and constant and utmost endeavors.
S. Johnson, Grand Master, Ohio.
* * *
Freemasonry Is in Itself an Education
believe Masonic membership too easily and cheaply acquired. In "cheaply" I do
not allude to the amount of the fee charged, for aside from the necessity of
having funds for our work, I regard Masonry as God-given, open for all
"qualified men even if they have not the price of the fee. I hold that no man
should be advanced, even from an Entered Apprentice, until he has made
suitable proficiency, and that proficiency should consist not wholly and
solely in memorizing a formula, but that he should live and act as a good man
and true, performing real service in his community, loved and respected by
all. Rather than a quiz in open lodge on a formula, his quiz should be on his
understanding of Masonry, its history, its symbolism, its philosophy.
attendance at lodge, his ready response the call of duty, his interest in
civic life, devoid of selfish gain, would be a more suitable evidence of his
worthiness to receive and have the rights, lights and benefits of advancement,
until when he was proclaimed a Master Mason, he would be truly such - a Master
-one who knows, one who has attained.
Masonry is education, an education covering every phase of life's activity.
The great professions in their higher aspect, are included in this
understanding, philosophy, science and art, and yet how many Master Masons
have studied the seven liberal arts and sciences?
appreciate your question and I believe your publication can do an invaluable
service to the Craft in an educational campaign with pointed suggestions for
the brethren, as I am fully convinced that the great majority of Masons are
really and truly praying for the Light.
suggest that where possible, lecturers of the right kind should be in the
field, not only preaching but teaching. These should be men who are not
seeking to build a following or subtly playing polities for some crafty one
who wears a Masonic pin; men who talk love and by example stimulate others to
love; practical men, not dreamers. Men who would encourage the lodges
visited, to devote half the time in study and discussion of the real teachings
of Masonry and make it worth while for the brethren to attend lodge.
a wonderful world this would be if the Masonic Fraternity were living and
practising Masonry, "dwelling together in unity" - then would the Turk sheath
his sword, for the light of the ages would have been placed on a hill, and
Intolerance and Ignorance would slink back into the pit.
Brown, Grand Master, Oregon.
* * *
Need Teachings That Are Strictly Masonic
brethren must be taught that Masonry can not drift from its clearly defined
moorings. In these days when insidious propaganda is attempting to undermine
the very foundations of our Government as laid by our Colonial forefathers,
many of whom were Masons, every member of the Fraternity owes the duty to
practice in his daily life those principles inculcated by Masonic precepts and
instilled into each of us in our Masonic journey.
often, I fear, Masons lose sight of the beacons that clearly mark the Masonic
highway and wander afield, only to find that a will-o'-the-wisp is leading
them more and more into remote regions that are far removed from the Masonic
highway to which there can be no return except in retracing the steps to the
point where these first diverged.
public glamour must make us forget our duties as Masons. Public opinion is of
a changeable character. Masonic teachings, besides being wise, are centuries
old, and are fundamental in their truths and texts. Masons who have permitted
their visions to be obscured and have in their anxiety "to do things,"
followed prophets whose teachings are not strictly Masonic, must rend asunder
the obscuring mist and renew their allegiance to Masonry in its purest and
our Jurisdiction there is a Grand Lodge standing Committee on Masonic
Education. This Committee is of recent origin and little opportunity has been
had to disseminate such teaching as is implied by its name. It is fully
expected that the Committee will function successfully without undue delay,
and that this will result in the true principles of Masonry not only being
better understood by the brethren, but that the example set by each Mason
because of his clearer conception of his duty to God, his country, his
neighbour, and himself, will be reflected in the entire Jurisdiction so that
it will redound to the benefit of all of the people of our state, and thereby
make our Institution, through the public activities of our brethren, as
individuals, better understood and more highly honoured.
Charles A. Bamberger, Grand Master, Delaware.
* * *
Must Teach All to Love and Practice Masonry
education of Masons in Masonry is one of the greatest problems confronting the
Craft today. There is no limit to education in any sphere, and Masonry
embraces such a world wide field that we almost despair of trying to
Masons consider themselves educated if they can repeat the lectures, confer a
degree or read the signs and symbols, and believe they graduated when they
received the Master Mason's Degree, proudly pointing to their apron as their
diploma and the square and compasses that they wear as their class pin.
the real Mason, the man who was made a Mason in his heart, the intelligent
man, the Masonic student, realizes that this is only the beginning of a course
of study that will end only when the word Finis is written on the pages of his
life. He realizes that it means research, study, work, an every day effort to
make better men, better homes, better morals, better government and higher
ideals. He realizes that it means educating himself and his associates to be
not only better husbands, better neighbours and friends, not only to be
hardworking, upright and God-fearing, but that they have a duty to perform to
themselves, their neighbours, their families, their state and their nation.
Masons we are in honour bound to strive earnestly to bring nearer the day when
Truth, Justice and Honour shall prevail in both our private and public life.
cannot hope to maintain our high standard of Brotherly Love, Relief and Truth,
or command the respect and deference the world now gives us if we do not
retain pride in our citizenship and strive day by day to improve ourselves.
Today the world needs Masonry and its teachings more than ever.
eyes of the profane are upon us, on those who are in authority, and those high
in the councils of the nation - as well as those of us in the humbler walks of
life, and it becomes us therefore "To walk worthily of the vocation wherein we
are called," and realize that it is not all of Masonry to wear a Masonic pin,
or know some letters, signs and symbols, better than we know the Ten
day has come when we must teach, not only our Craft, but the people,
something. This intelligent age demands it. Take the thinking man of today
and confer the degrees upon him as some lodges do, in the old time way and he
is often not only disappointed but disgusted with Masonry. He expected
something out of the ordinary; he paid his money and he is entitled to all
that Masonry professes to teach.
need Masters who can teach, Masters who read, who study, who dig, and delve in
Masonic literature, and Masonic lore: Masters who know, understand, love, and
heart to heart, can only teach
which unto them was taught."
is my conception of educating Masons in Masonry; it is a stupendous task, a
difficult problem, but it can be done and will be done. For as a pebble
dropped in a pool of water causes the ripples to expand and expand until they
reach the shore, go, will the teachings of Masonry continue to expand the
souls of men until they touch the shores of Eternity.
have divided our state into five districts and have a Board of Custodians,
consisting of five members - one for each district. This Board has authority
to appoint as many District Deputy Lecturers as may be necessary to supervise
the work in the different lodges. These Deputies must pass an examination
before the Board of Custodians and must be well versed not only in ritualistic
work but in lodge procedure.
Custodians from time to time arrange for district meetings or conventions,
which are attended by all lodges 'nearby, at which time matters of civil,
patriotic, and Masonic nature are discussed, as well as providing for a social
year has been devoted to a consideration of our Public School System and our
find these conventions well attended and great interest taken and we feel that
we are getting results.
are also working in harmony with, and along the lines suggested by, the
Masonic Service Association.
our Grand Lodge meetings we have had speakers of note address the Grand Lodge
and our last one was unusually interesting and instructive.
coming year will see a still greater effort along these lines, as we find the
brothers are waking up to the necessity of doing something more than
conferring degrees, and having a social session.
Theorus R. Stoner, Grand Master, South Dakota.
Masons, Not Members, Are Required
Masonry in the large centers of population had less diversified interests it
would be easier to educate Masons in Masonry. Many never get into the real
spirit of the institution so that their duties and obligations rest lightly
upon them. Connecticut has undertaken this year to make use of two of the
Masonic Service Association's lectures, namely, "The Fatherhood of God" and
"The Brotherhood of Man" in connection with its educational work, and has
tried to impress upon the membership that it is Masons, not members, that is
required. The activity of Masons in all great crises of our country's history
has also been featured.
L. Wilder, Grand Master Connecticut
THEY TOOK HIM, AND SLEW HIM AT THE PASSAGES OF THE JORDAN!"
BRO. WALTER BOOTH ADAMS, M.A., M.D., SYRIA
Brother Adams is Professor of Pharmacology and Dermatology in American
University, Beirut, Syria, and a member of Amos Beecher Lodge No. 121, of
Hartford, Conn. He wrote the article which follows at our express request,
and its freshness and novelty was such that we have asked him for others like
it, and are glad to announce his consent. Readers of THE BUILDER will be
interested to know that it was through Dr. Adams that Brother Joseph Fort
Newton's The Builders is now being translated into Arabic. It is doubtful if
any book on Freemasonry has ever enjoyed that distinction. Does the reader
chance to know of such a thing? Freemasonry is active in Syria. A Masonic
periodical is published at Damascus.
IS NOT familiar with the story in the twelfth chapter of Judges and the
terrible punishment meted out on the unbrotherly Ephraimites by the men of
Gilead at the fords of the Jordan? Having been myself at the very place
perhaps adds interest to the story for me: but I wish to record a most
interesting double repetition of history.
will be recalled that Jephthah, the strong man in Israel in his day, was the
leader, Sheikh, we would say in these days in Arabic. Jepthah won a notable
victory over the people of Ammon, who lived to the south of his tribe. When
he was threatened, the Ephraimites would not come to the help of their brother
tribe, the Gileadites: but when the battle was won and there was spoil to be
gathered in and divided, the Ephraimites were right there for the division and
threatened Jephthah with burning his house over his head for not summoning
them to share in it. This was a bit too strong, and Jephthah took up the
challenge and a civil war or battle took place and the bullies and boasters
"got their come-uppance," as the old New England phrase so graphically puts
only were the Ephraimites "scattered and peeled," but Jephthah stationed a
force at the fords of the Jordan to intercept the Ephraimites fleeing west to
their homes. "And the Gileadites took the passages of the Jordan before the
Ephraimites: and it was so, that when those Ephraimites which escaped said,
Let me go over; that the men of Gilead said unto him, Art thou an Ephraimite?
If he said Nay; Then said they unto him, Say now Shibboleth (which signifieth
a, stream): and he said Sibboleth: for, he could not frame to pronounce it
right. Then they took him, and slew him at the passages of the Jordan: and
there fell at that time of the Ephraimites forty and two thousand." A truly
terrible punishment for unfraternal acts and threats! This is reckoned by
chronologists to have taken place about 1140 years before Christ. Three
thousand years is a long stretch!
the year 1840 Muhammad Ali, the Viceroy of Egypt and the founder of the royal
house that now reigns in the Valley of the Nile - first as Khedive, then
Sultan, and now as King - rebelled against the Turkish government and made his
able son, Ibrahim Pasha, his commander-in-chief. He swept through Palestine
and Syria, driving the Turkish forces before him, and impressing into his
army, the Syrians. The Syrians greatly resented this forced drafting into the
Egyptian army as much as they resented and did their best to evade the Turkish
draft in the Great War, but the conscription was very thorough and the more
hated on that account.
Ibrahim Pasha drove the Turks well into Asia Minor and was threatening
Constantinople; and indeed, the Turks were unable to stop him. But it was
contrary to the policy of the European powers to have the Turks conquered by
the Egyptians, and the allied fleet, mostly British with some French and a few
Russian ships, bombarded Beirut - we have some of the solid shot cannon balls
in the museum of the American University of Beirut as a memento of it. They
captured the city, drew their ships up on the sands of St. George's Bay, cut
down some of the best remaining of the Cedars of Lebanon, but not all of them,
to make tar, and then proceeded to calk the seams of their wooden ships.
