The Builder Magazine
February 1924 - Volume X - Number
TABLE OF CONTENTS
FRONTISPIECE - ERNEST A. REED
A FELLOWCRAFT SHOULD KNOW
WOMAN OF NAPHTALI - By Bro. W. J. Barclay, Canada
SECRET OF THE OLD OPERATIVE MASONS - W. Bro. P. A. Fenger, Denmark
HOPI SUN SHIELD
SEVEN - BRANCHED CANDLESTICK By Bro. C. C. Hunt, Associate Editor, Iowa
STRIKING INCIDENT IN ENGLISH FREEMASONRY - By Bro. Dudley Wright, Associate
THE CEDARS OF LEBANON: HOW "THE CEDAR GROVE" WAS ORGANIZED - By Bro. Walter
Booth Adams, M. A. M. D., Syria
INTERLACED TRIANGLES - By Bro. Dudley Wright. Associate Editor. England
MAGIC WORD - By Bro. Jacob Hecht, Illinois
MEN WHO WERE MASONS - ROBERT R. LIVINGSTON - By Bro. Geo. W. Baird, P. G. M.,
District of Columbia
GRAND CHAPTER REINSTATED
STUDY CLUB - Chapters of Masonic History - Part X, How Operative Masonry
Changed to Speculative Masonry. - By Bro. H. L. Haywood
Anti-Masonry Within the Craft
Bok Peace Plan
Moonlight vs. Moonshine
Georgia Manual of Lectures
Franklin in Fiction
QUESTION BOX AND CORRESPONDENCE
About Public Schools
- four Years an Active Mason
Hundred Sixty - six Times a Treasurer
Freemasonry's Greatest Danger
Freemasonry as Defined by the G. L. of Illinois.
Oldest Masonic Twins ?
Oriental Order of Masonry"
Freemasonry and Advertising
Another Version of "The Great Journey"
a Fellowcraft Should Know
article was written in response to a number of requests, most of which,
strangely enough, have come during the past few weeks. It appears that in the
scope of available Masonic literature the Second Degree has suffered from a
certain unfortunate neglect. What follows is not in any sense designed to
fill this gap, or to deal exhaustively with a rite deserving of a volume to
itself, but a hint and a suggestion written in the hope that other scribes may
be inspired to write on the same theme. It would be profitable and delightful
to have in these pages several discussions of this noble degree.
the old days of English Operative Masonry a man was first made an Entered
Apprentice; after being bonded (or indentured) to a Master Mason for a period
of some seven years he was then made a Fellow of the Craft By this is meant
that he was instated a member of the lodge in full standing with every right
enjoyed by all other Masons, and that he had become a master of his trade, or
Master Mason, the two terms thereby meaning the same thing. From that time on
he was free to travel where he wished in search of employment, to receive
Master's wages (an Apprentice received no wages except his board and keep, and
possibly something in the way of "findings," i.e., and apron, gloves, a few
tools perhaps), and to become, if good fortune befell, an employer, or Master
of workman, or perhaps to superintend the erection of some building.
difficult at this far remove in time to know what manner of ceremony was
employed at the entering of an Apprentice, but we may be sure that some kind
of ritual was practiced for the Apprentice was made to listen to a traditional
history of the Craft, such as have been preserved in our Old Charges; was made
to take an oath (very simple in its form) to keep inviolate all the secrets of
the trade and of the household of the master and his dame with whom he would
live; and it is also probable that the Master of the lodge would give him
certain bits of advice at the time, perhaps in the shape of what we should now
call "lectures." Many Masonic historians have believed that no ceremony at all
was used when this workman, freed from his bonds, was made a Fellow of the
Craft, but it would appear reasonable to suppose that such a step, involving
as it did so complete a change of status and having its own secrets, such as
grips and words, some kind of ceremony was used. If this was the case then
two degrees were employed by the old Operative Masons, the second being the
Fellow Craft or Master Mason ceremony.
the formation of the first Grand Lodge of Speculative Masons in London, 1717,
these two degrees (or the original one degree, if one prefers) were so
amplified (why and by whom it is impossible to say) that at last they were
re-divided into three degrees, a system that has since become so firmly
established in the Craft that it will remain as long as Freemasonry endures.
Our Second Degree, therefore, in its present form, dates from early in the
eighteenth century, but that does not mean that the material built into it
came then into the Craft for the first time, for such was not the case, as
some of it must have existed before 1717.
much by way of history. It would be interesting to trace the degree's
development from the time it left the hands of Desaguliers and his fellows,
through Dunckerley, Hutchinson, Preston, Webb and the others, but that would
leave no space for an exposition of the ideas embodied in its symbolism as it
now stands, which is the present purpose.
DEGREE OF MIDDLE LIFE
old monitors it is evident that the men who gave its present shape to the
degree intended it to cover that part of a man's career which falls between
his youth and this old age. The lodge symbolizes the world as a whole; the
Apprentice the youth entering it, the Master Mason one about to leave it, the
Fellowcraft a man in the heyday of his powers, equipped to carry its burdens
and trained to do its work.
"work of the world"! this great enterprise of organized human life! How is it
to be carried forward? Not by ignorance, surely, for it is the essence of
ignorance to be helpless; neither can it be done by unskilled hands, for life
is complicated and involves an endless amount of technique. No, it rests on
the shoulders of those who have knowledge, skill, and experience, and such is
the principal idea of the Fellowcraft Degree. It is the drama of education,
the philosophy of enlightenment.
such it deserves far more attention than usually is accorded it if one may
judge by lodge practices in general. Frequently there are not half as many
brethren present in lodge as when the "first" or the "third" is exemplified,
and in too many cases the paraphernalia used, the manner in which the work is
"put on," and the general atmosphere of the occasion are such as to suggest
that to the lodge the "second" is a kind of a half-way ceremony that doesn't
deserve much thought or skill for its exhibition. The irony of such a thing
cannot escape notice, because the Fellowcraft rite is dedicated, as even a
tyro can see, to enlightenment, which is in itself one of the grand aims of
the Order. Of all the degrees in the entire hierarchy of ceremonies, from the
first degree until the last of the "Higher Grades," it would appear to be
precisely that degree which should receive at the hands of the Craft its most
loving care, its most anxious attention. It would not be an exaggeration to
say that in itself it should more than repay any man for the effort and cost
of his Masonic initiation, it is so wise in its teachings, so profound in its
truths, and so useful to have in one's mind. To know and to practice it is to
be made wise in the art of life, than which no other art can ever be half so
important, or nearly so valuable.
PILLARS AND THE PAVEMENT
great pillars that figure so prominently in its ceremonies are reminiscent of
the two mighty columns that stood out in front of King Solomon's temple, not
to support its roof but as symbolical reminders of truths and forces in
government and in religion. Our earlier monitorialists made much of the names
of these pillars, perhaps because they suggested the massive powers which,
pillar-like, uphold the, universe, the vast scheme of things, with its
immeasurable spaces and its multitudinous worlds. Before such a Power as that
it is meet that a man bow down in worship, especially in order to have
engraved inside his heart the truth that the Almighty Father is Himself a
builder and a maker, and that the most godlike man is he whose life is the
another angle of vision the pillars suggest the fact of birth, which has
within it more and larger meanings than one will discover at first thought.
One does not enter into a well-furnished manhood by chance, like a drunkard
blundering through a doorway, but by virtue of labour and preparation: on the
one side is the terrestrial globe, with its wisdom concerning the earth, its
facts of sense, its physical existence, its manual tasks; and on the other the
celestial globe, with its wisdom of the spiritual life, of the intellect, the
conscience, and the imagination.
checkered pavement is most frequently explained as symbolizing the checkered
nature of human life, especially in middle life, when the heat is intense, and
the way is hard owing to the many burdens to be carried; but one has the
feeling that to the early builders it may have had another suggestion. The
makers of the cathedrals loved mosaic work, especially in Italy where the
Cosmati family became famous for its ability to lay checkered floors, or inlay
with colored metals and glass. According to some very old books and pictures
(especially one by Holbein) the black and white checkered pavement when laid
in a church or cathedral symbolized the eternity of the world, in contrast to
which a man, as he walked across the earth, was very humble and very
transient. There is more than a merely pious sentiment in this, for it is a
part of wisdom to remember "that the sweet days die," that in a very little
while the end will come when we must lay down our tools and call the work
finished. The trestle board of one's life should be adjusted to that scale,
for though the world is eternal, so that its white days and black nights
stretch endlessly on, one's own strength soon vanishes, therefore he is well
advised who attempts not more than he can do, or who learns not to waste the
moments that are so precious out of a boyish delusion that there is always
plenty of time ahead.
OPERATIVE AND SPECULATIVE MASONRY
historical connection between Operative and Speculative Masonry is so
familiar, and is explained so well in the lectures, that there is no need here
to enlarge on the matter. It is good to remember that we are an Order of
Builders. Our forefathers in the Craft wrought at buildings which to this day
remain, many of them, in our midst to remind us of the majesty and loveliness
of the architectural art. But we are builders of men; of ourselves first, and
next of the world of manhood at large, helping each other the while as is meet
that brothers do. It is easy to tear down, to criticize, to find fault, to
destroy; it is a thing at which many beasts are expert; to construct, to
erect, to preserve, that is more difficult, and nobler, requiring art and a
mind that loves life with its values and its beautiful purposes.
true Freemason will not waste his time, or demean himself, by tearing down
another's wall. He respects every man's temple, though it be erected to other
gods than his own and carries in his heart a reverence for every attempt made
by anybody whatsoever to raise toward heaven the palaces of our human dream.
One is reminded here of Nehemiah's bugle-like sentence, "So builded we the
wall!" Sanballat and his tribesmen were obstructionists, iconoclasts, tearers
down, but Nehemiah and his fellow workers, fellows in the builder's craft, let
them childishly throw stones and try to pull down the edifice; theirs was to
build the wall of the Temple, and they did it.
Freemasons are Builders of the Brotherhood. They are sworn and dedicated to
make good will to prevail in all the relations of life, so that in society at
large will be felt the same kindliness that makes a family circle so
delightful. There is nothing merely sentimental in this; it is not a vague
dream floating gossamer-like before our eyes, but an urgent necessity if the
human race is ever to win its ways out of the hells in which it now suffers:
it is the task of statesmen, the goal at which governments aim, and it is
something which if we men do not do it will never be done. There appears to be
something implacable in the nature of things, something that will not bend or
swerve to suit our human fancy or to enable us to escape the consequences of
our acts, but moves majestically onward, so that if we men live in hatred and
ill will we must suffer the results. No arm is stretched down out of the sky;
no wholesale miracle is performed; we must find a way to live happily together
or else continue indefinitely to have within our lives all the agonies due to
war, hatred and unkindness. Brotherhood is for the salvation of the race from
its misery and pain; is there any task greater than that?
were no winding stairs in Solomon's Temple, no stairs at all except for the
steps that led to the little rooms in the outer walls, therefore the winding
stairs in the Fellowcraft Degree are manifestly symbolical. This is made all
the more obvious by the fact that the steps are divided into groups of 3, 5
and 7, a thing; undoubtedly inherited from the days when these numbers had for
men a mystical significance that has perhaps escaped us. Concerning the
definitely symbolical meanings of these things there will ever be a deal of
debate, but there call be little difference or opinion concerning the general
idea involved. Human life, if it is ever to achieve anything, if it ever
arrives in the Holy of Holies, is, to quote the beautiful old words of
Emerson, "an ascending effort." We can never rest on our oars. Always it is
effort, effort, and then more effort, climb after climb, step above step.
Something in the depths of our souls seems to demand it; the manner in which
the world is built makes it necessary.
steps do not stand vertical or in a straight incline, but wind. It reminds us
of one of the most sparkling books of recent years, a volume by Allen Upward
called The New World, in which that learned English barrister works out a
theory that all vital activity in this world is spiral in its pattern so that
life itself winds about and about in its ascending effort. There is something
more than fancy in this, if one may trust his own experiences, for in our
development upwards towards more strength, wisdom and grace we now and again
seem to return to some point from which we started except that we are above
it, and therefore see our old truths in a new light.
LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES
Educators of the Middle Ages divided their curriculum into seven branches, in
two groups, one of three and one of four, called respectively the trivium and
the quadrivium: the former comprised usually grammar, rhetoric, and logic; the
latter arithmetic, music, astronomy and geometry. It is this old-time
arrangement of studies that remains in the degree to symbolize an effective
schooling. There is no need to analyze this arrangement or to attempt to
justify its use in this day and age; the main point is that in Freemasonry the
Liberal Arts and Sciences symbolize an education.
is however this thing to be said about the medieval curriculum: it was a
discipline in the humanities, and that is something worth thinking about. The
tendency in schools nowadays is to give a student either a scientific course,
so as to equip him for one of the technical professions, or else a course in
business methods with a view to fitting him for office or factory. This is
all well and good but it is not a complete education, and our educators will
some day regret their surrender to the utilitarians who have demanded "a
schooling that pays." Life is more than a profession, finer than a trade, it
has ends and needs above and outside of these, important as they are. One has
a religious and also an imaginative relationship with the universe which
deserves to be developed and instructed; it is just as important to look upon
the stars with the eye of reverence or as things of beauty as to measure their
diameter or estimate their distances in space; the fields and hills are to be
loved for their own sake, as well as to be converted into tillage and
farmyards. There are such things as art, poetry, music, and worship, and
these too are to have a place in school. Also it is necessary for a man to
understand his own nature, and the nature of the men and women with whom he
lives, a need satisfied by literature, painting, and music. Every labourer is
a man first, with neighbours and a family, and a life to live; to give him
nothing but a training in his craft is to rob him of his most precious
birthright. The old ideal of the Liberal Arts, the humanities, is nearer the
truth and need of things than any ultra-modern drill in scientific technique.
We need to understand nature; yes; but we need quite as much to understand
GEOMETRY AND THE LETTER G
first men in the world were childlike in mind to a degree difficult for us to
imagine. The natural scheme of things must have puzzled them almost beyond
endurance. What a medley it was! what a chaos! the simplest sequences of
events, such as the succession of the seasons, was unknown to them so that
they were like babes peering helplessly into the dark, unable to make it all
out. To men living under such conditions the discovering of order, of number,
of geometry must have broken with a surprise like the coming of a new
religion. Little wonder that they made so much of numbers, calling them
sacred and attributing to them all manner of secret and occult properties, as
if the relations among the forces and substances of creation were the
immediate operation of an Infinite Mind. If modern philosophy gives a
different account of it that does not detract from the value of the old
rank and file of men, so it appears, have in the back of their minds a vague
notion that matter in itself is a formless thing without character or
structure, so that their picture of creation is that some outside Power took
charge of the original chaos of brute stuff and impressed upon it shape and
order in much the same manner that a clay modeller imposes upon a lump of dirt
the likeness of a human face. According to this view there is no such thing
as order in the nature of things; order is fugitive and transient, a something
from without. But such is not the finding of modern science. There is no
such thing as matter by itself, matter as an abstract entity; there are such
things as water, air, gasses, wood, stone, metals, soil, etc., etc., and every
such substance has a structure unimaginably complicated, so that order is in
the nature of things. Geometry is a revelation of that order, a reducing to
line and diagram of the everlasting relations among all the substances and
properties of the universe. Can anything be more sublime than that?
is reason to believe that the Letter G stood for this precious science, though
in our day and more particularly in American lodges it is a symbol of
T.S.G.A.O.T.U. In either event, and in the last analysis, the significance is
the same, because the Sacred Letter would have reference to that which is the
Origin of the Orderliness of the universe.
God of Heaven and Earth is the beginning and end of all Masonic mysteries; it
is from Him that we have come, it is unto Him that we go, and in all the
journey between the canopy of His love is over us. The definitions of His
nature, the description of His attributes may be left to the arguments of the
theologians and the disquisitions of the metaphysicians; the fact of His
existence admits of no argument; it is "sure as the most certain sure," the
alpha and the omega of thought.
grandson of Thomas Henry Huxley in a book recently published argues that in
our modern world men of scientific training are finding out a new approach to
God; instead of trusting to vague reports from the past or to ancient
traditions, they are examining, so he says, into the nature of life and the
structure of the universe at first hand. If this be so the scientist will
find God as surely as the saint, because He is there.
human beings are not intruders from another world, temporary pilgrims from
some realm outside the universe; we are part and parcel of the universe, as
much a part of the natural scheme of things as the blowing clover or the
falling rain. There is but one system of reality; this is it; we are a part
of it. The soul in us, the immortal spirit, our inmost thoughts and ideals
belong as much to this system of reality as clods or boulders, so that in the
very structure of the universe there is that out of which spirit can come,
self-consciousness, thought, love, prayers, and dreams, so that the scheme of
things is not a soulless mechanism, a pile of dirt, a flux of blind forces,
but a Something that can bring souls into existence, and sustain them. The
Letter G is inscribed on the forehead of creation, it is written on the
a mistake to suppose that education is a mere device to train a man in a
handicraft, or a collection of pieces of information of more or less practical
use; education leads at last to truth, and God is the truth about the
universe. This is the real Holy of Holies, the true Inner Chamber into which,
at the last, a Fellowcraft comes; and the vision he has there, the
consolation, the strength and the confidence of everlasting life together make
up the wages he receives. Such wages are life indeed, to earn which it is
worth every man's most manly endeavour, and that at any price.
A FELLOWCRAFT SHOULD KNOW
is what a Fellowcraft should know - the need, the nature, and the purpose of
education, along with the attendant realization of the disastrousness of
ignorance. A human being begins life in utter helplessness; he cannot even
lift his head from the pillow. The same human being must at last become a
man, full grown and equipped to do his own share of the work of the world,
live his own life as a man should, and confront the universe as an intelligent
being. The sum total of the influences that bridge this gap between
helplessness and maturity is education; books, schools, teachers, and
experience are means to that end. It is the conscious shaping of the
processes of growth, the purposive direction of experience toward the end of a
fully developed manhood that is the grand end and goal of every Mason who must
needs be "enflamed with the study of learning, and the admiration of virtue;
stirred up with high hopes of living to be brave men, and worthy patriots,
dear to God, famous to all ages."
Woman of Naphtali
Bro. W.J. BARCLAY, Canada
is a tale of old times in language as beautiful as its theme, and so conceived
as to enable us to recover the human scene out of which Hiram went to build
Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem. Bro. Barclay is a native of Beith, Ayrshire,
Scotland, but now a resident of Vancouver, B. C., Canada. During twenty
years' experience as a journalist he contributed to many magazines, Masonic
and otherwise. He was made a Mason in Glenwood Lodge, Souris, Manitoba; was
W. M. of his lodge in 1903 and 1904; is a member of North Vancouver Chapter,
Royal Arch. Bro. Barclay contributes regularly to "The Square," a beautiful
Masonic monthly published in Vancouver under the editorship of Bro. R.J.
Templeton, whose work is winning an ever widening circle of attention.
SHADED from the heat of the sun, an elderly woman reclined upon a couch on
the marble verandah of a palace in the ancient city of Tyre, overlooking the
entrance to its busy harbour. Near her, a dark-skinned slave girl stirred the
air with a large fan of peacock plumes. Her gaze wandered over the comings
and goings of the boats of fishermen, and over occasional merchant galleys
returning from, or outward bound upon, those wonderful voyages of barter and
adventure in far-off lonely seas, that made the mariners of Phenicia renowned
throughout the ancient world.
wistful gaze of Nedoure, widow of Benaiah, centered upon a galley, deeply
laden, making its way towards the city. She could faintly hear the crash of
cymbals beating time for the double banks of rowers, and memories of the past
- seldom, indeed, absent in these latter years - stirred more vividly than
usual in her mind.
weary years had passed away since such a ship as this she was watching had
toiled into the harbour, bearing homeward in its bosom the poor crushed body
of her beloved husband, the victim of an unhappy accident. For more than a
year he had been absent on the Island of Cyprus superintending the erection of
a temple for the Phenician colony, for Benaiah of Tyre was a master builder
who excelled in architectural knowledge and was skilled in the founding of
brass and bronze.
lips of Nedoure moved inaudibly in prayer - not to Baal, or to Moloch, or even
to the more beneficent Melcarthe, tutelary deity of Tyre. Her prayer was
addressed to the great Jehovah of the Israelitish nation, for she was a woman
of the Tribe of Naphtali:
of the abundance of Thy mercy, O God of my fathers, visit not the sins of
their mother upon her children. Keep their hearts free from the pollution of
idolatrous worship, that they may continue ever to follow in the light of Thy
ways, as has been taught by Thy holy prophets."
the death of her husband, the life of Nedoure had been a happy one; but never
had she forgotten the anathemas hurled by the religious leaders of Israel upon
those who married into an alien people, a practice which tended to weaken the
tribal bonds of the great family of Jacob, and to forgetfulness of their faith
Tyrians were a tolerant people. They were no addicted to any singular or
unsocial form of worship. Their widespread commercial dealings led them to
mingle with other nations without scruple or reluctance. Benaiah had never
sought to change his wife's faith, and he had respected her anxious efforts to
instil her own beliefs in the minds of their two children. The constant
influence of a loving wife and fond mother had rather its reaction on
himself. The creative principle which the Phenicians worshipped under the
name of Baal; its antithesis, the destroying principle, which they worshipped
as the fire god of Moloch; and the active, protecting, providential agency
which regulated human affairs and was worshipped as Melcarthe, were recognized
by his cultured mind as the probable agents of the dread Jehovah.
LIVES AMONG ALIENS
Nedoure's happiness had been marred at times of introspection, when memory
carried her back to the green hills of Naphtali. She felt she must ever
remain on outcast from her own people, for they, had not looked with favour
upon her marriage. She had continued faithfully to serve the God of Israel,
but it was with a certain accommodation to her surroundings. Nor could she
regard with satisfaction the future of her children, who were tied more
closely to this land of idol worship - the land of their birth. A mist of
tears welled into her eyes and a further prayer rose to her lips.
cheerful voice of her daughter, Elissa, woke the mother from her melancholy
"Mother, dear, the dew of those far away fields in Naphtali thou hast so often
told us about has fallen upon thine eyes."
turning to her brother, who had entered the verandah with her:
thou them dry, Hiram."
bearded face of her stalwart brother bent down to obey the playful command of
mother's happiness is in the strength of her son, and in the beauty of a
virtuous daughter." The maternal benediction of a mother of Tyre was the
answer of Nedoure to the greeting of the loving mischievous pair who had so
softly surprised her. Then, as she recalled the work upon which her son had
been engaged that day, she asked:
thou been successful with the great castings, Hiram?"
are according to my highest expectations," he replied.
when wilt thou lead thy lions to their new home?" broke in Elissa, in sisterly
their coats shall have been groomed to a sufficient lustre by my artificers,"
answered Hiram, smilingly. And he added, "I will bargain with Megara that
thou, Elissa, shalt be allowed to feed them every time they roar with the pain
allusion was to a pair of colossal bronze lions that Hiram, son of Benaiah,
had been commissioned by a wealthy merchant to erect as decorations on each
side of the wide staircase that led to his palatial home. The foundry and
workshops of Benaiah had continued to prosper under Hiram's management. But
the artistry of the son had achieved a special distinction. The call upon his
talents was constant for the beautifying of the temples of the gods and the
luxurious homes of the merchant princes in that wonder city of commerce.
"Where doth business call thee now, my son?" enquired Nedoure, the solicitude
of the mother noting that he was dressed for some important occasion.
know not, mother, if it be a matter of business. A messenger from my lord the
king, whose name by his favour I bear, hath summoned me to his presence."
father, as thou knowest, Hiram, was greatly favoured at the court. In his
youth he had travelled in many lands and had gathered much knowledge. It was
his gift to make live in words that which he had seen. Our lord delighted in
his converse, and when thou wast born he bestowed his name upon thee, saying
he would give it a double chance to live in the memories of men when the
greatness of Tyre might be forgotten."
poor sculptures will avail but little to merit such remembrance. Thou
rememberest, mother, how my father once told us of the vast monuments that
stand by the River of Egypt, a wonder to all beholders, but the names of their
builders have been long forgotten."
things of the heart, my son, are more enduring than mountains of stone.
Fidelity to a trust reposed in us, even unto death, will continue in the
hearts and memories of men unto the end of time."
Nedoure rose and took her daughter by the hand.
thou returnest, Hiram, thou shalt tell us why the King hath sent for thee. We
are curious to learn with what new commission thy skill will be put to the
took his departure, and mother and daughter entered the house. When they
reached her apartments, Nedoure turned to her daughter:
hour agone I watched a ship pass into the harbour that had a familiar look."
mother, has Mazaroth returned?"
know not for certain, child. My mind was so full of thoughts of the past that
at the time I was not reminded of him. If thy Mazaroth hath returned he will
claim my consent to your marriage, and as yet my judgment wavers, for he is
not of our faith. Nay, child, do not weep! Listen, and I will tell thee a
tale of another young girl who is now grown old and weary." Elissa dried her
tears. She sensed the tale she was about to hear would be the love story of
her own mother.
fertile valley among the southern foothills of Lebanon," began Nedoure, after
a pause to collect her thoughts, "dwelt this maiden with her father and an
elder brother. It was a beautiful land that had been apportioned of old to
the Tribe of Naphtali. In the distance could be seen the mighty crests of
Lebanon cleaving the blue sky, with winter on their heads, spring upon their
shoulders, autumn upon their sloping sides, and summer at their feet. For
years the Kingdom of Israel had been torn with strife between the houses of
Saul and David. At length David prevailed, and when he was crowned king at
Hebron the elders of the people from among the twelve tribes were required to
attend and render him their submission. Among the elders from Naphtali was
the maiden's father, taking gifts to the king of corn, wine, oil and fine
the return journey evil befell. In the midst of Israel there was one city
left in possession of its firs inhabitants because of the covenant our father
Abraham made with them when he purchased the Cave of Machpelah as a burial
place. This was the city of Jebus. A band of marauders from thence attacked
and scattered the little party of elders from the tribe of the north. The
maiden's father was grievously wounded and left for dead by the roadside. It
was the great highway by which the caravans of Tyre travelled to Egypt and to
Elath on the Red Sea. Happily, such a caravan, returning to Tyre, found the
wounded man. A young Tyrian builder, who had been to Egypt gathering
knowledge of his art, was wondrously kind to him, binding his wounds and
causing his servants to carry him on a litter. When their ways diverged, the
young man and his servants separated from the caravan and brought the aged man
safely to his home in the vale of Lebanon in the land of Naphtali.
young Tyrian lingered in that hospitable home for many days. Sown in
gratitude, watered with the eloquent language of the eyes, and warmed in the
sunshine of a noble presence and pleasing address, the flower of love soon
blossomed in the maiden's heart. The young man sought her father's consent to
their marriage, but although he had learned to love the young man as a son,
consent to the marriage of a daughter of Israel with a worshipper of strange
gods was something to which he felt he could not agree. The maiden wept many
bitter tears, and the young Tyrian departed with the old man's blessing,
promising to return again.
"Nearly a year passed away before he returned. In that time great changes had
taken place in the maiden's home. Her aged parent had never recovered from
his wounds, and was gathered in love and honour to his fathers. Her elder
brother was now head of the household, and the maiden's position was very
different from what it had been when her father lived. Disconsolate and full
of sorrow, the return of the young Tyrian was most welcome to her in her
loneliness. Her brother steadfastly refused his consent to their marriage,
and in the end they fled to Tyre and were married according to Tyrian custom.
thou wilt have guessed ere now, Elissa, the story is that of thy father and
mother. Never lived a nobler man and kinder husband than he. Yet the laws of
Israel are the commands of Jehovah. If I have offended Him in this, my tears
and prayers have surely inclined Him towards compassion where love and duty
did so conflict."
mother was silent. Elissa put her arms around her mother's neck and kissed
I understand, mother dear, thy reluctance to grant the prayer of Mazaroth.
Let us hope the Most Holy Lord will show us that the ways of true love and
obedience are not always divergent paths."
"Grant it may be so, my daughter, but I have looked, and longed, and hoped for
such vision for many years."
Mother and daughter continued to talk for a long time together. They were at
length interrupted by the announcement that Hiram had returned. Permission
having been granted, he entered. It was evident from his subdued, serious
manner, and from the glow in his dark eyes, that he was the bearer of
important news. He crossed the room and knelt by his mother's side.
Nedoure's face paled with foreboding that some misfortune had befallen.
hath happened to thee, Hiram?" she asked, anxiously.
"Wonderful tidings I bring, mother. Several ancient men of the Hebrew nation
were with my lord, the King. They are bearers of a scroll from Solomon, their
ruler, asking that a Tyrian architect be sent to erect a great temple to
Jehovah at Jerusalem. My lord hath appointed me to undertake the work."
"Thou! my son."
art to build a temple to Jehovah at Jerusalem?"
King hath so ordained."
Nedoure regarded her son in silence as the full import of the announcement
grew in her mind. Then returning colour suffused her features with maternal
pride beyond the power of utterance. Embracing him as tears of happiness
flowed softly down her cheeks, she found at length words with which to express
somewhat of the fullness of her heart:
"Blessed be the Name of the Lord! He honoreth the faithful among His
servants. He justifieth those who put their trust in Him, for He hath
delivered me from the reproach of all my people. Truly, Elissa, I see at last
the vision of the two paths as one. Thou, Hiram, hast been reared to
reverence and worship Jehovah, and thou hast the wisdom of building which is
lacking in Israel. Seest not, my children, how the purposes of God are bong
worked out in our lives?"
mother drew her daughter to her with a gesture of love:
"Thou, too, shalt be happy, Elissa. My path hath been made straight, and mine
eyes have been opened to the unfathomable ways of God's Providence in dealing
with His children. Let us give thanks unto the Lord, for He is good; His
mercy endureth forever."
folded hands you sit so quietly
inward seethe or outward moil I see;
facing toward the sunset and the stars,
Serene you are, and helpful, too, to me.
still before me are the many years
health, for life, for love and happiness;
I, with fume and fuss, do soil the air
weak emotions and unquietness.
teach me, dear old White Haired Friend, to walk,
life is dust, the calm and lowly ways;
as a weakling, fretting toward the dark,
as a gentle servant through my days.
Secret of the Old Operative Masons
Bro. P.A. FENGER, Denmark
is the "secret" of Freemasonry about which one hears so much? Nowadays we know
it to be a secret in the heart, but time was, so Masonic historians believe,
when it was a trade secret after the fashion of the secret processes that are
today patented, copyrighted or otherwise protected by law. If so, the
question remains, What was that trade secret? Learned works have been written
in an attempt to answer the question, notable among which was a paper
contributed to "Ars Quatuor Coronatorum" by Sidney Klein, to be found in Vol.
XXIII, page 107. With these efforts to solve a problem of Masonic history the
paper herewith is to be classed. Bro. Fenger is a consulting engineer of
Copenhagen, Denmark, who has enjoyed first-hand opportunity to make a study of
the matter dealt with. His essay was recommended for publication in these
pages by Bro. F.J.W. Crowe, author of a number of important Masonic books,
including the revision of Gould's "Concise History."
characteristic feature of the four small London lodges which united in 1717
was a peculiarly severe oath of secrecy, so extraordinary and strict that
those not initiated might well infer that the Masons were in possession of
secrets of corresponding importance. The natural result of the presumed
secret knowledge was a rapid increase in membership. However, as the secrets
revealed in no way corresponded to the severity of the oath, there began a
searching after and invention of mysteries of all kinds.
lodges had been operative crafts dating from the Gothic period, and the oath
was probably formulated when these crafts were at their height. Is it
possible that the Masons at that time had a trade secret; or did they only aim
at segregating themselves as "a state within a state" in order to be free to
keep justice and apportion their incomes without interference from others?
Constitution, of Anderson mentions geometry and architecture as the principal
sciences of the Craft. In his paper, read Dec. 27, 1725, at the inauguration
of the Grand Lodge of New York, Bro. Drake mentions geometry and architecture;
yet in both cases these sciences are treated as open and no hint is made of
Masons possessing any knowledge beyond that of well informed persons of their
elementary geometry the pupil is taught to construct a pentagon and, in
connection therewith, also to divide a line according to the "golden cut" (sectio
aurea). This geometric relation is expressed by the equation
b/(a+c) which can be written as
a(1 + (sqrt(5))/2 = a X 1.618.... = a X q
relationship exists among any three consecutive members of a series of the
a/q(^3) ; a/q(^2) ; a/q; a ; a q(^2); a q(^3)
Approximately the same relation is found in the following series of whole
numbers in which each member is formed by addition of the two preceding ones
8; 13; 21; 34; 55
an acknowledged fact that the proportions of the "golden cut" throughout
ancient times were considered to be of special merit, and that Greek sculptors
believed themselves to have found them in the ideal human body. Likewise the
architects of that age concerned themselves with this proportion.
the pentagram, a symbol of great importance among the Pythagoreans, this
proportion exists among all the component parts.
"golden cut" was in itself not a secret but it can be maintained that in the
ancient times mystic ideas were connected with it, and it should be noted that
we possess no information regarding the practical use of the "cut" in
architecture. Vitruvius seems purposely to avoid direct mention of its
1910 a violent dispute arose among the architects of Norway. The cathedral of
Drontheim, erected about the year 1200, the most historic monument of the
country, and for centuries a ruin, was to be re-erected in its original
splendour; but the remains were so sparse and so low, that opinions regarding
its original elevation, naturally, differed widely.
was perturbation when the historian, Macody Lund, asserted that the original
design of the church could be re-constructed with certainty and exactness
after a systematic geometric procedure. Having overcome the initial unanimous
incredulity, this theory gradually gained adherents and its proponent finally
succeeded, aided by subvention from his government, in setting forth his ideas
and proofs in a voluminous treatise upon the subject. (See note 1)
author's principal aim was re-construction of the church in certain vertical
proportions, the correctness of which he endeavoured to prove from faint
traces in the ruin and by his geometric system, while his method and his
opinion of the Gothic system is of common interest.
deductions are so long and intricate that we can only account for them here
briefly. He maintains that Gothic architects based the ground plan of a
church upon a system of large squares which, through division by four, were in
turn sub-divided into smaller squares, so that in the ground plan all
dimensions could be derived from the length of the side of the original square
by division by 2.
Macody Lund system is a geometrical method which can be applied in different
ways, so that dissimilar buildings of the same dimensions may be erected
according to it. It must be admitted that when the architect has once settled
upon the principal dimensions of the ground plan and the elevation, then he is
no more entirely free in that the remaining details for the greater part
naturally follow according to the rule but this restraint engenders the style.
small number of Danish architects agree with Macody Lund. Some have tried
with success to design according to his system. They do not regard this
system as merely a possible one, but rather the essential element - the
backbone - of Gothic architecture. They ascribe the failure of modern Gothic
buildings to the fact that the architects have designed with a free hand,
ignoring the support and restraint of this system.
agree with be supposition that the Gothic architects used such a geometrical
system, then we must also agree with the two following:
Most of the artisans were initiated in this system. Each artisan was not
necessarily acquainted with the chief dimensions of the great cathedral, the
erection of which lasted more than a century, but the system was equally
applied to details, such as windows, carved chair backs and reliquaries -
objects entirely left to the execution of the artisans.
Both the architects and the artisans have kept the system a secret. There are
no written accounts extant (note 2) and it is not known that a textbook of
dimensions has ever existed. The system has been kept so secret that to this
day, its existence could be denied. As witnesses only the buildings remain on
whose stones are carved the pentagrams.
THIS THE SECRET OF THE OLD CRAFTS?
Masonic Craft knew the Gothic system and esteemed it of great importance to
keep it secret.
oath of secrecy which has been preserved is formulated so that it not only
forbids members to reveal to the uninitiated what they may learn, but it also
forbids them to write about it or to draw it, not even for their own use in
the Craft. This is quite to be understood for indeed the system could hardly
be revealed to a non-initiated merely through uncautiousness or loquacity.
Nothing but a written explanation with drawings and examples of its use and
importance - by its mere existence - could be of danger.
1500 the building of Gothic churches ceased and other styles of architecture
followed, in which the system was not used. The old customs of the Craft,
including the oath of secrecy, were conscientiously preserved. Even if the
older members might have mentioned the system sometimes, it was of no interest
to the younger generation and naturally the system became quite forgotten,
when the architects no longer gave instruction in it and the artisans no
longer applied it.
London the period preceding 1717 was one of absolute stagnation with regard to
building, and the four lodges united because their membership being so
diminished, one lodge was insufficient to celebrate a festival in a befitting
now the members had preserved the customs and the oath, but in their minds the
latter applied only to the ceremonies. The fact that the (Craft, two hundred
years ago, had been in possession of a trade secret, at that time of the
utmost importance, had entirely disappeared from memory and tradition, because
their forefathers - true to their oath - had never confided it to paper.
1. - Bro. Macody Lund. Ad Quadratum. A/S Nelge Erickson Forlag, Kristiania
1919. - English translation published by B.T. Batssford. See also: Macody
Lund. Alb. Cammermeyers Forlag, Kristiania 1917.
2. - The only exception is: Beltrami. Annuali della fabbrica del duoms di
HOPI SUN SHIELD
symbolical rites and ceremonies of primitive man are still in use here and
there in the world, some of them, as the following will show, at our very
doors. The Hopi Indians are an agricultural people of Arizona who maintain
their old religious usages, most of which are built up about the planting and
reaping of their crops. Permission was granted to publish here an explanation
of their principal symbol, The Sun Shield by the Fred Harvey Company of Kansas
City. An examination of these paragraphs will show how the unsophisticated
mind makes use of symbolism, a subject of never dying interest to Masons.
Hopi live in seven isolated towns perched on three almost inaccessible mesas
in northeastern Arizona - a semidesert region with seemingly endless open
spaces, where hardy desert plants do their best to cover the nakedness of the
country. Along the creeks there are a few cottonwoods and on the mesas some
juniper and pinyon trees, while in the sheltered places some rare and
beautiful flowers are found.
occasional rainfall sinks almost immediately into the sandy wastes, so there
are no flowing rivers in Hopi-land, and springs - the most valued of all the
Hopi's possessions - are few and far between.
in this land of little rain the Hopi have planted their fields, set up their
altars, and with fervent supplication to their many gods have wrestled
unceasingly with the desert for a living. Out of its rocks they have built
their houses, with the fibers of its plants and skins of its animals they have
clothed themselves; of its clay they have moulded their pottery and with its
grasses woven baskets of wonderful design.
Hopi are solely an agricultural people; their very existence depends on the
plants of the earth. Every spot on the desert where moisture lingers long
enough to mature a crop of corn or beans or melons is cultivated and protected
from seed time to harvest against the desert's ever - shifting sands - an
eternal battle with nature, a never - ceasing prayer for rain!
conditions naturally shape the religious beliefs of a primitive people,
causing them to deify the elements. So the Hopi have their gods of wind and
rain, of thunder and lightning; of sunshine and storm; of famine and plenty.
their ceremonials these mythical deities are represented by masked dancers,
called Katcinas. The symbol representing each deity is painted on the masks
and the dancers are thereby supposed to be transformed into the deities
themselves, who act as intercessors between the people and their still higher
Sun - Shield is used in the Soyaluna ceremony, which is celebrated during the
month of December. In charge of the Soyal Fraternity, the largest religious
organization in Hopi-land, this nine - days' ceremonial is a supplication to
the Sun God to pause in his southern flight and return to the pueblos. Many
Bahos or prayer - sticks are consecrated in the ceremony, after which they are
put in corrals that their stock may increase, tied to fruit trees to produce
bountiful crops, and placed in springs to insure an abundant water supply.
Sun - Shield is the most important symbol in the Soyaluna ceremony, for the
Sun God is the All - Powerful deity of Hopi mythology. The colors in the
shield have a symbolic meaning: yellow represents the north, green the west,
red the south, white the east, and black the heavens. Thus is depicted the
entire Hopi universe.
Bro. C.C. HUNT, Associate Editor, Iowa
BROTHER writes as follows:
Grand Chapter insists on the display of the seven-branched candlestick in the
M.E. Degree in the Royal Arch. I have read carefully I Kings, II Chronicles
and Josephus. I can find nowhere where it is mentioned in the Temple of King
Solomon, but in front of the veil before the Holy of Holies the ten golden
candlesticks connected by golden chains are mentioned. Josephus in Book VIII,
Chapter 4, page 79, tells of Nebuzaradan taking from the temple the golden
candlesticks (plural). In the Encyclopedia Brittanica, 11th edition, Vol.
XXVI, page 606, is mentioned ten golden candlesticks, properly lampstands.
Page 607 of the same volume mentions one golden candlestick near the table for
shewbread in the sanctuary. In the Royal Arch Degree a tabernacle is where
the Council meets and naturally Zerubbabel would imitate as far as possible
the seven-branched candlestick made by Moses by the command of God.
it strikes me that maybe this difference occurs from the fact that Solomon
built a temple, whereas Moses and Zerubbabel only worshipped in a tabernacle.
Can you enlighten me? Of course, what Grand Chapter orders must be done, but
still it may be in error. Sorry to bother you with all this, but I would like
to know how I stand. As far as the working of the M.E. Degree is concerned,
it cuts very little figure. Mackey in his Encyclopedia says: 'In the
tabernacle, the seven-branched candlestick was placed opposite the table of
shewbread. What became of it between the time of Moses and that of Solomon is
unknown, but it does not appear to have been present in the first Temple. In
Masonry it seems to have no symbolic meaning, unless it be the general one of
use of the seven-branched candlestick in the Most Excellent Degree is correct
according to the General Grand Chapter ritual, and has, I believe, an
important symbolical reference in the work of that degree. The Temple plan
followed that of the Tabernacle very closely. We are told in our Masonic work
that the Tabernacle was the model for King Solomon's Temple. The Temple, of
course, permitted greater elaboration than the Tabernacle, but the same
general plan was followed.
directions for the Tabernacle were given to Moses in the mountain. (Exodus,
Chapters 25 to 31.) These directions included the form by which the
candlestick was to be made, and Moses was enjoined to see that he followed the
pattern there given him. (Exodus 25: 40.) The actual work of making the
candlestick was entrusted to Bezaleel (Exodus 31:2-8) and the office was duly
performed by him. (Exodus 37:17-24.) The candlestick was to be placed on the
south side of the table of shewbread (Exodus 26:35) and lighted by night only.
(Exodus 30:8. I Samuel 3:3.) Caldecott says: "When the light of day was no
longer able to find its way into the Temple, owing to the double doors and the
partition, ten such candlesticks were made, of which five were placed on
either side of the Holy Place."
Schaff-Herzog's Encyclopedia says:
Solomon's temple, instead of one candelabrum there were ten upon golden tables
- five on the north and five on the south side of the Holy Place. The larger
number fitted the larger space and the greater pomp of the worship (I Kings
vii. 49). The Chaldaeans carried them to Babylon (Jer. 1ii. 9). In the
second temple there was only one candlestick (Eccluc. xxvi. 17; 'as the clear
light is upon the holy candlestick, so is the beauty of the face in ripe
age'). Antiochus Epiphanes removed it (I Macc. i. 21), and Judas Maccabaeus
restored it (Mace. iv. 49); and it remained in Herod's temple until the
destruction of Jerusalem, when Titus carried it to Rome, and it figured in his
triumphal procession and was sculptured upon his arch, although it would seem
not altogether accurately (Joseph, War, VII. 5, 5). It was then deposited in
the Temple of Peace. According to one account it fell into the Tiber from the
Milvian Bridge during the flight of Maxentius from Constantine, Oct. 28, 312;
but the usually accredited story is that it was taken to Carthage by Genseric,
455 (Gibbon iii. 291), recovered by Belisarius, transferred to Constantinople,
and then respectfully deposited in the Christian Church of Jerusalem 533 (id.
iv. 24). Nothing more has been heard of it." (Page 384.)
in brief, is the history of the golden candlestick.
Referring to the letter of inquiry noted above, it would seem to be the
opinion of the writer that the ten golden candlesticks of the Temple were
different in form from that used in the Tabernacle, but such was not the
case. In II Chronicles, 4:7, we find the statement, "He made ten candlesticks
of gold according to their form." The revised version translates this
"according to the ordinances concerning them." Another translation gives it
"according to the form which they were commanded to be made by." The
ordinances concerning them are found in Exodus 25:31-40, which gives the form
used in the Tabernacle, and therefore the same form must have been followed
for the candlesticks used in the Temple. It would also seem that there were
ten tables of shewbread (II Chron, 4:8).
Chronicles, 28:15, reference is made to the "candlesticks of gold and their
lamps of gold." - "Each candlestick and the lamps thereof." Notice the plural
"lamps" with each candlestick. Notice also in II Chronicles 28:16, reference
to the tables of shewbread. Thus it will be seen that there is no reason why
the seven-branched candlestick should not be used in the Most Excellent Degree
as well as in the Royal Arch. It is not necessary to duplicate the elaborate
furniture of the Temple in our Most Excellent Degree. The single table and
candlestick of the Tabernacle and the second Temple has the same symbolism as
the ten of the first Temple.
is no discrepancy in the references from the Encyclopedia Brittanica. The ten
golden candlesticks mentioned on page 607 of Vol. XXVI refer to the Temple,
whereas the single golden candlestick mentioned on page 607 refers to
Zerubbabel's Temple. I might also say that the Jewish Encyclopedia claims
that the reference to ten candlesticks in Jeremiah and in Kings is an
interpolation. If that is the case it is probable that it is an interpolation
in Chronicles, also.
not agree with Mackey in stating that the candlestick has no symbolic meaning
in Masonry. It is true that no symbolic meaning is attached to it in the
ritual, but the very fact that it is used as part of the furniture of the
degree indicates that it has the same symbolism there that it had in its place
in the Temple, which is, that the seven lights represent the seven planets,
which, regarded as the eyes of God, behold everything. The light in the
center signifies the sun, the chief of the planets. The other six planets
represented by the three lamps on each side of the central light are Moon,
Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. Uranus was first recognized as a
planet by Sir William Herschel in 1781 A. D. and the earth was looked upon as
receiving light from the planets instead of being considered a planet itself.
seven-branched candlestick was especially holy, and it was forbidden to make
copies of it for general purposes. For other purposes than that of its place
in the Temple the branches must be five, six, or eight, etc., instead of
fourth chapter of Zechariah gives a symbolical meaning to the seven-branched
candlestick which is very appropriate to our chapter work. In fact, part of
this very chapter is quoted in the work of the degrees. From this chapter,
taken in connection with other passages from the Bible, it will be seen that
the seven-branched candlestick represents a stone with seven eyes, and the
seven lamps are the seven eyes of the Lord. With these eyes He sees the
plummet in the hands of Zerubbabel. "They are the eyes of the Lord which run
to and fro through the whole earth." (See also II Chron. 16:9.)
not by might nor by power that Zerubbabel is to accomplish his great task of
rebuilding the Temple, but by the spirit of the Lord overseeing his work
through these eyes. In Revelation, the Lamb of God is likened to the
seven-branched candlestick, "having seven horns and seven eyes which are the
seven spirits of God sent forth into all the earth."
has been thought by some that the words of Christ, "I am the light of the
world," were suggested by the seven-branched candlestick of the Temple, but it
is more likely that he was simply referring to the prophecies concerning the
Messiah and of which it may be the candlestick was the symbol. How fitting it
is that this candlestick, the symbol of the spirit of the Lord and the light
of His countenance shining upon us through His eyes, beholding and encouraging
us in the noble and glorious work of fitting ourselves as living stones for
the spiritual building which is to be our eternal dwelling place, should have
a place in the ceremonies of the Most Excellent Master's Degree, the sign
which symbolizes the completion of that work and the dedication of the Temple
to the service of the only true and living God!
STRIKING INCIDENT IN ENGLISH FREEMASONRY
a few months since it was announced that the Marquess of Zetland had resigned
the office of Provincial Grand Master for North and East Yorkshire, which he
had held since 1874, much anxiety was experienced by the members of the
province, which, since its formation in 1817. Has been in the successive
charge of the first, second and third Earls of Zetland, the last - named
having been created first Marquess. Anxiety gave place to gratitude when it
was announced that the Grand Master, the Duke of Connaught, had been pleased
to appoint as successor to the Marquess his eldest son the Earl of Ronaldshay,
thus preserving a succession unparalleled in the annals of English Masonic
history. Although Lord Ronaldshay has succeeded to a position to which he
might be considered entitled by heredity and tradition, his appointment has
not been determined on these grounds alone. He possesses special
qualifications for Masonic rulership. During the five years he was Governor of
Bengal he was District Grand Master of an area greater than that of the United
Kingdom and bad jurisdiction over brethren of varied races and religions. As
long since as 1910 he was appointed Senior Grand Warden of England and last
May he succeeded Lord Bolton as Grand Superintendent of Royal Arch Masonry in
North and East Yorkshire.
ceremony was carried out by Lord Ampthill, Pro - Grand Master, who brought
with him a personal message from the Grand Master who desired him to tell the
brethren how warmly and gratefully he appreciated the services rendered by
Lord Zetland, who for half a century had been not only a pillar of strength to
Freemasonry but also one of the most conspicuous ornaments to their great
society. They were fortunate in having had, said Lord Ampthill, such a
Provincial Grand Master and, speaking as the representative of Grand Lodge, it
was a source of pride that one who is so highly and justly esteemed should
have been for so long a time among the principal rulers of the Craft in
England. They thanked Lord Zetland for the services he had rendered to
Freemasonry, by his earnestness and zeal, by his wisdom and justice, but,
above all, by his high example in public and private life. Particularly did
they hope that T.C.A.O.T.U. would spare him to see his son carrying on the
traditions of his rule and those which his distinguished ancestors had
maintained in the Craft for more than a hundred years, bringing those
traditions to higher stages of progress, towards the realization of the ideals
for which Freemasonry exists, and adding further lustre to the splendid and
unequalled services to Freemasonry of the House of Dundas.
its early history Freemasonry everywhere applied the unlimited resources of
architectural skill to developing divine ideas through symbolized stone.
Operative Masonry erected to God the grandest temples on earth, and filled
them with aspiring pilasters and mystic arches. Freemasonry worked out in
granite blocks the thoughts and aspirations of the middle ages. Popular
imagination found its correct exponent and religion conveyed its most
impressive lessons of faith and submission in these works of art. No other
means could so accurately evoke that Christian emotional element underlying
the rude and rugged character of social life at this period. The single object
which presented itself to the Masonic architect was to find suitable
expression for the heart yearnings and moral aspirations of the people. This
purpose was pursued with a persistent zeal which resulted in art productions
of wondrous beauty and uniformity. So long as architects realized the
anticipations of the middle ages, so long as Freemasonry, through the erection
of superb edifices, furnished an adequate outlet for national ideas, just that
long Masonry continued to create extensive temples of worship, and preserved a
vigorous existence as an operative science. When, however, popular thought
found expression by means of printing presses, church architecture began
immediately to retrograde and with it Operative Masonry rapidly declined, and
then many of the abstruse and abstract principles of the building art were
totally lost. Victor Hugo.
the Cedars of Lebanon: How "The Cedar Grove" Was Organized
Bro. WALTER BOOTH ADAMS, M.A., M.D., Syria
of our readers will have in memory the delightful paper by Bro. Dr. Adams,
published in this journal, April, 1923, page 108. When asked "to write some
more," he responded with the following account of sociable activities among
Masons, "their wives and sweethearts" in far away Syria. Members of the "Tall
Cedars" will be especially interested to read how "The Cedar Grove" came to be
established in sight of the Cedars of Lebanon.
with me from Lebanon, my spouse, with me from Lebanon,
with me from Lebanon to sail upon the sea;
ship is wrought of ivory, the decks of gold, and thereupon
sailors singing bridal songs and waiting to cast free.
with me from Lebanon, my spouse, with me from Lebanon
rowers there are ready and will welcome thee with shouts
sails are silken and scarlet, cut and sewn in Babylon,
Scarlet of the painted lips of women thereabouts.
there for thee is spikenard, calamus and cinnamon,
Pomegranates and frankincense and flagons full of wine
cabins carved in cedar wood that came from scented Lebanon
all the ship and singing crew and rowers there are shine.
with me from Lebanon, my spouse, with me from Lebanon
They're hauling up the anchor and but tarrying there for thee;
boatswain's whistling for a wind, a wind to blow from Lebanon
wind from scented Lebanon to blow them out to sea.
key of F seems to fit your song; while I am away up in G." I remarked to three
custom house officers on the dock just as was embarking the last time to
travel East again to my Syrian home. "The badge looks Masonic," I said, "the
square and compasses are there on a blue field, but I don't understand that
'F' in place of the 'G'." All three officers opened their wallets and drew out
their credentials as I did the same; and they explained that the "F" stood for
"Federal." In other words, there were about 500 Masons in the Federal service
who were thus united in a club for mutual help and as "a play - ground" for
themselves and their families. It was a new one to me. "The Syrian Grotto,"
whose badge I saw often, interested me for I have spent thirty - three years
of my life in Syria; while the Crescent and Sword of "The Shriners" had been
familiar to me long before I traveled East, this "play - ground of freezing
point," as one called the thirty - two degrees. These associations of Masons I
was familiar with, but "The Tall Cedars" I did not know of until a year ago
when I was telling Judge Dawkins of Baltimore of our Cedar Grove while home on
an excursion, and he remarked, "That is singular. I am a Tall Cedar," and he
fished from his pocket a button bearing a cedar tree. And soon after we read
of President Harding being received into "The Tall Cedars." Our name was quite
independent of the association in America. We knew not of it when we
arrival in Syria, where I have taught in the medical school of The America
University of Beirut since 1890, I had much amusement in putting certain
questions to my Syrian colleagues whom I knew had been members of our Craft
many years, whereas I had taken my obligations while on my furlough in the
home land. But that is another story. My American friends, members of the
Fraternity, were also pleased and surprised, for a little mental arithmetic
will show that I am not as young as I used to be; but at any rate, as the
women voters say, "I'm over 21."
ten days after our return we were invited to the summer home in Lebanon of one
of the American residents of Beirut to celebrate his birthday. Soon after our
arrival several other cars came and discharged their loads of professors,
instructors, Near East Relief workers, and business men, with their wives,
head nurses in the American hospital and other young ladies who were the
daughters or sisters of Masons. We were a jolly party. We all soon found an
appetite; for it was so great and delightful a change from the warm sea coast
city to the delicious coolness of a Lebanon village 2500 feet above that
beautiful blue sea. We followed our guide out into the garden where little
tables were scattered about among the profusion of flowers, while overhead
were hung strings of gay Japanese lanterns of many hues. Just as we were
seated and thanks had been returned to the Great Giver of all, and our host
had announced that it was "an automat banquet" and the men would wait on the
ladies, the great, golden, full moon rose over a shoulder of one of Lebanon's
peaks and shed her beauty on the scene. The ladies in summer dress, the
flowers, growing and cut, the great and lesser lights, and the food, and
perhaps more than all the comraderie and goodfellowship made it a memorable
the latest initiate and one just back from the home land I was asked to make a
speech. No Masonic banquet, at any rate no American one, would be complete
without "a few remarks." So while chewing on the chicken salad and other good
things I chewed on an idea that popped into my head while I fletcherized. It
was this, and I proceeded to develop the idea when called to my feet: "This is
too delightful an occasion not to be perpetuated. We have found ourselves and
each other and the finding has been good. Let us 'do the American act' and
organize, and so make this a regular thing on St. John's day in June and on
the other St. John's day in December. Now since Beirut is included in the
Lebanon, famous for its Cedars more than for anything else, and since many of
us have enjoyed most delightful periods of refreshment in camping in the
various groves of the Cedars of Lebanon, suppose we call our little informal,
joyous association 'The Cedar Grove.' Let us have a chairman to summon the
conclaves and a secretary - treasurer to manage the arrangements."
chairman has since been called "The Tall Cedar," and that happens to be now my
office, and the secretary - treasurer is "The Little Cedar." And the ladies,
bless 'em, we have called them "Cones" as they are borne on the branches of
the trees and are the mothers of small cedars yet to be planted! A rising vote
and it was made so, and we took some more ice cream all 'round! I can not make
you realize the balmy coolness of that air, cool without any chill in it -
unless you may live in California.
second conclave was in the same hospitable home, in the Christmas vacation
this time. We made it a basket picnic, but our hostess also provided hot
viands and coffee. How good it was to sit in a nearly complete circle before
that blazing open fire! What roses they brought back in their cheeks those who
in the afternoon had climbed to the top of Aleih rhountain! What appetites we
had! How beautiful was the Christmas tree in the great bay window bearing a
gift for each one of us! And the songs, the speeches, the stories! And the
moon! Shone it ever so brightly as we glided down Lebanon to our homes in
flivvers and automobiles over the beautiful Damascus road? That second
conclave assured us that "The Cedar Grove" had taken root and was a living
third conclave was last summer - an afternoon on the shore, a supper and a
moonlight swim in the sea at Dubeiyeh, where are the waterworks that pump the
supply to the city of Beirut. Mr. von Heidenstam - our half Swedish and
half Scotch friend - and his English wife were our hosts in their beautiful
garden by the sea. The tables were spread under arching trees with blooming
rose bushes all about us and in our ears the Flashing fountain mingling its
note with the murmuring sea.
Several new saplings were planted in "The Grove" - in other words, we
received some new members with a pretty ceremony into the association.
situation of Dubeiyeh is wonderful. We looked across St. George's Bay, where
that chivalrous knight is said to have slain the dragon, to the ancient city
of Beirut on a hilly promontory jutting some five miles out into the
Mediterranean. "Ancient," I say, and it is. A clay letter from the governor of
Beirut to the predecessor of the now world famous Tut Ankhamen was found at
Tel el Amarna, Egypt, several years ago, and that letter was written 3500
years ago. How much older this city is than that we do not know. And behind
the little town of Dubeiyeh rises the Dog River promontory on which are
inscribed tablets with the names and achievements of various conquerors who
have gone over that barrier on the coastal road from Nebuchadnezzar, yes, and
Kings earlier than he, and Egyptian Pharaohs, and Arab conquerors, down to
Lord Allenby in 1918 - his tablet is there, too. But I am dipping into
archeology and am on the edge of history. My only excuse is that both are all
about us, in the air we breathe in this land, whether we are at our ordinary
avocations or at refreshment in "The Cedar Grove."
FREEMASONRY IN CIVIL WAR TIMES
During the Civil War the Hartford and the little Albatross ran the blockade of
Port Hudson, and took up the patrol of the Mississippi River between Vicksburg
and Port Hudson, two strongly fortified points on the river. During that
patrol the commanding officer of the Albatross, Lieutenant Commander John E.
Hart, was killed in action. It was thought impossible to send his body either
up or down the river, and his ship - mates did not want to bury his body in
the river; so a flag of truce was sent ashore to the little town of Saint
Francisville to search for brother Masons and to secure their good offices to
give the dead captain a Masonic funeral. Two Masons, brothers named White,
looked up the Master of the nearest lodge (S. J. Powell, afterwards Grand
Master) who was serving in a cavalry regiment (Confederate) who, with a
competent number, buried Captain Hart with Masonic honors. Service was also
held in the Episcopal church. The body was buried in the Masonic lot, and the
grave marked. Bro. Hart was a member of St. George's Lodge in Schenectady, N.
Y. He entered the Naval Academy in 1841 and was graduated in 1845.
Bro. DUDLEY WRIGHT, Associate Editor, England
interlaced triangles - one of the emblems of the Holy Royal Arch - is one of
the most ancient symbols in the world. It has been found on the Cave of
Elephanta, on the great image of Deity; it is the Brahmanic symbol of "The
Angel of the Presence"; the Hindus employed it as a means of protection; it
was found at Ghunzee, on the wall of the temple; it was in common use among
the Jews; it was employed in Gnostic symbolism; the Moslems used it on the
coinage of Morocco, date Anno Hegira; it has been found on medallions in
Normandy and Brittany; discovered on the breasts of Knights Templar, on their
recumbent effigies in their priories; not long since it was found in a
Galilean synagogue in Palestine of the Roman period; it is part of the
ornamentation of some English cathedrals (notably Lincoln and Lichfield) and
churches; and it has been discovered on innumerable monuments of bygone ages
among all nations and religions. It is a common symbol in Asia at the present
day. Drummond Hay describes it as an ornament in a Moorish harem in the form
of a chandelier - a brass frame consisting of two intersecting triangles. He
also found it in a synagogue, in front of the recess wherein the Ark was
deposited, the lighted lamp being in a gigantic glass tumbler held within a
brazen frame, formed to represent the two intersected triangles.
the Jew it was a symbol of the Sephiroth; to the Moslem, of the Deity; while
to the Christian, it represented the Creator in the capacity of Mediator,
working out the redemption of humanity under two natures. It appears in every
religious system that came under Semitic influence and was used by the
Kabbalists to illustrate their doctrine of Perfect Consciousness or
Synthesis. Among the Jews also it was used as an amulet, the center being
left blank for the inscription of a short prayer; it was essential for its
efficacy that the diagram should be graven on parchment and, when completed,
worn on the left side. It was said to be efficacious in fathering all
business enterprises. It was also used by Jewish women as an amulet for
protection in childbirth, in which case the Hebrew letters of the verse "For
unto us a child is born" were scattered promiscuously in five of the outer
triangles, leaving the top right-hand triangle blank. It also protected the
lying-in mother and her child against witchcraft, the evil eye and demons, and
explicit directions for its use are given in the Book of Raziel, where its
authorship is ascribed to Adam.
Eliphas Levi calls it the "Seal of Solomon," but the Seal of Solomon is the
pentalpha, or pentagram - five-pointed star, which tradition says Solomon
employed in calling up demons. Levi did not mean this, for he describes the
emblem to which he refers as "the interlaced triangles; the erect triangle of
flame color, the inversed triangle colored blue. In the center space there
may be drawn a Tau cross and three Hebrew yods, or a crux ansata or ankh, or
the triple Tau of the Arch Masons. He who with intelligence and will is armed
with this emblem has need of no other thing; he should be all-potent, for this
is the perfect sign of the Absolute." It also appears as a magical implement
in The Magus or Celestial Intelligencer, by Francis Barrett, published in
1801. Bro. Rev. Stewart Stitt in his pamphlet on Maldivian Talismans says
that "with the sun in the center of the circle (inscribed in the center) and
the other six planets placed in a particular order on the points of the
triangles, it was meant to signify the solar system. Each of the seven
planets represented not only certain sounds, numbers, colors, mental
qualities, and metals, but also the different features of the countenance of
the One Ruler of that system, while the signs of the zodiac belonging to each,
in their turn, represented the various organs of the body."
JEWS CALL IT THE MAGEN DAVID
the Jews the emblem is known as the Magen David, or the Shield of David, the
word Magen meaning "shield," or protection; and one writer in a recent issue
of the Jewish Guardian (London, England) - which has kindly given permission
for the reproduction of the following illustration - backing his theory on
Isaiah XI, 2, describes it as a heavenly sparkling star, representing the six
potent qualities possessed by King Hezekiah.
says that when the prophecy of Isaiah was distorted by those who interpreted
it wrongly, attempts were made to exterminate the sons of Jacob and the Hebrew
religion; they were burnt at the stake together with their books containing
their traditions. It was then that they were compelled to conceal the
significant meaning of this emblem, the Magen David, with its six points, in
order that it should survive in times of horror: thus that emblem has remained
mysterious. Another writer suggests that it was the signature or seal of King
David. It may be mentioned here that it was used as a seal, both to official
and personal documents by Sir Robert Moray, the first known initiate into
Freemasonry on English soil, which took place in the seventeenth century five
years prior to the initiation of Elias Ashmole.
emblem was frequently engraven upon synagogues and sacred vessels until its
use was prohibited by the late Chief Rabbi, Dr. Hermann Adler. It was adopted
as a device by the American Jewish Publication Society in 1873; by the first
Zionist Congress at Basle and its official organ; by a well-known firm of
Palestinian wine merchants; by various Red Cross Societies; and by the Jewish
quasi-Masonic Order of the Shield of David.
Jewish view of God which permitted no images of Him was and is opposed to the
acceptance of any emblems or symbols and neither the Bible nor the Talmud
recognize their existence. The Magen David is not mentioned in Rabbinical
literature, says a writer in the Jewish Encyclopedia, and, therefore, probably
did not originate within Rabbinism, which was the official and dominant
Judaism for more than two thousand years. Yet a Magen David was discovered on
a Jewish tombstone at Tarentum in southern Italy of a probable date of the
third century C.E. Its first mention in a Jewish work is in the
Eshkol-ka-hofer of Judah Hadassi in the twelfth century, and it there states
that the sign called "David's Shield" is placed beside each of the names of
the seven angels, Michael, Gabriel, etc.
HEMMING IS QUOTED
Hemming, in his Masonic Lectures, says that "the hexagon is composed of six
equilateral triangles, is equal in all its relations, and retains the quality
of being infinitely divisible into similar triangles, according to the
geometrical projection observed in the divisions of the trilateral figure, and
may, therefore, be considered as the most perfect of all multilateral forms.
From a general inquiry it will result that the three most perfect of all
geometrical diagrams are the equilateral triangle, the square, and the equal
Pluche also says that "the second natural division of the circle is made by
this radius, the measure of which, being transferred into the half
circumference with the compasses, always cuts it into three, or, if
transferred upon the whole circle, divides it absolutely into six equal
portions, which is an introduction to a multitude of other no less certain
divisions, and innumerable proportions between great and small figures."
The hexad was
considered by all nations as a sacred figure because of the creation of the
world in six days. The six points of the interlaced triangles among the
Pythagoreans denoted health and were described as "the consistence of a form."
The two intersecting triangles were also regarded as emblems of creation and
redemption, fire and water, prayer and remission, repentance and forgiveness,
life and death, resurrection and judgment. It signified perfection of parts,
because it is the only number under ten which is whole and equal in its
divisions. Pliny and other ancient naturalists endeavoured in vain to assign
a reason for nature's preference for a hexad in the crystal. It was an
ancient symbol of marriage, because it was formed by the multiplication of
three, the male; with two, the female number.
upon a time there lived an Oriental Potentate who imagined himself afflicted
with a fatal malady. At first the greater, then the lesser, doctors were
summoned, each of whom, in succession, upon his failure to cure, was
beheaded. Finally the obscure Dr. X was summoned; after an exhaustive
examination he pronounced the malady indeed serious and all but incurable, yet
there was one remedy that would cure - the Monarch must wear the shirt of a
happy man. This seemed indeed simple but in fact proved most difficult;
months and even years elapsed and yet no one was found who had not some shadow
in his life. The search continued; at last a happy-go-lucky tramp was found -
he knew not the meaning of care, sorrow, suffering or want. In triumph he was
conducted before the Ruler, who cried, 'I must have your shirt' - then the
rogue, with peals of laughter, replied, 'Majesty, I have none."'
concrete thing is often beyond the reach of the poor. Not so with happiness,
which is abstract; there is plenty to go around - the more that prevails the
more there seems in reserve. Happiness is blithe and winsome and at every
step she throws herself in our path, waiting for us to take her into our
embrace. What a lovely creature and how ready is she to be wooed and won! Why
then so difficult? Is hot the fault with ourselves?
miser exults in ecstasy at his hoarded gold; he thinks himself happy. May we
not liken the miser's happiness to the coarse daub of the crude artist as
compared to the finished work of genius? Is not the fault ours if we cannot
win this beauteous bride? A bride in waiting for everyone, only you must know
how to woo. You cannot win this prize by direct action; human history is
strewn with the wreckage of those who have thus tried to win her.
But there is a royal
road; it is broad and straight and the carpet is soft and smooth. I have the
wondrous secret; these are the magic words: Morality, Charity and Brotherly
Love - look again and you will see they spell "HAPPINESS".
Men Who Were Masons
Robert R. Livingston
Bro. GEO. W. BAIRD, P. G. M., District of Columbia
ROBERT R. LIVINGSTON, better known as Chancellor Livingston, came from an old
and famous family. His father was a very well known man, so also was his
brother Edward, who was a politician of note and in 1801 - 02 - 03 was
District Deputy Grand Master of New York. Chancellor Livingston was Grand
Master of the Grand Lodge of New York from 1784 until 1800 inclusive, this
being the first Grand Mastership of the Grand Lodge of the state of New York
strictly so - called, for the former Grand Body was in reality a Provincial
Grand Lodge. Robert R. Livingston was but 38 years of age when he first became
Grand Master. He had been Worshipful Master of the old Union Lodge under the
English constitution in 1771, a lodge which appears to have suspended its
labor during the War of the Revolution.
Livingston was born in New York in 1746 and died at Clermont, N. Y., March 26,
1813. The state of New York placed a statue of him in the Capitol at
Washington, D. C., as one of the two most representative citizens of the
state; the other l being George Clinton. He was educated in Kings College,
afterwards Columbia College, | where he graduated in 1765, and was admitted to
the bar in 1773. He formed a partnership with the famous John Jay. For a time
he held the office of recorder for New York, but resigned in order to take
part in the War of the Revolution. He was elected a member of the State
Assembly from Duchess County and later was elected a member of the United
States Congress. He was placed on the committee to draw up the Declaration of
Independence, the other members being Franklin, Jefferson, Adams and Sherman.
In 1777 he was made Chancellor of the state of New York; upon this he resigned
his seat in Congress, but was again elected to that body later. Under the
United States Confederation he was for three years Secretary of Foreign
Chancellor of the State, it was his good fortune to administer the oath of
office to General George Washington, as first President of the new nation, at
which time Livingston was Grand Master of Masons in the state of New York. In
1801 he was sent as Commissioner to Prance, when Napoleon I was first consul;
it was one of the most interesting and critical periods in the history of
France, but Livingston was an ideal representative of his country and
acquitted himself with honor in his difficult position.
the moment when there was much desire on the part of the French to cultivate
friendly relations with the American Republic, Livingston opened the
negotiations which resulted in the Louisiana purchase. It was a grand coup!
Livingston's negotiations made it possible for our nation to come into
possession of that immense territory west of the Mississippi River extending
almost to the Sierras, and all this for only fifteen million dollars! This
made it unnecessary to build the canal projected by President Washington from
the Potomac to the Ohio River, for the Louisiana purchase gave the nation an
outlet to the Gulf of Mexico.
Livingston had a vision of the possibilities and future of the United States
almost as clear and as far - reaching as that of Washington himself. It was
this vision that inspired him to help finance Robert Fulton's steamboat
schemes. Fulton first built a boat for experiment on the Seine River in
France, but for want of sufficient kelsons the machinery broke through the
bottom of the vessel; nevertheless the expossibilities of a steamboat and when
Fulton tried again on the Hudson River, his experiment was a success.
Livingston introduced merino sheep into this country with great success and
was the first to utilize gypsum in the manufacture of fertilizer. He was a
founder of the Fine Arts Academy and its first president. His essay on
agriculture was received with eclat; his essay on sheep raising became a
standard treatise. Because of such services and writings the regents of the
University of the State of New York conferred on him the degree of LL. D.
Livingston was one of the original members of the Order of the Cincinnati. The
beautiful memorial shown in the accompanying illustration, in bronze, of life
size, was presented to the Nation's Hall of Fame, in the National Capitol, and
stands near that of George Washington. Its inscription describes Livingston as
"the first Chancellor of his state, administered the oath of office to the
first President of the United States, is the gift of New York." The sculptor
was E. D. Palmer and the statue is called "one of the best in the Capitol."
Livingston did a great and lasting work in building up Freemasonry in the
state of New York. His Grand Mastership fell upon a critical period, just at
the time when New York Masons were getting control of their lodge affairs in
their own country, and when there was much misunderstanding, bitterness and
strife. It was owing to his magnificent leadership that the Grand Lodge was
able to weather many storms. A rather full account of Livingston's Masonic
career will be found in History of Freemasonry in the State of New York by
Ossian Lang, a very valuable and interesting book.
GRAND CHAPTER REINSTATED
December last Bro. William F. Kuhn, General Grand High Priest, issued a
Proclamation that will interest every Royal Arch Mason in the United States.
It explains itself, and is here reproduced by permission of the General Grand
Kansas City, Mo., Dec. 7, 1923. To the Chapters and Grand Chapters under this
April 15, A. D. 1923, I, General Grand High Priest of the General Grand
Chapter of Royal Arch Masons of the United States of America, issued an Edict,
severing fraternal relations with the Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons of
Texas, on account of invasion of the jurisdiction of the General Grand
Chapter, "until the Grand Chapter Royal Arch Masons of Texas shall recall the
charter issued to the chapter in the City of Mexico, Republic of Mexico."
Whereas, the Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons of Texas, at its annual
convocation held on Dec. 3 - 4, 1923, sustained the action of its M. E. Grand
High Priest, J. H. Gartland, recalling the charter issued to Attest: Mexico
City Chapter, No. 414, and thus complying with the requirements of the Edict,
General Grand High Priest of the General Grand Chapter, do hereby take great
pleasure in annulling said Edict, and to declare fraternal relations between
the General Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons of the United States of America
and the Grand Chapter Royal Arch Masons of Texas, restored.
High Priests of Grand Chapters and High Priests of Subordinate Chapters will
govern themselves accordingly.
desire to express my sincere appreciation to the thirty - seven Grand Chapters
which, through their Grand High Priests or through the action of the Grand
Chapter direct, so promptly sustained the General Grand High Priest in the
enforcement of the Edict, and thus maintaining the unity and authority of the
General Grand Chapter, and converting the apparent rope of sand which has
bound the Grand Chapters together, into a chain of steel whose links are
mutual helpfulness, sympathy, willing assistance, and Capitular power and
under my hand and seal this seventh day of December, A. D. 1923, A. I. 2453.
William F. Kuhn,
General Grand High Priest.
General Grand Secretary.
Masonry is not a toy to be played with, nor a pastime merely to be enjoyed,
nor yet a society of like minded spirits organized that the idle moments of
the day may be spent in pleasurable conversation or in the exchange of
witticisms. Masonry is an attractive force which brings together in one body
men of different occupation and attainments, from the different avenues of
life, and unites them into a moving, active, creative, aggressive body, where
as one they become a dynamic power for the intellectual, political, moral and
spiritual elevation of the human race The Master Mason is not narrow in his
vision, nor prejudiced in his view, nor small in his conception of his duty to
God and his fellow man. He can see the virtues of others, the vices in his own
heart, the transcendent beauty of a life of service and he can forget himself
in the luxury of giving the best there is in him for the common welfare of his
kind. And thank God we have Master Masons in the jurisdiction of Delaware.
C. Williams, P.G.M., Delaware.
Chapters of Masonic History
Bro. H.L. HAYWOOD
pamphlet on "How to Organize and Maintain a Study Club" will be furnished free
to those asking for it in any quantities up to fifty or one hundred. For
further information address the National Masonic Research Society, 1950
Railway Exchange, St. Louis, Mo. The Society answers questions, lends books,
clippings, etc., free of charge to clubs. Text books recommended are
"Symbolical Masonry" and "Great Teachings of Masonry," both by H.L. Haywood,
the former of which should be used in beginning.
X. HOW OPERATIVE MASONRY CHANGED TO SPECULATIVE MASONRY: THE PERIOD OF
short study of Operative Masonry published last month I adverted briefly and
in passing to the fact that in the days when Masonic lodges were most
completely "Operative," or devoted to actual building activities, there was a
certain element of non-Operatives in the membership, a thing made necessary by
the conditions under which ecclesiastical buildings were erected. Oftentimes
the work was under the general superintendency of a bishop or other church
authority who, in the nature of things, would have to have the freedom of the
lodge; at the same time there were employed educated clerks to take care of
the books, and possibly also learned men to assist in working out some of the
more technical problems. Where a cathedral was erected by a local corporation
it was necessary that its representatives be given access to records and
otherwise be permitted to have a share in directing the activities; also, it
may be, men of high station entirely outside the Craft were occasionally, and
for various reasons political or social, admitted to some kind of footing
within the brotherhood. An example is furnished in the Cooke MS., of date
about 1450, wherein it is said of "Prince Edwin" that "of speculative he was a
master"; the meaning of this may be either that this dignitary was friendly
for the Craft, or else that he knew something of the "geometry" which lay at
the basis of all building design. In any event men were admitted to some kind
of lodge membership who made no pretence of practising the art, a fact that
need cause no surprise for it was quite in keeping with the principles and
practices of the guilds. The acceptance of these non-Operatives may possibly
have had some effect on lodge ceremonies. In the nature of the case such a
brother could not take oath to keep the trade secrets about which he was to
learn nothing; neither could he be required to produce a master's piece, as
regular apprentices were, because he would not possess the skill. So little
is known about this matter that one can only indulge his faculty for
speculation, nevertheless it is of some consequence in one's effort to recover
a picture of lodge usages in the olden days. The main point just here is that
from earliest times it was not deemed unlawful or irregular for Operative
lodges to accept on some kind of footing of membership non-Operative men; with
this in mind it will be easier to understand how in later years non-Operatives
became accepted in such numbers as at last to out-top Operatives altogether.
OPERATIVE MASONRY DECLINED
the fifteenth century Operative Masonry began to decline; in the following
century it almost went out of existence, and that chiefly owing to the
Protestant Reformation in England. All gilds were suppressed by Henry VIII
(see Statutes of 37 Henry VIII, c. 4, and I Edward VI, c. 14) and monastery
corporations were dissolved, their funds being confiscated by the Crown.
Cathedrals were no longer erected; in the eyes of the Puritans, who rapidly
came to the front, they were monuments of the Papist religion and therefore
deemed dangerous so that many of them were defaced or partly demolished; the
same bitterness was directed against all other structures of a similar kind,
so that the old lodges of Operative Masons, called originally into existence
to erect such, found themselves without occupation. Some of them, so it is
believed, turned their attention to the palatial homes for the rich country
gentry, but most of them perished or else maintained a languid existence.
influences operated to the same end. The civil wars left the country
exhausted. New cities sprang up with new traditions, and some of the old
centers of gild life passed into the background. At the same time, and owing
to a dearth of labourers, foreign workmen were imported from France, the
Netherlands, Germany, and Italy, and these had other customs and traditions.
In the world of thought other revolutions, silent but powerful, took place,
one of them giving rise to the foundation of the famous Royal Society, of
which eminent members of the first Grand Lodge were members, some of them
quite active. In other words the whole life of England underwent a profound
change, so that such an organization as the Craft of Freemasonry had to change
with it, and found itself in a set of circumstances quite different to those
that had obtained in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries.
a fact of some significance that the number of non-Operatives accepted in
membership appears to have increased as the Craft as a whole waned away; most
of our writers have seen in this the connections of cause and effect, and
there is no reason to suppose them in error. The oldest lodge minutes still
extant in England date from the early eighteenth century; but in Scotland the
records are much older, the minutes of Mother Kilwinning dating from 1642,
Aberdeen from 1670. From those minutes, and from other old records, we learn
that not only were non-Operatives early taken into membership by Scotch
lodges but that they (the non-Operatives) took an active part in lodge
affairs. Bro. Murray Lyon, whose History of the Lodge of Edinburgh has so long
been a standard work, says that the first authentic record of a non-Operative
being made a member of a lodge is of date June 8, 1600, when John Boswell,
Laird of Auchinleck, is named among the brethren. Two years prior to that
time, however, still another non-Operative must have been on the rolls because
we know that in 1598 William Schaw, whom Lyoll believes to have been an
honourary member, signed and promulgated two sets of statutes, or codes of
laws, one for use by the Craft in general, the other for use by the lodge of
Kilwinning. Schaw signed himself as "Master of the Work, Warden of the
Masons." In July, 1634, Lord Alexander, Viscount Canada, Sir Anthony Alexander
and Sir Alexander Strachan were admitted to the lodge of Edinburgh. As
historian of the Scottish Craft par excellence, Lyon's words of comment in
this connection are worth quoting:
is worthy of remark that with singularly few exceptions, the non-Operatives
who were admitted to Masonic fellowship in the lodges of Edinburgh and
Kilwininng during the seventeenth century were persons of quality, the most
distinguished of whom, as the natural result of its metropolitan position,
being made in the former lodge. Their admission to fellowship in an
institution composed of Operative Masons associated together for purposes of
their Craft would, in all probability, originate in a desire to elevate its
position and increase its influence, and once adopted the system would further
recommend itself to the Fraternity by the opportunities which it presented for
cultivating the friendship and enjoying the society of gentlemen, to whom, in
ordinary circumstances, there was little chance of their ever being personally
the other hand, non-professionals connecting themselves with the lodge by the
ties of membership would, we believe, be activated partly by a disposition to
reciprocate the feelings which had prompted the bestowal of the fellowship,
partly by curiosity to penetrate the arcana of the Craft and partly by the
novelty of the situation as members of a secret society and participants in
its ceremonies and festivities."
SCOTCH LODGE RECORDS
Hughan has given expression to the surprise felt by most of our scholars at
the fact that lodge records should go so much farther back in Scotland than in
England; he writes, "Why so many minute books are still preserved in Scotland,
dating long before the institution of the Grand Lodge, even some from the
seventeenth century, and yet scarcely any are found in England, seems
inexplicable." Alnwick Lodge records go back to 1703. It appears that a
non-Operative lodge existed at York, to judge by the records, as early as
1705. The extinct Haughfoot Lodge had a non-Operative majority with a ritual
and ceremony as early as 1702. These entries show that non-Operative
practices were in vogue years before the founding of the first Grand Lodge of
Speculative Masonry in London, 1717.
earliest extant record of a man having been made, a non-Operative Mason on
English soil is that of Robert Moray who was "made" at Newcastle, by members
of the lodge of Edinburgh with the Scottish army, May 20, 1641. But the most
famous of all the earliest non-Operative Masons by far was Elias Ashmole, made
a Mason at Warrington Oct. 16, 1646. Ashmole was born at Lichfield in 1617,
was educated for the bar, became a captain during the Great Rebellion, was
elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, had conferred on him the degree of
M.D., was made Windsor Herald, and in addition to all these interests and
activities denoted much time to a study of occultism, astrology, botany,
history and various other subjects. His third wife was the daughter of his
friend, Sir William Dugdale. An industrious collector of curios and objects
of antiquarian value, he presented his collection to Oxford University, where
it is still known as the Ashmolean Museum. He was author of a History of the
Garter. His diary was first published in 1717, and then a second time, as a
kind of appendix to Lilly's History of His Life and Times, in 1774. The diary
contains two items concerning Freemasonry, as follows, spelling and
punctuation as in the original:
[folio 19, verso]
16th. - 4:30 P. M. I was made a Free Mason at Warrington in Lancashire, with
Coll: Henry Mainwaring of Kanincham in Cheshire. The names of those that were
there of the Lodge; Mr. Rich Penket Warden, Jr. James Collier, Mr. Rich Sankey,
Henry Tattler, John Ellam, Rich: Ellam and Hugh Brewer.
thirty-six years appears another extract that contains mention of the Mason's
Company of London. It is here given in full:
1682. [folio 69. verso]
- About 5 P.M. I recd. a Sumons to appe. at a Lodge to be held the next day,
at Masons Hall London.
- Accordingly I went, and about Noone were admitted into the Fellowship of
William Wilson Knight, Capt. Rich: Borthwick, Mr. Will: Woodman, Mr. Wm. Grey,
Mr. Samuell Taylour, and Mr. William Wise.
the Senior Fellow among them (it being 35 years since I was admitted). There
were present besides my selfe the Fellowes after named.
Tho: Wise Mr of the Masons Company this present yeare. Mr Thomas Shorthose,
Mr. Thomas Shadbolt, Waindsford Esqr., Mr. Nich: Young, Mr. John Shorthose,
Mr. William Hamon, Mr. John Thompson, and Mr. Will: Stanton.
all dyned at the halfe Moone Taverne in Cheapside, at a Noble Dinner,
prepaired at the charge of the New-accepted Masons.
Mason's Company doubtlessly referred to in the quotation just above is the
subject of an invaluable book by Edward Conder bearing the title Hole Crafte
and Fellowship of Masons. This body of Masons was incorporated in 1410 - 1411
and received a grant of arms in the twelfth year of Edward IV 1472-1473) from
William Hawkeslowe, Clarenceaux King of Arms. The city records of London show
that this body must have been functioning as early as 1356 because rules for
its guidance were formed in that year. In 1530 the name was changed to the
"Company of Freemasons." Conder thinks there is good reason to believe that
this Company began somewhere early in the thirteenth century.
interesting point here, in the light of our present purpose, is the fact that
associated with this Mason's Company was another, and perhaps subsidiary
organization, styled "The Accepcon" (Acception). It met in the same hall and
was somehow connected, as one may learn from Conder:
"Unfortunately no books connected with this Acception - i.e., the Lodge - have
been preserved. We can, therefore, only form our ideas of its working from a
few entries scattered through the accounts. From these it is found that
members of the Company paid 20s. for coming on the Acception, and strangers
40s. Whether they paid a lodge quarteridge to the Company's funds it is
impossible, in the absence of the old Quarteridge Book, to state. One matter,
however, is quite certain from the old book of accounts commencing in 1619,
that the payments made by newly accepted Masons were paid into the funds of
the Company, that some or all of this was spent on a banquet and the attendant
expenses, and that any further sum required was paid out of the ordinary funds
of the Company, proving that the Company had entire control of the Lodge and
looks as if members of the Acception were not Operative Masons; if that was
the case it is plain that non-Operative Masons were admitted on some footing
as early as 1619, and probably long before that. If this supposition be sound
it follows that some kind of non-Operative, or Speculative Masonry, was in
existence in the metropolis more than a century before the founding of the
first Grand Lodge. Also it would appear that Ashmole was in attendance on the
"Acception" at the time referred to in his second entry quoted above. On the
strength of this fact some writers, Bro. A.E. Waite for example, have
suggested that the seed from which our modern symbolical Masonry had its
origin may have been planted there by such men as Ashmole, who were interested
in symbolism, ritual, occultism and all such matters.
something was known of a society of Freemasons during the latter half of the
century is proved by reference to such in a few books of the time. Randle
Holme (the third of that name), in his Acadamie of Amorie, published in 1688,
refers to the Freemasons in this wise:
cannot but Honour the Fellowship of Masons because of its Antiquity; and the
more, as being a member of that Society, called Free-Masons."
years before the appearance of the Holme volume Dr. Robert Plot published the
Natural History of Staffordshire, in which he referred to Freemasons in a vein
these add the Customs relating to the County, whereof they have one, of
admitting Men into the Society of Free-Masons, that in the moorelands of this
County seems to be of greater request, than anywhere else, though I find the
Custom spread more or less all over the Nation; for here I found persons of
the most eminent quality, that did not disdain to be of this Fellowship. Nor
indeed need they, were it of that Antiquity and honour, that is pretended in a
large parchment volume they have amongst them, containing the History and
Rules of the craft of masonry.
which Society when they are admitted, they call a meeting (or Lodg as they
term it in some places), which must consist at lest of 5 or 6 of the Ancients
of the Order, when the candidats present with gloves, and so likewise to their
wives, and entertain with a collation according to the Custom of the place:
This ended, they proceed to the admission of them, which chiefly consists in
the communication of certain secret signes, whereby they are known to one
another all over the Nation, by which means they have maintenance whither ever
they travel: for if any man appear though altogether known that can shew any
of these signes to a Fellow of the Society, whom they otherwise call an
accepted mason, he is obliged presently to come to him, from what company or
place soever he be in, nay, tho' from the top of a Steeple (what hazard or
inconvenience soever he run) to know his pleasure and assist him; viz., if he
want work he is bound to find him some; or if he cannot doe that, to give him
mony, or otherwise support him till work can be had; which is one of their
Aubrey, a friend of Dr. Plot's and also an antiquarian, wrote the Natural
History of Wiltshire at about the same time, on one pen copy of which he
inscribed a memorandum that reads:
"Memorandum. This day, May the 18th, being Monday, 1691, after Rogation
Sunday is a great convention at St. Paul's Church of the Fraternity of adopted
masons, where Sir Christopher Wren is to be adopted a brother, and Sir Henry
Goodric of the Tower, and divers others. There have been kings that have been
of this sodality."
WREN A MASON?
reference to Wren raises a question about which there has been a long
continued debate. Was the famous architect, the builder of St. Paul's, and of
London after the great fire, a Mason? Of course, he was an architect and
therefore a member of the Craft in a general sense, but was he a member of a
lodge? Gould devotes fifty-four of his most heavily shotted pages to prove
that he was not, and that any statement to that effect is fable pure and
simple. Bro. F. De P. Castells wrote a trenchant criticism of these pages in
a splendid essay published in Transactions of the Authors Lodge, Vol. II, page
302. "We all admire Gould's erudition," he remarks; "his History is a
monumental work. But in this matter he has shown himself more learned than
wise, for he has placed himself in a false light, in which we see him as a
carping critic, cavilling, parrying with facts, and casting doubt upon
everything suggesting the thought of Wren being a Mason." Some will believe,
perhaps, that Bro. Castells has a little overstated the matter, but that is
neither here nor there; he rests his own case on four pieces of evidence;
first, the Constitutions of 1738; secondly, an excerpt from the Postboy, a
London paper which, in its announcement of Wren's death, refers to him as
"that worthy Freemason"; thirdly, the Aubrey notation quoted above, and
fourthly, Preston's statement to the effect that "Wren presided over the old
Lodge of St. Pauls during the building of the cathedral." But what would
appear to be the clincher in Bro. Castell's argument is given in his
postscript, in which there is so much matter of interest that it may well be
quoted in its entirety:
precedes was delivered as a Lecture. Since then, however, having seen the
records of the Lodge of Antiquity which Bro. Rylands has brought to light, I
feel that the question is absolutely settled. The Lodge had once records that
went back to 1663. But when an Inventory was made in 1778, everything
anterior to 1721 had disappeared. This is referred to in a Memorandum as 'the
outrage,' because it was a case of misappropriation. Still, the few records
now extant are ample to satisfy any one. Thus, the Minutes of a Meeting held
on June 3, 1723, give the substance of what the Brethren had decided: 'The set
of Mahogany Candlesticks presented to this Lodge by its worthy old Master, Sir
Christopher Wren, ordered to be carefully deposited in a wooden case lin'd
with cloth to be Immediately purchased for the purpose.' The reason for this
was that as 'the worthy old Master' of the Lodge had died, they were anxious
to preserve the candlesticks as precious mementos of his connection with the
Lodge. There is also a Memorandum about a 'General Assembly of a greate
Number of Free Masons Held on the 24th of June, 1721,' which is remarkable for
including among those present 'Christopher Wren, Esq.,' the only son of the
architect, whose name reappears in a similar way eight years later. Obviously
the son was one of those who helped to bring the premier Grand Lodge into
existence; thus we can understand that the father should have appointed him as
his deputy when the Fraternity celebrated the Capestone in 1710. And yet
Gould, when he wrote his History, did not know that anyone had ever claimed
the son as a member of our Order! The question has been raised whether the
original Lodge of Antiquity was one of Speculative Freemasons. The three
Candlesticks afford good ground for presumption, but let the Members of the
Lodge speak for themselves. In the Minutes of a Meeting on November 3, 1722,
we read: 'The Master reported the proceedings of the Grand Lodge and Bro.
Anderson's appointment to revise the old Constitutions. It was the Opinion of
the Lodge that the Master and his Wardens do attend every Committee during the
revisal of the Constitutions that no variation may be made in the Antient
Establishment.' This zeal to maintain the old order enables us to affirm
positively that the Grand Lodge of 1717 did not create Freemasonry, but simply
re-organized the Fraternity."
these quotations and from the considerations of early Operative practices
adverted to in the opening paragraphs of this paper it is evident that the
element of non-Operative membership and principles was in the Craft from early
times; and that a conservative interpretation of Masonic history would suggest
that this element came in time, and that owing to changes without and within
the Craft, to over-balance the Operative influence, resulting at last in a
complete re-organization of the Fraternity. But according to a more radical
view, which also needs to be considered, this non-Operative element could not,
of itself and without extraneous assistance, have ever proved powerful enough
to work the many changes that took place in the "revival" of 1717. Other
influence must have been at work, as this view holds, and that from outside
the Craft, to cause such revolutionary changes as undoubtedly took place. Some
of the arguments put forward by those holding this position deserve
little is really known about the formation of the first Grand Lodge, but it
appears certain that much friction was engendered among the "old members" and
the independent old lodges by the radical changes that were made by the first
Grand Lodge. This fact might mean that innovations in ritual and regulations
were made and that this aroused the enmity of the "old brethren" who dreaded
innovations; if so, it would show that new material was introduced from the
outside, else there would not otherwise have been any dissatisfaction with the
new order of things.
might be possible to offer the elaborate system of symbolism built up about
King Solomon's Temple as a case in point just here. The oldest Masonic MS.
does not trace Masonry back to King Solomon but far beyond him to Nimrod and
to Euclid. In the Dowland MS., dated at about 1550, Hiram Abif is mentioned,
but merely as one name among many. In 1611 the King James version of the
Bible made its appearance in England and aroused an almost universal interest,
particularly in the Old Testament accounts of Solomon and his Temple. Late in
the same century and early in the following, this interest was so general that
many models of the Temple were constructed and exhibited in populous centers,
and handbooks describing them received general circulation, a thing that must
have been peculiarly interesting to the old Masons, who had probably long
cherished traditions concerning that historic edifice. When Anderson prepared
the first edition of his Constitutions he incorporated in a foot-note a
learned explanation of the name "Hiram Abif," a thing he would not have done
had not his readers been already interested. The inference from these facts,
thus briefly sketched, is that there had long existed in the Craft a germ of
interest in Solomon's Temple; that this germ found itself in an environment
favourable for development when interest in the matter became popular; and
that this development found a place in the Ritual early in the eighteenth
century in a form now thrice familiar. If this reading of the matter is well
founded it follows that the Temple symbolism is a case of development inside
the Craft due to external conditions.
holding the view that the "revival" in 1717 was due largely to influence from
outside sources point to Kabbalism, Knight Templarism, Rosicrucianism,
Hermetism, etc., a consideration of all of which would require too much space;
but even so, one other "outside" influence may be referred to now, for it has
not received as much attention as it appears to deserve. I refer to the
English club, which was so potent a social influence in the English life of
the eighteenth century. Almost every man, rich or poor, belonged to one;
there were drinking clubs, musical clubs, literary clubs, fat men's clubs, Odd
Fellows' clubs, Chinese clubs, clubs for men with large noses, and for small,
and every other imaginable form of organization for purposes of sociability.
In a day when daily newspapers were nonexistent and books were scarce, these
clubs were centers of gossip and general information as well as societies for
the propagation of various "causes," all of which is embalmed forever in the
essays of Addison, Steele, Goldsmith and the other immortals of the time. Did
the early lodges of Speculative Masons come into existence in response to this
need for clubs? The question needs a more thorough ventilation than it has yet
received, because there is something to be said for it. Gould, it will be
recalled, attributed Desaguliers' membership in the Craft to his desire for
club life, and Bro. Arthur Heiron has shown how powerful was the club
influence in eighteenth century Freemasonry in his excellent book Ancient
Freemasonry and the Old Dundee Lodge. For my own part I do not believe in the
"club theory" of the origin of Speculative Masonry, but the matter is offered
here as an example of those theories which look toward outside influences as
explaining the transformation of Operative Freemasonry into Speculative, and
as a suggestion to students that they investigate a fascinating field.
way of conclusion it may be said that until more is known concerning the
Transition Period it will be necessary for every Masonic reader to feel his
way through the dark as well as he can, keeping his judgment on many matters
in suspense, for as yet little is really known, and that is often enough
conflicting; nevertheless and notwithstanding it would appear to some of us
that what we do know shows an unbroken continuity between the old Operative
Masonic lodges and the Institution which replaced them in 1717, and that in a
large way the practices and principles of the medieval Masons were continued
into Speculative Freemasonry; we still have Apprentices, Fellows and Masters;
we still meet in lodges as of old, under the government of Masters and
Wardens; we observe close secrecy, and make use of ceremonies of initiation
divided into grades or degrees; holding it together, like a solid framework,
is the emblematic and symbolical use of builders' tools and practices, and at
the center of it all stands the most famous building in history and the most
famous builder under such circumstances of drama and mystery as helps every
Freemason the better to understand himself, and the world, and God, and the
secrets of the life that is life indeed.
MACKEY'S ENCYCLOPEDIA (Revised Edition)
Accepted, 10; Anderson, 57; Antiquity of Freemasonry, 66; Apprentice, Entered,
70; Ashmole, 81; Constitutions, 175; Cromwell, 186; Degrees, 203; Desaguliers,
207; Dunckerley, 223; Edwin, 230; Fellow Craft, 261; Free and Accepted, 281;
Freemason, 282; Freemasonry, Early British, 283; Geometry, 295; Gilds, 296;
Hermetic Art, 323; Innovations, 353; Kabbala, 375; Kilwinning, 381; Legend,
433; Lodge, 449; Mason, 471; Master Mason 474; Operative Art, 532; Points of
Fellowship, 572; Progressive Masonry, 591; Scotland, 671; Speculative Masonry,
704; Stone-Masons, 718; Symbolic Degrees, 752; Wren, 859; York 866.
Quatuor Coronatorum, Author's Lodge Transactions, I, II, III. Constitutions
of the Freemasons, Anderson. A Short Masonic History, Armitage. Natural
History of Wiltshire, Aubrey. Grand Lodge of England, Calvert. Mackey's
Revised History of Freemasonry, Clegg. Hole Craft and Fellowship of Masons,
Conder. Evolution of Freemasonry, Darrah. Ahiman Rezon, Dermott. Club Makers
and Club Members, Escott. History of Masonry, Findel. Concise History of
Freemasonry, Gould. History of Freemasonry, Gould. Ancient Freemasonry and
the Old Dundee Lodge, Heiron. Acadamie Armory, Holme. Masonic Sketches and
Reprints, Hughan. Spirit of Masonry, Hutchinson. Medieval Architecture,
Kingsley. History of the Lodge of Edinburgh, Lyon. Guild Masonry in the
Making, Merz. History of Lodge Aberdeen, Miller. The Builders, Newton. Essay
on the Usages and Customs of Symbolical Masonry in the 18th Century, Oliver.
Preston's Masonry, Oliver. Tradition, Origin and Early History of
Freemasonry, Pierson. Natural History of Staffordshire, Plot. Illustrations
of Masonry, Preston. Freemasonry Before Existence of Grand Lodges, Vibert.
Story of the Craft, Vibert. New Encyclopedia of Freemasonry, Waite.
Freemasonry and the Ancient Gods, Ward.
GILDS IN THE EAST
is a note that may possibly add to the value of the Study Club article on
Gilds, THE BUILDER, November 1923.
workmen are united in gilds, which have existed since the Persian dominion,
and are still regulated by Persian laws. These gilds, however, are not so
exclusive as those in Georgia. The admission to the rank of Master is
accompanied with the same kind of ceremonies. On occasion of certain
solemnities and public processions, each trade is called on to act in its
corporate capacity. Each has likewise to bear its share of the public
burdens; thus, for instance, the Gild of Shoemakers has to provide the beds
for the public hospital, the Gild of Tailors the seats, and so forth. The
Armenian and Tartar artisans constitute separate gilds; A Tartar shoemaker
told me that his trade was presided over by any old Master, who was elected,
exercised jurisdiction, discharged the journeymen, and initiated them into the
rank of Mastership, an honour which they received kneeling."
above is from a work entitled Transcaucasis, by Baron von Haxthausen,
published in 1854. The author had special opportunities for studying the
conditions of the region about Tiflis, inhabited by Armenians, Georgians,
Persians, Tartars, etc. The theory, which is held by many, that the origin of
Masonry was connected with trade gilds, gives some importance to the
paragraph. There is evidence here that trade gilds are not exclusively
European; they are found in the East, and pretty far East too, probably
derived from Persia, for they date from the time when Persia ruled, and these
gilds are governed by "Persian laws." These bodies are presided over by a head
or "Master," and initiatory ceremonies are known and practised.
thank God that I belong to this great fraternity and can take upon myself the
proud title of Master Mason. - Warren G. Harding.
"Every honest occupation to which a man sets his hand would raise him into a
philosopher, if he mastered all the knowledge that belonged to his craft.
James Anthony Froude.
- Masonry Within the Craft
BROTHER has written to remind us that the Masonic Fraternity is rapidly
approaching the centenary of the Anti-Masonic Crusade, and to suggest that the
first quarter of the present century might be brought to a glorious conclusion
in a crusade by Masonry against its own enemies, and thus make the twentieth
century redress the wrong done by the nineteenth. The suggestion made by this
lover of poetic justice is somewhat belated; the Fraternity, like the country,
is already full of crusades; they roar past us to left and right like the
charge of the Light Brigade, and the spectacle, if we may parody the famous
words about that charge, is war, but it is not splendid. At any rate, it is
not splendid in the eyes of the governors and rulers of our Craft, who, in
volume after volume of Grand Lodge Proceedings, are laboring to warn their
brethren against the menace to Masonry in the growing carnival of propaganda,
north, south, east and west, wherein brethren are trying their best to harness
up the influence of Masonry to some movement that properly has nothing to do
with it, or else are trying to lead Masonry itself into activities for which
it never was intended.
worst part of it is that some of the best Masons in the country, believing
that Masonry has a war on its hands, are falling a victim to the horrible
fallacy that therefore all things are fair. You must fight the devil with
fire, they say; it is a question of main strength and awkwardness, so one must
not be too squeamish about methods; let us catch our foes by hook or crook,
then knock their heads in by anything we can grab!
were in order to start cracking heads these very brethren are the ones to
deserve it. For all their zeal they are enemies of the Craft. Like Samson they
pull down the temple upon their own heads in their efforts to destroy their
foes. The work of Masonry cannot be carried forward by un - Masonic methods.
The habit of catching at every rumor that puts a foe in a bad light, of giving
currency to unexamined gossip, of spreading baseless tales, is singularly
unbecoming among men solemnly sworn to seek and to uphold the truth above all
things. The mean trick of backbiting at brethren who hold different opinions
about Masonic policies is not in accord with the vows of Masonic brotherhood.
The propaganda that fans into flame the passions of race hatred is the
absolute denial of the principles of a Craft that has written into its
constitution the means "whereby Masonry becomes the center of union and the
means of conciliating true friendship among persons that must have remained at
perpetual distance." The men who seek once again to exaggerate the odious
lusts of religious prejudice have forgotten that it is the very genius of
Freemasonry to uphold "that religion in which all men agree, leaving their
particular opinions to themselves; that is, to be good men and true, or men of
honor and honesty, by whatever denominations or persuasions they may be
distinguished." Those who may countenance mobs, lynchings, riotings and tar
and feathers should remember that "a Mason is a peaceable subject to the civil
powers, wherever he resides or works, and is never to be concerned in plots
and conspiracies." Freemasonry can never compound with the spirits of passion,
prejudice, race hatred, or religious intolerance, and it is reassuring to find
so many Grand Masters determined to see to it that individuals are made to
understand this fact.
great majority of brethren who are persuaded to support any such activities
act not out of a deliberate indifference to the principles of the Craft, but
are misled, or else do not sufficiently understand Masonry; therefore the
remedy always is, aside from the obvious duty of our officials to see that our
laws are enforced, a larger measure of Masonic education, not in Masonic
history or philosophy, but in the practice of the Masonic life. The Masonic
ideal is one of the noblest in the world, and one of the truest; it is rooted
in the everlasting realities. Wherever it is made to live in a man's soul it
will of its own charm and strength keep him safe from disfiguring lusts and
dividing passions. It possesses the expulsive power of all ideals to drive out
those things which are its opposite. The one crusade for putting to rout all
anti - Masonry is the combined effort of us everyone to make Masonry first of
all prevail within our own hearts.
* * *
little while ago the PHILADELPHIA NORTH AMERICAN published an extensive
editorial to commend the work of the fraternal secret societies of the United
States. It is not anything unusual in the editorial itself that attracts
attention, but the fact of the publication of any editorial at all on such a
theme. Usually the daily press passes over any such discussions, except to
record local lodge happenings, and in its general survey of social and
political conditions ignores the influence of lodges altogether. The reasons
are obvious. Everyone of these organizations stands for some cause sometimes
very much feared or hated by other sections of the population, therefore as a
matter of policy the dailies find any discussion of their aims, activities or
influence a dangerous experiment, more so in that the members of some orders
are so irritable whenever themselves or their enemies are discussed that a
newspaper invites their censure if it finds fault with them and praises
anything in the opposing camp.
such reasons may possibly excuse the privately owned dailies from discussion
of the work of fraternities, it is difficult to understand why writers of
histories, who have no axe to grind or jealousies to fear, should so seldomly
pay attention to the work and influence of secret societies. But such is the
case. The historians of Rome, the Gibbons', the Mommsen's, the Fererro's and
the like, almost never refer to the Roman collegia or to the mystery cults,
which is as if a future historian of the United States would overlook our
churches and public schools. Similarly, historians of the Middle Ages calmly
pass by the swarms of secret societies which flourished everywhere,
honeycombing society beneath the surface like the catacombs; the Manicheans,
Gnostics, Patari, Cathari, Albigensians, Troubadours, Culdees, Druids and all
the other more or less secret brotherhoods do not figure in the standard works
on the period which ignore everything that didn't occur in plain view or was
left out of public documents. Even the gild system, which was a kind of
government within the government, is frequently dropped into a foot - note or
left out altogether in order to make space for the royal families, their
amours and their wars. And as for the profane historians of architecture, they
become so engrossed with the buildings that they quite forget to say anything
about the builders. Historians of America have the same blind spot in their
eyes; they devote pages to the details of a battle and nothing to the work of
the scores of orders, most of them patriotic, which worked like a ferment in
our early national life. By the same token we can expect that in the future,
historians of the World War will be guilty of the same oversight; they will
tell their readers nothing about the activities of American fraternities in
lending aid and support to the government, nor will they explain why a few
fraternities, our own among them, had so much influence at Washington in 1918.
Nothing is more certain than that much history, some of it of the first
consequence, has gone on underground, unrecorded in state papers or formal
chronicles, and unreported in the public news.
* * *
BOK PEACE PLAN
editorial published in THE BUILDER, December, 1923, page 377, members of the
National Masonic Research Society were requested to express their opinion of
the plan that might be adopted by The American Peace Award, for which Edward
Bok offered prizes aggregating $100,000. A resume of the peace plan selected
by the judges is summarized herewith, and a ballot form is added to be used by
those who care to vote on the plan one way or another. This ballot may be
clipped or copied and mailed direct to The American Peace Award.
PLAN IN BRIEF
That the United States shall immediately enter the Permanent Court of
International Justice, under the conditions stated by Secretary Hughes and
President Harding in February, 1923
That without becoming a member of the League of Nations as at present
constituted, the United States shall offer to extend its present co -
operation with the League and participate in the work of the League as a body
of mutual counsel under conditions which
Substitute moral force and public opinion for the military and economic force
originally implied in Articles X and XVI.
Safeguard the Monroe Doctrine.
Accept the feet that the United States will assume no obligations under the
Treaty of Versailles except by Act of Congress.
Propose that membership in the League should be opened to all nations.
Provide for the continuing development of international law.
Railway Exchange, St. Louis, Mo.
you approve the winning plan in substance?
an X inside the proper box)
___________________ State _____________
you a voter ? ________________
AMERICAN PEACE AWARD
Madison Avenue, New York City
you wish to express a fuller opinion also
please write to The American Peace Award
of the fine old customs of the Order that has gone by the board but deserves
to be revived is the "working of the lectures". Nowadays when we have no
candidate we have no work, but the time was in our land when the working of
the lectures was of more interest and importance than the initiating of
candidates. This rehearsal of the lectures usually took place as the lodge was
seated round a table. The Master put the questions; each brother in turn arose
and gave the answer - if he could.
you the Master of a lodge ? Why not set aside a night every month or every two
months for this practice ? It should be a certain method for increasing the
interest of the brethren, and for giving them all an opportunity to take some
part. What a fine way for "brushing up" on the lectures! After a few evenings
spent as just described a lodge could make use of some such method as employed
in the old "spelling bees"; divide up to see which side might be able to
answer the most questions correctly. The Master or some other brother could
put the questions.
talk much about innovations in the work, and dread the danger of such things,
usually on the assumption that an innovation is something added to the work as
already practiced; but isn't it just as much an "innovation" to leave
something out ? In ignoring the "working of the lectures" we have been guilty
of a real innovation.
Moonlight vs. Moonshine
MOONLIGHT SCHOOLS, by Mrs. Cora Wilson Stewart published by E. P. Dutton &
Co.; may be purchased through National Masonic Research Society. Blue Cloth,
194 pages, illustrated. Price, $2.00.
not often that Ye Booke Reviewer finds it possible with a clear conscience to
give a volume such an unqualified hearty fervent send - off as this volume now
in hand A man who can read it without laughter and tears is made of cast -
iron, boiler - plate or some other of the base metals, and bad cess to him if
such there be, which there probably isn't! It is a true tale made up of actual
experiences in one of the most moving and dramatic movements since the signing
of the Declaration of Independence. And the best part of it is that its author
was herself the guide, philosopher and friend of the whole enterprise.
Cora Wilson Stewart was Superintendent of Schools of Rowan County, Ky., in
1911. One day an incident occurred in her office, which she describes after
few days later a middle - aged man came into the office, a man stalwart,
intelligent and prepossessing in appearance. While he waited for me to
dispatch the business in hand, I handed him two books. He turned the leaves
hurriedly, like a child handling its first books, turned them over and looked
at the backs and laid them down with a sigh. Knowing the scarcity of
interesting books in this locality, I proffered him the loan of them. He shook
can't read or write,' he said. Then the tears came into the eyes of that
stalwart man and he added in a tone of longing, 'I would give twenty years of
my life if I could.'" (Pages 11 - 12)
two other such incidents occurred it came to her mind, "Why not open our
schools at night for these illiterate adults?" But roads were bad, often
impassable, and the country was full of feuds, so that being abroad on a dark
night was perilous business. Then it was she had the happy inspiration, "Why
not open schools on moonlight nights?" That solved the problem. On Labor Day,
1911, all the teachers in the county made a house - to - house canvass with a
pressing invitation to every grown man and woman to enroll.
Sept. 5, the brightest moonlight night, it seemed to me, that the world had
ever known, the moonlight schools opened for their first session. We had
estimated the number that would attend, and an average of three to each
school, one hundred and fifty in the entire county, was the maximum set.
waited with anxious hearts. The teachers had volunteered, the schools had been
opened, the people had been invited but would they come? They had all the
excuses that any toilworn people ever had. They had rugged roads to travel,
streams without bridges to cross, high hills to climb, children to lead and
babes to carry, weariness from the hard day's toil; but they were not seeking
excuses, they were seeking knowledge, and so they came. They came singly or
hurrying in groups, they came walking for miles, they came carrying babes in
arms, they came bent with age and leaning on canes, they came twelve hundred
strong!" (Pages 15 - 16)
of them learned to write their names the first evening and such rejoicing as
there was over this event! One old man on the shady side of fifty shouted for
joy when he learned to write his name. 'Glory to God!' he shouted, 'I'll never
have to make my mark any more!
were so intoxicated with joy that they wrote their names in frenzied delight
on trees, fences, barns, barrel staves and every available scrap of paper; and
those who possessed even meager savings, drew the money out of its hiding
place and deposited it in the bank, wrote their cheeks and signed their names
with pride. Soon letters began to go from hands that had never written before
to loved ones in other countries and in far distant states, and usually the
first letter of each student came to the County School Superintendent. In a
movement full of romance and heroism, there is no incident more romantic or
more delightful to record than the fact that the first three letters that ever
came out of the moonlight schools came in this order: the first, from a mother
who had children absent in the West; the second, from the man who 'would give
twenty years of his life if he could read and write', and the third from the
boy who would forget his ballads 'before anybody come along to set 'em down.'
This answered the anxious question in our hearts as to whether the moonlight
schools had met the need of those who had made the appeal." (Pages 19 - 20)
Before the second year was opened a teachers' institute was held for the
purpose of developing team play among the teachers inspired to try their hand
in Moonlight Schools as a result of the first experiment conducted by Mrs.
Stewart. The kind of stuff in those women is revealed by one report.
went to the school - house the first evening,' she said, 'and nobody came. I
went the second and there was nobody there. I went the third, fourth and fifth
and still no pupils. I said "I'm going to be like Bruce and the Spider, I'm:
going to try seven times," and on the seventh night when I got to the
schoolhouse I was greeted by three pupils. Before the term closed I had
enrolled sixty - five in my moonlight school and taught twenty - three
illiterates to read and write.'" (Page 34)
means to inspire the grown - up students with a zeal for further progress the
custom was adopted of giving prizes, on which occasion everybody gathered at
the log school for a gala time.
LEMONADE AND BIBLES
newly learned gave an exhibition of their recently acquired knowledge. They
read and wrote, quoted history and ciphered proudly in the presence of their
world. They did it with more pride than ever high school, college or
university graduates displayed on their commencement day.
were next presented with Bibles, and as they came up one by one, some young
and stalwart, some bent and gray, to receive their Bibles with gracious words
of thanks, it was an impressive scene - and when the Jezebel of the
community came forward and accepted her Bible and pledged herself to lead a
new life forevermore, there was hardly a dry eye in the house.
"Lemonade was a thing rarely seen in those parts, a treat indeed, so it was
served as the final reward, not from a punch bowl, as it is served in most
places, but from the most available thing to be found on Tabor Hill - a lard
can. As they passed in line around the receptacle to be served, an old man
rose in the back part of the house and said in a loud voice, 'Things certainly
have changed in this district. It used to be that you couldn't hold meeting or
Sunday - school in the house without the boys shooting through the windows. It
used to be moonshine and bullets, but now it's lemonade and Bibles.'" (Pages
52 - 53)
noble women responsible for this war on ignorance next turned their attention
to the whole state. "We even enlisted the politicians and put them to some
use." After a time Governor James B. McCreary ( may his tribe increase) issued
a proclamation giving the new movement his own high sanction and calling on
all citizens to lend their support.
books suitable for moonlight school purposes were difficult to find, therefore
a little newspaper was at first devised; this was followed by a reader, with
such lessons as carried a punch. Witness the following:
Clay County, another of the mountain counties, a large crowd of men and women
gathered for a contest. Among them was a tall, lank, under - nourished man,
who rose and with a look at his wife that carried indictment read this lesson
with peculiar emphasis:
takes the bread
sustain the man
some women make
not sustain any man
God ever made."' (Page 76)
came the great war in 1917. Thirty thousand young Kentuckians filled
registration cards who were unable to sign their own names. How teach them to
read and write ? War is more dangerous to an illiterate than - to others
because he cannot even read orders or take advantage of any other form of
general intelligence. The story of how this situation was met is as thrilling
as a chapter from Thuycidides, and it is a matter of regret that it cannot be
moonlight school movement spread from state to state like the contagion of a
new religion, until at last the National Education Association established an
Illiteracy Commission, of which Mrs. Stewart was appropriately made chairman.
ILLITERACY IS A SHAME AND A CRIME
all the decades," she writes, "prior to the one ushered in by 1910, there was
not a state, county, city or school district which had as its purpose the
absolute removal of illiteracy. When the startling announcement was made by
the census-takers at the beginning of the new decade that five and a half
million men and women in the Nation had confessed that they could not read or
write, there was nowhere an expression of shame or pity or even of surprise.
It was accepted as a thing inevitable - the waste product of an inefficient
school system. Even the press, usually alert and looking for unusual
conditions to exploit, found nothing worth featuring in these tragic figures."
the governors, Henry J. Allen, of Kansas, became one of the most enthusiastic.
On page 156 of Moonlight Schools he is quoted thus:
men met on a mountain pathway, and began to talk about how soon their county
would be 'Cleared up.' They were not referring to weeds or underbrush or
timber, to insects, reptiles or malarial fever. They were referring to
elimination of illiteracy. Nothing just like it has found expression in any
educational system, in any age; the sureness of faith of those who teach, the
simplicity of their efforts, the general response. I have seen three
generations studying the same books in one moonlight school. 'There are 2,442
illiterates in the county,' said a man to me in one of the counties in the
Cumberland Mountains. 'It will take two years to wipe out illiteracy.' Think
of the calm faith of it! I believe that the story of the moonlight schools is
the most exalted and sacrificial that has been told in the educational effort
of America." (Page 156)
Illiteracy is not merely an inability to read and write; it is an inability to
live happily, and that because, in our modern world, we depend so much on
print for the management of our lives.
itself is more or less dependent upon the ability to read and write. In no
place is disease so prevalent or life so menaced as in illiterate sections.
During the influenza epidemic of 1918, doctors and nurses found themselves
helpless in communities where illiteracy prevailed. The death - rate is high
where illiteracy exists and infant mortality mounts to the topmost round. Here
the precautions of sanitation are little known and practised, and innocent
children pay the penalty with their lives. 'You say you have six children,'
said an illiterate mother to an educated one, 'that nothing. I've buried
twelve."' (Page 169)
the very beginning of it the inspiration behind this whole movement, now of
national importance, has been Mrs. Stewart herself, a woman of great soul,
clear intelligence, in whom the divine fire burns with a singular selfishness.
If ever a woman deserved a monument she does.
* * *
GEORGIA MANUAL OF LECTURES
MANUAL OF MASONIC LECTURES, by D. R. Brock. Bremen, Ga. Paper, 60 pages,
thirty-five cents postpaid; per dozen, $3.60; per hundred, $2.00. May be
ordered from author.
aim of the author was to put into cheap and handy form such lectures as are
usually given in the monitorial portions of the work, along with appropriate
poems, and other materials of a like character. Besides the pages of his own
composition he selected out of the best lectures employed in his Grand
Jurisdiction such as in his judgment were the best. It is therefore more or
less representative of the monitorial work in Georgia. The author has prepared
editions in other states by amending items here and there to suit local needs.
* * *
FRANKLIN IN FICTION
THE DAYS OF POOR RICHARD, by Irving Bacheller Published by Bobbs - Merill,
Indianapolis. Cloth; 414 pages; price $2.00.
three greatest Americans - Franklin, Washington, Lincoln - two are prominent
in this book, and both of them were active Masons. The heart of Mr.
Bacheller's tale is the Revolutionary period itself and it suffers, therefore,
as a novel, by having its characters pushed away from the center, but they are
living beings for all that, and a reader can rely on the truthfulness of the
setting. Many famous personages move in and out as the story progresses from
one excitement to another, of which Franklin is chief, then Washington, Howe,
Benedict Arnold, Putnam, Hancock, Hamilton, Jefferson and a large choir
besides of fighting men whose names, emblazoned so large across the red first
page of our history as a nation, have come to be almost legendary, like the
great names "in the tale of Troy divine." Mr. Bacheller is always aware of the
moment and spaciousness of the period and never forgets, or permits his
readers to forget, that they were heroes. Franklin himself was as heroic as
any of them, and not at all the shopkeeper preaching a village morality as he
is often depicted. Brethren who never grow weary of reading or hearing of Bro.
Benjamin Franklin may safely add this historical novel to their Frankliniana.
issue of THE BUILDER for October last is completely used up; will such
brethren as have no further use for their copies send them to headquarters
They can be put to good use.
QUESTION BOX and CORRESPONDENCE
ABOUT PUBLIC SCHOOLS
you find room for a list of good books about the public school? I think that
many Masons would find it of value.
difficult to select a representative list out of the hundreds of titles
available; the following are chosen as being typical of all the various types
of educational theory along with a few written from an antagonistic point of
view. One of the most useful of all volumes to a Mason is a paper - bound book
of 96 pages published for free distribution by the North Dakota Society for
the Advancement of Education, by the Scottish Rite Bodies of that state under
the authority of the Supreme Council, Southern Jurisdiction, it is entitled
The School Bell. A number of copies have been sent to THE BUILDER to be given
to such brethren as wish to use them. Anal your name and address if you need
one. The other titles given herewith will be found, most of them, in any
average public library. The Schools of Medieval England, A. F. Leach. History
of Education, E.P. Cubberley. Readings in the History of Education, E. P.
Cubberley. Secularization of American Education, S.W. Brown. Development of
the Free Schools in the United States, A. R. Mead. Religious Freedom in
American Education, published by the American Unitarian Association.
Separation of the Church From the Public School, W.T. Harris in Proceedings of
the National Educational Association, 1903 p. 351. Sectarianism in National
Education, H.W. Crosskey. Bible and the Public Schools, W. H. Smythe. Progress
of Education in the Century, Hughes and Klumm. Education and Social Movements,
A. E. Dobbs. