The Builder Magazine
April 1924 - Volume X - Number 4
TABLE OF CONTENTS
FRONTISPIECE - WILLIAM PRESTON
WILLIAM PRESTON AND THE PRESTON LECTURES - By Bro. Capt. C. W. Firebrace,
BROTHERHOOD OF DOCTRINES - By Alfred Korzybski
ORGANIZATION OF THE GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER OF ROYAL ARCH MASONS OF THE UNITED
STATES - By Bro. C. C. Hunt, Associate Editor, Iowa
CONCERNING "THE STORY- OF FREEMASONRY IN NEW JERSEY" By Bro. Melvin M.
Johnson, P. G. M., Massachusetts
STUDY CLUB - Chapters of Masonic History - Part XI, The Great Cleavage in
Freemasonry. By Bro. H. L. Haywood
"ARTICLES OF UNION BETWEEN THE TWO GRAND LODGES OF FREEMASONS OF ENGLAND"
Nationalizing American Masonry
Science and the Science of Masonry
Shakespeare and the Apprentice Riot.
Blue Lodge Classic"...
Newton's Collected Masonic Papers and Addresses
Modern Estimate of Masonry
Contains Description of Solomon's Temple..
LAMBSKIN LECTURE - By Bro. Dudley Wright, England
QUESTION BOX AND CORRESPONDENCE
Meaning of "Mote" and "Hele"
Antiquity of Legend of Third Degree
Concerning Famous Revolutionary Masons
be observed by Rose Croix Chapters of Scottish Rite, April 17)
ceremonies of Maundy Thursday, made obligatory on each Rose Croix Chapter of
the Scottish Rite, is a festival almost as old as the world, for it has been
observed in some form or other from time immemorial. It began with early man's
naive wonder at the coming of spring, an event to him of the very greatest
importance, since it represented the return of the sun god from the death of
winter to the resurrection of the vernal equinox. "The year's at the Spring,"
that was his feeling, and this feeling took a thousand forms of expression,
some of them magical, some religious, some of them a joyous human
merry-making. Whatever the form the kernel of feeling remained the same; the
god of light, warmth, and life, whatever may have been his name Mithra, Attis,
Cama, Osiris, Ormuzd, Dionysus had been dead through the winter time, and now
he had come back to life again, and would bestow life on his people, therefore
there were solemn rejoicings.
Parsees, who retain ancient Zoroastrianism in something like its original
form, still celebrate the event in a very old manner. They call their festival
"Jamshedji Nauroz." Other religions have departed farther from the ancient
forms but nevertheless retain the idea and the feeling. The Jews gave to their
vernal festival the character of a national memorial service to keep fresh in
the minds of the people their deliverance from bondage in Egypt, the land of
darkness, and called it the Passover.
Christian ceremony of the Lord's Supper has an historical connection with the
Jewish Passover. Jesus and His disciples went to an upper room to observe the
Passover (or Paschal) feast. Under normal circumstances there should have been
a servant at hand to wash their feet, a service made necessary by the fact
that all men wore sandals when walking abroad and consequently gathered up
sand and dust; but there was no such servant available, and the disciples, who
had gone on ahead, were quarreling among themselves as to who would perform
this menial act. When Jesus arrived He immediately gave them all a silent
rebuke by taking up a towel and basin to wash their feet Himself. But it will
be better to give the story as found in the New Testament, John XIII, 1-15:
before the feast of the passover, when Jesus knew that his hour was come that
be should depart out of this world unto the Father, having loved his own which
were in the world, he loved them unto the end.
supper being ended, the devil having now put into the heart of Judas Iscariot,
Simon's son, to betray him;
knowing that the Father had given all things into his hands, and that he was
come from God, and went to God;
riseth from supper, and laid aside his garments; and took a towel, and girded
that he poureth water into a basin, and began to wash the disciples' feet, and
to wipe them with the towel wherewith he was glided,
cometh he to Simon Peter: and Peter saith unto him, Lord, dost thou wash my
answered and said unto him, What I do thou knowest not now; but thou shalt
said unto him, Thou shalt never wash my feet. Jesus answered him, If I wash
thee not, thou hast no part with me.
Peter saith unto him, Lord, not my feet only, but also my hands and my head.
saith to him, He that is washed needeth not save to wash his feet, but is
clean every whit: and ye are clean, but not all.
he knew who should betray him; therefore said he, Ye are not all clean.
after he had washed their feet, and had taken his garments, and was set down
again, he said unto them, Know ye what I have done to you?
call me Master and Lord: and ye say well; for so I am.
then, your Lord and Master, have washed your feet; ye also ought to wash one
have given you an example, that ye should do as I have done to you."
the Passover had been among Jews the Last Supper came to be among Christians,
and then with a very close connection with Easter Day. And since it was always
the policy of the early Church to accommodate itself as closely as possible to
the religious customs already in popular use both Easter and the celebration
of the Lord's Supper became substituted for the ancient religious ceremonies
of the vernal equinox, as that in its very act "of making all things new" the
new religion retained many things very old, and thus enabled the religious man
to retain his contact with customs as ancient as the world.
act of washing the disciples' feet, originally a simple rebuke to men untaught
in the wisdom of humility, became in time a rich symbol of all service.
Bishops and popes bathed the feet of the poor and everybody that was able
distributed baskets of food to the needy. Some historians of the Church
believe that the word "Maundy" came thus into use, being derived from the
Saxon "maund" or "mond," meaning "basket"; others, with a sounder reasoning
perhaps, trace the term to a corruption of the first Latin word in the saying
"A new commandment give I unto you," which in the Vulgate read, Mandatum novum
do vocio. In either event the Maundy Thursday rites have been quite generally
practiced throughout Christendom, and still, in many lands, retain a very old
form. One of the best examples is furnished by English customs, a very
complete description of which may be found in Curious Survivals, by Dr. George
C. Williamson (Herbert Jenkins, publisher), a page or two of which is here
quoted with the publisher's permission:
"Perhaps the most interesting of the ancient ceremonies retained in the Church
of England is that in connection with the distribution of Maundy money, which
takes place annually in the Abbey. The last Sovereign in England who actually
washed the feet of poor men on Maundy Thursday was James II, but this
ceremony, in commemoration of the act of Our Lord, is still carried out in
Catholic countries, and was, until recently, one of the notable events of Holy
Week in Vienna, when the Emperor of Austria took the chief part in it. It
still takes place in Spain with its accustomed ceremonial, but in England the
day is commemorated only by the distribution of the silver currency, struck
specially for that occasion, and given away to a certain number of poor men
and poor women, who have been selected as suitable recipients for the bounty.
"English sovereigns have always attached great importance to this ceremonial.
Elizabeth observed the day with specially lavish bounty, and there is a
remarkable miniature in existence, representing her distribution of Maundy
money. Charles I and Anne also distributed the Maundy money with specially
imposing and stately ceremonial, and today, linen scarves or towels are worn
by all officials connected with the Royal Almonry, and by the children of the
Royal Almonry, who also take part in the ceremonial. These are, of course,
typical of the towel which Our Lord girded about Himself, when He the
ceremonial is one of the few occasions when the public see the Yeomen of the
Guard in their full uniform, the oldest military body in the kingdom, whose
record dates back to 1485, and who still wear, with proud distinction, the
Tuder crown ornament which commemorates their original appointment. Moreover,
those who are to take part in the ceremony carry with them bunches of flowers
and foliage, reminiscent of the day when the Yeomen of the Laundry performed a
preliminary ablution of the feet of the beggars with ceremonial herbs, prior
to the washing of the feet by the Sovereign.
money is borne into the Abbey by one of the Yeomen, who carries on his head a
splendid silver-gilt dish, and the strings of the purses, red and white, with
which originally they were bound to the girdle of the persons who used them,
hang over the borders of the dish, with curious effect. The number of pennies
given away corresponds with the age of the King, the recipients, as well as
the pence in the white purses, equalling years of the King's age. The money
consists of pieces of the value of fourpence, threepence, twopence and a
penny, the total number of pence agreeing with the number of the years of the
King's age, and the coins are current coin of the realm, although specially
struck for the purpose. I am inclined to think that there might be some
difficulty if one of these pennies was presented as the fare in an ordinary
omnibus, because of its exceedingly small size, and the chances are that the
'bus conductor would not recognize it as current coin, but it is really so,
and but for its size, the coin would pass readily from hand to hand.
matter of fact, however, the little group of silver coins has a higher value
than its intrinsic importance, and collectors are always eager to add it to
their collections. The red purse should contain within it a pound, in gold,
and thirty shillings, an allowance in lieu of provisions formerly given in
kind; it does not in these later days contain gold coins, but the distribution
is made in paper. In addition to this Maundy money, there are three other sums
of money distributed on the same day, known as the Minor Bounty, the
Discretionary Bounty and the Royal Gate Alms, and these, in accordance with
ancient usage, are distributed at the Royal Almonry Office, to some 'hundred
aged, disabled and meritorious persons, who have been personally recommended
by the clergy of selected parishes,' throughout the different dioceses of
England and Wales.
Alms no doubt derived its name from the money that was given to those beggars
who clustered round the gates of the Royal Palaces, and the duties of the
King's Almoner, with regard to poor people, are expressly laid down in some
papers belonging to the time of Edward I, where it is stated that he was to
collect and distribute the fragments from the Royal table, and give away the
King's cast-off robes, but it is particularly noted that he was not to do so
either to 'players, minstrels or flatterers.'
"Cardinal Wolsey, when first be kept his Maundy celebration, or, in the old
phrase, 'made his Maund' (the word coming, of course, from the word mandatum,
and being carried out in obedience to Our Lord's commands) did so at
Peterborough; and on the occasion in 1530, gave three white and three red
herrings to each recipient of his alms. It is to his benefaction that the
Almonry owes its present seal. On this seal is represented a great three-masted
ship, Henri Grace de Dieu, in full sail. This important vessel was built by
Wolsey in 1512 and presented by him to Henry VIII, and when he was the King's
Almoner he had it represented on the seal he used for the documents in
connection with the ceremony, and this seal still exists, and is in use, at
the present day.
great monasteries also had their almoners, and also some of the chief
noblemen, and the office still survives and is used in various ancient
hospitals, and in some few other places.
of interest to notice that the Lord High Almoner and his assistant, the
Sub-almoner, remove the ceremonial copies which they wear when they enter in
the procession of the Maundy, and gird themselves with linen towels before
they make the presentation. The ceremony must have been far more imposing in
the old days, when the Sovereign himself took prominent part in it, but it is
still an exceedingly interesting and picturesque one, and one of the most
important survivals of an ancient religious observance. In Monte Cassino, in
Italy, it is carried out with great elaboration, and the recipients are still
actual pilgrims, but in addition to the washing of feet, they are the
recipients of a big loaf of bread, and a piece of money, and are then taken in
to the large refectory, and given a substantial meal. Similar procedure takes
place in many other Catholic monasteries throughout Europe." (Page 179 ff. The
accompanying illustrations are from this same book.)
worthy of notice in this connection that Maundy Thursday, with its ceremony of
the Lord's Supper, the Coena Domini, has been the inspiration of some of the
most enduring art of the past thousand years. It appears in Da Vinci's
picture, "The Last Supper"; in the epics of Calderon; in Wagner's "Parsifal";
and it has been the source of all the beautiful "grail (or graal) literature"
("grail" referring to the cup used by Jesus), of which Tennyson's Epics of the
King is the most familiar example. The finest use of it in American literature
is Lowell's Vision of Sir Launfal, in which are lines of almost poignant
Holy Supper is kept, indeed,
whatso we share with another's need;
what we give, but what we share,
the gift without the giver is bare;
gives himself with his alms feeds three,
Himself, hungering neighbour, and Me."
would be difficult at this late day to trace the use of Maundy Thursday in
Rose Croix Chapters of the Scottish Rite to any one origin. As there used, it
is not Christian, Jewish or Pagan, but a re-writing of inspirations from many
sources so as to make the ceremony stand in a universal tradition.
Freemasons," writes Conley, "it has no religious significance, but it is a
feast dedicated to freedom, and the right to worship God according to the
dictates of our own consciences, in which good men of all creeds and faiths
may join without relinquishing the essential doctrines of their own religion.
It is this liberality that gives Masonry the character of universality."
William Preston and the Preston Lectures By Bro. CAPTAIN C.W. FIREBRACE, P. G.
Steward, P. M. Lodge of Antiquity, No. 2, England
following paper was read before the Jubilee Master's Lodge, No. 2712, Dec. 21,
1923. Its author is introduced by Bro. Robert I. Clegg, Associate Editor, now
in England, in a recent letter, of which a paragraph may be quoted:
take the very greatest pleasure in this word of introduction to you of Captain
C.W. Firebrace, who has the very enviable distinction of not only being a Past
Master of the oldest of Masonic lodges, 'Antiquity, No. 2,' but is honoured as
being Prestonian lecturer. I have greatly enjoyed the opportunity of listening
to the first of these addresses which he has given in London and is a splendid
introduction to the others which it is expected he will present. I know that
you will he highly gratified to receive a copy of this address for publication
in THE BUILDER, and sincerely trust he will forward others when they are
presented to the brethren, and in this way give our brothers in the United
States an equal opportunity to profit by what Bro. Firebrace is doing so
excellently on this side of the Atlantic."
Masonic students have no need to be told that William Preston was one of the
most influential Masons that ever lived, so influential indeed that nobody can
expect to understand the present ritual without knowing something about this
remarkable man and his work. Consult THE BUILDER as follows: 1915. pp. 7, 31,
292; 1916, pp. 166, 167, 302, Cor. 31; 1917, p. 212; November C.C.B., 7; 1919,
March C.C.B., 3; September C.C.B., 3; see also "Philosophy of Masonry," by
Roscoe Pound; "The Grand Lodge of England," by A. F. Calvert, and The Short
Talk Bulletin, M.S.A., Vol. 1, No. 2. See frontispiece, this issue.
Lectures which go by the name of Prestonian are so interwoven with the life of
their author that to trace their origin and history is practically to give an
account of his Masonic career.
influenced it almost from the outset; the first ten years were devoted to
their preparation, the remainder to the promulgation of his system. Of his
life in the world outside, we know but the bare outline; few details are
extant, and his name is not found in any of the letters or memoirs of the
time. Through his position in the printing house of William Strahan, who
published the works of Johnson, Gibbon, Blair, Robertson, Hume and many
others, he became well acquainted with these eminent men of letters, and we
are told that his literary skill was such that authors submitted to his
correction of their style. He may even have blue-pencilled the Lives of the
Poets, and detected bad grammar in the Decline and Fall. These great men
honoured him with their acquaintance, and presentation copies of their books
found their way into his library, but he was never an intimate, he had no part
in their lives. In Masonry it is otherwise; here he stands out, a leader
almost from the first, a true friend to every worthy Mason, and it is from
Masonic records, and chiefly from the minute books of the Lodge of Antiquity,
that we learn what manner of man he was.
born in Edinburgh on July 28, 1742, the second son of William Preston, and
eminent writer to the Signet. His father lost his fortune through troubles
resulting from the Rebellion of 1745, and died in 1751. The younger William
after completing his education at Edinburgh University became amanuensis to
Thomas Ruddiman the grammarian, and was by him apprenticed to his brother
Walter Ruddiman, an Edinburgh printer. With his employer's consent he came to
London in 1760, and being furnished by Ruddiman with a letter of introduction
to William Strahan, a brother Scot, he obtained employment in his house as
compositor. It is evidence of his industry and ability that he remained in the
same employ during his whole life. He was soon promoted to the reader's desk,
and later to the general superintendence of the whole business. William
Strahan at his death in 1785 left him an annuity, and in 1804 he became a
partner with Andrew Strahan whose confidence and friendship he maintained till
death. He never married; no feminine influence seems to have touched him.
Masonry was his early mistress and to her he remained constant to the end.
BECOMES A MASON
exact date of his admittance into Masonry is not recorded. In March, 1763,
some Scottish Masons founded a Lodge No. 111, under the Constitution of the
Atholl, or Ancient Grand Lodge, to which they had been recommended by the
Grand Lodge of Scotland. It met at the White Hart in the Strand, and Preston
is said to have been the second person initiated in it. He was then twenty or
twenty-one years of age. He, with other members, afterwards joined a lodge
acting under the older Constitution of the Moderns, and they prevailed on
their brethren at the White Hart to transfer their allegiance. A new
Constitution was granted, and thus was founded the Caledonian Lodge, No. 325,
which still works in London and is now No. 134.
Preston now turned his attention to the study of Masonic science, and for the
next ten years was occupied with the arrangement and digestion of the Masonic
Lectures. In this he was assisted by many zealous friends, whom he assembled
for the purpose of discussion and mutual improvement. He sought knowledge from
every source, by literary research, by correspondence and conversation with
prominent Masons at home and abroad and, to quote from the Memoir by Stephen
Jones in the "European Magazine" for April, 1811, "He has been frequently
heard to say that in the ardour of his enquiries, he has explored the abodes
of poverty and wretchedness, and, where it was least expected, acquired very
valuable scraps of information." Gould, in his History of Freemasonry, laughs
at his credulity and stigmatizes him as a romancer and a Masonic visionary,
but we must remember that the age of critical examination had not then been
born, and in every branch of knowledge much was accepted in simple faith which
now would not receive a minute's consideration. He may have been credulous but
what he wrote he believed. A remarkable young man, this Scotsman of five and
twenty, for whom the frivolous pursuits of London and the fascination of
feminine intercourse had no attraction, and who, in those days when drinking
and gaming were the pastimes of high and low, frequented taverns only for the
purpose of gaining knowledge, and assembled his friends for mutual
instruction! Judging by the portraits taken in later life he was of pleasing
appearance, and his faculty for making friends and keeping them testify to the
attraction of his manners and the steadfastness of his character. Throughout
his life we find him vigorous in action, resourceful in emergency, quick
perhaps to feel and resent a slight and holding to his opinions with the
tenacity characteristic of his countrymen, but facing his opponents with
undaunted courage, bearing adversity with fortitude when they gained the upper
hand, but showing no malice when the victory was won. And in his later years
he had his reward in the respect and love in which he was held by his Masonic
brethren, particularly in the lodge for which, as he himself expressed it, he
ever retained so great a veneration, the Lodge of Antiquity.
DELIVERS THE FIRST PRESTON LECTURE
1772 the first Lecture was finished, and on May 21 he delivered it at a grand
gala held at his own expense at the Crown and Anchor Tavern in the Strand in
the presence of the Grand officers and many other brethren. In the same year
he published the Illustrations of Masonry, which he later greatly altered and
enlarged, and of which twelve editions were published in his life time. The
whole system of the Lectures in the three degrees was completed in 1774, and
were publicly given by him at the Mitre Tavern, Fleet street.
come to his connection with the Lodge of Antiquity, which he joined on June 1,
1774, and was elected Master on June 15. His occupancy of the chair lasted
three and one-half years, and during that time several Lectures were given by
him in the lodge. We find a very interesting minute dated March 5, 1777, when
a "Chapter Night" was held. The proceedings show us the scheme which Preston
had devised for promulgating his system, and which he later carried into
effect when he founded the Grand Chapter of Harodim. There were present
eighteen members and nine visitors. The following is an extract from the
opened in the Third Degree in an adjacent room. Procession entered the Lodge
Room, and the usual ceremonies being observed, the Three Rulers were seated. A
piece of music was then performed, and the 12 Assistants entered in procession
and after repairing to their stations the Chapter was opened in solemn form.
Brother Barker then rehearsed the Second Section. A piece of music was then
performed by the instruments. Bro. Preston then rehearsed the third Section.
An Ode on Masonry was then sung by three voices. Brother Hill rehearsed the
4th Section, after which a piece of solemn music was performed. Bro. Brearley
rehearsed the 5th Section, and the funeral procession was formed during which
a solemn dirge was played, and the Ceremony concluded with a Grand Chorus.
Bro. Berkley rehearsed the 6th Section, after which an anthem was sung. The
Chapter was then closed with the usual Solemnity, and the Rulers and twelve
Assistants made the procession round the Lodge, and then withdrew to an
adjacent Room, where the Master's Lodge was closed in due form."
Preston acted as Chief Ruler, John Wilson, the S.W., was Senior Ruler, and
William Manning, who held no office in the lodge, was Junior Ruler. Among the
twelve assistants were four visitors.
following December occurred the unfortunate incident which led to the quarrel
with Grand Lodge, and eventually to the expulsion from the Society of Preston
and nine other members of the lodge. The incident itself was a trivial one.
The brethren after hearing a sermon preached by their chaplain in St.
Dunstan's Church walked back to the Mitre Tavern, a distance of a few yards,
in their clothing without having previously applied to Grand Lodge for the
necessary permission. But Preston, by his success in raising the lodge from
the low state to which it had sunk under the Mastership of his predecessor
John Bottomley, had roused the jealousy of the older members, and he had also
offended the Grand Secretary, James Heseltine, who had also been until
recently a member of the lodge. Preston had been appointed Assistant Grand
Secretary, in order that he might prepare a new edition of the Constitutions.
PRESTON IS EXPELLED
the work was almost completed, Heseltine associated with him John Noorthouck,
another senior member of the lodge. Preston resented sharing with a newcomer
the honour to which he considered he was alone entitled, and resigned his
office. Bottomley and Noorthouck, therefore, seized the opportunity to attack
Preston, and reported the breach of the Regulations to Grand Lodge, and
Heseltine supported them to the utmost of his power. The quarrel dragged on
throughout the year 1778. But for the virulent hostility of Heseltine it might
have been settled amicably, but in the end he carried his point and Preston
and his adherents were expelled in January, 1779.
lodge had already in November, 1778, decided "to withdraw themselves from the
Society" and from this time onward there were two Lodges of Antiquity,
Preston's lodge, independent but in friendly relations with the Grand Lodge of
All England at York, and Noorthouck's lodge, which remained faithful to the
Grand Lodge in Queen street. On his expulsion Preston withdrew his name from
all the other lodges of which he was a member, and in bitterness of spirit he
decided in October, 1781, to retire from Masonry altogether. He accordingly
resigned his membership in the Lodge of Antiquity. Deprived of his vigorous
direction, that lodge fell upon evil days and might have collapsed altogether
had not he been persuaded to return in October, 1786. He was elected Deputy
Master, took up Masonry again with all his old energy, and quickly restored
the lodge to a condition of prosperity.
1787 he realized his scheme for rendering the Lectures, of which he had
already made trial on the lodge Chapter Night in 1777, and instituted the
Grand Chapter of Harodim. The minute books of the chapter have long been lost,
and such knowledge as we have of its constitution and proceedings are derived
from the minute books of the Lodge of Antiquity, Stephen Jones' Memoir of
Preston, The Illustrations of Masonry and from a little book entitled The
Pocket Companion or Freemason's Guide to the Science of Masonry, in Three
Parts. It is dedicated "To the Council, Assistant Council, other officers and
Companions of the Grand Chapter of the Antient and Venerable Order of Harodim,
for whose use it is principally intended." The author is anonymous but was
almost certainly Preston himself. Part I, The First Lecture, was published in
1790, and is in the possession of the lodge. Part II, The Second Lecture, was
published in 1792, a copy being in the Grand Lodge Library. I have not met
with a copy of Part III. In the Introduction to Part I, it is claimed that the
Order of Harodim is coeval with the building of King Solomon's Temple, and
that it was established by the 3300 eminent Masons who assisted Solomon.
the Illustrations of Masonry we learn that the chapter was governed by a Grand
Patron, two Vice Patrons, a Chief Ruler and two Assistants, with a Council of
twelve Companions. There was also a Chief Harod and a General Director.
Stephen Jones tells us that at a later period Lord Macdonald presided as Grand
Patron, and James Heseltine, William Birch, John Spottiswoode and William
Meyrick as Vice Patrons. (Heseltine will be remembered as having been mainly
instrumental in procuring Preston's expulsion in 1778.) The Lectures were
divided into Sections, and these again into Clauses. The sections were
assigned annually by the Chief Harod, to skillful Companions denominated
Sectionists, who in turn distributed the clauses to Clause Holders. Such
Companions as had mastered all the sections were classed as Lectures. The
chapter held seven meetings in the year, opening at four o'clock for private
business. Dinner was at five, and the public lecture, to which visitors were
admitted on payment, took place at eight. From the Pocket Companion we gather
that the proceedings at the Lecture were similar to those at the lodge chapter
night already described. Refreshments were provided during the Lecture, and
after each section a toast or sentiment was drunk. A list of these Lecture
toasts is given at the end of the book.
Preston and the other expelled brethren were re-instated and their character
vindicated by Grand Lodge on Nov. 25, 1789, and steps were soon after taken to
re-unite the two Lodges of Antiquity. This union was happily effected on Nov.
12, 1790, under the Mastership of William Birch, Preston being unanimously
elected Deputy Master.
view to bringing the Chapter of Harodim into correspondence with Grand Lodge,
the Harodim Lodge, No. 558, had been founded in March, 1790. This lodge united
with the Lodge of Antiquity in December, 1792, and for the rest of its
existence the chapter and the lodge maintained a close connection. But its
members gradually fell off, financial difficulties supervened and in spite of
efforts to keep it alive it ceased to exist in 1801.
end may have been hastened by the establishment by Preston in 1796 of a Lodge
of Instruction. Here the sections and clauses were rehearsed by the brethren
who afterwards illustrated them at the regular lodge meetings. This Lodge of
Instruction lasted with some intervals of abeyance until 1836.
for three years, when bad health compelled him to relinquish it, Preston held
the office of Deputy Master until 1815. He died after a long illness on April
1, 1818, and was buried in St. Paul's Cathedral. During his lifetime and up to
the year 1838, a section from one of the Lectures was illustrated at the lodge
meetings whenever time permitted. The brethren taking part were styled
Lecturers and Clause Holders, and the clauses were annually assigned and the
names of the Clause Holders printed, in the summonses. They were generally
given in the form of question and answer, the senior members or "Lecturers"
asking the questions and the junior or "Clause Holders" giving the answers.
But sometimes the Lecturers, Preston, Stephen Jones, Meyrick, and others, gave
a clause alone, and the words "Harodim" or "in Harodim Style" is added after
their names. This would appear to show that the Lecturers in the Chapter of
Harodim sometimes used a narrative form, omitting the questions altogether.
This method seems to have been used by Preston when he first delivered the
Lectures in public, and by the participants at the lodge chapter night in
1777. The Prestonian Lecture was certainly delivered in this way, and after
its institution, the question and answer method dropped out of use in the
lodge. The clauses were illustrated by one brother only, and the addition of
the word "Harodim" no longer appears.
FOUNDS THE PRESTON LECTURESHIP
Preston's will the Masonic charities benefited to the extent of 1000 pounds,
and he also bequeathed "To the Right Honourable the Earl of Moira, Acting
Grand Master for the time, three hundred Pounds, Three per cent Consolidated
Bank Annuities, the Interest of which shall be applied by him to some well
informed mason to deliver annually a Lecture on the First, Second or Third
Degree of the order of Masonry according to the system practised in the Lodge
of Antiquity during my Mastership."
the Prestonian Lecture was founded. It was given for the first time in the
Lodge of Antiquity on May 25, 1820, by W. Bro. Stephen Jones, P.M., Preston's
most intimate friend and Masonic legatee. He delivered the first two sections
of the First Lecture, when it was verified by the brethren present, that they
had been worked on the Prestonian system and were considered sufficient to
establish Jones' claim to the interest of the fund. The M.W.G. Master, the
Duke of Sussex, then Master of the lodge, had retired before the Lecture, and
the Deputy Master, Bro. McGillivray, was instructed to report to him to that
effect. Bro. Jones was again appointed Lecturer in 1821, 1822 and 1824.
Lecture appears to have been given in the lodge in 1823, 1825 or 1826. Bro.
Laurence Thompson, Secretary of the lodge, succeeded Jones and delivered the
Lecture every year up to 1854, with the exception of 1853, when owing to his
indisposition Bro. John Henderson took his place. Bro. Thompson died in 1855.
He was the last survivor of Preston's pupils.
Lecture for 1857 was given on Jan. 20, 1858, by Bro. Collings in the Royal
York Lodge of Perseverance, No. 7. A portion was also delivered in April,
1858, in the Grand Stewards' Lodge by Bro. Johnson, P.M., but the official
Lecture for that year was given in October in the Lodge of Antiquity by Bro.
Thistleton, the Secretary. A MS. book in the Grand Lodge Library containing
the Lecture of the First Degree has an introduction from which it would appear
that this Lecture was again delivered about the year 1863 or 1864, but the
place and Lecturer's name are not recorded. No Lecture has been given since
STILL IN EXISTENCE
Lodge of Antiquity possesses a collection of MSS. containing sections of the
Lectures written in question and answer by different members of the lodge.
None would appear to be earlier than 1806 and none are in Preston's
handwriting. Similar MSS. are in the Grand Lodge Library. We have also some
printed syllabuses of the First and Second Degrees and part of the Third
Degree. Two editions were issued, the first between 1808 and 1813, the second
with many variations, in 1828.
Prestonian Lectures, the Lodge of Antiquity has a copy of the First and Second
Degrees in the handwriting of W. Bro. John Henderson. Their date is unknown
but they cannot have been written before 1827. We are told, however, that Bro.
Henderson took them before the year 1838 from Bros. Meyrick, Burckhardt,
Thompson and others of Preston's pupils. This copy was presented to the lodge
by Bro. Henderson's executor in 1867. The Lecture of the Third Degree is
written in a printed copy of the By-laws of 1788. It is in Masonic cypher. The
heading states that it is by Bro. John Turk, P.M., of the Universal Lodge, and
"carefully revised by Bro. William Preston, Esq. 1816." There are also in the
Grand Lodge Library three MS. books containing the Lectures of the three
degrees. These are later copies. There is also there a note book formerly
belonging to Bro. John Henderson. This contains inter alia the Lectures of the
First and Second Degrees in question and answer, an early fragment of the
Lecture of the Third Degree, and a full version deciphered from Bro. Turk's
sixty-five years which have elapsed since the delivery of the last Prestonian
Lecture, Preston has been almost forgotten except by those who are students of
Masonic history. If this paper serves to bring before you some idea of the
work and character of our revered Past Master, I shall be well content.
Brotherhood of Doctrines
an Introduction by The Editor
EPOCH-MAKING utterances in science are not always accompanied by a blare of
trumpets. It happens once in a while that an entirely new idea is given to the
public through obscure channels in a form so modest as almost to escape
attention. Riemann's revolutionizing paper "On the Hypothesis Which Lie at the
Base of Geometry," published in 1854, is a case in point; so also Minkowski's
"Space and Time," published in 1908, which established a new starting point in
scientific thinking. Count Korzybski's paper, given herewith, may fairly be
considered a similar instance because, though it has not yet reached the
general public, it has been recognized by scientific thinkers as an
outstanding achievement. Some day it will be used to date a new manner of
thinking in the subject with which it deals.
this reason it is recommended to the most careful attention of the reader. It
should be read, not once but many times. One need not be frightened away from
it by the fact that it is a document of exact science, because while the
language may at first be strange the ideas themselves are such as may be
readily grasped by any intelligent man; and ultimately the language itself
will be found to make this easier than if more familiar words were used. This
same thing is also largely true about Einstein's theory, for while it is very
difficult for a layman to follow the technical arguments on which it is based,
the theory itself rests on principles not difficult to comprehend. In his
connection one recalls a sentence from Relativity and Gravitation, by T. Percy
Nunn, Professor of Education in the University of London: "Einstein's doctrine
about absolute and relative motion is plain common sense, but its
consequences, when it is taken seriously, are revolutionary and startling."
also be recommended to the thoughtful reader for yet another reason: it
furnishes us a scientific base for our own great Masonic doctrine of
Brotherhood. This is an exceedingly important thing, as a moment of reflection
will prove. Roughly speaking, and from the present point of view, science may
be described as an effort to know what facts are and what are the relations
among them. If any human ideal is out of joint with facts, and with the
relations among them, it can never hope of realization but remains a romantic
dream on which it is useless to waste our time. Is the doctrine of Brotherhood
such a romance of the mind? There are many who think so, even among Masons;
they do not really believe and strive for it because, secretly, they consider
it impracticable a beautiful hope but not something made necessary by the very
structure of our human world. The all important thing for us Masons in Count
Korzybski's paper is that, first, he shows that Brotherhood is a law of man;
and, secondly, he lays bare the rigid logical process which proves that it is
a law of man; and, thirdly, shows how ultimate world Brotherhood may be
obtained. It is because he does this that a Mason who takes his Masonry
seriously should read, ponder and inwardly digest it.
now living through the most revolutionizing period in human thinking the world
has ever known. Science is experiencing a renaissance the like of which has
never occurred before. Einstein's entirely new conception of the universe has
come somewhat before the public, but Einstein is only one of a group of
thinkers equally able and equally revolutionary using "revolutionary" in its
exact sense. Whitehead, Russell, Keyser, Poincare, Wittgenstein, Huntington,
Veblen, Carmichael, Cassirer and a dozen others have entirely rebuilt the
foundations of science. Count Korzybski belongs with this group. His signal
achievement has been to do for the science of man what Einstein has done for
physics and astronomy. One of the results of his thinking is embodied in his
Manhood of Humanity, reviewed in THE BUILDER, August, 1922, page 256. Other
results will be embodied in a forthcoming book to be entitled Time-Binding.
work as this is of the greatest importance to Masonic thinkers because, as
stated above, it will help us to establish a scientific foundation under our
doctrine of Brotherhood, a thing we need so badly for, in this country at
least, no serious attention has ever been paid to the scientific implication
of Masonic philosophy. Once Masons learn how to think Masonry scientifically,
we shall be able to rid the Temple of all the rubbish of foggy, half-informed,
wild thinking which now so often encumbers it. In other words, the thinking of
Masonry and the technique of Masonry must be made rigorously scientific or we
shall go on to the end of our days warring with phantoms or thinking in the
dark. Such a thing has never been attempted in American Masonry (it has been
in some other countries) but sooner or later we must come to it. It will be
very interesting to discover how many members of the National Masonic Research
Society are concerned about this matter. If a sufficient number sufficiently
feel the importance of such an undertaking, THE BUILDER will undertake to
secure permission from Count Korzybski to publish his "Faith and Freedom," an
essay that complements and completes the arguments contained in "The
Brotherhood of Doctrines." Professor Keyser's Mathematical Philosophy was
reviewed in these pages October, 1922, page 319; it is published by E.P.
Dutton & Co., 681 Fifth avenue, New York, N.Y.; $4.70.
now and then there appear in the history of humanity gigantic thinkers who
shape and mold our mental processes for centuries to come. In our own time we
are witnessing such a turning of the page in human history. The birth of a new
era is upon us; a host of men in all walks of life feel it unconsciously and
work toward it. A few leading mathematicians have made these unconscious
strivings of mankind conscious without them we would feel our way but in the
darkness, which is a slow, very slow process of guesswork, whereas with their
work our path is clear.
the reader will understand the inherent difficulties which beset any attempt
to give a general summary of a new epoch which is still making its own
foundations. In the space allotted for this writing only a very few of the
most momentous points can be sketched, and I make no pretense to finality. The
aim is to draw the attention of scientists and thinkers to the fact that
something of grave importance for all our human future is going on, and to
encourage inquiry and collaboration, thus accelerating the inevitable.
here call the inevitable is the coming of the empire of sound logic a logic
demanding scientific knowledge of human nature, adjusting human beliefs,
institutions, doctrines and conduct to the essential facts and laws of human
nature, and converting the pseudo-sciences of ethics, economics and government
into genuine sciences for promoting human welfare.
"Brotherhood of Man," of which we all dream, can be accomplished only and
exclusively by the "Brotherhood of Doctrines."
will be found that when what Professor Cassius Keyser calls the "Great
Stupidity" has been eliminated by sound logic, all that is dismal,
destructive, woeful and despairing will become constructive, hopeful and
favourable to human weal.
an inquiry will show that there still persist many doctrines originally
established by myth and magic; and, although at the first glance they seem
harmless, their sinister effect retards human progress, knowledge and
history of human thought may be roughly divided into three periods, each
period having gradually evolved from its predecessor. The beginning of one
period overlaps the other. As a base for my classification I shall take the
relationship between the observer and the observed. This relationship is
clearly fundamental because there can be no "observer" without something to
observe, and also no "observed" without somebody making the observation. To
put it otherwise there is no such thing as a "fact" free from the share of the
observer's mind. In speaking about these periods I shall not take into account
individual thinkers, because in many instances it may be found that certain
thinkers (Plato, Lucretius, Leibnitz, etc.) in a given period were far ahead
of their contemporaries, and that their theories or discoveries which had no
great influence in their own time were prophetic expressions of the latest
developments of science, therefore I shall only speak summarily about those
currents of thought which have immediately affected the fate of our "common
first period may be called the Greek, or Metaphysical, or Pre-Scientific
Period. In this period the observer was everything, the observed did not
second period may be called the Classical or Semi-Scientific still reigning in
most fields where the observer was almost nothing and the only thing that
mattered was the observed. This tendency gave rise to that which we may call
gross empiricism and gross materialism.
third period may be called the Mathematical, or Scientific Period. It began in
1854 with George Boole's The Laws of Thought. This work started an internal
revolution in logic and also in mathematics which ultimately resulted in the
last few years in the merging of both the discovery that logic and mathematics
are one. In this period mankind will understand (some understand it already)
that all that man can know is a joint phenomenon of the observer and the
might otherwise call the three periods:
The Absolutist Period. (2) The Confused Absolutist-Relativist Period. (3) The
general characteristic of the first two periods was that they both used
traditional, insufficient, and often fallacious subject-predicate,
Aristotelian logic which must result, as it did, in a philosophical impasse.
The confusion became so acute that hardly any two thinkers were able to
understand each other except through sympathy.
OLD LOGIC HAMPERS EVERYTHING
be proved also that the direct result of this faulty logic has hampered
enormously the natural sciences and progress in all fields of human affairs.
The history of mankind, despite all the beauty and culture in it, has been in
greater measure a history of misery and periodical collapses, wars and
old complete, consistent "absolutism" leads obviously to blind fanatical
theories. The mixture of absolute and relative concepts and words leads to
confusion and bewildering paradoxes. Consistent "relativism" clarifies this
whole hopeless mess and probably will lead toward some "absolute" if such a
new mathematical-scientific era the simple truth has been discovered that all
we know is a joint phenomenon of the observed and the observed, which means
that for science and life logic is as vital a factor as "facts" because, for
human knowledge, there are no "facts" free from the share of the observer's
General truths cannot be established by gross empiricism because it deals only
and exclusively with particular observations, and this is why the orthodox
tradition led automatically to doubt and unwarranted pessimism, so
characteristic of that period. Obviously if there is such a thing as general
knowledge, its foundation must be found outside of gross empiricism. Most
probably such a thing does exist and its origin may be traced to the
constitution of the human mind itself to sound modern logic (mathematics).
Someone may ask, How about "intuitions," "emotions,"etc.? The answer is simple
and positive. It is a fallacy of the old schools to divide man into parcels,
elements; all human faculties consist of an inter-connected whole. We choose
to deal with logic because laws of thought are the only aspects of the whole
which are tangible and invariant, the eternal laws of thought which can be
handled rigorously. When the problems of these aspects are solved, the others,
the vague ones, like "intuitions," "emotions," etc., will fall into line
automatically. As Keyser has pointed out, it matters what an animal is; with
man it matters not only what man is, but even more what we humans think man
is. The tragedy of man has been and is that in creating his institutions and
ethics he has never been conscious of this.
Already I have given a hint as to how the source of general knowledge can be
found in the inherent constitution of the human mind. If I may, I shall give
more hints. Let us imagine that in the night, during our sleep, the universe,
ourselves included, should "grow up," ten, one hundred, or "n" times. Is there
any human possibility of detecting in the morning this remarkable event? It is
a well proved fact that the answer must be negative. Man could not detect the
change. His room had, let us say, ten steps in the evening before the change;
it would have ten steps in the morning after the change. It is obvious that
such metaphysical, so-called "absolute" space is not an absolute space; this
example does away with absolute space. But it is easy to see that the number
ten (or any other) has remained. Similar reasoning proves that, to the best of
our knowledge today, all absolutes have gone except number, whatever number
is. If we could succeed in squeezing out some wisdom, some general knowledge,
from number, which is this "only absolute left," we should be entitled to
expect that this wisdom would contain the germ of absolute knowledge. As a
fact this is being done by a few leading mathematicians.
mathematics deals formally with what can be said about anything or any
property. As the reader can easily see, we are witnessing the birth of the
wonder of wonders the birth of what may be called "qualitative" mathematics.
Here it may be explained why mathematics has this exclusive position among
other sciences. It must be emphasized that it was not some special genius of
the mathematicians, as such, that was responsible for it. With the birth of
the rational being man rational activity began spontaneously (no matter how
slowly) and this rational activity manifested itself in every line of human
endeavour no matter how slight this rational activity was. Today we know that
all man can know is an abstraction. I use the term "abstraction" in the sense
of Whitehead: "To be an abstraction does not mean that an entity is nothing.
It merely means that its existence is only one factor of a more concrete
element of nature." The process of constructing those abstractions is quite
arbitrary. From the time man began he has been plunging into this process of
constructing arbitrary abstractions it was and is the very nature of his
BLUNDERED INTO MATHEMATICS
Obviously, in the beginning, man did not know anything about the universe or
himself; he went ahead spontaneously. It is no wonder that some of his
abstractions were false to fact; that some of them were devoid of meaning, and
hence neither true nor false but strictly meaningless; and that some of them
were correct. In this endless spontaneous process of constructing abstractions
he started from that which was the nearest to him namely himself and
ignorantly attributed his human faculties to all the universe around him. He
did not realize that he man was the latest product in the universe; he
reversed the order and anthropomorphized all around him. He did not realize,
and this is true even today in most cases, that by so doing he was building up
a logic and a language unfit to deal with the actual universe, life, man
included, and that by doing so he was building for himself a mental impasse,
through his inconsistency and naive observation. In a few instances good luck
was with him; he made a few abstractions which were at once the easiest to
handle and were correct, that is, corresponding to actual facts in this actual
abstractions were numbers.
see how numbers originated and what was their significance. Anyone may see
that there is an actual difference between such groups as X or XX or as XXX,
whatever the class was composed of, be it stones, figs, or snakes. And man
could not miss for long the peculiar similarity between such X class of stones
or such XX class of snakes, etc., and here happened a fact of crucial
significance for the future of man; he named these different classes by
definite names; he called the class of all such classes X "one," the class of
all such classes XX "two," XXX "three," etc., and number was born!
as everywhere else "le premier pas qui coute" ("it is the first step that
costs"); having created number the rest followed as a comparatively easy task.
Man could not miss for long seeing, that if such a class X is added to such a
class X he gets such a class XX, but the other day he had called such classes
by names "one" and "two," so he concluded that "one and one make two"
mathematics was born exact knowledge began.
luck combined with his human faculties has helped man to discover one of the
creation of number was the most reasonable, the first truly scientific act
done by man; in mathematics this reasonable being produced a perfect
abstraction, the first perfect instrument by which to train his brain, his
nerve currents, in the ideal way befitting the actual universe (not a fiction)
and himself a part of it. Now it is easy to understand from this physiological
point of view why mathematics has developed so soundly.
opposite must be said about the other disciplines. They started with fictions
mostly, and until this day they persist and, playing in vacuo, bring havoc
into the life of man.
Mathematics started aright the others did not!
biggest triumph of human thought was, and forever will be, the discovery of
new mathematical methods embracing larger and larger parts of the whole these
are the milestones of man's progress.
REVIEW OF MATHEMATICAL PHILOSOPHY"
Mathematical Philosophy by Keyser is one of these milestones of everlasting
significance. In this monumental work there are discoveries of the gravest
importance. Keyser is one of the very few in the world, as far as I know, who
is blazing a new trail in this field. Whoever is interested in human progress,
and who of us is not should read and re-read this book. The peculiarity of
such works is, that the range of their bearing is so vast that it takes time
and meditation to digest and appropriate their seemingly simple content.
Neither must it be forgotten that the old traditional logic and its progeny,
our language and habits, work against us.
reader may be reassured that this "new" wisdom is much easier than the old
one. Mathematics is nothing else than common sense refined and elevated to the
rank of science it is natural to man it covers his "intuitions"; whereas the
old logic was not equipped to deal with the living thought without an
unnatural constraint; generally speaking, it rarely covered "intuitions" and
reader will get the first sharp mental shock by reading the title which tells
us that mathematical philosophy that is, the only rigorous scientific
philosophy is the "study of fate and freedom .... it will become increasingly
evident as we advance that the work we are to be engaged in is fundamentally
the study of fate and freedom logical fate and intellectual freedom ....
Without more talk and without danger of misunderstanding, we may, I believe,
now speak of ideas as constituting a world the world of ideas. With that world
all human beings as humans have to deal there is no escape; it is there and
only there that foundations are found foundations for science, foundations for
philosophy, foundations for art, foundations for religion, for ethics, for
government and education; it is in the world of ideas and only there that
human beings as humans may find principles or bases for rational theories and
rational conduct of life, whether individual life or community life; choices
differ but some choice of principles we must make if we are to be really human
if, that is, we are to be rational and when we have made it, we are at once
bound by a destiny of consequences beyond the power of passion or will to
control or modify; another choice of principles is but the election of another
destiny. The world of ideas is, you see, the empire of fate.
the human intellect, then, a slave? No: it is free; but its freedom is not
absolute; it is limited by fact and by law by the laws of thought, by the
immutable character of ideas and by their unchanging eternal relationships.
Intellectual freedom is freedom to think in accord with the laws of thought,
in accord with the nature of ideas, in accord with their inter-relations,
which are unalterable. And no variety of human freedom no institution erected
in its sacred name if it does not conform to the eternal conditions of
intellectual freedom can stand."
discovery of logical fate and freedom, its formulation and elaboration, is of
such importance that, were it the only one in the book, the book would live
forever. After some reflection, its practical bearing becomes evident in that
all our talkings about "Brotherhood of Man" or "Democracy," etc., are
beautiful words but meaningless so long as we do not inquire into the basic
premises which underly those doctrines and investigate if the premises are
true; because, if the premises should prove to be false, this "logical fate"
would drive us to disasters. Sad experience is daily making it more evident
that a scientific (not metaphysical) inquiry is imperative. As a fact we have
not hitherto had the method by which to approach or handle human affairs in a
truly scientific spirit, but once this method is discovered, we have no more
excuses for continuing to welter in the old chaos.
is, perhaps, nothing wrong with "human nature," but there is something
basically wrong with our old premises and logic. As a fact, every human
activity has at its foundation some doctrine as an inherent, unconditionally
inseparable part of it. Because of this logical fate, the analyzing of these
doctrines, which underly all human activities, becomes the most important nay
the all-important fact for all the future of man.
Keyser, to the best of my knowledge, is the discoverer of a new mathematical
method whereby this can be accomplished; in a wonderfully precise and clear
way he elaborates the theory of postulates and doctrinal functions. Most of
what he has to say is either entirely new, or given in a new form; he
illustrates his thesis continually with many examples so as to make it
perfectly clear to the reader. By the discovery and elaboration of this
logical fate which dominates our lives, by the discovery and elaboration of
the theory of the doctrinal function, Keyser goes to the very roots, not only
of all actual, but all potential human knowledge; to the roots of all human
problems and relations.
is the importance of such theoretical works? Let me answer by an example:
pyramids were built without the knowledge of exact sciences; quite true, but
what was the waste in effort, the price in life and happiness which such
ignorance brought upon the people! A Galileo, a Newton, a Leibnitz for
instance, discovered some new facts, give us some new definitions and
formulated some new methods of handling old problems and at each stage of
civilization such discoveries and their logical consequences transformed
deeply all our knowledge and therefore affected enormously our practical
achievements. As a matter of fact at the bottom of every "practical"
achievement there is some theory, and it is not a paradox to say that history
proves that the most "practical" achievements are always "theoretical"
discoveries because they are the factors which make the former possible.
theoretical discoveries and knowledge as expounded in Keyser's work will
deeply transform all human activities, because they will enable man to revise
uncriticised prejudices which, until now, we have accepted as truth. "Thought
unexpressed is thought concealed, and concealed thought light hid under a
bushel fades and perishes with the thinker. Expressed, however, it lives and
grows, engendering its kind, adding its flame to the flame of other thought,
and so that radiance which is 'all there is' increases and tends to abide."
Keyser's book deals with many interconnected ideas of universal interest of
grave importance; they form a system which is bound to abide. A short list of
his subjects is an evidence of this: Intellectual Freedom and Logical Fate
Mathematical Obligation of Philosophy Humanistic and Industrial Education
Human Ethics not a Branch of Zoology Postulates The Model of Principles and
Platforms Criticism and the Sword of the Gadfly Municipal Laws and the Laws of
Thought Basic Concepts Propositional and Doctrinal Functions Marriage of
Matter and Form Its Infinite Fertility Doctrines as Offspring Interpretations
One Doctrinal Function the Matrix of Infinitely Many Doctrines Identical in
Form, Diverse in Content Essential Discriminations Distinction of Logical and
Psychological Postulate Properties Truth and Criticism Mathematical Philosophy
in the Role of Critic Autonomous Truth and Falsehood The Prototype of Reasoned
Discourse Often Disguised as in the Declaration of Independence, the
Constitution of the United States, the Origin of Species, the Sermon on the
Mount Transformation Involved in all Thinking Its Study the Common Enterprise
of Sciences The Problem of Time and Kindred Problems Invariance The Ages-old
Problem of Permanence and Change The Group Concept Variables and Limits
Mathematical Infinity Hyperspaces Open Avenues to Higher Worlds Forms of
Intellectual Emancipation Mathematics of Psychology Psychology of Mathematics
Science and Engineering Change of Emphasis from Non-Human to Human Energies
Science as Engineering in Preparation Engineering as Science in Action
Mathematics the Guide of the Engineer Engineering the Guide of Humanity, etc.,
book is bound to make a strong appeal to intelligent people. All intelligent
persons will find some of their burning questions answered. For instance,
parents are asking, Why should our children study mathematics? What is the
educational value of mathematics? Scientists are asking, How is mathematical
science related to the other cardinal enterprises of Man? Sociologists must
ask afresh, What is Man? and how can mathematical thinking help to make the
social sciences genuine sciences? Engineers would like to know, How can we
humanize engineering? and so on.
IS THAT TO ME?"
layman, the "practical" man, the man in the street, says, What is that to me?
The answer is positive and weighty. Our life is entirely dependent on the
established doctrines of ethics, sociology, political economy, government,
law, medical science, etc. This affects everyone consciously or unconsciously,
the man in the street in the first place, because he is the most defenceless.
fact most of the so-called scientists reject logic entirely because the old
logic is misleading, and they are entirely ignorant of this "new" logic,
though it is seventy years old. I explained before that science is a joint
phenomenon of logic and facts, and there can be no escape from the conclusion
that such scientists as ignore sound logic are not scientists at all but
merely clerks in scientific offices; and yet the people listen to them and are
too often hypnotized by their nonsensical conclusions so misleading and
about the next generation, their future welfare and happiness? If they are
taught false logic and false doctrines, mental cripples are produced, destined
for a life of misery. Is this what parents want for their beloved ones? What
of the teachers the men and women who in the literal sense are the builders of
the next generations? What do they know about the latest progress of
knowledge? Or are they still in the dark ages of ignorance? In the light of
these questions, the man in the street has sufficient reason to be vitally
interested in this subject
new sciences are not strictly "popular." Scientists who have spent their lives
in the studies of classical texts, and who are not capable of following up a
little piece of sound reasoning, and even some mathematicians and engineers
who have learned technic without bothering to inquire into its meaning or
justification, are bound to resent these views. The layman must understand the
reasons for such opposition.
knowledge cannot be concealed for long; but if ignorance, dullness, apathy
retard its application this will mean one or two more generations of misery.
It may take a still more terrible World War to whip mankind into the
realization that man should use his brain and the knowledge already at hand.
writings of Keyser, besides their great scientific value, have another quality
not easily found in other scientific writers, namely, an unexcelled style of
their own, making his writings not only jewels of thought but jewels of style
and language as well.
up. A diagram may help to visualize the power of one of the discoveries of
non-scientific A -----------B Old non-scientific assumptions, postulates,
\ Logical ideas, nonbeliefs E \ destiny coordinations,
wars \ revolutions \ New scientific
as C -------\ D New scientific, true sumptions, postulates Logical
coordinated, systems, premises, truths Destiny ideas, ideals
diagram makes it evident that--
Any change in (A) the old premises, postulates, necessarily involves changes
in (B): it explains why the World War having exposed many old, hidden
fallacies (A), must affect our social, economic, political and other
relations, and that, therefore, no return to the old (B) is possible.
is impossible to start with old (often false) premises (A) and reach new
ideals (D) and convince all; because in such case Logical Destiny is against
the would-be reformer, whoever he may be; because inconsistencies (E) arise,
which prevent the general acceptance of the high-sounding, logically unsound
doctrines. For example, we may preach "Brotherhood of Man" and still practice
the "Wolfhood" of man.
new, better civilization (D) must start with new, truer, scientific premises,
postulates (C); then, and then only, Logical Destiny will again be our ally,
instead of enemy (E).
the old civilization everyone blames everyone else for everything; Nations
blame Nations, Religions blame Religions, Labour blames Capital, Capital
blames Labour, etc. Logical destiny proves that no one is to be blamed. In
false premises are the roots of guilt all the rest, the consequences, are but
the outgrowth of them. This understanding at once abolishes ALL REASONS FOR
BITTERNESS in individual life, community life, international life: it proves
that a "League of Sound Logic" is the best "League of Nations" because
effective under the subtle inevitable laws of Logical Fate Unified Doctrines
Will Unify Man.
may be hoped that those who most earnestly believe in the "Brotherhood of Man"
will be re-inspired and be the most eager to investigate and understand and
assist in the establishment of the "Brotherhood of Doctrines," because there
and only there will be found the foundations of the higher aspects of the
ideals for Brotherhood among men.
Organization of the General Grand Chapter of Royal
Masons the United States
Bro. C. C. HUNT, Associate Editor, Iowa
Oct. 24, 1797, a convention of committees from St. Andrew's Chapter, Boston,
Temple Chapter, Albany, and Newburyport Chapter, met in convention at Masons'
Hall, Boston, Mass., and resolved to take steps necessary to forming a Grand
Royal Arch Chapter for the states in the northeastern part of the United
States. Thomas Smith Webb was chosen chairman of this convention. They
therefore issued a circular letter to the chapters in these states asking them
to send one or more delegates to represent their chapter at a meeting to be
held in the city of Hartford, Conn., on the fourth Wednesday of January, next
of the chapters invited accepted the invitation and on Jan. 24, 1798, the
delegates from the several chapters met at-Hartford, Conn., and organized the
Grand Royal Arch Chapter of the Northern States of America, consisting of the
states of New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Vermont and
New York. A constitution was adopted and officers elected, among them being
Ephraim Kirby, of Litchfield, Conn., as Grand High Priest, and Thos. Smith
Webb, of Albany, N.Y., Grand Scribe.
first meeting of the Grand Chapter after its organization was held on the
third Wednesday of September, 1798, in the city of Middleton, Conn. The second
meeting was held on the second Wednesday of January, 1799, at Providence, R.
I. At this second meeting the Constitution was amended and the name changed to
the General Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons for the Northern States of
America. This change was apparently made because of the fact that some of the
states had organized Grand Chapters of their own under the original Grand
Chapter, and the name was changed to General Grand Chapter to indicate the
Provision was also made for future organization of other State Grand Chapters,
and for meetings every seven years after 1799, instead of annual meetings as
had been the case before.
third meeting was, therefore, held in 1806. At this meeting requests for
charters were received from Georgia and South Carolina. Therefore the
Constitution was again changed to enable them to take in Grand Chapters from
other states. The new name was General Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons for
the United States of America. Since that time other Grand Chapters have been
organized under the General Grand Chapter, and at the present time all the
Grand Chapters in the United States, with the exception of Pennsylvania,
Virginia and Texas, are members of the General Grand body.
the present General Grand Chapter ritual, there was a memorial presented to
the General Grand Chapter at the convocation at Indianapolis in 1912, from the
Grand Chapter, Royal Arch Masons of Mississippi, in which attention was called
to the fact that -
". . .
in the ritual as promulgated by the General Grand Chapter, there are numerous
instances in which the same idea is presented in a different phraseology,
which makes it difficult to retain. The language employed is not a matter of
any great importance, but the feet that it varies in numerous instances has
proven a source of great embarrassment in the propagation of the work, because
the mind is burdened needlessly in an endeavor to express in more ways than
one, an idea that is identical.
Memorialists think that it is worthy of your consideration, that latitude
should be given to the several Grand Chapters, to follow the work of their
several Grand Lodges where there is a difference existing between the lodge
and chapter work, in the same jurisdiction. In the large chapters existing in
cities, where one set of brethren do the work of the lodge and another that of
the chapter, this it not a matter of very much importance, but in small towns
or cities where the same brethren are the workers in the lodge and chapter
also, it is exceedingly confusing to have to use one phraseology in the lodge
and another in the chapter to convey an identical meaning and your
Memorialists think that no harm could come from granting the Grand Chapters
liberty to follow in the work of the chapter, the work of the Grand Lodge."
special committee to whom this memorial was referred reported that they found
the complaint of the Mississippi companions well founded, and recommended
certain changes to make the ritual more uniform. This report was unanimously
adopted, but did not fully correct evil complained of, and at the convocation
at San Francisco, Cal., in 1915, the Grand Chapter of Iowa presented a
memorial calling attention to one hundred forty-five other changes which
should be made to harmonize the work.
Chapter, No. 49, of Cedar Rapids, Iowa, also presented a memorial asking that
the Past Master's Degree be rewritten. Both of these memorials were referred
to a committee on ritual, but in the meantime the General Grand High Priest
had recommended that a committee be appointed to rewrite and revise the entire
ritual, to bring it into harmony with changes which had already been made.
This recommendation was adopted by the General Grand Chapter and the committee
on ritual recommended that the memorial from Iowa be referred to the special
committee, which was done. Companions Wm. F. Kuhn, Nelson Williams and Harry
W. Harvey were appointed on the committee and presented their report at the
Triennial Convocation at Baltimore in 1918. This report consisted of a
complete revision of the ritual and was adopted.
is the present General Grand Chapter ritual, and the above briefly recites the
circumstances leading up to its adoption. The essentials which go with this
ritual are the old-time essentials of the General Grand Chapter. The committee
reported that they made no change in this whatever.
Concerning "The Story of Freemasonry in New Jersey"
Bro. MELVIN M. JOHNSON, P.G.M., Massachusetts
who are familiar with Bro. Johnson's "Freemasonry in America Prior to 1750"
will be interested to know that he has revised and expanded that book into a
new volume under the title, "The Beginnings of Freemasonry in America," to be
issued during the coming month.
Story of Freemasonry in New Jersey," by Bro. Ernest A. Reed, published in THE
BUILDER, November, 1923, page 329, is exceedingly interesting, particularly as
coming from such an able pen. But Bro. Reed has been misled by his sources in
some instances so that I believe a further discussion will be as acceptable to
him as to others. It will assist me if the reader, before going on with the
following, will re-read his article.
Reed attempts a reason for the failure of Daniel Cox to establish lodges in
the province of New Jersey, and later speaks of Cox's "return to England in
1731." The fact is, that while Cox was appointed June 5, 1730, as Provincial
Grand Master of New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania for two years he was
not on this side of the Atlantic at any time during those two years. During
that entire period he remained in England endeavouring to perfect certain
property rights to a large section of North America, which he claimed had been
granted to his father. When therefore in January, 1730/1, Cox attended the
Grand Lodge in London he naturally was recorded in accordance with the
commission which he held, although he had never exercised it.
in his article Bro. Reed makes this statement:
"Perhaps the best known military lodge on the American side was American Union
Lodge, of the Connecticut Line, as its name indicates, a lodge formed among
the troops from Connecticut. The warrant and minutes of this lodge are
preserved among the records of the Grand Lodge of Connecticut; but at the time
this lodge came into being there was no Grand Lodge of Connecticut and the
warrant was granted by Deputy Grand Master Gridley of Massachusetts, the same
Gridley who laid out the breast-works at Bunker Hill and who was acting Grand
Master on account of the death in battle of Grand Master Joseph Warren. The
minutes are well kept and show every location of the Connecticut troops."
all of this paragraph needs revision. The facts concerning American Union
Lodge are quite interesting. The Grand Lodge of Connecticut does not possess
the original warrant to which Bro. Reed refers. It has what purports to be a
printed copy of a commission issued by John Rowe as Grand Master, to Joel
Clark, Esquire, to be Master of American Union Lodge, "now erected in Roxbury
or wherever your Body shall remove on the continent of America, provided it is
where no Grand Master is appointed."
commission is dated Feb. 15, 1776. It is not a warrant for a lodge and from
its terms it is not clear whether the lodge was warranted before that time or
not. The commission is, as stated, merely the appointment of a brother as
Master of the lodge.
lodge when constituted was not "of the Connecticut Line." At that time there
was no Connecticut "Line." There were at least three regiments of Connecticut
troops in or about Boston, but there were no "line" troops until the
organization of the Continental Army, many months later. American Union Lodge
was formed among the troops who were in Roxbury, and probably of the
Connecticut soldiery, though I have not yet located Joel Clark.
AMERICAN UNION HELD A MEMORABLE MEETING
know that on Dec. 27, 1779, a festival meeting of the lodge was held at
Morristown to celebrate the festival of St. John the Evangelist. Bro. George
Washington was present, and at that meeting there was a proposition for the
appointing of a General Grand Master for the United States. By that time the
lodge was undoubtedly composed largely, if not wholly, of brethren of the
1791, this lodge was located in Ohio, and the original records of the Grand
Lodge of Massachusetts of March 11, 1793, contain a reference to a letter
received from "R. Oliver, Master of American Union Lodge, No. 1, in the
Federal Territory North West of the river Ohio."
Sept. 12, 1803, the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts received a petition from
American Union Lodge of Marietta (Ohio), praying for "a renewal of their
charter by this Grand Lodge, and to be received under its jurisdiction and
patronage." Favourable action was taken on this petition. On Sept. 10, 1804,
an official list of the lodges and their rank was adopted by the Grand Lodge
of Massachusetts, and American Union Lodge of Marietta, Ohio, is listed with
the date of its charter as Feb. 15, 1776.
Sept. 10, 1805, the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts received returns from this
lodge, and on Dec. 9 of the same year it was represented by somebody at the
Quarterly Communication. The roll of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts,
published Dec. 9, 1806, records the lodge; but on Sept. 14, 1807, a list is
made up of lodges "which have never made any returns or any payment at all to
the Grand Lodge, owing perhaps to their not being visited, to distance, or
want of funds." American Union Lodge at Marietta, state of Ohio, appears on
record of the Quarterly Communication of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts held
on Jan. 10, 1819, reads in part as follows:
Committee appointed to consider the subject of American Union Lodge, now or
formerly under the jurisdiction of this Grand Lodge, report That from the best
information they have been able to obtain, it appears, that some time in 1802,
a number of Brethren in the Town of Marietta, in the State of Ohio, obtained
from this Grand Lodge the renewal of a travelling charter, which in the year
1776 was granted to certain Brethren to be used in the Town of Roxbury, and
elsewhere, and which had now fallen into the hands of the said Brethren at
in the year 1808, the several Lodges in that State of Ohio, met in Convention
by delegates at Chillicothe, [Ohio], for the purpose of forming a Grand Lodge,
for that State the convention proceeding in the Business for which they were
assembled, elected their Officers, and appointed a day for their
extraordinary Freshet prevented the delegates from American Union Lodge
attending. The Convention however met and proceeded to install the Officers
elect, this being done in the absence of the delegates from American Union
Lodge, whom your Committee had requested that the installation might be
postponed until they should be able to attend, gave offence to said A.U.L.
whereupon having assembled, they voted to recede from the compact, and remain
independent of the Grand Lodge of Ohio. But a large minority of said Lodge,
were still desirous to adhere to the compact and become subordinate to the
Ohio Grand Lodge and as they state from conscientious ceceded from A.U. Lodge,
petitioned the Grand Lodge of Ohio for dispensation to hold a regular Lodge
under its jurisdiction; their petition being granted they were constituted and
organized under the same name of the Lodge, from which they had seceded, so
that there are two Lodges now existing in the same place, bearing the same
name, the one adhering to the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of
Massachusetts, the other to that of Ohio These are the prominent facts out of
which your Committee believe the difficulties and disagreements between these
Lodges have been produced.
Committee find on the records of the Grand Lodge, confirmation of the
foregoing statement respecting the renewal of the Charter of A.U. Lodge, and
also notice of the fact, that they hold the same so long as they comply with
the regulations and requisitions of this Grand Lodge. How far they have
complied with this condition your Committee are not able to say, because they
do not know whether the said Lodge is holden to pay similar fees with other
Lodges under this jurisdiction But inasmuch as the Charter of A.U. Lodge
probably contained terms of limitation terminating its validity with the
establishment of a Grand Lodge in the State of Ohio, as they have never paid
any fees to, or been represented in this Grand Lodge, and as they profess to
have the right to confer degrees in Masonry of which this Grand Lodge have no
cognition and aside from all these considerations did they not exist. The
distance which A.U. Lodge is located from this Grand Lodge and the great
propriety there would be in her uniting with the Sister Lodges in the State of
Ohio, which the harmony, and interest of the Craft in that region so much
demand We are decidedly of the opinion that the said American Union Lodge, has
no just claims to the protection of this Grand Lodge, and no fair pretensions
to the privilege of remaining longer under its jurisdiction And that it is her
imperious duty, a duty she owes to this Grand Lodge, to the Craft at large,
and to her own best interests, forthwith to relinquish all rights and
privileges derived from the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, and unite zealously
and cheerfully with the Grand Lodge of Ohio in disseminating the pure light of
Masonry through the regions of the West.
of which is respectfully submitted
"Resolved That this Grand Lodge consider that the Grant on conformation of a
Charter to American Union Lodge, from this Grand lodge, has expired by the
conditions therein contained, and that it is their duty to conform to the
Grand Lodge of Ohio, as their lawful superiors.
foregoing report and resolve were read and accepted, and the corresponding
Grand Secretary directed to transmit a copy of the resolve, with the doings of
this Grand Lodge, on the memorials presented to the Grand Lodge of Ohio, and
American Union Lodge."
ORIGINAL CHARTER WAS GRANTED BY ROWE
the original charter of this lodge was not granted by Deputy Grand Master
Gridley. It was granted by John Rowe. The printed copy of the appointment of
Joel Clark bears the name of John Rowe at the top and the signature of Richard
Gridley is the first name signed at the bottom. Those familiar, however, with
the form of charters and commissions issued by the Grand Lodge of
Massachusetts will know that the Grand Master signs well up on the left hand
margin of the charter. The other officers sign at the bottom. Those who have
seen the printed copy, therefore, suppose that Rowe did not sign the
commission. It is evident to a Massachusetts Mason that he did sign it just as
much as Gridley signed it. The original charter itself, however, has long
since been destroyed by fire. When so destroyed it was in the custody of the
proper officers of the lodge at Marietta, Ohio.
been claimed that Union Lodge, No. 40, of Danbury, Conn., is the successor of
American Union Lodge. This is very doubtful and quite improbable. The only
evidence to support this claim, so far as the writer is aware, is a letter
written Jan. 5, 1780, by Major Jonathan Heart, who was then Master of American
Union Lodge, urging that the warrant for Union Lodge, No. 40, be granted.
Major Heart himself took the warrant of American Union Lodge from Connecticut,
where he had been a Grand Lecturer, to Ohio, where he was an officer of the
Federal Forces at Fort Harmar, opposite to Marietta.
is due the establishment of the lodge at Marietta. As a Past Grand Lecturer of
Connecticut, it is hardly probable that if the charter had been replaced by
the charter of Union Lodge, No. 40, of Connecticut, Bro. Heart would have
continued to use the charter as authority for his lodge in Ohio; nor would the
lodge itself in 1803 have been likely to seek a renewal of its charter by the
Grand Lodge of Massachusetts.
Richard Gridley was the engineer who laid out the breast-works at Bunker Hill,
but he was not acting Grand Master on account of the death in battle of Grand
Master Joseph Warren. Joseph Warren was Grand Master of "Massachusetts Grand
Lodge," a Grand Lodge founded in 1769 by virtue of a commission from the Earl
of Dalhousie, then Grand Master Mason of Scotland, appointing Joseph Warren to
be Grand Master of Masons in Boston, New England, and within one hundred miles
of the same. This, therefore, was an "Antient" Grand Lodge, established during
the schism when the Grand Lodge of Scotland was in communication with the "Antients"
and not with the "Moderns." [See Study Club in this issue.]
GRAND LODGES IN MASSACHUSETTS
time this Grand Lodge was established there had for a long time been a
Provincial Grand Lodge in Boston founded on July 30, 1753, by virtue of a
commission issued by Montague, then Grand Master of England. This Grand Lodge
was known as "St. John's Grand Lodge." At the time that American Union Lodge
was chartered, John Rowe and Richard Gridley were Grand Master and Deputy
Grand Master respectively of St. John's Grand Lodge, and Joseph Warren was
Grand Master of Massachusetts Grand Lodge. The schism in Massachusetts was
healed by the union of the two Grand Lodges in 1792, although the schism in
England between the "Antients" and the "Moderns" was not healed until 1813.
should be very glad, if it be desired, to furnish citations for every
statement which is made above. My point in calling attention to this is not
only to correct some errors into which Bro. Reed has unwittingly fallen, but
also again to point out how necessary it is for the student of the history of
Freemasonry to examine the original evidence before he makes statements of
things which are supposed to be historical fact.
Reed has undoubtedly quoted statements which others have made and which he
supposed were true, but I doubt if there is any field of history where so many
erroneous statements have been either carelessly or unguardedly made as in the
field of the history of Masonry. When one so-called historian makes a
statement, someone else assumes it to be true, quotes it, and the error
spreads. It is safe to make assertions of historic fact in Masonic matters
only when one has verified statements which he finds by reference to competent
contemporaneous evidence. In the light of recent investigations and
discoveries, there is no history extant of Masonry in this country upon which
any great reliance can be placed published prior to Clegg's Revision of
Mackey. It is most unfortunate to give further credence and currency to errors
(and some deliberate mis-statements) of the past by their republication.
the words "deliberate mis-statements" advisedly. Some conspicuous examples are
pointed out in my Beginnings of Freemasonry in America about to be issued from
the Doran press as a part of the National Masonic Library.
Chapters of Masonic History
Bro. H.L. HAYWOOD, Editor
XI. THE GREAT CLEAVAGE IN FREEMASONRY; AN ACCOUNT OF THE "ANCIENT" GRAND LODGE
the chapters in the long and varied history of our Craft not one is more
interesting or more important to know than that which relates how there grew
up alongside the first Grand Lodge (described last month) a rival Grand Lodge,
how the two became bitter rivals, and how at last a union was brought about.
Therefrom a reader can learn how certain changes came into the Craft which
still puzzle him, and also, to a certain extent, why Masonic ceremonies in
America differ from those practiced in England, and also among various
American states. Necessarily only a rapid summary of many events can be
attempted here; those who would seek details are referred to the books listed
at the end of this article, and especially to Masonic Facts and Fictions, by
Henry Sadler, the classic in this field.
CAUSES THAT LED TO THE RIFT
absolutely impossible to work out a connected and detailed history of all the
causes that led at last to the formation of a new Grand Lodge, and for the
same reasons impossible to lay one's finger on a certain year or place and
say, here is where it began. The thing came about gradually and out of many
forces at work.
the main results of the formation of the first Grand Lodge established at
London in 1717 was that Operative Masonry was completely laid aside in favour
of Speculative Masonry. Such a radical change in the inmost nature of the
Craft could not but arouse opposition. It is supposed, for example, that the
difficulties into which Anthony Sayer fell, after he had served as the first
Grand Master, may have been due to his dislike of the new regime, he having
been an old Operative Mason. How much trouble the great change caused, or long
it lasted, is now impossible to determine, but it seems evident that a
resentment against the new order of things lasted long in some quarters, and
that whole lodges refused for many years to acquiesce in so complete a
departure from the old ways.
Another cause of trouble in the early years of the first Grand Lodge was the
adoption of the "Paragraph Concerning God and Religion" in Anderson's
Constitutions. Prior to 1717 the rank and file of Craftsmen had been of the
Christian persuasion and the Craft itself, to judge by its own Constitutions,
had been frankly Trinitarian Christian. The new Constitutions, now associated
with the name of Anderson, changed all this; according to its somewhat
ambiguous wording a Mason was required to be only of that religion "in which
all good men agree". This did not please those who wished to see Freemasonry
remain specifically Christian, consequently they made trouble about it.
the records of the first Grand Lodge itself it is evident that all was not
smooth sailing. There was
to a Brother;
EXCELLENCY of SECRECY,
the first Cause, or Motive, of the Institution of
PRINCIPLES of the CRAFT,
Benefits arising from a strict Observance thereof;
Sort of MEN ought to be initiated into the MYSTERY,
what sort of MASONS are fit to govern LODGES,
their Behaviour in and out of the Lodge.
Prayers used in the Jewish and Christian Lodges,
Ancient Manner of
Constituting new Lodges, with all the Charges, &c.
and NEW REGULATIONS,
Manner of Chusing and Installing Grand-Master and Officers,
other useful Particulars too numerous here to mention.
which is added,
greatest Collection of MASONS SONG ever presented to
View, with many entertaining PROLOGUES and EPILOGUES;
SOLOMON'S TEMPLE an ORATORIO,
was performed for the Benefit of
Brother LAURENCE DERMOTT, Sec.
Printed for the EDITOR, and sold by Brother James Bedford, at the
in St. Paul's ChurchYard.
is a facsimile, of the Book of Constitutions used by the "Ancient" Grand
Lodge. It was composed by Laurence Dermott, in 1756)
constant complaint of "irregular makings", but little was done to head off
that evil; also it appears that Grand Lodge affairs were managed with laxness,
if not sometimes with downright carelessness. A fair example of this is
furnished in the case of Lord Byron, who was elected Grand Master April 30,
1747. That gentleman, sometimes known as "the wicked Lord Byron", appeared
before his brethren only five times in five years, and seems to have paid
little heed to his responsibilities. The carelessness aroused so much feeling
that "it was the Opinion of many old Masons to have a consultation about
electing a new and more active Grand Master"; they "assembled for that
purpose" and would have carried it through had it not been for the
intervention of Bro. Thomas Manningham, M.D. From this, and from similar
instances that could be named, one may judge that Grand Lodge did not keep a
very tight hold of the reins, a fact that will help to explain what came
INNOVATIONS HAD BEEN MADE
worse thing "worse", that is, from the point of view of the conservative
brethren at the time was that the first Grand Lodge deliberately made a few
drastic "innovations" in the old forms, a thing that came about after this
wise, so it is believed: after Freemasonry became more or less popular in
London numberless men became desirous of making their way into lodges without
the troublesome cost of a regular imitation. To meet their needs certain
so-called "exposes" were published, the most notable of which was Masonry
Dissected, by one Samuel Prichard, described as a "late member of a
Constituted Lodge". Upon this, clandestinism became so rife that at last Grand
Lodge, in self-defense, determined upon making changes in the esoteric work
that would enable regular lodges to detect the frauds. It is now next to
impossible to learn with certainty just what these changes were, but according
to the enemies of the Grand Lodge of 1717 and to scattered references in Grand
Lodge records they were somewhat as follows: The installation ceremony of the
Worshipful Master was either abolished or suffered to go by default; the Third
Degree was remodeled; the symbolism of the preparation of a candidate was
changed; one of the most important secrets of the First Degree was transferred
to the Second, and vice versa; some of the old "geometrical secrets" long
practiced among "ancient Operative Masons" were either entirely omitted or
else changed out of all recognition, etc. As a proof that such charges of
innovations were not without foundation in fact is an entry in the
Constitutions of the Grand Lodge of 1717, 1784 edition, which says, "Some
variations were made in the established forms," and this goes on to explain
that these changes were made, "more effectually to debar them [i.e.,
clandestines] and their abettors from the Lodges."
another cause that contributed to the new developments has to do with the
Royal Arch, a subject peculiarly difficult to deal with, especially on paper
and then in short space. Laurence Dermott, the creative genius of the new
Grand Lodge (about which more anon), once wrote these words:
Modern Mason a member of a lodge under the Grand Lodge of 1717 may safely
communicate all his secrets to an Ancient Mason, the member of a lodge under
the Constitutions of the Grand Lodge started in 1751, but that an Ancient
Mason cannot with safety communicate all his secrets to a Modern Mason without
quoting these words, and some others not necessary to be included here, Bro.
Fred J.W. Crowe, in his revision of Gould's Concise History, page 256, remarks
that, "There is little doubt that these differences consist of changes in the
Third Degree and the introduction of the Royal Arch."
ROYAL ARCH BECAME AN ISSUE
theory here is that in their re-organization of the Ritual, Desgauliers and
his fellows in the early days of the Grand Lodge of 1717 left the Third Degree
without its logical conclusion, so that a certain vital secret was lost but
not found; and that many of the brethren, in order to complete the symbolism,
either adapted or created a supplementary ceremony to make good the loss. In
so doing they ran counter to the practices of the Grand Lodge of 1717 and
thereby became stigmatized as "irregulars". Firm in their belief that they
were right and the Grand Lodge was wrong, they persisted in their course until
at last they founded a Grand Lodge of their own. This, as stated above, is a
"theory", but there are facts to support it, and it is reasonable on the face
facts what they may, it is certain that after the new Grand Lodge was formed
it made use of the ceremony known as the Royal Arch and practiced it as a part
of legitimate ancient Freemasonry. The results of this have been succinctly
described by W.J. Hughan in a communication quoted on page 1185, Mackey's
Revised History of Freemasonry, by Bro. Robert I. Clegg:
Royal Arch Degree was not started by these 'Antients' [as the new Grand Lodge
came to be styled] but only adapted by them as an authorized ceremony. In
self-defence the 'Moderns' [as the Grand Lodge of 1717 was dubbed], who had
worked it before the origin of the 'Atholl Masons' [another name for the new
Grand Lodge], but not officially, gradually gave it more prominence. In 1767
they formed a Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons and issued Warrants for
Chapters, pushing the degree more even than the 'Antients', though not
recognized by their Grand Lodge; so at the Union of the two Grand Lodges in
December 1813, the way was prepared for the inauguration of the 'United Grand
Chapter' in 1817, the ceremony being adopted as the completion of the Master
Mason's ceremony, not as a separate and independent degree."
most important of all the theories as to the rise of the new Grand Lodge is
that worked out by Henry Sadler, though the word "theory", in view of the many
facts he has marshaled in his Masonic Facts and Fictions, is too weak to
suggest the cogency and power of his reasoning. I must content myself with
giving a very brief resume of the results arrived at in this remarkable book.
most important result of Sadler's work has been to abolish the old notion that
the "Antient" Grand Lodge resulted from a "schism", or "secession" from the
older Grand Lodge. The "schismatic" theory was given currency by the older
Grand Lodge, and it came to be generally accepted among its supporters and
apologists; even Gould, who was usually so independent in his theorizing,
clung stubbornly to it long after others had been convinced of Sadler's views,
for the which reason it was deemed wise to make a revision of his Concise
History. Sadler made it clear that the "Antient" Grand Lodge grew up, not out
of a split-off from the Grand Lodge of 1717 but from independent causes, and
that in a day before the doctrine of exclusive jurisdiction had been adopted
there was no illegality in such a step.
next most important result of his researches was that the primary inspiration
in the founding of the "Antient" Grand Lodge came from Irish Masons who had
settled in London, and who had not been recognized by the Grand Lodge of 1717.
Sadler shows that a majority of the members of the first lodge warranted by
the "Antients" were Irishmen, and that they closely copied the usages and
customs of the Grand Lodge of Ireland, and that in the loose talk of the times
they were accordingly dubbed "Irish Masons". Most of these men were of the
"lower" classes, painters, tailors, mechanics, labourers, and so on, thereby
standing in sharp contrast to the membership of the lodges working under the
Grand Lodge of 1717.
WERE CLOSE TO THE G.L. OF IRELAND
differed much in their practices from the older Grand Lodge and at the same
time, in so differing, stood close to the customs of the Grand Lodge of
Ireland: Sadler's own summary of this may be given:
will doubtless suffice if I merely mention the chief remaining points of
connexion and similarly without further comment: The Book of Constitutions,
and the By-Laws for private lodges; Craft Warrants recognizing the Royal Arch
degree; Grand Lodge Seals, and the method of affixing them with the same
coloured ribbons [same, that is, as the Grand Lodge of Ireland], which so far
as I know were not used by any other Grand Lodge; Certificates in Latin and
English; Constitution of a lodge for Grand Officers only, and the names of the
members entered in the front of the register; System of registritation in the
books of the Grand Lodge; the fact that the 'Ancients' were designated 'Irish
Masons', their lodges 'Irish Lodges', and their warrants 'Irish Warrants', by
independent and unofficial writers at various periods, from about fifteen
years after their organization in 1751 up to the end of the last century"
[that is, the eighteenth century].
the new Grand Lodge was once under way, and after it had begun to come into
conflict with the older body, of course the defenders of the "Antients" began
to make up arguments to defend their own position; to a large extent such
arguments were merely special pleading, and not now to be taken with much
seriousness. Such, by way of example, was Dermott's that the earlier Grand
Lodge had been constituted in an illegal manner. In his Ahiman Rezon, 1778
edition, he says that "to form a Grand Lodge there must have been the Masters
and Wardens of five regular Lodges," and asserts that "this is so well known
to every man conversant with the ancient laws, usages, customs and ceremonies
of Master Masons, that it is needless to say more." Dermott must have known at
the time that such a statement was groundless; there never had been such a
law. As time went on this argument was replaced by another to the effect that
the "Antients" had set up house for themselves because the older Grand Lodge
had been guilty of innovations, which, though it was doubtless true enough,
could not very well stand because the "Antients" themselves had been guilty of
many innovations of their own; for they had brought into the Masonic system an
entirely new degree, an innovation of the first order, one would suppose.
FORMATION OF THE "ANTIENT" GRAND LODGE
time to give an account of how the "Ancient" (I shall hereafter give it the
modern spelling) Grand Lodge came into existence.
however, I shall say a word about Laurence Dermott, who figured so much in all
that happened, recommending the reader betimes that he peruse W.M. Bywater's
Notes on Laurence Dermott and His Work, published in London, 1884. Dermott was
born in Ireland in 1720, twenty-two years before the birth of William Preston,
who first saw the light of day in Edinburgh, July 28, 1742, and who alone of
all the luminaries in Freemasonry of that generation shares with Dermott an
equal fame. Dermott was initiated in Ireland in 1740, and went through the
chairs of Lodge No. 26, Ireland, where he was installed Worshipful Master June
24, 1746. It appears that he was fairly well educated for those days, and
Gould is of the opinion that he probably knew a little Hebrew, which will
account for the fondness he had of covering his papers with Hebrew characters
that ancient and difficult language! He moved to London, probably as a youth,
with little in his pocket but many schemes boiling in his head, which head was
tireless, alert, witty, sarcastic, and often a bit unscrupulous in waging war
on his foes, of which his energy made him many. It seems that he engaged
himself as a journeyman painter (Preston became a journeyman printer, it will
be remembered) and that he prospered so that in after years he spent much
money in charity and in his Masonic activities. In late records he was
described as a wine merchant, and it appears that he enjoyed the luxury of
gout. Once made a Mason he never rested but devoted himself to it as to a
mistress, with passionate earnestness, never permitting himself to become
discouraged, and always in the front line of battle. Aside from his genius in
putting a Grand Lodge under way his greatest achievement was the composition
of his Ahiman Rezon (meaning "Worthy Brother Secretary"), the Constitutions of
the new Grand Lodge, and afterwards adopted by many other Grand Lodges, our
own Pennsylvania, Maryland and South Carolina among them.
"GRAND COMMITTEE" IS FORMED
much for Dermott. The extent of the "irregular makings" so often complained of
in the records of the Grand Lodge of 1717 may be shown by the fact that
because of these the Grand Lodge erased from its list at least forty-five
lodges between 1742 and 1752. Brethren so dealt with, along with many free
lances, and also some independent, or "St. John's lodges," (about which many
interesting things might be written) came together and formed a "Grand
Committee" of "the Most Ancient and Honourable Fraternity of Free and Accepted
Masons"; this Committee formed itself into "The Grand Lodge of England
according to the Old Constitutions," which Grand Lodge afterwards came to be
called the "Ancient" Grand Lodge in contradistinction to the "Modern," as the
older Grand Lodge became dubbed. The earliest record of the Grand Committee is
of date July 17, 1751; on that day Lodges No. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 "were
authorized to grant Dispensations and Warrants and to act as Grand Master."
The office of Grand Master was left vacant until a "noble brother" could be
found to accept the position; and the place of Lodge No. 1 was left standing
to be occupied by the Grand Master's Lodge, a thing suggested no doubt by the
Grand Lodge of Ireland having done the same thing. John Morgan was elected
Grand Secretary in 1751 but it appears that he was lax in his duties,
therefore Laurence Dermott was elected to take his place Feb. 5, 1752, after
which time the Grand Secretary's most bitter enemies could not complain of any
laxness whatsoever, because Dermott became the leading spirit in all that
followed, and it was to his genius that a group of malcontents, drawn from
what at that time were the lower or middle classes, were able to forge ahead
and to grow more rapidly, time taken into consideration, than their rival
the expedients hit on by Dermott was the warranting of military lodges, a
thing not done before, and which accounts for the rapid growth of Ancient
Masonry in the American Colonies, for owing to the use of warrants to army
lodges the British forces in this continent became Masonic missionaries. The
Modern Grand Lodge afterwards followed suit in this. Another expedient was the
frank and open pushing of the Royal Arch Degree; it is easy to understand that
a system offering four degrees would make more appeal to the generality than
one offering only three. Also the Ancients were able to secure formal
endorsements from the Grand Lodges of Ireland and Scotland, and in addition
thereto a certain amount of active support from those influential bodies.
list of the Grand Secretaries of the Ancient Grand Lodge it will be noted that
Dermott served eighteen years:
1752-70, Laurence Dermott.
1771-76, William Dickey.
1777-78, James Jones.
1779-82, Charles Bearblock.
1783-84, Robert Leslie.
1785-89, John McCormick.
1790-1813, Robert Leslie.
instructive still is the list of Grand Masters elected:
1754-56, Edward Vaughan.
1756-59, Earl of Blesington.
1760-66, Earl of Kelly.
1766-70, Hon. Thomas Mathew.
1771-74, John, third Duke of Atholl (also spelled Athol, Athole).
1775-81, John, fourth Duke of Atholl.
1783-91, Earl of Antrim.
1791-1813, John, fourth Duke of Atholl.
Duke of Kent.
will be observed that of the sixty years during which the Ancients had a Grand
Master a Duke of Atholl occupied the throne for thirty-one years; it was for
this reason that the Ancients were often called "Atholl Masons," and for a
corresponding reason that the Moderns were sometimes called "Prince of Wales
zeal and energy of the Ancient leaders, in addition to the superior
attractiveness of their degree system, is shown in the rapidity with which the
new Grand Lodge made headway. In 1753 a dozen or so lodges were on the list;
during the next four years, and largely owing to Dermott's activity,
twenty-four were added; between 1760 and 1766, while the Earl of Kelly was
nominally Grand Master, sixty-four more were taken in charge. By 1813, when
the Union was effected, the Ancients claimed a grand total of 359 lodges,
though it is certain that in many cases the names of defunct lodges were still
Ancients adopted as their Book of Constitutions the Ahiman Rezon, largely the
work of Dermott, though he closely followed in the main the lines of the
Constitutions of the Grand Lodge of Ireland and at the same time borrowed with
a free hand the Anderson Constitutions used by the Moderns, first published in
1723; the first edition of the Ahiman Rezon appeared in 1756. By closely
following the Constitutions already in use Dermott was able to avoid the
appearance of too wide a departure from Freemasonry as already practiced, and
at the same time, though unwittingly, prepared the way for the Union that came
afterwards, a fact of happy augury for the Craft at large.
existence of two Grand Lodges, both with their headquarters in London,
naturally caused a great deal of confusion and misunderstanding among ordinary
Masons; in many cases such brethren held no brief for either party, so that in
some cases it is of record that a man held office in lodges under both
constitutions; but for the most part there was a good deal of bitterness among
the partisans, though it must be said that the Ancients were more avid of
controversy than the Moderns, and that in almost every instance when all olive
branch was extended it was from the latter named camp. An example of the
irenic attitude of the Moderns is furnished by Preston, who says that while in
1801 charges were preferred against brethren under the Moderns for their
activities in Ancient lodges the matter was suffered to drop.
1797 a move was made looking toward union but the project fell through. Two
years afterwards, however, the two Grand Masters, the Earl of Moira for the
Moderns and the Duke of Atholl for the Ancients, acted together to have the
Craft specifically exempted from the Act to Prevent Secret Societies in
England. Also, as another step that paved the way for a merger, the Modern
Grand Lodge succeeded in securing the endorsements of the Grand Lodges of
Ireland and Scotland in such wise as to place the Ancients on a somewhat
doubtful footing, a thing that completely reversed the original situation so
far as those two Grand Bodies were concerned.
UNION IS EFFECTED
early as 1809 committees met to consider the "propriety and practicability of
union." On Oct. 26 of that year the Earl of Moira (for the Moderns) warranted
a special lodge to serve as a means for bringing about a merger; this lodge
held its first meeting on Nov. 21 and then resolved to call itself "The
Special Lodge of Promulgation." On April 10 of the year following the Earl of
Moira informed his Grand Lodge that both he and the Grand Master of the
Ancients "were both fully of opinion, that it would be an event truly
desirable, to consolidate under one head the two Societies of Masons that
existed in this country." These proceedings were transmitted to the Grand
Lodge of Ancients, where this frank avowal of a desire for union was met with
unfeigned cordiality, so that after concessions were made by both sides,
though more heartily by the Moderns, it was agreed all the way around that
differences should be ironed out, and a union be made. "The Grand Assembly of
Freemasons for the Union of the Two Grand Lodges of England" was held Dec. 27,
1813. With due and solemn ceremonies the long wished for merger was
consummated, all Grand officers showing, almost without exception, a fine and
statesmanlike spirit. During the month preceding the Duke of Atholl had
resigned the Grand Mastership of the Ancients in favour of the Duke of Kent,
the latter being placed in the chair Dec. 1; at the time of the Union the
latter nominated the Duke of Sussex as "Grand Master of the United Grand Lodge
of Ancient Freemasons of England" and he was unanimously elected.
of the two Grand Lodges participating appointed a committee of nine expert
Master Masons or Past Masters and these were then formed into a Lodge of
Promulgation, the purpose of which was to work out a form of ritual acceptable
to all. This lodge continued its work from 1813 to 1816, often against
opposition; but while its work was of consequence and official, the real
fusing of the two systems went on according to circumstances in the private
lodges, so that the influence of the Lodge of Reconciliation was more academic
work of preparing a new Code of Regulations for the United Grand Lodge was
referred to a Board of General Purposes; its work was approved by a Special
Grand Lodge Aug. 23, 1815. Meanwhile, and in order to bring about the closest
relations possible between the new United Grand Lodge and the Grand lodges of
Scotland and Ireland an International Commission was formed and began its
deliberations June 27, 1814, continuing until July 2 following. As a result it
was declared that "the three Grand Lodges were perfectly in unison in all the
great and essential points of the Mystery and Craft, according to the
immemorial traditions and uninterrupted usage of Ancient Masons;" eight
resolutions, called the International Compact, were adopted.
WAY OF CONCLUSION
effect of all this re-organization on the ritual has been so well summarized
by Bro. W.B. Hextall that I shall quote his paragraph in full from Ars Quatuor
Coronatorum, Vol. XXIII, page 304: (the reader should consult that entire
conclusion to which I personally come, is that for many years after the
Union-speaking approximately, until about 1825 a good deal of 'give and take'
concerning ritual went on unofficially, in London as well as in the Provinces,
and that our Craft ceremonies, as practised from 1830, and earlier,
considerably deviated from those which were ascertained in the Lodge of
Promulgation, 1809-11; worked in the Lodge of Reconciliation, 1813-16; and
approved by Grand Lodge on 5th June, 1816. The material from which we have to
draw inferences is slight, but at the same time cogent; and when (to name a
few points only) we find duties originally assigned to the Senior Deacon
transferred to his Junior colleague; the entrusting with the means of
satisfactory proof leading to the second degree otherwise performed; and the
admission of a member or visitor 'by proof of his having ascertained the
degree in which the Lodge is opened from an inspection of the three great
lights at the entrance' (Lodge of Promulgation minutes, January 5th, 1810)
fallen into complete disuse; it is difficult to avoid realizing that, to a
large extent, the subject of Craft working must have been placed in the
melting-pot, and that quite apart from the means of instruction officially
provided in 1813."
order to assist brethren to find their way out of this welter Lodges of
Instruction came into existence, some of which grew to be permanent
institutions; it was as a result of the influence of these that the various
"workings" came into use in England, "Emulation," "Stability," "Oxford," etc.
will take a sufficiently wide view of the history of English Freemasonry from
1717 until the Union had been everywhere accepted he will see that the whole
period takes on the character of a grand transition, and that in this
perspective the mere details and machinery of the Great Cleavage along with
the subsequent official act of Union drop into second place as events, great
in importance, but of the nature of incidentals. The change from Operative to
Speculative Masonry officially made in 1717 was profound beyond our usual
understanding of it; and such a change could be completed only after many
years, much experiment, and a long evolution. In this view the great result of
the Union was that it brought finally about the complete crystallization and
solidification of Speculative Freemasonry, fixed its character for generations
to come, established in the United Kingdom the firm principle of Exclusive
Territorial Jurisdiction, and made possible the establishment inside the Craft
of those Powers and Authorities which today prevent the dispersal of its
energies and the division of its forces. Even until now that influence is at
work; and it will continue at work until, out of its inevitable logic, a way
will be found to unite and unify Freemasonry the world over, of which
consummation we can all sincerely say, So Mote It Be!
SUPPLEMENTARY REFERENCES Mackey's Encyclopedia (Revised Edition)
Rezon, 37; Ancient, or Antient, or Atholl Masons, 55; Antiquity, Lodge of, 65;
Book of Constitutions, 112; Christianization of Freemasonry, 148; Dermott,
Laurence, 206; Grand Lodge, 306; Grand Master, 307; Innovations, 353; Ireland,
357; Lectures, History of the, 430; Preston, William, 579; Prichard, Samuel,
583; Ramsay, A. M., 607; Reconciliation. Lodge of, 611; Royal Arch Degree,
643; Schisms, 668; Symbolic Degrees, 752; United Grand Lodge of England, 815;
York Grand Lodge, 867.
Rezon, all eds., Laurence Dermott. Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, V, 166; VI, 44,
65; VIII, 233; XI, 190, 202; XXIII, 37, 162, 215; XXIV, 268. Atholl Lodges,
R.F. Gould. Book of Constitutions, edtd. by Entick. Book of Constitutions,
edtd. by Noorthouck. Builders, The, Joseph Fort Newton. Century of Masonic
Working, F.W. Golby. Concise History, R.F. Gould. Grand Lodge of England, A.F.
Calvert. History of Freemasonry, Findel. History of Freemasonry, R.F. Gould.
History of the Lodge of Edinburgh, Murray Lyon. Illustrated History of the
Lodge of Improvement, Henry Sadler. Illustrations of Masonry, Wm. Preston.
Mackey's Revised History of Freemasonry, R.I. Clegg. Masonic Facts and
Fictions, Henry Sadler. Memorials of the Masonic Union, W.J. Hughan. Military
Lodges, R.F. Gould. Minutes of the Grand Lodge of England, W.J. Songhurst, Ed.
Notes on Lau. Dermott, W.M. Bywater. Origin of the English Rite, W.J. Hughan.
Short Masonic History, Fred Armitage. Story of the Craft, Lionel Vibert.
present series of Study Club articles will be brought to a conclusion in the
June issue, after which it will be published in book form. Readers are asked
to assist me to delete all errors in matter of feet from the volume by calling
my attention to any such detected in the Chapters as they have appeared in THE
BUILDER. Such corrections will be accepted as a personal favor. The next
series will very probably comprise studies in American Freemasonry.
"Articles of Union Between the Two Grand Lodges of Freemasons of England "
supplement to the Study Club paper this month, and by way of completing the
account there given of the manner in which the "Antients" and "Moderns" , the
rival Grand Lodges, were amalgamated into, or were made to be superseded by,
the United Grand lodge of Ancient Freemasons of England, the Articles of
Union, adopted in 1813, are here given in full. The student will find this,
along with all the other important official documents and records, in W.J.
Hughan's "Memorials of the Masonic Union," 1913 edition, Bro. John T. Thorp
editor. The book should be studied with great care.
NAME OF GOD, AMEN
Most Worshipful His Royal Highness, Prince Augustus Frederick. Duke of Sussex,
Earl of Inverness, Baron Arklow, Knight Companion of the Most Noble Order of
the Garter, and Grand Master of the Society of Free and Accepted Masons under
the Constitution of England; the Right Worshipful WALLER RODWELL WRIGHT,
Provincial Grand Master of Masons in the Ionian Isles; the Right Worshipful
Arthur Tegart, Past Grand Warden; and the Right Worshipful James Deans, Past
Grand Warden; of the same Fraternity: for themselves and on behalf of the
Grand Lodge of the Society of Freemasons under the Constitution of England:
being thereto duly constituted and empowered: on the one part.
Most Worshipful His Royal Highness Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn,
Earl of Dublin, Knight Companion of the Most Noble Order of the Garter and of
the Most Illustrious Order of Saint Patrick, Field Marshal of His Majesty's
Forces, Governor of Gibraltar, Colonel of the First or Royal-Scots Regiment of
Foot. and Grand Master of Free and Accepted Masons of England, according to
the Old Institutions; the Right Worshipful Thomas Harper, Deputy Grand Master;
the Right Worshipful James Perry, Past Deputy Grand Master; and the Right
Worshipful James Agar, Past Deputy Grand Master; of the same Fraternity: for
themselves and on behalf of the Grand Lodge of Freemasons of England,
according to the old Institutions: being thereto duly constituted and
empowered:on the other part.
AGREED AS FOLLOWS-
There shall be, from and after the day of the Festival of Saint John the
Evangelist next ensuing, a full, perfect, and perpetual union of and between
the two Fraternities of Free and Accepted Masons of England above described;
so as that in all time hereafter they shall form and constitute but one
Brotherhood, and that the said community shall be represented in one Grand
Lodge, to be solemnly formed, constituted, and held, on the said day of the
Festival of Saint John the Evangelist next ensuing, and from thenceforward
is declared and pronounced, that pure Ancient Masonry consists of three
degrees, and no more; viz: those of the Entered Apprentice, the Fellowcraft,
and the Master Mason, including the Supreme Order of the Holy Royal Arch. But
this article is not intended to prevent any lodge or chapter from holding a
meeting in any of the degrees of the Orders of Chivalry, according to the
constitutions of the said Orders.
There shall be the most perfect unity of obligation, of discipline, of working
the lodges, of making, passing and raising, instructing and clothing brothers;
so that but one pure unsullied system, according to the genuine landmarks,
laws, and traditions of the Craft, shall be maintained, upheld and practiced,
throughout the Masonic world, from the day and date of the said union until
time shall be no more.
prevent all controversy or dispute as to the genuine and pure obligations,
forms, rules and ancient traditions of Masonry, and further, to unite and bind
the whole Fraternity of Masons in one indissoluble bond, it is agreed that the
obligations and forms that have, from time immemorial, been established, used,
and practiced, in the Craft, shall be recognized, accepted and taken, by the
members of both Fraternities, ag the pure and genuine obligations and forms by
which the incorporated Grand Lodge of England and its dependent lodges in
every part of the world, shall be bound: and for the purpose of receiving and
communicating due light and settling this uniformity of regulation and
instruction (and particularly in matters which can neither be expressed nor
described in writing), it is further agreed that brotherly application be made
to the Grand Lodges of Scotland and Ireland, to authorize, delegate and
appoint any tow or more of their enlightened members to be present at the
Grand Assembly on the solemn occasion of uniting the said Fraternities; and
that the respective Grand Masters, Grand officers, Masters, Past Masters,
Wardens and brothers, then and there present, shall solemnly engage to abide
by the true forms and obligations (particularly in matters which can neither
be described nor written), in the presence of the said members of the Grand
Lodges of Scotland and Ireland, that it may be declared, recognized, and
known, that they all are bound by the same solemn pledge, and work under the
the purpose of establishing and securing this perfect uniformity in all the
warranted lodges, and also to prepare for this Grand Assembly, and to place
all the members of both Fraternities on the level of equality on the day of
Re-union, it is agreed that as soon as these presents shall have received the
sanction of the respective Grand Lodges, [Note] the two Grand Masters shall
appoint each nine worthy and expert Master Masons or Past Masters, of their
respective Fraternities, with warrant and instructions to meet together at
some convenient central place in London, when each party having opened in a
separate apartment a just and perfect lodge, agreeably to their peculiar
regulations they shall give and receive mutually and reciprocally the
obligations of both Fraternities, deciding by lot which shall take priority in
giving and receiving the same; and being thus all duly and equally enlightened
in both forms, they shall be empowered and directed, either to hold a lodge
under the warrant or dispensation to be entrusted to them, and to be entitled
the LODGE OF RECONCILIATION, or to visit the several lodges holding under both
the Grand Lodges for the purpose of obligating, instructing and perfecting the
Master, Past Masters, Wardens, and members, in both the forms, and to make a
return to the Grand Secretaries of both the Grand Lodges of the names of those
whom they shall have thus enlightened. And the said Grand Secretaries shall be
empowered to enroll the names of all the members thus remade in the Register
of both the Grand Lodges, without fee or reward: it being ordered that no
person shall be thus obligated and registered whom the Master and Wardens of
his lodge shall not certify by writing under their hands, that he is free on
the books of his particular lodge. Thus, on the day of assembly of both
Fraternities, the Grand officers, Masters, Past Masters and Wardens, who are
alone to be present, shall all have taken the obligation by which each is
bound, and be prepared, to make their solemn engagement, that they will
thereafter abide by that which shall be recognized and declared to be the true
and universally accepted obligation of the Master Mason.
soon as the Grand Masters, Grand officers, and members of the two present
Grand Lodges, shall, on the day of their Re-union have made the solemn
declaration in the presence of the deputation of Grand or enlightened Masons
from Scotland and Ireland, to abide and act by the universally recognized
obligation of Master Mason, the members shall forthwith proceed to the
election of a Grand Master for the year ensuing; and to prevent delay, the
brother so elected shall forthwith be obligated. pro tempore, that the Grand
Lodge may be formed. The said Grand Master shall then nominate and appoint his
Deputy Grand Master, together with a Senior and Junior Grand Warden, Grand
Secretary, or Secretaries, Grand Treasurer, Grand Chaplain, Grand Sword
Bearer, Grand Pursuivant, and Grand Tyler, who shall all be duly obligated and
placed; and the Grand Incorporated Lodge shall then be opened, in ample form,
under the stile and title of the UNITED GRAND LODGE OF ANCIENT FREEMASONS OF
Grand officers who held the several offices before (unless such of them as may
be re-appointed) shall take their places, as Past Grand officers, in the
respective degrees which they held before; and in case either, or both of the
present Grand Secretaries, Pursuivants, and Tylers, should not be re-appointed
to their former situations. then annuities shall be paid to them during their
respective lives out of the Grand Fund.
THE UNITED GRAND LODGE OF ANCIENT FREEMASONS OF ENGLAND shall be composed,
except on days of Festival, in the following manner, as a just and perfect
representative of the whole Masonic Fraternity of England; that is to say, of
Deputy Grand Masters,
Provincial Grand Masters,
Provincial Grand Masters,
Grand Secretary, or Grand Secretary if there be only one,
Grand Stewards, to be delegated by the Stewards' Lodge, from among their
members existing at the Union; it being understood and agreed that, from and
after the Union, an annual appointment shall be made of the Stewards if
actual Masters and Wardens of all Warranted Lodges,
Masters of lodges, who have regularly served and passed the chair before the
day of Union, and who have continued without secession regular contributing
members of a Warranted Lodge. It being understood that all Masters who, from
and after the day of the said Union, shall regularly pass the chair of their
respective lodges, but one at a time, to be delegated by his lodge, shall have
a right to sit and vote in the said Grand Lodge; so that after the decease of
all the regular Past Masters of any regular lodge, who had attained that
distinction at the time of the Union, the representation of such lodge shall
be by its actual Master, Wardens, and one Past Master only,
all Grand officers in the said respective Grand Lodges shall retain and hold
their rank and privileges in the United Grand Lodge, as Past Grand officers,
including the present Provincial Grand Masters, the Grand Treasurers, Grand
Secretaries, and Grand Chaplains, in their several degrees, according to the
seniority of their respective appointments; and where such appointment shall
have been contemporaneous, the seniority shall be determined by lot. In all
other respects the above shall be the general order of precedence in all time
to come, with this express provision, that no Provincial Grand Master,
hereafter to be appointed, shall be entitled to a seat in the Grand Lodge,
after he shall have retired from such situation, unless he shall have
discharged the duties thereof for full five years.
The Representatives of the several lodges shall sit under their respective
banners according to seniority. The two first lodges under each Grand Lodge to
draw a lot in the first place for priority; and to which of the two the lot
No. 1 shall fall, the other to rank as No. 2; and all the other lodges shall
fall in alternately, that is, the lodge which is No. 2 of the Fraternity whose
lot it shall be to draw No. 1, shall rank as No. 3 in the United Grand Lodge,
and the other No. 2 shall rank as No. 4, and so on alternately through all the
numbers respectively. And this shall forever after be the order and rank of
the lodges in the Grand Lodge, and in Grand Processions, for which a plan and
drawing shall be prepared previous to the Union. On the renewal of any of the
lodges now dormant, they shall take rank after all the lodges existing at the
Union, notwithstanding the numbers in which they may now stand on the
The United Grand Lodge being now constituted, the first proceeding after
solemn prayer shall be to read and proclaim the act of Union, as previously
executed and sealed with the great seals of the two Grand Lodges; after which
the same shall be solemnly accepted by the members present. A day shall then
be appointed for the installation of the Grand Master and other Grand officers
with due solemnity; upon which occasion the Grand Master shall in open lodge,
with his own hand, affix the new great seal to the said instrument, which
shall be deposited in the archives of the United Grand Lodge, and be the bond
of union among the Masons of the Grand Lodge of England, and the lodges
dependent thereon, until time shall be no more. The said new great seal shall
be made for the occasion, and shall be composed out of both the great seals
now in use; after which the present two great seals shall be broken and
defaced; and the new seal shall be alone used in all warrants, certificates,
and other documents to be issued thereafter.
regalia of the Grand officers shall be, in addition to the white gloves and
apron, and the respective jewels or emblems of distinction, garter blue and
gold; and these shall alone belong to the Grand officers present and past.
Four Grand Lodges, representing the Craft, shall be held for quarterly
communication in each year, on the first Wednesday in the months of March,
June, September, and December, on each of which occasions the Masters and
Wardens of all the warranted lodges shall deliver into the bands of the Grand
Secretary and Grand Treasurer, a faithful list of all their contributing
members; and the warranted lodges in and adjacent to London shall pay towards
the Grand Fund one shilling per quarter for each member, over and above the
sum of half a guinea for each new made member, for the registry of his name,
together with the sum of one shilling to the Grand Secretary as his fee for
the same, and that this contribution of one shilling for each member shall be
made quarterly, and each quarter, in all time to come.
It shall be in the power of the Grand Master, or in his absence of the Past
Grand Masters, or in their absence of the Deputy Grand Master, or in his
absence of the Past Deputy Grand Masters, or in their absence of the Grand
Wardens, to summon and hold Grand Lodges of Emergency whenever the good of the
Craft shall, in their judgment, require the same.
At the Grand Lodge to be held annually on the first Wednesday in September,
the Grand Lodge shall elect a Grand Master for the year ensuing (who shall
nominate and appoint his own Deputy Grand Master, Grand Wardens, and
Secretary), and they shall also nominate three fit and proper persons for each
of the offices of Treasurer, Chaplain, and Sword Bearer, out of which the
Grand Master shall, on the first Wednesday in the month of December, chuse and
appoint one for each of the said offices; and on the Festival of St. John the
Evangelist, then next ensuing, or on such other day as the said Grand Master
shall appoint, there shall be held a Grand Lodge for the solemn installation
of all the said Grand officers, according to antient custom.
There may also be a Masonic Festival, annually, on the Anniversary of the
Feast of St. John the Baptist, or of St. George, or such other day as the
Grand Master shall appoint, which shall be dedicated alone to brotherly love
and refreshment, and to which all regular Master Masons may have access, on
providing themselves with tickets from the Grand Stewards appointed to conduct
After the day of the Re-union, as aforesaid, and when it shall be ascertained
what are the obligations, forms, regulations, working, and instruction, to be
universally established, speedy and effectual steps shall be taken to obligate
all the members of each lodge in all the degrees, according to the form taken
and recognized by the Grand Master, Past Grand Master, Grand officers, and
Representatives of lodges, on the day of Re-union; and for this purpose the
worthy and expert Master Masons appointed, as aforesaid, shall visit and
attend the several lodges, within the Bills of Mortality, in rotation,
dividing themselves into quorums of not less than three each, for the greater
expedition, and they shall assist the Master and Wardens to promulgate and
enjoin the pure and unsullied system, that perfect reconciliation, unity of
obligation, law, working, language, and dress, may be happily restored to the
When the Master and Wardens of a warranted lodge shall report to the Grand
Master, to his satisfaction, that the members of such lodge have taken the
proper enjoined obligation, and have conformed to the uniform working,
clothing, etc., then the Most Worshipful Grand Master shall direct the new
Great Seal to be affixed to their warrant, and the lodge shall be adjudged to
be regular, and entitled to all the privileges of the Craft: a certain term
shall be allowed (to be fixed by the Grand Lodge) for establishing this
uniformity; and all constitutional proceedings of any regular lodge, which
shall take place between the date of the Union and the term so appointed,
shall be deemed valid, on condition that such lodge shall conform to the
regulations of the Union within the time appointed; and means shall be taken
to ascertain the regularity, and establish the uniformity of the Provincial
Grand Lodges, Military Lodges, and lodges holding of the two present Grand
Lodges in distant parts; and it shall be in the power of the Grand Lodge to
take the most effectual measures for the establishment of this unity of
doctrine throughout the whole community of Masons, and to declare the warrants
to be forfeited, if the measures proposed shall be resisted or neglected.
The property of the said two Fraternities, whether freehold, leasehold,
funded, real or personal, shall remain sacredly appropriate to the purposes
for which it was created; it shall constitute one Grand Fund, by which the
blessed object of Masonic benevolence may be more extensively obtained. It
shall either continue under the trusts in which, whether freehold, leasehold,
or funded, the separate parts thereof now stand; or it shall be in the power
of the said United Grand Lodge, at any time hereafter, to add other names to
the said trusts; or, in case of the death of any one Trustee, to nominate and
appoint others for perpetuating the security of the same; and in no event, and
for no purpose, shall the said united property be diverted from its original
purpose. It being understood and declared that, at any time after the Union,
it shall be in the power of the Grand Lodge to incorporate the whole of the
said property and funds in one and the same set of Trustees, who shall give
bond to hold the same in the name and on behalf of the United Fraternity. And
it is further agreed, that the Freemasons' Hall shall be the place in which
the United Grand Lodge shall be held, with such additions made thereto as the
increased numbers of the Fraternity, thus to be united, may require. And it is
understood between the parties, that, as there are now in the Hall several
whole length portraits of Past Grand Masters, a portrait of the Most
Worshipful His Grace the Duke of Atholl, Past Grand Master, of Masons
according to the Old Institutions, shall be placed there in the same
The fund, appropriate to the objects of Masonic benevolence, shall not be
infringed oil for any purpose, but shall be kept strictly and solely devoted
to charity, and pains shall be taken to increase the same.
The distribution and application of this Charitable Fund shall be monthly, for
which purpose a committee, or Lodge of Benevolence shall be held on the third
Wednesday of every month, which lodge shall consist of twelve Masters of
lodges (within the Bills of Mortality); and three Grand officers, one of whom
only (if more are present) shall act as President, and be entitled to vote.
The said twelve Masters to be summoned by the choice and direction of the
Grand Master, or his Deputy, not by any rule or rotation, but by discretion;
so as that the members, who are to judge of the cases that may come before
them, shall not be subject to canvass, or to previous application, but shall
have their minds free from prejudice, to decide on the merits of each case
with the impartiality and purity of Masonic feeling: to which end it is
declared, that no brother, being a member of such committee or lodge, shall
vote, upon the petition of any person to whom he is in any way related, or who
is a member of any lodge, or Masonic society, to which he himself actually
belongs, but such brother may ask leave to be heard on the merits of such
petition, and shall afterwards, during the discussion and voting theron,
plan, with rules and regulations, for the solemnity of the Union, shall be
prepared by the Subscribers hereto, previous to the Festival of St. John,
which shall be the form to be observed on that occasion.
revision shall be made of the rules and regulations now established and in
force in the two Fraternities, and a code of laws for the holding of the Grand
Lodge, and of private lodges; and, generally, for the whole conduct of the
Craft, shall be forthwith prepared, and a new Book of Constitutions be
composed and printed, under the superintendence of the Grand officers, and
with the sanction of the Grand Lodge.
at the Palace of Kensington, this 25th Day of November, in the Year of our
Lord, 1813, and of Masonry, 5813.
AUGUSTUS FREDERICK, G.M. L.S. WALLER RODWELL WRIGHT,
P.G.M. Ionian Isles. L.S. ARUTHUR TEGART, G.W. L.S.
Grand Lodge, this first day of December, A.D. 1813. Ratified and Confirmed,
and the Seal of the Grand Lodge affixed.
AUGUSTUS FREDERICK, G.M. (Great Seal) WILLIAM H. WHITE, G.S.
DEANS, P.G.W. L.S. EDWARD, G.M. L.S. THOMAS HARPER, D.G.M. L.S. JAMES
PERRY, P.D.G.M. L.S. JAMES AGAR, P.D.G.M. L.S.
Grand Lodge, this first day of December, A.D. 1813, Ratified and Confirmed,
and the Seal of the Grand Lodge affixed. EDWARD, G.M. (Great Seal) ROBERT
LESLIE, G. S.
This sanction was given by both Grand Lodges meeting on the same day in
London, Wednesday, Dec. 1, 1813, the "Moderns" at the Crown and Anchor Tavern,
Strand, the "Ancients" at Freemasons Hall.
Nationalizing American Masonry
SWING around the circuit of American Grand Lodges will convince any
unprejudiced observer that there is almost everywhere abroad a determination
to nationalize American Masonry. Let not a reader become alarmed! This has
nothing to do with a scheme for a National Grand Lodge, but quite the contrary
and that for obvious reasons. Almost everybody knows that a National Grand
Lodge, whatever may be the theories for or against it, is inherently
impossible, and that because the formation of such a body would mean a
complete revolution in the organization of the forty-nine Grand Lodges already
existing in this country. No, it is not this that is held in mind by those who
seek a closer and more unified amalgamation of all the forces of American
Masonry; they have in view rather a closer co-operation of the organizations
already existing and a more widespread understanding of the general purposes
and ideals of the Craft to the end that all of us, from Maine to California
and beyond, may the better be enabled to work together for the far-off event
toward which Freemasonry moves.
Consider a moment what may be done to bring this about without adding a new
cog to the machinery already existing. We can all assist to encourage and to
distribute a national Masonic literature, to be created by representative and
competent spokesmen from all parts of the land. There can be a systematic
co-operation of all Grand Lodge officials so that each Grand Lodge is kept
constantly in touch with what is being done by all other Grand Lodges; for
example, if a Grand Master issues an official letter on a subject of general
interest he can see that all his brother Grand Masters receive a copy, etc.
Conferences of Grand Masters and of Grand Lodge officers, such as were held at
Washington last November, can be made an habitual thing, so that each Grand
Lodge can share in the fruits of the labor of other Grand Lodges. Where Grand
Lodges maintain some kind of service, such as an Educational Bureau, it can
extend its courtesies and assistance to neighboring Jurisdictions. Lastly, and
not to extend further a list of suggestions equally obvious, all this may be
brought home to the individual Mason everywhere if he can be persuaded to read
the Fraternal Correspondence Report in his own Grand Lodge Proceedings, a
thing that should somehow be done, because of all the pages of printed matter
published each year in the name of Masonry those Reports are easily the most
valuable so far as the nationalizing of the Masonic mind is concerned. All
this is only another way of saying that among themselves Grand Lodges, like
private members can practice Masonic brotherhood, to the end that there be not
anywhere sectional feeling or exclusiveness but everywhere a sense of the
solidarity and unity of American Masonry as a whole.
* * *
SCIENCE AND THE SCIENCE OF MASONRY
Korzybski's article in another part of this issue brings to the front, and in
a new, quite unexpected way, how important a place geometry has come to occupy
in modern scientific thought. The great revolution now going on in science, in
comparison with which the revolutions due to Copernicus and to Sir Isaac
Newton were of almost secondary importance, has its roots in mathematics and
had its start when Loubacheski showed up the inadequacy of Euclid's geometry.
thing as this would have greatly excited the old Operative Masons, to whom
geometry and Masonry were terms so nearly synonymous that they fained to
believe Euclid had been one of the founders of the Craft. It is easy to
understand how they came to feel such reverence toward what many persons
consider a dead cult for drawing meaningless diagrams - lines, angles, curves,
all made on paper, and apparently having no conceivable relation to the
throbbing life in men's veins. The Operative Masons discovered the wonder of
geometry through their own daily experiences and while solving the most
"practical" problems. By means of it they transformed dead and shapeless stone
into the organic and living unity of a cathedral; made arches to fly up
fearlessly toward heaven, and mighty buttresses to suspend in the air, like
birds' wings; created rose windows, filled with infinite traceries, beautiful
as a dream; and learned how to express by curve and angle the ideas arising in
than this. Because the structure was not organized out of guess work but was
founded in exact principles by vigorous rules each individual workman was able
to apply himself at the right point and in the right time; the work of
hundreds of individuals resulted in perfect unity; and the craftsmen
themselves, bound by the invisible ties of their science, lived in
which, if we wish so to view it, is a parable of what may again take place,
but on a larger scale. More of human differences than one would suppose are
due to errors of fact and to inexact thinking; instead of applying the plumb,
the level, and the square to their thinking, the majority drift along
aimlessly, or else let themselves be filled with passions and prejudices. Out
of such a welter no unity, no lasting brotherhood can come. But if as a result
of a new development in science our great social efforts are rescued from
partisanships and bitter feelings and placed on the same solid foundations as
physics, chemistry and mathematics there is some hope that a general agreement
among men may be reached. In that event we should find ourselves as citizens
not struggling in a welter of cross purposes and disturbing prejudices but we
should all become like the craftsmen of old, trained workmen, each engaged at
his own task on a structure that will endure. In such an event Masonry would
come into its own to a degree, and after a fashion, such as few of us now dare
to dream or hope for.
* * *
SHAKESPEARE AND THE APPRENTICE RIOT
Craft antiquarians who have entertained the hope of proving that Shakespeare
was a Freemason should jot down in their note-books the new Shakespeare item
brought from England by E. H. Sothern a while ago, not because it has any
direct bearing on that question but as furnishing a splash of color to data
otherwise sufficiently drab. This find, dug up from among the innumerable
manuscripts housed in the British Museum, consists of a few pages in the
bard's own hand-writing, thus being the only specimen in existence, all the
others being mere signatures and some doubt about them; indeed it has been
questioned if Shakespeare knew how to write at all, because it has looked as
if the reputed signatures had been made by different persons who signed his
name for him, he putting down an "X". The new item will dispose of this
question once and for all, unless all the manuscript experts are astray,
because it consists of a passage of a play copied off by him.
play, entitled "Sir Thomas Moore," was written by Anthony Munday. It appears
that this drama proved objectionable to the official censors who employed
various and sundry scribes to revise it. It is believed that Shakespeare
himself either revised or copied off a revision of a passage in the third act
and thereby hangs the tale, so far as the present point is concerned. The
scene shows a great crowd of London apprentices, drawn from various crafts,
indulging in a riot on the streets; the cause of this riot was the presence in
the city of a large number of foreigners, always a bone of contention in those
days; the apprentices declared that these aliens consumed such large
quantities of food as to force up the price of living; and that they had
introduced into the city such noxious vegetables as parsnips, thereby
spreading about many vile diseases. Between these terrible vegetables and the
influx of competing workmen the apprentices were so beside themselves that
they threatened to wreck the whole fabric of social order. Thereupon Sir
Thomas Moore as sheriff of London made them a speech, one passage of which was
written, so it is believed, by Shakespeare, and reads in this wise:
to the king God bath his office lent
dread, of justice, power and command
hath not solely lent the king his figure
throne and sword, but given him his own name
him a God on earth. What do ye then,
'gainst him that God himself installs,
rise 'gainst God?"
to be hoped that the youths were quieted by this pompous bomnast!
is accepted that Shakespeare wrote this in his own hand then he knew how to
write, and that will knock one of the main props out from under the Bacon
theory, for the Bacon enthusiasts have always held that the poet was too
illiterate to have composed dramas, almost every one of which implies a deal
of general culture. This will have some bearing on Masonic studies because it
has been held in some quarters that Lord Bacon, the real author of the
Shakespearean plays, was, for purposes of personal safety in an intolerant
time, a Rosicrucian or member of some other secret group, and assumed a
disguise behind the name "Shakespeare" to shield himself from the authorities.
A few extremists have credited him with being a Freemason or even with having
founded the Order. Those who have coquetted with this heresy will do well to
make a little study of Anthony Munday's exhumed play and the circumstances
must be something after death
the toil of man
must exist a God divine
working out a plan;
this brief journey that we know
life must really be
gateway to a finer world
some day we shall see.”
Blue Lodge Classic"
Builders, A Story and Study of Masonry," by Dr. Joseph Fort Newton. Published
by The Torch Press, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, and now also by George H. Doran as
Vol. V in the M. S. A. National Masonic Library. For sale by National Masonic
Research Society, 19~0 Railway Exchange, St. Louis, Mo. Blue cloth, 317 pages,
with Index. $2.15 Postpaid.
most striking thing to be said of this now familiar book is that while it is
headed toward the mark of 50,000 copies no formal review of it has yet been
published in this country, except for a tribute by Bro. Malcolm Bingay in The
Masonic News, Detroit, written two or three years ago. Like Masonry itself the
fame of it has gone about from ear to ear, each individual being moved to tell
his neighbor of it until, after ten years, it circulates like blood in the
arteries of the Craft in America, and bids fair to do the same in other lands.
Written in the beginning on commission from the Grand Lodge of Iowa as a guide
to the young Mason it has become a handbook for Masons everywhere, young and
old alike, and become also in the meantime "The Blue Lodge Classic."
Builders opened up a new trail in Masonic literature, at least in the United
States; there were no precedents, no patterns to copy by, so that its success
is all the more remarkable in that it shows its author to have had prophetic
vision in addition to his gifts as a writer and his knack of scholarship.
Those who have not undertaken the responsibilities of authorship under such
conditions cannot possibly realize what a blood consuming task it is. It
happens that the present scribe put in a year of work in the same great
Masonic library in which Dr. Newton had made his own studies two or three
years before, therefore he has some knowledge whereof he speaks, and can
remember all too vividly what a wearisome toil it was, and how easy by
comparison would be the famous task of hunting needles in a hay-stack.
Thousands of books, but such books! dry, dull, dreary, crabbed, without
indexes usually, seldomly a citation of authorities, no saving salt of humor,
nothing (save in a few exceptions) of the transforming touch of genuine
literature in it all! To discover a few flowers of fact blossoming in that
jungle of conjecture made one feel like stout Cortez, when, from that peak on
which John Keats placed him, he looked down on the Pacific ! "Those days" (one
should say "them" to make the quotation exact) are not yet "gone forever" but
they are going, and that because others have been inspired by The Builders to
follow the same trail.
understand the pith and point of Bro. Newton's interpretation of Masonry one
must first know his general outlook on life, which is that of the Christian
mystic, bred in many schools of letters, who looks out of the eyes of the poet
on a world that is too marvelous for words to describe, save those of ecstasy
and wonder. To him man is neither a clod nor a clown, but a being with
divinity in his soul, eternity before him; and our race, though its tale is
pathetic enough, and the way dim, is a pilgrimage of souls on the Great Quest
for that which abides amid the flying years, for that which is of some worth
among so much that fades. Freemasonry is a part of that Quest, with its own
manner of lighting man on his journey, and no quarrel to be had with the other
Aiders and Helpers by the way. In such a setting Masonry becomes one of the
Great Poetries of the world, spiritualized and redeeming, far above the small
matters about which Masons sometimes make such a posher; and because The
Builders grows out of such a vision there is a beauty upon the book that
remains behind in the heart; long after the last page has been forgotten.
must be a crabbed soul indeed who would read such a volume as if it were ever
meant as an encyclopedia of facts, and in order to quarrel with its author
over matters of detail. Nevertheless one can hope that one of these days our
friend will find some opportunity out of the great press of his duties to
revise some portions of it in the light of what has been discovered since 1914
and to make corrections of some small errors in dates, names, etc., as on
pages 216 and 217 where two proper names are mix-spelled and a date is given
as 1753 instead of 1751. At the same time it would help a beginner if it were
made more clear that some items in the historical portion are either matters
of conjecture or else of the author's own theories of the matter, as in the
case of the Comacine Masters, which is a question still before the house. It
would also help if the bibliography were re-written so as to give titles
accurately, since the omission of a word often makes it impossible to locate a
title in a catalog. And there are many Study Clubs that would welcome an
additional chapter of "Questions for Discussion" in order that so excellent a
text be made more convenient to use.
* * *
NEWTON'S COLLECTED MASONIC PAPERS AND ADDRESSES
Men's House, Masonic Papers and Addresses," by Dr. Joseph Fort Newton. Cloth,
261 pages. Vol. Vl, M. S. A. National Masonic Library. Published by George H.
Doran, New York. May be purchased through National Masonic Research Society,
1950 Railway Exchange, St. I,ouis. Price, $2.15 postpaid.
the dreariest hour you ever spent in a lodge room. Imagine that the room
itself was ill lighted, poorly ventilated, and the seats uncomfortable, that
only a handful were present, and that the ceremonies were poorly rendered by
men utterly unaware of the meaning of it all, everything perfunctory, dull,
uninspired. Now imagine how it would have been for some man to enter and, in a
half hour of talk, utterly transform and transmute it all into something
sacred and revealing, beautiful to witness, rich with meaning, memorable in
its impressiveness, and accomplishing this, not by importing into it a content
it did not have, but by laying bare the riches already there, though hidden
from unseeing eyes.
magic as this is the secret of Bro. Joseph Fort Newton's great and ever
growing influence in the Masonic Craft. By his luminous comprehension of "The
Mission of Masonry" and his eloquent and persuasive language in describing
"The Ministry of Masonry" he has been able to open the eyes of the young men
in every lodge room to see what is the inner nature and ultimate appeal of
that Masonry to which so many of us lay claim but which so few of us possess
in any real sense. He is one who sits in The Interpreter's House, not
primarily interested in matters of fact, but concerned that the multitudes who
enter the Body of Freemasonry remain not unawares of the great Soul that
throbs within it.
new volume The Men's House, so named from the initial essay contained in it,
is a collection of papers published in Masonic journals, several of them in
THE BUILDER, and addresses delivered on important occasions. These are grouped
severally, as "Principles," "Practice," "Personalities," and "Prophecy,"
reminding one of the similar grouping of the chapters in The Builders into
"Prophecy", "History", and "Interpretation" so that while the chapters
themselves are unconnected the book as a whole possesses an underlying unity.
The groupings in The Men's House are more or less evenly divided among
there are so many things to choose from it is impossible to be specific except
to say that in this collection are several of Dr. Newton's papers that have
long been sought after, notably "The Men's House," a vividly condensed sketch
of Masonic history; "The Mission of Masonry," and "The Ministry of Masonry,"
circulated for years in pamphlet form by the Grand Lodge of Iowa; "The
Geometry of God," a Masonic sermon; "The Doctrine of the Balance," a study of
one of the ideas central to the Scottish Rite; "The Patriarchs," a
particularly beautiful tribute to the aged in the Craft; and "Solemn Strikes
the Funeral Chime," a little classic in interpretation of David Vinton's
deathless Masonic hymn. There is no need to add, as a kind of practical
postscript, that those brethren who seek inspiration and suggestions for
Masonic addresses will find this volume valuable to their hand.
Newton is Educational Director of the Masonic Service Association and editor
of its journal, "The Master Mason."
* * *
than 80 per cent of the Passenger train conductors of the United States are
* * *
MODERN ESTIMATE OF MASONRY
TEACHINGS OF MASONRY, by H. L. Haywood, editor The Builder. Published by
George H. Doran, New York. Vol. II of M. S. A. National Masonic Library. For
sale by National Masonic Research Society. Cloth, index, $2.15 postpaid.
Freemasonry is a philosophy of individualism; unto each man is given the
privilege of seeking through his own heart and conscience his soul's
salvation. What road he takes to find, at last, peace with God must be his own
determination; the Order asks only that we have a firm faith in God - and he
can express that faith in any creed best suited to his nature; it matters not
whether he be orthodox or liberal, Jew or gentile. His individual creed has
nothing whatever to do with Freemasonry.
Freemasonry only teaches that when a man has strived by all the power of his
being to find the peace of God in his own heart through a belief in the Great
Fatherhood and a love of all mankind as brothers, he has found Masonry's only
secret; that as a temple is reared by the strength of each individual stone,
so shall society grow better through the strength of each individual life.
so happens that into our Order from time to time there come individuals who
are too modest and self effacing to be true members of the Craft. In this
strange quixotic modesty they realize that they are unworthy of any individual
effort to improve themselves; that they are hopeless. And so casting aside all
such ideas they devote their energies to saving the other fellow! And the more
the "other fellow" resents it, the greater their zeal. They lack the patience
of the years; they are "direct action" gentlemen. With no time to waste on
futile effort in improving themselves they want the "other fellow" shot at
sunrise if he does not change immediately!
is one foreign substance in the cement of Freemasonry - the man who has no
time to seek for virtue in his own heart because he feels he has to devote all
his time to finding evil in the heart of another.
is another set which does not hurt the ancient Craft in the same painful way,
but which does create chaos in the minds of the sincere who are seeking light.
These are the occult and esoteric minded gentlemen who insist on weaving
around the simple fundamental lessons of Freemasonry a weird and wonderful
past without warrant of fact. The Masonic historians of, let us say, the
mid-Victorian period delighted in manufacturing history. They varied their
programs some dating the Order from Adam and others of the more conservative
school making Noah the first of the brethren.
today Freemasonry is coming into its own. We are getting out of the darkness
of prejudice and miasmatic marsh of metaphysical mush, the intellectual
hunt-the-slipper and anachronistic nursery nonsense. We are getting light, at
last, in Masonry. A new school of Masonic writers and historians are coming to
save that which is pure spiritual gold in the Order and is burning away the
among the leaders of this new, clean, fine and wholesome common-sense school I
would place Bro. H. L. Haywood, editor of THE BUILDER. Not that I always agree
with him. I don't think I would admire him so much if I always found myself in
complete agreement with him, because he would bore me.
in a while in his writings I get a faint aroma of the marshlands of which I
speak, but I forgive him this, as he, valiant soul, has had to go through the
darkness of the forests of prejudice and the dangers of the marsh to bring the
jewels of the Order into the light. More power to his brilliant pen! His
monument will be, I think, that he has delved into the amazing, appalling
array of weird and wonderful histories of the Craft, has exploded their
fallacies, has saved from them the real grains of truth, and is still afire
with ardor for the Craft and with his faith firmer in his fellow man and - God
bless him - with ever and anon a whimsical touch of humor.
latest book, The Great Teachings of Masonry, is a supplement to his first
great effort, Masonry. If the average Mason, seeking light, will take Bro.
Haywood's two volumes, with Dr. Joseph Fort Newton's masterful book, The
Builders, he will get a liberal education in the origin, the philosophy and
the law of the Order. Together they make an ideal combination: Haywood, the
brilliant reporter, Newton, the inspired preacher of a great cause.
is," writes Bro. Haywood, in his new volume, "no authorized interpretation of
Freemasonry. The newly initiated brother does not find waiting for him a
ready-made Masonic creed, or a ready-made explanation of the ritual - he must
think Masonry out for himself."
this spirit is his book written. There is none of the dogmatic in his effort.
But, so that the Masonic seeker can "think things out for himself," Haywood
points the way.
can we arrive at a philosophy of Masonry?" he asks. "How are we to learn the
authentic interpretation of the teachings of Masonry? What is the method of
procedure whereby one who is neither a general scholar nor a Masonic
specialist may gain some such comprehensive understanding of Masonry as has
been called for ….. In short, how may a man get at it?"
purpose of his book is to answer these questions, and as far as I am able to
judge, he has succeeded brilliantly.
does not attempt to force upon his readers his own preconceived views. He
suggests. In his fine chapter on symbolism he says:
value for us is like gold hidden away in the mountain - the miner must dig
for it. And that in itself is a virtue, because many men are cursed by the
refusal to use their own faculties. They go through the whole of their lives
parroting other men's thoughts, and such a life is necessarily lacking in the
pleasure of making mental discoveries, which is one of life's richest joys."
Quoting Goethe, greatest of Masonic philosophers: "Men changes but Man remains
the same," Haywood rises to splendid heights when he presents the purposes of
Masonry as follows:
“Racial distinctions, sex, color, language, creeds, governments, these have
broken our human family into divers and often quarreling groups; but while men
change in language, in theories, and in customs from generation to generation,
there is that in man which does not change, either in time or place, a common
humanity which ever remains the same, and stretches under the world, as the
earth retains her unbroken identity beneath the many inequalities of her
surface. From the mist-hung distance of remotest times down into our own hour
man has thought, loved, labored, dreamed, prayed, hated, fought, the while he
has walked 'the dim and perilous ways of life.' His spirit has sought
goodness, truth and beauty, and he has evermore craved the companionship of
his fellows. It is the misfortune of too many creeds, moralities and sects, be
they political, social or religious, that they eater to the accidental and
temporary needs of men, and too often divide rather than unite our hard
driven, struggling race. It is the glory of Freemasonry that it speaks the
revealing word to that in each of us which is universal, thereby helping to
build in the midst of years 'an institution of the dear love of comrades' in
which the mind is free to think, the hand to do, and the heart to love."
young and eager Mason owes to Pro. Haywood an unpayable debt of gratitude for
his first volume Symbolical Masonry. Every older Mason owes him alike for his,
The Great Teachings of Masonry. He is one of those rare few who know how to
tell "what it is all about" so that the one being told will understand. The
spirit of the Lost Word is not lost in a Niagara of words; he does not diffuse
light, he gives it.
Malcolm W. Bingay.
* * *
CONTAINS DESCRIPTION OF SOLOMON'S TEMPLE
SHIP TYRE, by Wilfred H. Sehoff, published by Longman's Green and Co., New
York. May be purchased through the National Masonic Research Society. Cloth;
careful, painstaking study of Biblical history in connection with that of
Babylon has been made by Mr. Schoff, who has brought to it deep learning, as
might be expected from the translator of The Periplus of the Erythrean Sea,
The Pergolas of Hanno and the story of Isidore of Charax. Notwithstanding his
scholarship, however, the student of Biblical lore will be slow to accept Mr.
Schoff's theory that Ezekiel's description of Tyre is really meant for
Babylon, a name which the prophet was precluded from using owing to political
exigencies. Mr. Schoff makes out a plausible case, it is not to be denied, but
the reader is impelled to ask himself whether, granted that the words of
Ezekiel might be intended for Babylon, they still lose any of their
applicability with equal force to Tyre. There is much curious information in
the work, however, especially that with regard to ancient ships contained in a
long "note" on pages 71, 72 and 73. The short chapters make the book one
easily read and of these Chapter III, devoted to a description of the Temple
of Jerusalem, will receive especial attention at the hands of those Masons who
have made the study of the Temple symbolism their particular undertaking. D.
E. W. Williamson.
* * *
low man seeks a little thing to do.
it and does it;
high man, with a great thing to pursue,
ere he knows it.
low man goes on adding one to one -
hundred's soon hit;
high man, aiming at a million,
has the world here - should he need the next,
the world mind him!
throws himself on God, and unperplexed
Seeking shall find Him.”
West Australian lodges it is the custom to deliver the following lecture,
known as the Lambskin Lecture, immediately after the investiture of the
may be that in the coming year upon your brow may rest laurels of victory. On
your breast may hang jewels fit to deck the diadem of an Eastern potentate.
Nay, more than these, with the light added to the coming light, your ambitious
feet may tread round after round of the ladder which leads to fame, both
within and without our mystic circle. Even the purple of our Fraternity may
one day rest on your honoured shoulders. But never again from mortal hands,
never again until your enfranchised spirit shall have ascended upwards and
inwards through the pearly gates, can any honour so distinguished, so
emblematic of purity and perfection be bestowed upon you as that which has now
been conferred. Let it be yours to wear through an honourable life and at
death to be laid on the coffin which shall contain your earthly remains.
when at last your feet shall have reached the end of life's toilsome journey
and from your nerveless hands' grasp shall drop for ever the working tools of
life, may the record of your life and actions be as pure and unsullied as that
fair emblem which is now yours. May its pure and spotless surface be to you
an ever-present reminder for higher thoughts, greater deeds, nobler
achievements, and when at last your naked soul shall stand, as one day stand
it must, trembling and alone, before the Great White Throne, we, your
brethren, pray in all sincerity that it may be your lot to hear from Him who
sitteth as the Judge Supreme, those words, those welcome words: 'Well done,
good and faithful servant, enter thou into the joys of thy Lord.'
just as much the duty of Freemasons to develop right thinking and right living
as it is to further educational activities along purely technical lines.
Education which does not fit those who obtain it for living - and we use the
word in its broadest sense - is of no real value either to the individual or
to the state. - The Missouri Freemason.
MEANING OF "MOTE" AND "HELE"
not someone explain the meaning of the word "mote" in the phrase, "So mote it
be?" It always sounds queer to me. M. R. Y., Ohio.
an Anglo-Saxon word, derived from “motan," which meant "to be allowed," and
which means, in Masonic uses and according to its tense, "So may it be." The
word "hole," pronounced "heal," is of similar origin, and means "to cover up,"
or "conceal." It is said that this word is still used in its original sense in
Sussex, Cornwall, etc. "For instance," writes one authority, "in Sussex a
house with a new roof is said to be newly fueled."
* * *
England have a uniform Ritual as we have in each state ? Where can one find
information about the English Ritual ?
Masonic Ritual, Described, Compared and Explained, by J. Walter Hobbs,
published by The Masonic Record, London, is the book you want. In it you will
discover that there is a "multiplicity of systems of Ritual" in England,
though these various "workings" do not seem to differ as much among themselves
as do ours from state to state. The workings most generally used are
Emulation, Stability, Wend-end, Oxford, Logic, West London, North London,
Metropolitan, etc. To teach these workings there are many Lodges of
Instruction, some of them very old, and all of them governed by rules 158-161
in the Book of Constitutions. Such lodges existed before the Union of 1813,
described in the Study Club this month. The most famous of all the workings
are Stability and Emulation. The former is traced back to a Lodge of
Instruction organized in 1817, with most of its founders former members of
"Ancient" lodges; one of these was the Rev. Dr. Hemming, after whom the
"Hemming Lectures" are named. From the first Preceptor, Philip Broadfoot,
until now there has been an unbroken line of Preceptors. Bro. F. W. Golby, the
present Preceptor, published a history of Stability Working in a volume A
Century of Masonic Wording, 1921. The Emulation Lodge of Improvement was
founded November, 1823. Its most famous leader was Peter Gilkes, initiated in
1786 in a "Modern" lodge. A history of this working was written by Henry
Sadler, 1904, entitled Illustrated History of the Lodge of Improvement. Every
student of Ritual should be familiar with both of these books. Consult also
Vol. III, Transactions Author's Lodge. A review of The Masonic Ritual, by Bro.
Hobbs, was published in THE BUILDER January, 1924, p. 29.
* * *
ANTIQUITY OF LEGEND OF THIRD DEGREE
there any way of learning how old is the Tragedy of H. A. in our Third Degree?
I have read many theories of one kind and another. Can't you put into
condensed form what our best authorities say on this important point?
inquiry was referred to Bro. David E. W. Williamson, who condenses into one
paragraph a great deal of information:
According to an opinion expressed in November, 1886 (See A.Q.C.), Bro. R.F.
Gould held that the Legend of the Third Degree was of comparatively recent
origin, say 1725, but we find him writing in the A.Q.C. in 1890 (reprinted in
Collected Essays, p. 133): "Our written traditions are carried back -
speaking roundly - to the fourteenth century and, to me at least, it does not
appear one whit more extraordinary that our symbolical traditions may have
enjoyed an existence in a period of time equally remote." In the discussion
upon this point in A.Q.C., Vol. XXXIII (1920, part ii), Robert H. Baxter
comments: "There is an indication of it in the Cooks MS. of early fifteenth
century transcription, which is generally regarded as the oldest text of all
copies of the Old Charges" (p. 114).
theory of modern origin is that expressed by W. J. Hughan at the Quatuor
Coronati discussion of a paper on "The Genesis of the Third Degree" in 1897 (A.Q.C.
C, p. 133), but, so far as I have been able to understand it, our Bro. Hughan
was almost, if not wholly, alone in his contention. So early, though, as A.Q.C,,
Vol. I, p. 30, we find Rev. A. F. H. Woodford saying: "Where did the
Freemasonry of 1717 come from? To accept for one moment the suggestion that so
complex and curious a system, embracing so many archaic remains and such
skilfully adjusted ceremonies, so much connected matter, accompanied by so
many striking symbols, could have been a creation of pious fraud or ingenious
conviviality, presses heavily on our powers of belief and even passes over the
normal credulity of our species." (Quoted by Gould, Collected Essays, 137.)
Gould's paper on "The Genesis of the Third Degree" is the most complete
presentation of the facts we have, as far as I am aware, but scattered through
A.Q.C. are many isolated sentences pointing to the belief of such men as
Edward Conder that the Master Mason Degree was the second degree until a
considerable time after 1717. For instance, in Conder's paper on "The Hon.
Miss St. Leger and Freemasonry" in A.Q.C. VIII, p. 20, you find: "At the date
of her initiation all the principal points of the Craft were probably included
in this, the second, or, as we now call it, the third degree."
same volume, in his relatively little known essay on "The Duke of Wharton and
the Order of Gormogons," Gould says (A.Q.C. VIII, p. 120): "The number of
Masonic Degrees known and recognized as such in 1723 * * * were two, Entered
Apprentice and Fellowcraft, the former combining the degrees of Entered
Apprentice and the latter being that of Master Mason, as we now have them."
The point is made by John Lane, in his paper on "The Early Lodges of
Freemasons" (A.Q.C. VIII, 1895, p. 193), that "in 1717 and for years prior to
that date there were numerous lodges, not only in London but also in various
other parts of England, whose members assembled by virtue of what is now
termed the doctrine or power of 'inherent right,' every lodge being a law to
itself, and neither exercising nor attempting to exercise authority or
jurisdiction over any other lodge or the members of any other lodge, nor
rendering obedience to any person, lodge or organization, whatever," which is
gives especial point to Dr. Chetwode Crawley's comment on Prof. Swift A.
Johnston's paper about descriptions of the Temple (A.Q.C. XII, 135 et seq), in
which he says: "It is fairly incredible that the legend could have been
introduced by one of them [Anderson and Desaguliers] as a pure innovation. The
introduction of incomparably smaller innovations in the same generation raised
such a storm that the Craft in England was split in twain for many a year. We
may rest assured that the brethren at large in the British Isles would not
have accepted a totally new environment for the tradition merely because it
found favor with the lodges of the cities of London and Westminster."
Personally, I think the last statement by Crawley is unanswerable.
E. W. Williamson.
* * *
should like to call the attention of those readers who are likely to visit
England during the summer to the advisability of visiting Peterborough
Cathedral and seeing the buttress erected by the Masons of this district. The
ceremony of dedication is to take place on Thursday, June 12, and will be
performed by the Prov. G. Master of the Provinee of Norths and Hunts, the Lord
Lilford, Past Grand Warden of England.
Perhaps I ought to explain more fully how this has arisen. During the period
of restoration, which has occupied several years and will take several more
before completion, it was found necessary, owing to an underground spring
which had been undermining a portion of the building for centuries, to erect a
buttress at the northeast corner of the building; both the work and the
position being so eminently Masonic it was decided to hold a Masonic Service
in the Cathedral of the united Provinces of Northamptonshire and
Huntingdonshire, Leicestershire and Rutland, Cambridgeshire and Norfolk which
was accordingly held on Thursday, the 18th day of May, 1922, and it was a
brilliant success, the whole of the amount required about 1,400 pounds being
raised. The whole of the service including choir, etc., was purely Masonic,
and the lady friends of the brethren were admitted by ticket at 2 o'clock.
first procession consisting of the brethren from the Province of Norfolk and
Cambridgeshire who had previously assembled and clothed themselves in the
Thomas A. Becket Chapel arrived at the west entrance at 2:10 and were followed
by the brethren of the Province of Leicestershire and Rutland who assembled at
the Vineyard, and the brethren of the Province of Northamptonshire and
Huntingdonshire who assembled at the Training College, after which came the
Choir and Robed Clergy, and were seated as the clock struck 2:30, at which
time the service was due to start. The first lesson was read by the R. W. Prov.
G. Master of Leicestershire and Rutland, the second by the R. W. Prov. G.
Master of Cambridgeshire, the third by the R. W. Prov. G. Master of
Northamptonshire and Huntingdonshire and the fourth by the V. R. Bro., The
Dean of Peterborough, the lessons, psalms, hymns, etc., were all specially
chosen and eminently appropriate. Fine weather graced the proceeding and
numerous photographs were taken including moving pictures. Films of the
procession were shown at various houses in different parts of the Kingdom, and
were afterwards presented and deposited in the Petersborough Masonic Museum.
The completion of the work is at hand and the dedication will take place as I
have mentioned at the beginning of this letter. There will be a Provincial
Grand Lodge held at the same time and we should heartily welcome any visitors,
and will endeavor to show them objects of interest to Masons, in the
Cathedral! including the Central Boss under the Parvise in the West Front
20 Bridge St., Peterborough, England.
* * *
CONCERNING FAMOUS REVOLUTIONARY MASONS
been very much pleased with THE BUILDER for March and I thought that Bro.
Kress' article was particularly good. I was glad to read Bro. Williamson's
account of "Where Napoleon Was Made a Mason." Gould's chapter on "Masons in
the War of the Revolution" is full of the enthusiasm and earnestness that he
put into all of his writings, but there are some points that still need to be
cleared up. Lafayette was made a Mason before he came to the United States.
Mad Anthony Wayne never was a Mason. So far as I have been able to learn none
of the Lees of Virginia were members of the Craft. Light Horse Harry Lee, who
delivered the classic oration at the tomb of Washington, does not appear in
any Virginia record. I think the Chapter on Masonic History in the Study Club
this month is particularly good; I found it very interesting to see that cut
of the Goose and Gridiron.
W. Baird, District of Columbia.
* * *
"History of the Eastern Star," by Kennaston.
"Caliph of Bagdad," by Sylvanus Cobb, Jr.
"Genius of Freemasonry," by Buck.
I, Ars Quatuor Coronatorum.
XXXII, Ars Quatuor Coronatorum; both must be complete, and with St. John's
"Records of the Hole Crafte and Fellowship of Masons," by Edward Conder.
"Restorations of Masonic Geometry and Symbolry," by H. P. H. Bromwell.
"History of the Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite," by Robert Folger.
volume THE BUILDER, 1918.
"Genius of Freemasonry," by Buck.
"Robert Burns and Freemasonry," by Dudley Wright.
description and prices to Book Department, National Masonic Research Society,
1950 Railway Exchange, St. Louis, Mo.
is not as bad as it is.
* * *
been a pleasure during the past two or three months to have so many active
brethren of the Society drop in for a visit at headquarters. If you chance
into St. Louis, be sure to look us up. The latch string is hanging out.
* * *
many apples did Adam and Eve eat? Since this question was put in this Corner
last January, quite a number of mathematical brethren have submitted replies.
Here is one from Bro. Lincoln Stewart:
believe you are yet far from the solution of that apple proposition. It is
undeniable that Eve when she 81,812 many; and that Adam when he 8184240-fy
himself against her intrigues.
total of 812,896,052 apples if packed in barrels would fill a string of box
ears reaching from Hobeken, N. J., to a point just east of the stockyards in
* * *
Page Johnny Appleseed!