Holding Beirut, they threatened Ibrahim Pasha's line of communication with
Egypt. He turned about and retreated, coming down through Aleppo and Damascus
and crossing the Jordan at the same fords that the Ephraimites had crossed,
and met with such disaster in mispronouncing a word. Now, in all retreating
armies there are stragglers, and many of them. As I have intimated, the
Syrians hated the Egyptians, and when the soldiers, the stragglers, came to
the ford the Syrians would ask them: "Are you a Shami (Syrian)?" "Yes,
indeed," the Egyptian would slay to gain favour and perhaps food. "Then say
Jamel (camel)." "Gamel," the Egyptian would inadvertently say. Now there is
no "J" sound in the Egyptian dialect of Arabic. The letter that is written
the same is in the Syrian dialect sounded like a soft "J," really like the
French "J," whereas the Egyptians always pronounce it like a hard "G," and
accordingly said "Gamel." In fact, the English language got its name for, that
ugly brute, the pet of the "Shriners," from the Egyptian dialect, but we have
substituted a "C" and for the "G." So the Syrian soldiers said "Jamel," they
said, "Pass on, my brother"; but when the Egyptians said "Gamel," they said, "Iktul
'ameru," (cut off his life!) and they killed them just as the Gileadites slew
the Ephraimites, three thousand years before at the same place.
that is not all. The Turks in the Great War drafted the Syrians into their
army and most of them were very unwilling soldiers. They were not in sympathy
with the Germano-Turkish aims and plans. When Allenby made that wonderfully
complete crumpling up of the Ottoman army in Palestine and across the Jordan
in September, 1918, many who did not get caught in the net at first tried to
escape by crossing from the east of the Jordan to the west side by these same
fords of the famous river. There they met many Syrians, some soldiers and
some civilians, and each fleeing soldier was asked whether he were Syrian or a
Turk. If he said he was a Syrian, they said to him: "Say Buzszle" (onion);
and if he were a Turk he would say "bussel," for the Turkish language makes no
difference in pronouncing the "Sod" and the "Seen," both varieties of the
letter "S." The "Sod" is a heavy "S" sounded with the tip of the tongue down
below the roots of the front teeth and the Turks pronounce it just like an
ordinary "S." The Syrian ear is very discriminating to these sounds; and when
they heard the word for onion come hissing out instead of lisping out like a
tongue-tied child, they said "Iktul 'ameru" (cut off his life), and they slew
many Turks at the fords of the Jordan.
DR. JOHNSON A FREEMASON? SOME PHASES OF HIS LIFE
BRO. ARTHUR HEIRON, ENGLAND
CONCLUDED FROM MARCH NUMBER
this instalment Brother Arthur Heiron concludes his examination of the famous
Dr. Johnson's possible connections with Freemasonry, and brings to end as
interesting an essay as one has read in many a day, especially in the
sidelights it throws on the doings of Freemasons in eighteenth century
England. The pages now following have a peculiar interest in that they set
forth evidence to show that David Garrick, Edmund Burke, and Sir William
Forbes were Masons. It is clearly proved that Boswell himself was made a
member before 1770, which is a fact that excites our curiosity, see-thanks for
his essay. May he find it possible to publish the lodges of those early
days. Brother Heiron has our thinking that he was of a type which we seldomly
associate with same in book form!
ENOUGH has certainly now been said (perhaps too much) to demonstrate that
whatever other good qualities the learned doctor possessed, he was indeed a
lover of fun and humour, at times a real "Bohemian," a frequenter of taverns,
very partial to club life, and just the type of man who could appreciate the
jovial good fellowship that was to be found in a leading and important Masonic
lodge. The "Dundee Lodge" No. 9, undoubtedly was such a lodge, and met in its
own freehold at Wapping from 1763 to 1820, a unique experience for a lodge in
if the critical student does not accept the evidence as sufficient to make the
identity clear, surely it is most reasonable to believe that Dr. Johnson did
indeed join the Craft at some period or other, even if we may never know the
actual name of his lodge; if he did do this, he would only be following the
example of certain of his most intimate acquaintances. And now let us turn
our thought for a few moments to his biographer and close personal friend
BOSWELL'S MYSTERIOUS SILENCE
arrive now at the strangest feature of this little story namely, that while
Boswell's "Life of Johnson contains about 1300 pages, yet the important and
very interesting subject of Freemasonry is never even alluded to. Johnson and
Boswell were both inveterate gossips and this book is full of discussions of
nearly every subject under the sun, both grave and gay, including such items
as "Religion"; "Life and Immortality"; "Marriage and Divorce"; "Polities";
"Ghosts"; "Various methods of shaving"; "Hours of sleep needed for health";
etc., etc., etc. Boswell once asked his hero; "If, Sir, you were shut up in a
castle and a new-born child with you, what would you do?" "Why, Sir, I should
not much like my company," was Dr. Johnson's sage reply.
first one might believe that Boswell's strange silence on the subject of the
Craft was because he was not himself a Freemason, but this proves erroneous,
for "James Boswell" had been "Made a Mason" before 1770 in Edinburgh, in "Canongate
Kilwinning" Lodge (No. 2), of which he became the Master; was elected Senior
Grand Warden of the Grand Lodge of Scotland in 1773, and was afterwards
"Raised to the Dais as Depute Grand Master" (of Scotland) in 1776-77.
Several other of Johnson's most intimate friends were also Freemasons; viz.,
(1) Sir William Forbes of Pitsligo, who was actually Grand Master of Scotland
in 1776 and 1777. He was a well known and respected banker, often in London
and at one time associated with "Coutts," also an author. (2) David Garrick,
the famous actor, who had actually been a pupil at Dr. Johnson's school in
1737; and, (3) Edmund Burke, the renowned orator and statesman. There may be
a slight doubt as to the last two names, but none as regards Boswell and
all these friends of Johnson were also members of his famous "Literary Club"
and they often met together for friendly discussion. Dr. Johnson was perhaps
the greatest talker the world has ever known; Mrs. Thrale says "that
conversation was all that Johnson required to make him happy"; even Burke,
England's greatest orator, was content to say but little when Dr. Johnson was
present, stating, "It is enough for me to have rung the bell to him." Surely
Boswell, the "babbling and loquacious Boswell," vain and loving praise, would
have informed Johnson of the great honour conferred upon him (Boswell) when
the Grand Master of Scotland appointed him his Deputy in 1776, and it is
almost certain that discussions would have taken place between these two on
the merits or demerits of an Order that had existed certainly back to medieval
times, when the Operative Craft Guilds were in full sway; and which in 1769
was described in a history by Wellins Calcott, a Past Master, as "the most
Ancient and Honourable Society of Free and Accepted Masons," of which book
Boswell himself was one of the original subscribers. Freemasons also in those
days constantly made charitable gifts to deserving objects quite outside the
Craft; as an instance, the "Dundee Lodge" No. 9, (not a wealthy lodge) in 1766
subscribed thirty pounds sterling for the "Unhappy Sufferers by the Great Fire
at Barbadoes," which was far distant from our brethren at Wapping.
the reason possibly be that Dr. Johnson (not desiring any enquiry being made
as to his wanderings and researches at Wapping in 1767), personally requested
Boswell never to allude to the subject of the Craft when writing his Life? It
will be remembered that Johnson never referred to "Wapping" till 1783, the
year before his death, and how surprised Boswell was when his hero's
acquaintance with this locality was for the first time thus revealed. The
reader must however decide for himself the true motive for Boswell's strange
silence on a subject that certainly merited discussion much more than many of
the trifling themes he and Johnson used to argue about.
JOHNSON'S FRIENDS AS MASONS
James Boswell (1740-1795)
David Garrick (1716-1779)
Sir William Forbes (1739-1806)
Edmund (?) Burke (1730-1797)
evidence as to these friends of Dr. Johnson being members of the Craft is as
follows: As regards Boswell and Forbes, an extract taken from the History of
the Lodge of Edinburgh (Mary's Chapel) No. 1, by David Murray Lyon, second
edition, 1900, states on page 55:
"James Boswell of Auchinleck, son and heir of the Scottish Judge, Lord
Auchinleck, and himself the well known author of 'Corsica,' and the biographer
of Dr. Johnson, was made a member by honourary affiliation in February, 1777.
Previous to this he had been elected Senior Grand Warden in the Grand Lodge of
Scotland and was subsequently raised to the dais as Depute Grand Master, which
post he held during the years 1776-77 and 1777-78. Canongate Kilwinning was
his mother lodge, of which he became Master. His uncle, John Boswell, M. D.,
Censor of the Royal College of Physicians in Edinburgh, was Senior Grand
Warden in 1753-54. James' son, Alexander (afterwards Sir Alexander) Boswell,
was also a member of the Craft, and at the time of his death by the hand of a
duellist, was Master of Lodge Kilwinning and an ex-officio Provincial Grand
Master of Ayrshire."
further extract on page 361 states: "1776, December 10: Sir William Forbes of
Pitsligo, Baronet. The Grand Master, who was accompanied by his Depute, James
Boswell, the biographer of Johnson, was made 'an honourary brother of the
Lodge, as a mark of the sense the Brethren had of his high and distinguished
merit in every department of life.' Sir William Forbes was initiated in
Canongate Kilwinning in 1759. He held the post of Junior Grand Warden from
1765 to 1769 and, as 31st Grand Master, presided in the Grand Orient during
the two years ending November, 1778..... He was a member with Johnson, Burke,
Garrick, Reynolds and other notables of the celebrated literary Club of
London." (Substantially the same accounts can be found on pages 53 and 328-330
of the original edition of Lyon's History, printed in 1873.)
[Note: Sir William Forbes, born in 1739, died in 1806; he was a friend of Sir
Walter Scott, who dedicated to his memory the fourth canto of "Marmion."]
further reference is to be found in Gould's "History of Freemasonry," Volume
V, Chapter XXIII, p. 63: "Sir William Forbes .... the latter - whose Depute
was James Boswell of Auchinleck - laid the foundation stone of the High School
of Edinburgh, June 24th, 1777."
further reference is to be found in A Candid Disquisition of the Principles
and Practices of the most Ancient and Honourable Society of Free and Accepted
Masons, by Wellins Calcott, P.M., printed in London, 1769, where on page IV
the list of subscribers to that Masonic history includes: "James Boswell Esq;
Author of the History of Corsica"; Boswell having visited Corsica and in 1768
written a history of that country.
final reference appears in The History of Free Masonry and the Grand Lodge of
Scotland, by W. A. Laurie, Secretary to the Grand Lodge of Scotland: printed
in 1859. An extract from the Table of Grand Office-bearers in Grand Lodge of
Scotland from 1736 to 1858, gives "Boswell, James, (the biographer of
Johnson)" as S.G.W. in 1773, and D.G.M. in 1776-1777.
[Note: The writer is personally indebted to Bro. J.E. Shum Tuckett, M.A. (Cantab.),
P.Pr.G.R., Wilts., P.M. "Quatuor Coronati Lodge" No. 2076, a well known, keen
and ardent Masonic student, for this interesting information thus clearly
proving James Boswell and Sir William Forbes to be Freemasons.]
DAVID GARRICK'S SNUFF-BOX
evidence as to David Garrick (1716-79) being a Mason is not so strong but
still fairly circumstantial, for one of the old lodges in London, known as
"St. Paul's Lodge" No. 194, constituted in 1790, preserves as one of its
cherished relies a silver snuff-box, and engraved on the inside of the lid is
a statement that the box is a duplicate of one that originally belonged to
"Bro. David Garrick"; this souvenir has been in the possession of this lodge
for so many years that the oldest member can assign no date as to when it was
BURKE (EDMUND?) (1730-1797)
great writer and statesman was a member of "Jerusalem Lodge," No. 44,
March 3. "Burke's Lodge"; when the members went to the King's Bench Prison and
made John Wilkes a Mason. (see Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, Volume III, page 61.)
(Note: The writer is indebted for this item to Bro. W. Wonnacott, A.G. Supt.
Wks., Assistant Librarian to the Grand Lodge of England.) Here seems
reasonable evidence that Edmund Burke, England's greatest orator, was a
Freemason; his impassioned speech of three days duration delivered on the
"Impeachment of Warren Hastings" was perhaps his greatest effort.
the "Old Charges" approved by Grand Lodge in 1722, the brethren are enjoined
to "Cultivate Brotherly Love, the Foundation and Cape-stone, the Cement and
Glory of this Ancient Fraternity"; surely such lofty and unselfish sentiments
should have appealed to both Johnson and Boswell who were so constantly
talking of their religious principles; yet it almost appears as if Boswell by
his contemptuous silence (and certainly by his indifference) was willing to
cast a kind of slur upon our noble Craft as though the subject was not even
worthy of discussion by a man of his eminence; therefore acting in defense of
our Order, the following observations were added:
Description and Character
Macaulay evidently did not hold a very high opinion of the biographer of Dr.
Johnson, for writing in September 1831, in the Edinburgh Review, he said:
"Boswell was one of the smallest men that ever lived, and yet, he has beaten
them all." He was "a man of the meanest and feeblest intellect," servile and
impertinent, shallow and pedantic, a bigot and a sot, bloated with family
pride, .... stooping to be a tale bearer, an eavesdropper." "That such a man
should have written one of the best books in the world is strange enough." "If
he had not been a great fool he would never have been a great writer." "He was
a dunce, a parasite, and a coxcomb," "but his book has made him immortal."
"His fame is great; and it will we have no doubt be lasting," and yet, "While
edition after edition of his book (viz., Boswell's "Life of Johnson") was
coming forth, his son (Sir Alexander Boswell), as Mr. Croker tells us was
ashamed of it, and hated to hear it mentioned."
CARLYLE ON "BOSWELL"
us now read a few statements from an essay by Thomas Carlyle, the sage of
Chelsea, who, writing in Fraser's Magazine of 1832, said: "Boswell was a
person whose mean or bad qualities lay open to the general eye, visible,
palpable to the dullest.... That he was a wine-bibber and good liver, .... is
undeniable enough. That he was vain, heedless, a babbler, had much of the
sycophant, alternating with the braggadocio, curiously spiced too with an
all-pervading dash of the coxcomb, ... that he appeared at the Shakespeare
Jubilee with a riband imprinted 'Corska Boswell' round his hat .... is evident
as the sun at noon. The very look of Boswell seems to have signified so
much. In that cocked nose, cocked partly in triumph over his weaker
fellow-creatures, partly to snuff up the smell of coming pleasure and scent it
from afar, in those big cheeks, hanging like half-filled wine-skins, still
able to contain more, in the coarsely-protruded shelf mouth, that fat
dew-lapped chin; in all this who sees not sensuality, pretension, boisterous
imbecility enough? The underpart of Boswell's face is of a low almost brutish
character." These are the comments made by one Scotsman on a brother Scot!
criticisms thus made by Macaulay and Carlyle on Boswell seem to us in 1922
rather unduly severe, but as they wrote their remarks only about thirty-seven
years after Bosell's death, they doubtless received some of their information
from various people who knew him personally and were well able to judge. It
will be noted also that Boswell in his own private letters, written by him to
his intimate friend Rev. W.J. Temple (published for the first time in 1857),
does not spare himself but practically confirms the rather severe verdict
may now we think fairly be said that the following points have been
sufficiently demonstrated; viz.,
Dr. Samuel Johnson's admitted acquaintance with Wapping.
"Samuel Johnson" "Made a Mason" at Wapping in 1767.
Rarity and scarcity of this name.
Dr. Johnson's great love of London, fondness for club life, a frequenter of
His partiality for dancing: most probably he attended the "Wapping Assembly"
Masonic references. Dr. Johnson gives a Charge to Boswell.
"James Boswell" and "David Garrick," both Freemasons. "James Boswell," Depute
Grand Master of Scotland (1776 - 1777).
His strange silence as to the Craft
Macaulay and Carlyle on Boswell.
Various "pros" and "Cons."
may be remarked and truthfully that after all, the above statements seeking to
prove that Dr. Johnson was a Freemason are merely based on "circumstantial
evidence"; this is admitted, although the chain of evidence is fairly strong,
but nearly all criminal trials of modern days depend on testimony.
Hon. Mr. Justice Darling, a lawyer of repute and wide experience, in summing
up the facts in a recent sensational trial for murder, (where the prisoner was
convicted of poisoning his wife by arsenic) remarked, "It has been said that
the evidence in this case is only circumstantial; well, in my opinion
circumstantial evidence is the best evidence you can get provided there is
plenty of it."
now humbly suggested that the "circumstantial evidence" concerning Dr.
Johnson's alleged connection with the Craft (even if the name of his lodge be
not a certainty) is sufficiently strong to deserve acceptance, but the
responsibility for the final verdict is left to each individual reader, who by
this time is fully qualified to decide for himself. And now having in a very
halting and inefficient manner brought these few facts to the notice of the
Craft, the writer wishes his brethren "Adieu," and retires into, his former
Boswell's Life of Johnson, 1791.
Hawkin's Life of Johnson, 1787.
Johnson's Prayers and Meditations, 1785.
Macaulay's Essay in the Edinburgh Review, 1831.
Carlyle's Essay in Fraser's Magazine, 1832.
of Madame D'Arblade (Fanny Burney), 142.
Heiron's Ancient Freemasonry and the Old Dundee Lodge No. 18, 1722-1920.
MEMORIALS TO GREAT MEN WHO VVERE MASONS- - ROBERT E. PEARY
BRO. GEO. W. BAIRD, P. G. M., DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
ROBERT E. PEARY, arctic explorer and discoverer of the North Pole, was a
member of Kane Lodge of New York City. Shortly after his birth in Pennsylvania
in 1854 his parents moved to Maine, and there it was that Robert spent his
boyhood. He was graduated from the Van Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute at
Troy, New York, with the degree of Civil Engineer. In 1881 he entered the
United States Naval Service as a civil engineer with the rank of lieutenant,
and served his corps with faithfulness and zeal. In much of the work under his
charge, as in the docking improvements at Key West, he almost always managed t
o keep his work at a cost underneath the estimates and appropriations, a thing
that is somewhat rare. He was always exacting and particular in his work and
usually managed to have his own way, which was always very much to the
interest of the Service.
first acquaintance with Peary was about 1885, at which time he was
constructing a patent sled for the purpose of using it on the ice-cap of
Greenland, which is the farthest north of any land. He believed that Greenland
might extend to the Pole and that by going across its ice-cap he would be
enabled to make that much coveted discovery. His purpose was to use a sail to
help the dogs pull the load. This was the first time that an explorer had
planned to use Greenland as a highway to the Pole.
required no argument to enable me to see and appreciate his methods. Snow
falls on high places in the arctic regions as it does in the tropics, but the
winds pile it up on the lower levels so that after the lapse of thousands of
centuries this vast deposit of unthawed snow approaches a general level. The
weight of the snow (snow is really a very heavy material when packed) at last
transforms it into solid ice, which at the edge of the land falls over into
the sea as icebergs. The depth of these icebergs,a s they lie in the cold
water, is an indication of the depth of the snow and ice in Greenland, and its
bulk is sometimes mountainous.
doubted Peary's ability to reach the top of the Greenland ice-cap, but he said
he would find a way or make it, an expression that he frequently used. I
doubted still more his ability to get from the Navy Department a leave of
absence to make his experiment, and I was even more skeptical of his ability
to secure an outfit or an appropriation for the same, because neither Congress
nor the Navy Department had shown much liberality in such matters for several
years. Dr. Kane's expedition to the arctic, as I have already explained in
these pages, was financed by Mr. Grinnell.
Peary was confident and he at last succeeded. His excursion over the ice-cap
of Greenland was much as he expected and he made wonderful speed over that
rolling surface. But alas!
best laid plans of mice and men
at last came to a ravine as deep and wide as t h e Grand Canon of the
Colorado, but more jagged and frozen, in the bottom of which moved a great
mass of sluggish water and ice. It was impossible to cross this but it proved
that Greenland was an island, which was a great discovery in geography and
alone entitles Peary to an ever enduring crown of fame.
next plan - like a good engineer he learned from experience and did not repeat
mistakes - was entirely different. He conceived the idea of establishing food
depots along the trail, a day's travel apart, in order that the party making
the final dash might travel with lighter load and thus stand a better chance.
It was by this means that he succeeded in realizing what had been the fond
dream of arctic explorers for a hundred years. Peary's method of establishing
food denote at intervals was adopted by Captain Roald Amundsen, the famous
Norwegian who discovered the South Pole. Captain Scott of the Royal Navy, who
died during his attempt to reach the South Pole, also used the same method.
had grit, daring and endless perseverance. On one voyage he broke his leg, but
refused to turn back. He had his leg put in splints and he recovered. Neither
did he falter when three of his toes were so badly frozen that they had to be
amputated. It was while he had to lie by with his broken leg in winter
quarters that his wife joined him, and their daughter, famous as the "snow
baby," was born at that time.
happened that Peary, the discoverer of the North Pole, and Amundsen, the
discoverer of the South Pole, were entertained together at a dinner given in
Washington, D. C., by the National Geographic Society. A gold medal was given
to each of these great men by the President of the United States. One of the
speakers of the occasion was Sir James Bryce, the then Ambassador from Great
Britain, who, in a very happy speech said: "Something has happened here
tonight which never happened before and which can never happen again. There
meet with us the discoverer of the North Pole and the discoverer of the South
beautiful memorial shown in the illustration is a granite sphere resting on
four bronze feet, upon a rectangular base, also of granite. The outline of the
continent is sculptured on the sphere and at the extreme north of it is a five
pointed star. Few observers know that this star is a Masonic emblem, the
pentalpha, which is emblematic of the five points of fellowship, as
beautifully explained in the lecture of the second section of the Third
memorial was planned by the widow of Peary, but the National Geographic
Society secured not only the privilege of assuming the cost, but also of
having charge of the dedication. The dedication took place on the sixth day of
April, 1922, at the National Cemetery of Arlington, Virginia, near the capital
of the nation. It was originally planned that the Grand Lodge of the District
of Columbia should perform the ceremony, and a large deputation from Kane
Lodge came from New York to assist, but for some reason unknown to me the
Masonic service was omitted. The famous Marine Band furnished the music. The
Secretary of the Navy, the Assistant Secretary of the Navy, and the President
of the National Geographic Society made eloquent addresses. The stoppers which
held the Union Jack over the memorial were broken by Peary's daughter, Mrs.
Stafford. As the flag slid down from the sides of the memorial, the Marine
Band rendered the national air. President and Mrs. Harding, the Chief Justice
of the United States, the Secretary of State, and many senators and members of
the Diplomatic Corps and officers of the Army and Navy were among the guests.
Congress enacted that Peary should be promoted to the rank of Rear Admiral in
recognition of his services and he was retired with that rank in 1909. He was
much broken in health, but he never referred to that and concealed his
misfortunes, and gamely assumed a happy air. We have always thought that it
was the devoted attention that he received from his brave little wife that
kept him alive so long. He died in Washington in 1920.
FREEMASONRY AND THE MEN'S HOUSE
BRO. H.L. HAYWOOD
EDITOR THE BUILDER
ANTHROPOLOGISTS DISCOVER THE MEN'S HOUSE
SINCE Heinrich Schurtz published his Altersklassen und Maennerbunde in 1902,
anthropologists have become more and more interested in the part played by
secret societies among primitive peoples. Herr Schurtz discovered that secret
societies were not by any means a private thing, of little interest and less
consequence, as former anthropologists had believed them to be, but that they
were of equal importance in primitive life with other social institutions. He
found that "in intimate connection with the age-classes, and more particularly
with the dominant role played by the organized bachelors, there develops the
men's house. It is characteristic as a structure in which the adult but
single men cook their meals, work, play and sleep, while the married men dwell
apart with their families. Women and children are usually barred from the
premises, while the mature young girls may freely consort with the inmates."
Hutton Webster, of the University of Nebraska, working independently and
without knowledge of the findings of Schurtz, arrived at the same conclusion,
and wrote a treatise on the subject that has proved of the utmost importance
to students of secret societies. This was published in 1908 under the title
of Primitive Secret Societies: A Study in Early Politics and Religion. The
central conception of this book is that of the men's house. Prof. Webster
describes this at some length on the first page of this book as follows:
separation of the sexes which exists in civilized societies is the outcome, in
part, of natural distinctions of sex and economic function; in part it finds
an explanation in those feelings of sexual solidarity to which we owe the
existence of our clubs and unions. Sexual solidarity itself is only another
expression for the working of that universal law of human sympathy, or in more
modern phrase, of consciousness of kind, which lies at the foundation of all
social relations. But in primitive societies, to these forces bringing about
sexual separation, there is added a force even more potent, which originates
in widespread beliefs as to the transmissibility of sexual characteristics
from one individual to another. Out of these beliefs have arisen many curious
and interesting taboos designed to prevent the real or imagined dangers
incident to the contact of the sexes. Sexual separation is further secured
and perpetuated by the institution known as the men's house, of which examples
are to be found among primitive peoples throughout the world.
men's house is usually the largest building in a tribal settlement. It
belongs in common to the villagers; it serves as council-chamber and town
hall, as a guest-house for strangers, and as the sleeping resort of the men.
Frequently, seats in the house are assigned to elders and other leading
individuals according to their dignity and importance. Here the precious
belongings of the community, such as trophies taken in war or in the chase,
and religious emblems of various sorts are preserved. Within its precincts,
women and children, and men not fully initiated members of the tribe, seldom
or never enter. When marriage and the exclusive possession of a woman do not
follow immediately upon initiation into the tribe, the institution of the
men's house becomes an effective restraint upon the sexual proclivities of the
unmarried youth. It then serves as a clubhouse for the bachelors whose
residence within it may be regarded as a perpetuation of that formal seclusion
of the lads from the women, which it is the purpose of the initiation
ceremonies in the first place to accomplish. Such communal living on the part
of the young men is a visible token of their separation from the narrow circle
of the family, and of their introduction to the duties and responsibilities of
tribal life. The existence of such an institution emphasizes the fact that a
settled family life with a private abode is the privilege of the older men,
who alone have marital rights over the women of the tribe. For promiscuity,
either before or after marriage, is the exception among primitive peoples, who
attempt not only to regulate by complicated and rigorous marriage systems the
sexual desires of those who are competent to marry, but actually to prevent
any intercourse at all of those who are not fully initiated members of the
institution so firmly established and so widely spread may be expected to
survive by devotion to other uses, as the earlier ideas which led to its
foundation fade away. As guard posts where the young men are confined on
military duty and are exercised in the arts of war, these houses often become
a serviceable means of defence. The religious worship of the community
frequently centers in them. Often they form the theatre of dramatic
representations. In rare instances these institutions seem to have lost their
original purpose and to have facilitated sexual communism rather than sexual
separation. Among some tribes men's house is used as the centre of the
puberty initiation ceremonies. With the development of secret societies,
replacing the earlier tribal puberty institutions, the mens house frequently
becomes the seat of these organizations and forms the secret 'lodge.' The
presence then in a primitive community of the men's house in any form of its
numerous forms points strongly to the existence, now, or in the past, of
secret initiation ceremonies." (Primitive Secret Societies, pages 1, 2, 3)
may doubt the accuracy of Prof. Webster when he says that "examples are to be
found among primitive people throughout the world." There are not many
examples to be found in Asia and it may very well be that in certain parts of
that continent the primitive secret society has never been known: some
authorities are of that opinion, Schurtz for example, who was not able to
discover traces of men's secret societies over large portions of the
continent. In his chapter on "Diffusion of Ancient Ceremonies," Webster has
himself furnished no Asiatic examples but has confined himself to Australia,
Tasmania, Melanesia, Polynesia, South America, Central America and North
impossible in the present limitations of space to set down very many examples
of the primitive secret cult: a few specimens will suffice. Among the Andaman
Islanders there are three kinds of huts, for bachelors, spinsters and married
couples, respectively. In their eleventh year boys and girts are subjected to
various ordeals and in every case must participate in elaborate ceremonies
upon passing from one age grade to another. Women participate in these
mysteries as well as men. Most Australian tribes have initiation ceremonies at
or near the time of puberty. In most cases these ceremonies are very severe;
men only are admitted; and the rite appears usually to be a form of
preparation for matrimony. The Masai divide their male members into three
grades of boys, warriors, and elders; their ceremony is accompanied by
circumcision. Among the Banks Islanders the males constitute a kind of triple
secret society but this group is entered not by initiation but by paying a
fee. Men live in the village club house, which is a lounging place and eating
place by day and dormitory by night: they are divided into grades with power
and prestige accordingly, and only men of wealth can reach the higher
positions. This same people have "Ghost Societies" which are very secret in
their nature and have headquarters in the most secluded places. Among the
Pueblo Indians the Zunis had a "Mask Dancer" society, in which there were
degrees, initiations, and much primitive mummery: each society had its own
lodge building in which were apartments representing the four quarters of the
compass, the zenith, and the nadir. The Hopi Indians had similar secret
fraternities and so also the Crows, who had a "Tobacco Society" with
initiation ceremonies, degrees, etc. The Hidatsas had many social clubs,
entrance to which was gained through purchase: their women had similar
organizations. On the other hand the Shoshoneans of the Great Basin have
apparently never had anything that may be properly classed as a secret
society. These cases are but typical of the countless instances in which
primitive people - or savages as we call them - have made use of secret
TRIBAL INITIATION IS A SEVERE ORDEAL
most cases the initiation ceremonies are in the nature of ordeals and many
times are so severe that death or permanent crippling is not unknown. "The
diversity of the ordeals is most interesting. Thus, depilation, head biting,
evulsion of teeth, sprinkling with human blood, emersion in dust or filth,
heavy flogging, scarification, smoking and burning, circumcision and
subincision, are some of the forms in which the ordeals appear, among the
Australians alone.... Of all these ordeals circumcision has the greatest
prominence..... Almost universally initiation rites include a mimic
representation of the death and resurrection of the novice. The new life to
which he awakes from initiation is one utterly forgetful of the old; a new
name, a new language, and new principles are its natural
accompaniment......... A new language is closely associated with the new
name. The possession of an esoteric speech known only to initiated members is
highly useful as lending an additional mystery to the proceedings......... The
various ceremonies which take place on the arrival of girls at puberty are
distinctly less impressive than those of the boys. As a rule there is no
admittance at a formal initiation possessing tribal aspects and secret
rites......... No doubt various beliefs arising from many different sources
have united to establish the necessity of secluding boys and girls at puberty.
"Isolation from the things of flesh and sense has been a device not
infrequently employed by people of advanced culture for the furtherance of
spiritual life, and we need not be surprised to find uncivilized man resorting
to similar devices for more practical purposes. The long fasts, the
deprivation of sleep, the constant excitement of the new and unexpected, the
nervous reaction under long-continued torments, result in a condition of
extreme sensitiveness - hyper - aesthesia- which is certainly favourable to
the reception of impressions that will be indelible. The lessons learned in
such a tribal school as the puberty institution constitutes, abide through
"Another obvious motive dictating a period of seclusion is found in the wisdom
of entirely separating the youth at puberty from the women until lessons of
sexual restraint have been learned. New Guinea natives, for instance, say
that 'when boys reach the age of puberty, they ought not to be exposed to the
rays of the sun, lest they suffer thereby; they must not do heavy manual work,
or their physical development will be stopped, all possibility of mixing with
females must be avoided, lest they become immoral, or illegitimacy become
common in the tribe.' Where the men's house is found in a tribal community,
this institution frequently serves to prolong the seclusion of the younger
initiated men for many years after puberty is reached." (Primitive Secret
Societies, pages 36, 37, 38, 41, 45, 47.)
"Puberty institutions for the initiation of young men into manhood are among
the most widespread and characteristic features of primitive life. They are
found among peoples considered the lowest of mankind: among Andamanese,
Hottentots, Fuegians, and Australians; and they exist in various stages of
development among peoples emerging from savagery to barbarism. Their
foundation goes back to an unknown antiquity; their mysteries, jealously
guarded from the eye of all save the initiated, preserve the religion and
morality of the tribe. Though varying endlessly in detail, their leading
characteristics reproduce themselves with substantial uniformity among many
different peoples and in widely separated areas of the world. The initiation
by the tribal elders of the young men of the tribe, their rigid seclusion,
sometimes for a lengthy period, from the women and children; their subjection
to certain ordeals and to rites designed to change their entire natures; the
utilization of this period of confinement to convey to the novices a knowledge
of the tribal traditions and customs, and finally, the inculcation by most
practical methods of habits of respect and obedience to the older men - all
these features are well described in the quaint and vigorous account by an old
writer of the ceremonies once practised by the Tuscarora Indians of North
Carolina." (Ibid, page 32.)
initiations differ strikingly among themselves, nevertheless they one and all
have certain fundamental features in common. In one paragraph of a brilliant
treatise on Initiation, in Hasting's Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics (Vol.
VII, p. 317), Count Goblet d'Alvielia, who stands so high among European
Masonic scholars, furnishes a list of these features:
formalities of initiation, whether its dominant function is magical or
religious, present striking resemblances. Andrew Lang notes the following
general characteristics: (a) mystic dances; (b) the use of the turndun, or
bull-roarer; (c) daubing with clay and washing this off; (d) performance with
serpents and other 'mad doings.' To these we might add: (e) a simulation of
death and resurrection; (f) the granting of a new name to the initiated; (g)
the use of masks or other disguises. In any case, we may say that initiation
ceremonies include: (1) a series of formalities which loosen the ties binding
the neophyte to his former environment; (2) another series of formalities
admitting him to the superhuman world; (3) an exhibition of sacred objects and
instruction on subjects relating to them; (4) re-entry or reintegration rites,
facilitating the return of the neophyte into the ordinary world. These rites,
especially those of the first three divisions, are found fulfilling a more or
less important function in all initiation ceremonies, both savages and among
Whence came these secret clubs? Did they all originate from one center? N.W.
Thomas, writing in Volume XI of Hasting's Encyclopedia, page 297, offers a
reply with which most authorities would agree:
may perhaps sum up the position by saying that to trace all secret societies
to a single origin, is probably as mistaken as to trace all forms of religion
to a single source or to seek to unlock all the mythologies by a single key.
It seems clear that age grades, burial clubs, initiation schools, religious
confraternities, occupation groups, and magical societies have all contributed
to the mass of diverse elements grouped under secret societies; it cannot be
definitely laid down that any one of these took an earlier type as a model; as
we find all in their rudimentary stages in various parts of Africa, we must,
unless we suppose that these rudiments are derived from the fully developed
societies of other tribes, suppose that they are the seed from which, in other
areas, secret societies have been evolved and that all are equally primitive,
though not necessarily equally old."
DID FREEMASONRY EVOLVE FROM THE MEN'S HOUSE?
secret societies appear among barbarian and half civilized peoples they retain
many of the fundamental features described in the above pages, but at the same
time become strikingly different and often are used for entirely different
purposes. All readers of Masonic literature are familiar with the story of
the Druids, the Druses, the Culdees, the Assassins, etc. etc.: also the
numberless secret societies of China, which, it appears in the majority of
cases, are political in character rather than moral or religious. These
barbarian, or semi-civilized organizations, have their grades, signs, secrets,
pass-words and initiation ceremonies, as have all the others, and there is no
need in this connection that we particularize among them or pay them any
reader will already have noted a certain similarity between some of these
associations and our own. In some cases these similarities are so striking
that they almost amount to identity, as when one of our Masonic signs is found
in the possession of some savage cult. Tales of how Masons have saved their
lives or gained other advantages among savage peoples through use of one of
the Masonic signs, have been among the stock stories of our literature for
sensational use of these facts has been recently made by Brother J.S.M. Ward
in his Freemasonry and the Ancient Gods, published in 1921. Brother Ward
boldly takes the position that the primitive secret societies such as those
described above are to be considered an integral part of Freemasonry, or vice
versa. He makes this position plain in the following words: "Boldly this is
my contention, that our present system is derived originally from the
primitive initiatory rites of our prehistoric ancestors. I base this
contention on the fact that many of our most venerated signs and symbols,
grips and tokens, are used today by savage races with precisely the same
meaning as with us. I cannot agree with those who would contend that it is
either a matter of coincidence or else that they are purely natural signs
which express simple elementary sentiments." This statement appears on page
119 of his book. On 123 he repeats it in other words: "My contention, then,
is that Freemasonry derives originally from those primitive rites which first
taught a boy whence he came, then prepared him to be a useful member of
society, and finally taught him how to die and that death did not end all. On
these primitive rites, I consider, man built up the mysteries and the various
religious faiths of the ancient world some of which have survived to the
present day, while others have developed into other religions, Christianity
included." The thesis is developed in still other words on page viii of his
Preface where he says: "Briefly, the theory I venture to propound is that
Freemasonry originated in the primitive initiatory rites of prehistoric man,
and from those rites have been built up all the ancient mysteries, and thence
all the modern religious systems. It is for this reason that men of all
religious beliefs can enter Freemasonry; and, further, the reason we admit no
women is that these rites were originally initiatory rites of men; the women
had their own. These, for sociological reasons perished, while those of the
men survived, and developed into the mysteries."
Brother Ward could make good his thesis, he would bring about a complete
revolution in anthropology. A secret society that has existed in all parts of
the world through all the many centuries of history, would be the most
stupendous facts known to sociology and would necessitate a complete revision
of our social theories. The thing is too stupendous to have happened. In
order to make out that Freemasonry as we now know it is in solidarity with all
these other secret fraternities, it is necessary to stretch the facts at
almost every point; to fill in the gaps with guesses and hypotheses; and to
read into the ceremonies of the primitive tribes many meanings and purposes
that they have never been capable of entertaining.
was made abundantly plain in the quotations given above from various
authorities that all secret societies have a culture in common and in the
nature of the case inevitably make use of signs, symbols, ceremonies, degrees,
lodges, initiations, etc., so that if a new secret society comes into
existence, created ab initio by its own members, it will necessarily have many
features in common with other similar organizations, so that always a little
imagination will make it easy for men to believe that what has been recently
created has existed elsewhere for many centuries. Nothing is easier than to
create traditions and ancient history for a secret cult; and that because it
is furnished with the many usages that other secret cults have employed in
past times. Freemasonry is no exception to this rule. Almost everything in
it can be paralleled in the possessions of similar societies that existed
hundreds of years ago and always there is the temptation to borrow the
authority and prestige of antiquity. Oftentimes one finds attributed to a
very ancient day symbols that were created, according to our positive
knowledge in recent times. "The Virgin Weeping Over A Broken Column is a case
in point here. It was devised by American Mason about one hundred years ago,
but only recently I read a learned article which sought to show that this
symbol had been borrowed by Freemasonry from the Ancient Mysteries.
Brother Ward tries to prove that the Higher Grades are as ancient as the Craft
Degrees. To an American reader, familiar with the history of the Scottish
Rite, his case is not fortunate. We know that Albert Pike himself, alone and
unaided created a great deal of the lofty and beautiful structure of the
Scottish Rite ritual, so that it has been said of him that he found the
Scottish Rite a log cabin and left it a marble palace. But there are many
things in the Scottish Rite ceremonies older than history, someone may argue.
Truly enough, but we know how they came there: Albert Pike took them from his
own great learning of the ancient books. Much of the material is very old but
the structure into which it is built and the use to which it is put, date from
the labours of Albert Pike, or else from his immediate predecessors.
real crux in all this discussion may be thrown into the form of the question,
How old is Masonry? This question never loses its vitality and seems to hold
an inexhaustible fascination for Masons. The answer depends upon the meaning
we attribute to the word Masonry. If by Masonry we mean any kind of secret
organization, then it is as old as the world. If it is used of any secret
society that employs some of our signs or symbols, then it may be traced here
and there into many lands and through many centuries. If it is used in the
strictest sense to indicate a man that has been initiated into a regular lodge
of symbolical Freemasonry working under the authority of a regular Grand
Lodge, then Freemasonry is only two hundred years old. If it is to be used of
organizations with which this modern speculative Freemasonry can trace an
undeniable historical continuity, then it may be dated from the twelfth or
thirteenth centuries. Of one thing we can be sure, the men's house, a lodge
in which brethren meet behind tiled doors, is not a modern, artificial thing
but springs out of human nature itself, to satisfy the needs that have been
felt ever since man began to be
SUPPLEMENTAL REFERENCES THE BUILDER:
I (1915) - Ancient Evidences, p. 18; The Golden Bough, p.22; The Men's House,
11 (1916) - Masonic Tradition, p. 189; Indian Masonry, p. 190; The Meaning of
Initiation, p. 205; Masonic Signs, p. 253; Indian Freemasonry, p. 371.
III (1917) - A Central African Mystery, p. 15; The Origin of Druidism, p. 22;
The Initiatory Rites of Druidism, p. 35; Masonry Among Primitive Peoples, p.
38; Secret Societies of Islam, p. 84; Aboriginal Races and Freemasonry, p. 96;
Chinese Signs, p. 156; The Men's House, p. 209.
IV (1918) - Definitions of Masonry, p. 125; The Voice of the Sign, October,
C.C.B., p. 4; The Divine Mystery, p. 334; The Mysteries of the Art of the
Caverns and Early Builders, p. 366.
V (1919) - Legendary Origin of Freemasonry, p. 297,
VI (1920) - A Bird's-Eye View of Masonic History, p. 236; The Purposes of
Legends and Myths, p. 258; Freemasonry Among the American Indians, p. 295.
VII (1921) - Whence Came Freemasonry, p. 90; Little Wolf Joins the Metawin, p.
VIII (1922) - American Indians and Freemasonry, P. 71; Freemasonry and the
Ancient Gods, pp. 88, 151, 152, 153; Masonry Among the Chippewa Indians, p.
126; A Mediating Theory, p. 318; Traces of Masonry Among Indians and Worth
Americans, p. 354.
Mackey's Encyclopedia - (Revised Edition):
Albert Pike, p. 563; Assassins, p. 82; China, p. 147; Chinese Secret
Societies, p. 148; Civilization and Freemasonry, p.153; Culdees, p. 191;
Degrees, p. 203; Druidical Mysteries, p. 220; Druses, p. 221; Initiation, p.
353; Man, p. 461; Primitive Freemasonry, p. 584; Scottish Rite, p. 671; Secret
Societies, p. 677; Woman, p. 855.
CONSULTED IN PREPARING THIS ARTICLE:
Primitive Society. J.S.M. Ward, Freemasonry and the Ancient Gods. Webster,
Primitive Secret Societies. Frazer, Golden Bough. Hasting's Encyclopedia of
Religion and Ethics, Vol. VII, p. 314; XI, p. 287. Smith, Religion of the
Semites. Heckethorn, Secret Societies. Lang, Myth, Ritual, and Religion.
Thomas, Source Book For Social Origins. Rivers, The Todas. Tyler, Primitive
Culture. Wallace, The Malay Archipelago. Coote, The Western Pacific.
Upward, The Divine Mystery. Capart, Primitive Art. Evans, Tree and Pillar
Cult. Harrison, Ancient Art and Ritual. Maspero, Dawn of Civilization.
Wright, Indian Masonry. Giles, Freemasonry in China.
OF TRAINED LEADERS IS A DANGER TO MASONRY
WHO ARE familiar with the pages of the V. S. L. will recall how difficult a
thing it was for the old Jewish tribes to lay aside their differences, their
jealousies, and their deeply rooted feuds in order to unite under one leader.
But the thing became necessary and it was accordingly done. The Canaanites who
continued powerful in the great central valleys and who – with justice, as we
would now think - believed themselves the rightful owners of the land,
determined to gather all their power together in order to deal one last and
fatal blow against the loosely knit tribes of the immigrant invaders. It was
then that the Jewish tribesmen discovered how helpless they would be against
such a foe as Sisera and his well drilled regiments and how necessary it would
be for them to choose leaders and to learn to obey. Deborah saw all this very
clearly, and she brought Barak to see it also, along with many other less
popular and less powerful chiefs. Had the Jews not thus discovered the
function and necessity of leadership, and had they not learned the wisdom to
follow their leaders, they would have been swept out of existence by Sisera,
and the subsequent history of the world would have been a very different tale.
much for the episode, which is here offered as a parable wherefrom to draw a
lesson that evermore needs to be learned anew. Our own nation is supposed to
be a democracy; and we are supposed to be democrats - the reader is requested
to dissociate the word from its partisan connections - but our democracy
appears to be in danger, and we democrats are becoming perturbed lest it be
not able to surmount that danger. The thought I wish to apply to the problem
is that we must learn anew the lesson Deborah learned long ago; we must
rediscover the lost philosophy of leadership, and learn how to select, to
develop, and to follow leaders.
BUILDER IS ONE HUNDRED MONTHS OLD
this Society was organized some nine years ago in order to serve in behalf of
Masonic education and kindred interests, a few brethren - influential in the
Craft and themselves very much in favor of the project - expressed fears lest
the undertaking fail for lack of support. The Fraternity, so they thought, was
not sufficiently interested in such matters, which was only another way of
saying that it was not interested in itself, for Masonic education is nothing
other than an attempt to put Masons into more complete possession of their
Masonry. Time has happily proved these men unduly pessimistic. This Society
has never been so flourishing as now, and as for Masonic education, it is
everywhere and without exception completely in the ascendant.
this issue THE BUILDER has come to its one hundredth month. It is an event
worth signalizing by a new dedication to the old cause, by a larger
determination to accomplish more in the future, and by a sincere prayer that
T.S.G.A.O.T.U. may continue richly to bless our beloved Craft in all its
undertakings. This CENTURY NUMBER is dedicated to that end, and as an earnest
of still better things to come.
and more it has become the custom among; speakers and publicists to describe
democracy in such a wise as to ignore altogether the whole principle of
leadership as though it were something entirely foreign to, or even
antagonistic to, democracy.
fallacy is an easy one to fall into. The word "democracy" means, so it may be
asserted, that The masses of the people rule themselves: if they must rule
themselves then they need no rulers; if they need no rulers in government then
they need none, in business, or in industry, or anywhere else. Therefore -
thus runs this species of reasoning - we should have "direct democracy"; which
is only another way of saying that the people as a whole should decide on all
large questions concerning everything of a public character; the people should
not have representatives or leaders; they should be left "free" to run
themselves ~ and to manage their own affairs.
kind of logic, which should be easily riddled by every high school sophomore
if high school sophomores were taught to think at all, is: being used with
much success by demagogues the country over. Those who do not wish entirely to
overthrow everything in the present system, but who desire to see the people
own and manage all their own public utilities, and direct and control by their
own mass action all public affairs, such as the declaration of war, the making
of treaties and all that, describe all this as "direct democracy," which may
be defined as mass action by the people without the intermediary action of
representatives. Those who do not care a straw about our present system of
civilization, and who would rejoice to see it utterly demolished, with the
Constitution abandoned and Congress destroyed, would have every detail of
public affairs immediately managed by the mass action of the whole population.
They are the Communists strictly so-called and, like their fellow theorists in
Russia, would, if they were to be consistent, cast aside not only all leaders
but even those classes who supply most of our leaders, the professional groups
who have what is called a higher education.
think the reply to these theorists should be that democracy in itself is a
thoroughly conservative form of civilization, and that by its very nature it
implies leadership as one of its necessary and most important -functionings.
It is wrong to suppose that a democracy can function without leaders. It is
equally wrong to suppose that leaders are in any wise a contradiction of
democracy. Democracy implies leaders and the following of leaders; so is it
now, and so will it ever be, for that is the way things are made.
FOLLOW A LEADER IS NOT A DISGRACE
the back of all this anti-leadership reasoning is the half formulated feeling
that somehow or other it is a kind of disgrace to fall in behind a leader. It
appears to betoken inferiority on the part of those who suffer themselves to
be led. Those who, wittingly or unwittingly, harbor this feeling should look
more carefully into the matter; if they do, they will discover how groundless
is their objection. To follow the rightful leader is an act of intelligence
and usually reveals good sense and superiority, rather than the opposite.
consider: When the brainiest men in the world get together in order to perfect
a plan of mass action what do they do? They organize themselves, they elect
officers, they formulate constitutions and regulations, and then the rank and
file of them fall into line and keep step with the procession. The scientists
who make up the Royal Society or the literati who comprise the membership of
the French Academy do not reveal any mental inferiority merely because they
all have leaders, and frankly recognize those leaders as such. When the
biggest business men of the nation set out to accomplish a thing, they choose
their guides and their organizers and the mass of them suffer themselves to be
led. Leadership is a fact as well as a factor in every concerted movement ever
undertaken even though that movement be communism itself, for it should be
recalled (as seldomly it is) that Lenine and Trotsky are leaders of Communism
in exactly the same sense that Harding and Coolidge are political leaders with
Democracy does not imply leaderlessness; it implies leadership. It should be
remembered that the forefathers who laid so wisely the foundations of this
United States understood full well that there can be no such thing as an
automatic action of the human mass. No, and per contra! for they revealed
their very genius in the plan they devised whereby the masses of us can select
and control our leaders. It was in THAT, rather than in what Brooks Adams
miscalls "the democratic dogma" of direct action, that these forefathers
showed their sagacity as politicians and their greatness as statesmen.
we come to decide questions of national policy, what other course can be
followed save that of selecting representatives or delegates and empowering
them with the prerogatives of action? Consider the posture of affairs at this
present moment. This nation is trying to decide as a matter of policy what
course to follow on the proposed cancellation of war debts; it is trying to
decide what policy to pursue with regard to the reorganization of agriculture;
it is undertaking to deal with a dozen major problems that have arisen as
aftermath of the Great War; it must somehow learn anew how to regulate
railways so as not to destroy their efficiency and prosperity; these and many
other questions of policy are before this nation, and these questions must
somehow be settled. But who is there among the rank and file of us that is
capable of understanding all these matters? Would we not as a people bungle
these matters up beyond untangling were we to decide them all by direct vote?
Under such circumstances but one course is possible: we must select
representative men of good character and high ability and set them to solving
these problems for us.
the deciding of matters of policy is less than half the battle. After the
policy has been agreed upon it becomes necessary to set up the machinery of
administration whereby the policy is to be made effective. If, for example,
Congress should decide upon an entirely new policy regarding immigration we
could not all, as a mass of people, take our stations at Ellis Island in order
to see that the machinery of control is operative; the mere thought is
ridiculous. But the same thing is true of every other matter of similar
import. We must have leaders capable of threshing out pubic problems; able to
decide them wisely; and we must also have leaders, and by an equal necessity,
capable of putting policies into effective operation.
examples of other ways in which leadership is necessary could easily be given
were there need, which there is not, because the subject needs but to be faced
in order to be understood.
FREEMASONRY MUST HAVE TRAINED LEADERS
think it would be well to apply all this to our Fraternity which is organized
on the same ground plan as our government. It is a democracy that exists in a
republican form, which carries on its activities by means of leaders
constitutionally chosen according to law, and therefore the very fabric of its
organization implies not a direct action by the mass of the membership but an
indirect action through properly chosen representatives and leaders. Just as
there are leaders in Grand Lodge politics (I use that word here in its
accurate sense) so must there be leaders of Masonic thought, and leaders in
the ventilation and settlement of Masonic policies. For us to make light of
our leaders, or refuse our leaders support, or to spread among our membership
a cynicism that would call the whole system of leadership into question, that
would be folly of a suicidal kind.
course there are plenty of false leaders in our midst. Crooks and blockheads
make their way into every organization once it grows to a respectable size and
begins to wield influence; and they make trouble.
every organization there are men who pull wires in order to have themselves
advanced to positions for which they are not fitted, merely in order to bask
in the light that beats upon a throne. Others, and often they have not a shred
of right to such places, get to the top by dint of scheming and philandering
merely to satisfy the ambition of place; for fame, as we say! And others there
are who sometimes rise to positions of leadership, in spite of profound
ignorance as to what Masonry itself is and what the Fraternity as an
organization is trying to do in the world.
are these and other types of false or unfit leaders in our midst, but what of
it? Not for such a reason can we leap to the conclusion that leadership itself
is an evil. The cure for false leadership lies in a Masonic education that
will build itself into the whole rank and file of the membership, from the top
down, so that everywhere members will know what Freemasonry is and what it is
doing, and what it is going to do, and how it. is to be done. To the extent
that such a thing is done our members will know whom to select for their
leaders; when to approve the action of their leaders; how to remove false
leaders; and whom to train to become future leaders.
HERMETIC MYSTERY AND ALCHEMY, by M. A. Atwood. A suggestive inquiry into
Hermetic Philosophy and Alchemy, published by William Tait, Belfast, Ireland,
DOCTRINE OF Hermes, the Egyptian, comprises at once a religion, a philosophy
and an art. That doctrine, and those of the Sephiroth, the Ain Soph, and the
Kabala are practically identical – that from nothing there came the Great
Monad, Deity, by whom and from whom everything was created and in everything
is He. This is the beginning, the base of the doctrine. Pythagoras, who
sojourned many years in the East, preached the same doctrine. Hermes made no
claim to being the author but on the contrary maintained that it was ancient.
By philosophizing on this point and studying nature, Hermes realized that man
was of an entirely different character to all else on earth in that he
possessed reasoning power, that he was endowed with an intellect, that he was
created in the image of God, and that he must have been created for a divine
purpose, that man is divine in that he has a dual personality, and that the
spiritual body died not with the physical. This dual personality was not
realized by the vast majority of mankind, and this latent personality was
capable of great development. "Know thyself," says he. The development of the
latent powers of man could not be accomplished by simple faith but by absolute
was for the development of spirituality that the Mysteries were practiced. The
author quotes many authorities in regard to just what the Mysteries consisted
of. The Lesser Mysteries were open to almost all and taught certain truths and
the necessity of a moral life as the prerequisite for reformation,
regeneration and the perfection of man, even as we Masons do. The Greater
Mysteries were only for the very few, and a long period – many years – elapsed
after being initiated in the Lesser Mysteries. The aspirant had to cast aside
all worldly desires in the cultivation of the spiritual and psychic. "The
doctrine of the Greater Mysteries," says Clemens Alexandrinus, "related to the
whole universe; here all instruction ended; nature and all things she contains
were unveiled." Nor were the visions of gods attending on those Mysteries dead
images, nor mere symbols, nor impotent, nor idle, nor invisible, though
unseen. That the aspirant was put under the influence of what is termed
Mesmerism is evident but in the Hermetic Greater Mysteries the evidence points
to his acquiring the power temporarily to disassociate his spiritual body from
the physical and to travel in "foreign countries," where he beheld something
of the life hereafter. Was not this the power held by Emanuel Swedenborg in
the eighteenth century and has it not been in the power of certain persons
from time to time that they might bring spiritual matters before the
multitude? The disciples of Hermes, by their mode of life, by their mentality,
by their convictions, by their virtue, acquired the power of healing by the
laying on of hands. It is this side - the religious, the philosophic - of the
Hermetic doctrine, which, however much some may so declare it, is not contrary
to Christianity, and should most appeal to us.
greater part of the book, which comprises 600 pages, is given up to an
"enquiry" in the Hermetic art of producing the "philosopher's stone" that
transformed the baser metals into the purest gold; and the "elixir of life"
that will prolong human life. Being an enquiry and not just an essay, there
are long quotations from old books showing what a searching enquiry had been
made, and it is these quotations that rather break the thread and irritate one
trying to obtain an understanding on this very abstruse subject.
Everyone must admit that there is a fascination about the idea of the
transmutation of the baser metals into gold and it was doubtless due to this
that the first edition, which was published in 1918, was soon exhausted and
the present edition made. The work was written some seventy years before by a
young woman barely thirty years of age who delved exhaustively into the
subject with her father. The book was actually printed and a few copies sold
when the father, moved by a change of religious thought, bought in the whole
issue, because he deemed that he had divulged knowledge which was sacred. The
fear that anyone by this book alone could discover the art was certainly
groundless, for the whole doctrine as quoted from the various authors is
closely veiled in language not understandable by moderns unless specially
Hermetics in expounding their doctrine used the technics of their art as
allegories and it is difficult at times to distinguish when they were
expatiating on their art, and when propounding doctrine.
imagine that few would care to wade through it as I-had to do in order to
review it. That the assembly of-all the authorities as has been done in the
book was well worth while will be admitted. The philosophy – should be
studied; it is not a book for casual reading. Masons of the Scottish Rite, who
are well versed in the degrees (unfortunately they are few) will have certain
of the degrees recalled to them as they read, particularly the seventh,
eighteenth, and thirty-second: while our English brethren, working the
Emulation ritual, will find that the Hermetic doctrine is quoted- in the third
Ernest E. Murray.
* * *
IMPORTANT WORK ON THE KABBALAH
KABBALAH, ITS DOCTRINES, DEVELOPMENT, AND LITERATURE, by Christian D. Ginsburg;
The Bloch Publishing Company, 26 East Arid Street, New York City. For sale by
National Masonic Research Society, Cedar Rapids, Iowa: $2.35, postpaid.
his admirable treatise on the subject in Hasting's Encyclopaedia of Religion
and Ethics, Mr. H. Loewe gives his readers a list of "the chief Kabbalists"
which comprises no fewer than twenty names. The first is that of Aaron teen
Samuel, a Jew of Italy who lived in the ninth century: the last is that of
Baer of Meseritz: a Jewish ascetic born in 1710. Mr. Loewe also gives a list
of the Kabbalistic works, the oldest of which he dates in the sixth century.
One glance at the great scope of the Kabbalah as thus indicated is sufficient
to set one on his guard against any cheap or rapid generalizations on the
subject, either as to its history or its teachings.
tendency to occultism developed among the Jews long before the beginning of
our era, and this became the source of many bizarre forms of religion, some of
which were similar to the Kabbalah, the most famous literary expression of
which is known as the "Zohar." For a long time it was the custom to attribute
to the Kabbalah a great antiquity, but this has been now abandoned by almost
all competent scholars, especially since the appearance of Graetz's History of
the Jews, in which famous work that trenchant writer dealt literalistic
believers in the Kabbalah a savage blow. The custom now is to hold that the
Kabbalah had its rise among Spanish Jews in the thirteenth century who, of a
mystical turn of mind, reacted against the “philosophical” movement headed by
Maimonides, the great savant and thinker that tried to drain all
supernaturalism out of the Holy Scriptures in order to give a "naturalistic"
account of Jewish history. There was much fakery and chicanery among the early
Kabbalists - the Zohar itself is described by Graetz as a pious fraud - but
for all that they created a powerful movement, and one that has not yet by any
means expended all its force.
doubtful if the Kabbalah would ever have made itself felt outside a limited
circle of Jewish enthusiasts had not a condition developed in Germany of great
moment. In the face of an attempt made by the Jesuits to drive the Jews out of
North German communities Reuchlin, who ranked with Luther as a great religious
leader, astonished the world by stoutly championing the cause of the Jews, and
that in the face of almost universal opposition, especially from Rome. Through
Reuchlin's advocacy - he believed himself to have discovered a secret movement
toward Christianity in Kabbalistic literature - the Kabbalah became a kind of
fashion. Pico Mirandola, the prodigy of his time, also defended it; and it is
said that Pope Sixtus embraced it. In the course of time its literature found
its way to the study table of every important theologian, Protestant as well
"in the atmosphere" Kabbalism took many forms and poured its influence into
many unexpected channels. As an example of this last, it very doubtless had
much to do with the secret teachings and symbolism of early Speculative
Freemasonry. There are the best of reasons for believing that such
all-important features of our esoteric work as the Temple of Solomon and the
Lost Word ultimately were derived from that source. This may be so or it may
not; in either case the subject is one that cannot be ignored by any Masonic
Ginsburg's book is not new. It was first pub dished in London in 1865 along
with an essay on The Essenes. Subsequent historical discoveries have robbed
the latter essay of much of its value, but the treatise on The Kabbalah
continues to be the best and most widely used brief work in our language.
George Routledge & Sons of London, have made photostatic plates of the
Kabbalistic portion of the original edition and thus guaranteed that the new
edition (handled in this country by the Bloch Publishing Company) is like the
former down to the least detail. The volume has been added to THE BUILDER'S
Book List. It is absolutely essential to every Masonic library.
* * *
SPEECH MAKING MADE EASY
SPEECHES, THEIR PREPARATION AND DELIVERY, by Alexander Burton. Published by
Edward J. Clode, 156 Fifth Avenue, New York City.
is the same difference between the speech maker and the orator that there is
between the mother who croons a child to sleep and the prima donna who thrills
a great audience at the Metropolitan Opera. Oratory is a fine art, for which
few are equipped: the making of speeches is a more humdrum acheivement. Any
man of normal vocal powers and an average intellect can learn the trick. All
he needs is a little practice and a little coaching.
Speeches, Their Preparation and Delivery book that can do the coaching. It is
not a heavy text for use in college classes but a fresh readable bit of
counsel by an experienced speaker, who knows what he is talking about and how
to say it. Officers who often address a lodge, and other brethren who are
called on at lodge social functions, will find this volume well worth owning.
author devotes most of his attention to after dinner speeches, for which the
demand always exceeds the supply. He tells the tyro how to make his speech
simple, so as to avoid flowery rhetoric; how to deliver it with geniality and
with wit and humor so as to please an audience in gastronomic mood; and how to
relate a humorous yarn. Toasts, poems, quotations and such other speech
supplies are furnished as speakers find themselves in need of. The book is
composed of 251 pages and is well bound in red cloth. It may be whispered
under the breath that a number of good Ample speeches are included.
Freemasonry is a science which is engaged in the search after divine truth,
and which employs symbolism as its means of instruction. – Albert G. Mackey.
every clime, from age to age,
Masons performed their mystic rite;
Craftsmen, scholar, poet, sage,
and beheld Masonic light
BUILDER is an open forum for free and fraternal discussion. Each of its
contributors writes over his own name, and is responsible for his own
opinions. Believing that a unity of spirit is better than a uniformity of
opinion, the Research Society, as such, does not champion any one school of
Masonic thought as over against another, but offers to all alike a medium for
fellowship and instruction, leaving each to stand or fall by its own merits.
Question Box and Correspondence Column are open to all members of the Society
at all times. Questions of any nature on Masonic subjects are earnestly
invited from our members, particularly those connected with lodges or study
clubs which are following our Study Club course. The Society is now receiving
from fifty to one hundred inquiries each week: it is manifestly impossible to
publish many of them in this Department.
CONCERNING SCOTTISH RITE BLUE LODGES
there such a thing as a Scottish Rite Blue Lodge in this country? Is there
such a thing in other countries? How do they differ from York Rite Blue
Lodges, and do they learn the same lectures as we do? Are they recognized by
our Grand Lodges? H. E. Y., Arizona.
there such a thing in this or any country?
are no Symbolic lodges in the United States which confer the first three
degrees of Masonry, and which derive their authority from either the Northern
or the Southern Jurisdiction of the Scottish Rite. There is an exception in
California where a lodge composed of French speaking brethren confers the
First Degree of the Scottish Rite, under special dispensation of the Grand
Lodge of California. There is a similar case in Louisiana, but I cannot now
there such a thing in other countries?
The first three degrees of the Scottish Rite are used in all countries where
Masonry exists except in the United States, Canada, Mexico, England, Wales,
Scotland, and Ireland.
How do they differ from York Rite Blue Lodges, and do they learn the same
lectures as we do.
would be impossible to tell you on paper the differences. While complete data
is lacking, it is safe to say that you would not recognize the lectures they
use. They differ entirely from what you have learned. Your lectures would be
of little value to you if you were attempting to work your way in to visit.
The signs differ somewhat, but your words and grips would prove you a Mason.
Even here, you would probably find a word in the First and Third Degree you
had never heard of before. Each Supreme Council, though, has the right to fix
its own ritual.
Are they recognized by our Grand Lodges?
are by some Grand Lodges and others are not. It all depends on whether our
Grand Lodges have adopted the policy that Blue Lodges, to be entitled to
recognition, must trace their origin back to the Grand Lodge of England. That
is, Symbolic lodges will not be recognized which derive their authority from
Supreme Councils. Each Grand Lodge in this country has its own ideas and
policies when it comes to recognition. There is much absurdity connected with
this question of recognition.
connection with the ritual used where the Scottish Rite Symbolic degrees are
conferred, from the evidence at hand, it is the writer’s opinion that the
Scottish Rite ritual for the First, Second, and Third Degrees, has largely
been adapted from the ritual used in The French Rite.
* * *
BROTHER KRESS WANTS INFORMATION ABOUT THOMAS SMITH WEBB
should like to ask every reader of THE BUILDER to furnish me whatever
information he may have, based on contemporary sources, relative to the life
and activates of Thomas Smith Webb. Also I should like to be placed in touch
with any of Webb's descendants."
* * *
QUATUOR CORONATI LODGE NO. 2076, OF LONDON
you please explain to me how I may become able to affiliate with the
Correspondence Circle of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge, No. 2076, London, so
often referred to in THE BUILDER? H. J. M., Ohio.
have received from an American representative of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge
permission to publish the printed application blank now in use: it fully
explains all the things about which you inquire. If desired, applications for
membership will be sent through the National Masonic Research Society.
QUATUOR CORONATI LODGE NO. 2076, OF LONDON
(Warrant granted on the 28th November, 1884).
To provide a centre and bond of union for Masonic Students.
To attract intelligent Masons to its Meetings, in order to imbue them with a
love for Masonic research.
To submit the discoveries or conclusions of students to the judgment and
criticism of their fellows by means of papers read in Lodge.
To submit these communications and the discussions arising thereon to the
general body of the Craft by publishing, at proper intervals, the Transactions
of the Lodge in their entirety.
To tabulate concisely, in the printed Transactions of the Lodge, the progress
of the Craft throughout the World.
To make the English-speaking Craft acquainted with the progress of Masonic
study abroad, by translations (in whole or part) of foreign works.
To reprint scarce and valuable works on Freemasonry, and to publish
To form a Masonic Library and Museum.
To acquire permanent London premises, and open a reading-room for the members.
The-members of our Correspondence Circle Of whom there are now nearly 3500)
are placed on the following footing: -
summonses convoking the MEETINGS are posted to them regularly. They are
entitled to attend all the meetings of the Lodge whenever convenient to
themselves. When present they are entitled to take part in the discussions on
the papers read before the Lodge, and to introduce their personal friends.
They are not visitors at our Lodge meetings, but rather associates of the
Lodge. The stated meetings are the first Friday in January, March, May, and
October, St. John’s Day (in Harvest), and the 8th November (Feast
of the Quatuor Coronati). At every meeting an original paper is read, which is
followed by a discussion. The funds are wholly devoted to Lodge and literary
purposes, and no portion is spent in refreshment. The members of the Lodge and
Correspondence Circle usually dine together after the meetings, but at their
own individual cost. Visitors, who are cordially welcome, enjoy the option of
partaking - on the same terms - of a meal at the common table.
have the privilege of using the READING ROOM and Library of the Lodge at 27,
Great Queen Street, London, W. C. 2.
printed TRANSACTIONS of the Lodge and the St. John's Card (with list of
members) are posted to them as issued. Three parts of the Transactions are
published each year. They contain a summary of the business of the Lodge, the
full text of the papers read in Lodge together with the discussions, many
essays communicated by the brethren, biographies, historical notes, reviews of
Masonic publications, notes and queries, obituary, and other matter. They are
profusely illustrated and handsomely printed.
Papers from Correspondence Members are gratefully accepted, and as far as
possible, recorded in the Transactions.
Candidate for Membership in the Correspondence Circle is subject to no
qualification, literary, artistic, or scientific. His election takes place at
the Lodge-meeting following the receipt of his application.
JOINING FEE is 21s., which includes one year's subscription to the following
ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION is only 10s. 6d., and is renewable each December for the
year next following. Brethren joining us late in the year suffer no
disadvantage, as they receive all the Transactions previously issued in the
same year. By the payment in one sum of Twelve years' Subscription in advance,
i. e., Six guineas, individual Brethren may qualify as LIFE MEMBERS of the
will be seen that the members of the Correspondence Circle enjoy all the
advantages of the full members except the right of voting in Lodge matters and
Master Mason in good standing throughout the Universe, and all regular Masonic
Lodges, Chapters, and Libraries or other corporate bodies are eligible as
Members of the Correspondence Circle. W. J. Songhurst, P. G. D., Secretary.
* * *
TO DEAL WITH AN ATHEIST MEMBER OF A LODGE As a member of the National Masonic
Research Society, I would like to be informed how to handle such a case as the
the place of business where I am employed, there is an employee who is a
member of a lodge in another jurisdiction. This man was conversing with
another employee who is a strict Catholic. I overheard this man express
himself that there is no such thing as a "Supreme Being." He also remarked
that the Bible is a collection of foolish stories. I told him that I would
never sit in a lodge room with a man of his type and that I would never
recognize him as a "Mason." Since that day this man has tried his utmost to
undermine my position.
would like to be informed, through the columns of the "Question Box," how this
party could be brought before a Masonic tribunal, so that he may receive the
penalty due to him. S. S., New Jersey.
the matter up with your Worshipful Master. Have him ascertain this brother's
views on the question. If he finds that the brother frankly confesses himself
an atheist, he can then be brought to trial. There is no other way of handling
such a case. If the brother is in strict truth an atheist he has no place in
such a Fraternity as ours, and he should too much scorn to play the part of a
hypocrite to remain in it. However, it is necessary to use caution because
there is a great difference in men's conception of God, and it may well happen
that what would be faith in God in one case would be deemed atheism by others
who hold a different conception.
* * *
EASTERN STAR CHAPTER REFUSE ANY APPICANT?
in search of information to settle a recent argument that has been brought
before our lodge during the past month. One brother contends that a chapter of
the O.E.S. cannot refuse to admit to membership any brother who is in good
standing in his Blue Lodge. Another argues that any chapter of the O.E.S. has
a right to reject or black ball any brother it they choose to do so.
Minnie Evans Keyes, Right Worthy Grand Secretary O. E. S., International
Headquarters, Washington, D.C., has replied to your query. She quotes Landmark
11, page 4, of the Ritual of the O.E.S.:
right of every Chapter to decide, from among eligible candidates, who shall be
admitted to membership."
clearly proves that a chapter has a perfect right to reject any candidate
whatsoever, even though he be in good standing in his lodge.
INQUIRY CONCERNING DR. ROBERT TALIFFERRO LIVELY
is legend in my family that about 1865 or 1866 my grandfather, Dr. Robert
Talifferro Lively, of Pilot Grove, Grayson County, Texas, was invited to
address an open meeting of Masons in New Orleans, and that he killed his
sheep, prepared the parchment and wrote his address thereon, and that he rode
from Pilot Grove (about 16 miles S 30 E from the present site of Sherman,
Texas,) to New Orleans on horseback, delivered his address and then rode home.
The story, as I understand it, is that it was his wish that this Masonic
Parchment should go to his youngest son, and so on down each time to the
youngest, in the event the youngest was not a Mason to the next youngest, et
cetera. My father, Robert Morris Lively, of Whitewright, Grayson County,
Texas, being the youngest, fell heir to this parchment (as my grandfather died
about 1866 or 1867 from the best accounts that I can get), he being a Master
Mason with membership at Whitewright, Texas. My father died in 1906, at which
time I was eleven years old. After the death of my father, my mother used to
show me a roll of paper that she said was my grandfather's address and that it
should become my property when I was made a Master Mason, to be kept by me
until my younger brother, born 1905, should become a Master Mason. In the
event that he was never a Master Mason it would then become my permanent
possession. This parchment was preserved and kept for me, but, in 1910 we
moved from Whitewright, Texas, to Durant, Oklahoma, and this treasured
parchment was lost at that time and in some manner during the move. My mother
died in February, 1922, and she always told me that she was forever looking
for that paper that by rights belonged to me at the present; but it was never
found prior to her death, and as our home in Durant has been broken up, and
with mother and father both dead, and with my grandfather having died years
before I was born, I don't suppose that I shall ever be able to see this
treasured Masonic Paper, and further I only know of two (very old) men who are
alive today who knew my grandfather, and they were very young men at the time
of his death and were in all probability not Master Masons at that time.
the reasons stated above I am asking you to publish this letter with the hopes
that some elderly brother in New Orleans, or who was at the meeting mentioned
above, may remember this circumstance and will write me the particulars and
possibly give me a summary of what my grandfather's address consisted of. And
I am also in hopes that some secretary who now has the records of the old
lodges in New Orleans will have some record of this address and will be able
to advise me, and possibly to send me a certified copy of the same.
Morris U. Lively, Texas.
* * *
ROBERT MORRIS AS THE FATHER OF UNIFORM WORK
write to add some notes to your reply to J.C.D. on page of THE BUILDER for
far back as 1822 there was a Masonic Convention held at Washington, D.C.,
primarily to consider the formation of a General Grand Lodge, but which
expressed the opinion that Uniformity of Work was a most desirable attainment.
Thereafter followed the anti-Masonic excitement, from which the Craft did not
really begin to recover until about 1840. One consequence of it was that the
knowledge of the ritual and the work became sadly deficient and all sorts of
additions and subtractions were introduced.
result was that many members of the Craft felt it advisable to meet together
to determine what the old work was. So, on the initiative of the Lodge of
Alabama, a convention was called at Washington in 1842, which later
recommended another convention which was held at Baltimore in 1843. The
primary purpose of this latter was to agree upon a Uniform Work for national
adoption. There were fifteen jurisdictions officially represented at this last
convention. They met and adopted a Uniform Work, then termed "the Baltimore
"uniform work" in those days had a different meaning from what it has today.
Then it only implied a general uniformity in essentials. Grand Lodges did not
have the mechanism or the desire to know whether uniformity of work actually
existed within their own jurisdiction or not. It was by no means unusual for
each new Grand Master to promulgate the version he knew as the "official work"
for that year. Such a course could only result in confusion in the Temple.
there is point to the comments of Bro. J. F. Brennan which you quoted, and it
is the spirit and not the letter which counts, still Masonry is an organized
institution and the methods of organization which might meet the requirements
of a small membership would hardly answer for a large one. Then too, it is an
unfortunate (often) trait of men to want to leave their personal mark on
things by "improving" them. So it simply evolved, this necessity for one
definite standard within a jurisdiction.
may well term Rob Morris the father of "uniform work," using the term as we do
to-day implying strict verbal accuracy. He was the first to set forth that
doctrine and to preach it, through his "Conservators" Association of Symbolic
Masonry. Here is his own language:
harmony shall consist in the most perfect uniformity amongst ourselves and our
pupils, and the Craft at large, so far as we can honorably influence them. It
shall reach to the strictest minutiae - to words, syllables, and letters - to
official matters - to times and seasons - to modes of inculcation. To this end
the Conservators must resign every preconceived habit or notion that conflicts
with the standard of Preston and Webb and must sacrifice every variation of
word, syllable and letter upon the common altar of National Uniformity."
above was written in 1860 and it is not too much to attribute all that has
since occurred along the line of uniformity of work to Rob Morris, the
Conservators, and the above policy laid down by him in 1860.
many states at present uniformity of work probably exists in theory only. Then
too, there are exceptions made in the cases of some old lodge which has
preserved its ritual for perhaps one hundred years. There is such an exception
in J.C.D.'s own state of Connecticut.
* * *
LUTHERANS ARE NOT OPPOSED TO PUBLIC SCHOOLS OR TO MASONRY
looking over THE BUILDER of last August I have come upon a statement on page
238 that needs replying to. It was made by Bro. Lewis E. Smith, writing as
Grand Master of Nebraska, and stated the following:
our state the Lutherans and the Roman Catholic churches have joined hands,
after fighting each other for four hundred years, and are carrying a case to
the Supreme Court of the United Yes in an endeavor to invalidate our language
Brother Smith does not say which Lutherans he refers to. I am Lutheran, but
the church I belong to is not opposed to public schools, but endorses them.
The Lutherans are divided on that question. If I am not mistaken, the Missouri
Synod members are the only ones in favor of the language law. Our church
teaches Sunday School in the language of the land.
Julius Hoga, Nebraska,
Brother Smith has welcomed your correction, Bro. Hoga, as do we. You might
have added that there are many Lutheran churches that are not opposed to
Freemasonry, either. We have in our files letters from Missouri Masons who are
members of the Lutheran fellowship. There is no reason under the blue skies
why any great church should oppose Freemasonry, which is the friend and aider
of all who would live the spiritual life.
* * *
ITALIAN NATIONAL GRAND LODGE
No. 9, Vol. VI, (Sept. 1920) of your beautiful magazine, THE BUILDER, you
published the Report presented by the Committee on Foreign Lodges to the Grand
Lodge of the State of Alabama.
the resolution adopted at that time by the above mentioned Grand Lodge, there
was recognized as a regular Masonic Body the Grand Orient of Italy: and our
National Grand Lodge of A. F. & A. Masons of Italy was declared an irregular
enclose you the copy of a new Report presented by the President of the
Committee on Foreign Lodges to the Grand Lodge of the State of Alabama which
approved the proposed resolutions on the Assembly held in Montgomery on the
7th of December, 1921.
hope you will publish in your magazine the new report and that you will call
the attention of your readers not only to the new resolutions of the Grand
Lodge of Alabama, but also to the fact that our National Grand Lodge is now
recognized by the majority of the regular Grand Lodges of U.S.A.
many thanks and best regards, I am
Sincerely and fraternally yours,
V. Palermi, Grand Master,
Italian National Grand Lodge.
report referred to in the above is here given in full, and thanks to the
courtesy of Oliver D. Street, of the Grand Lodge of Alabama:
THE M. W. GRAND LODGE A.F.&A.M.OF ALABAMA:
the 1919 Communication of this Grand Lodge recognition of the National Grand
Lodge of Italy was refused because no showing was made by it in response to
repeated requests as to the circumstances and purpose of its formation. We
have been furnished with this information. From it we learn that in March,
1919, the lodges then adhering to one of the Supreme Councils of the Scottish
Rite of Italy, completely severed their relations with their mother Supreme
Council, with the full consent and acquiescence of the latter body; that these
lodges by this action became entirely independent of any control by the
Scottish Rite bodies.
lodges thereupon proceeded to hold an assembly or convention with the result
that they formed themselves into the National Grand Lodge of Italy. This Grand
Lodge is completely independent of any superior governing power and conforms
to those principles and practices which are recognized and practiced by all
American Grand Lodges.
belief in Deity is exacted of its initiates and the Bible is displayed upon
the altar of the lodge. Only the first three degrees are practiced or
controlled by it.
reason for the formation of said Grand Lodge was that there was not then (and
is not now) in Italy any other independent Grand Lodge of Masons. The motive
was to place Blue or Symbolic Masonry in Italy on that basis which has proved
so successful and satisfactory in our own and other countries. This step has
already proved its wisdom: the National Grand Lodge now has 560 lodges and
more than 60,000 Masons and is still increasing rapidly in numbers.
the same time, in 1919, that the above action was taken with regard to the
National Grand Lodge of Italy, the Grand Lodge of Alabama recognized the Grand
Lodge of Italy as an independent Supreme governing body of Symbolic Masonry.
In this we now find that we were mistaken. We have favored with a copy of some
of the laws and regulations of the Grand Orient. From them we learn, among
other things, that the Grand Orient cannot issue a charter for a lodge without
the approval of the Sovereign Grand Commander of another Supreme Council of
the Scottish Rite which exists in Italy, or in certain cases, the approval of
the President of the Council of the Italian Rite. The Masters and officers of
the subordinate lodges also take oath "to obey with alacrity, precision and
zeal the supreme authority of our Ritual Hierarchy"; i. e., of the Supreme
Council of the Scottish Rite, or of the Grand Council of the Italian Rite, as
the case may be. The General Assembly is the legislative body for the lodge;
it also elects the Grand Master. Its members include not only the delegates
from the lodges, but ten delegates from the Scottish Rite Supreme Council, ten
from the Grand Council of the Italian Rite, the presidents of the chapters and
councils of Kadosh of the Scottish Rite and the presidents of the District
Councils of the Italian Rite.
perfectly manifest that the Grand Orient is not an independent sovereign body
but is strongly under the domination and control of the Scottish Rite Supreme
Council and of the Grand Council of the Italian Rite.
therefore, recommend the adoption of the following resolutions:
RESOLVED, That the Grand Lodge A. F. & A. M. of Alabama recognize the National
Grand Lodge of Italy as an independent sovereign governing body of Symbolic
Masonry and the Grand Master is hereby requested to arrange an exchange of
RESOLVED FURTHER, That the Grand Lodge of Alabama does not recognize the Grand
Orient of Italy as an independent governing body of Symbolic Masonry, but
finds that it is under the control of the governing bodies and authorities of
the Scottish and Italian Rites.
Oliver D. Street, Chairman.
* * *
PRESENTS BIBLE TO PUBLIC SCHOOL
wish to call your attention to what seems to be an entirely new idea in the
activities of Masonic Lodges, and that is the presentation of a copy of The
Great Light to the Public Schools. This is described in our Lodge Bulletin, in
which there is a photo-engraving of the Bible which was presented to a new
High School in Hempstead, L. I., under date of May 8th. It has been stated on
several occasions that this is the first time that this has ever been done in
this Jurisdiction. I am wondering whether you can cite any other occasions
when this was done by a Masonic Lodge?
might add that the occasion of this presentation was a wonderful success.
About twelve hundred Masons accompanied the Lodge while it went from "Labor to
Refreshment," escorted by two hundred Knights Templar in full uniform and the
Kismet Temple Band of Brooklyn, N. Y. Masons came from far and near to assist
us in this celebration and the enthusiasm which was shown was simply
wonderful. The Bible was carried from the Masonic Temple to the School House
by four High School boys, sons of Past Masters, and for a town of only about
ten thousand inhabitants, you can imagine that it created quite a stir.
writing you as I am with the idea in mind that other lodges throughout the
United States, feeling that they would like to take a strong stand on the
question of the free Public School, would be delighted to have this thought
brought to their attention, as it really is an activity which Masons can enter
into and I believe would create great enthusiasm everywhere among the members
of any lodge. A. H. Phillips, New York.
* * *
ON LETTERS OF THE KEYSTONE
an inquiry in the Question Box in the December number on page 385 asking for a
poem based on the letters on the Keystone and beginning with “H.”
poem is copyrighted by Bro. Henry L. Brown, who is my uncle.
with pleasure forward the same to you for the benefit of the Craft.
the man whose every act shall bear
rigid test of the unerring square;
while times level he unswerving trod,
Stands firm before his fellow and his God,
Seeking by deeds of charity and love
gain admittance to that Lodge above,
Knowing the stone among the rubbish cast
be, regained, the corner stone at last.
William L. Cooper, Past High Priest of Franklin Chapter No 2, New Haven, Conn.
than a score brethren replied to F.H.C.'s inquiry. The variations noted among
all the versions submitted shows that the poem has been preserved by memory in
the great majority of cases. The above version was selected for publication in
order to record the possible authorship. To show the nature and extent of
variation another version is added:
is the man whose thoughts can bear
rigid test of the unerring square.
through this world unswervingly doth trod
Steadily advancing toward his Maker and his God.
Seeking by acts of charity and love
gain admission to that lodge above.
Knowing the stone in the rubbish cast,
crown our Master's work at last.
darky asked for an afternoon off on the ground that he was an officer in a
lodge. "What office do you hold," inquired his employer. "I is the Supreme
Sovereign Judicious Omnipotent Omnipresent Exalted Grand Ruler," meekly
explained the supplicant for a half holiday. "Well! Well! You must be at the
head of it." "No, boss, there is eight above me."
* * *
your Grand Lodge have a library of its own? If not, why not start one? This
Society is now installing one very large Masonic library in a new temple. Our
service is at your command, and we are not in it for money.
* * *
you don't receive a prompt reply to a letter addressed to us write again. Many
letters are relayed to associates in different parts of the country, and
hitches may very well occur.
* * *
large publishing house is looking for a man to prepare a book of designs and
suggestions for Masonic buildings. A good chance for the right man.
* * *
you a library in your lodge room or Masonic club room? If so, let us know. We
are compiling a list of Masonic libraries.
* * *
Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, Richmond, Virginia, have
published a booklet entitled Virginia Schools, Their Progress and Their Needs
that is a model of its kind, and richly worth reading by others than
Virginians. Copies may be secured from P. O. Box 1523, Richmond, Va.
* * *
Lodge No. 524, Evanston, Illinois, has this for THE MASONIC CREED: "BELIEVE in
God's Infinite Benevolence, Wisdom and Justice: HOPE for the final triumph of
Good over Evil, and for Perfect Harmony as the final result of all the
concords and discords of the Universe: and be CHARITABLE as God is, toward the
unfaith, the errors, the follies, and the faults of men: for all make one
* * *
dozen or so have written to ask if Brother Baird won't bring out his
“Memorials” series in book form. So mote it be. Brother Baird, it is up to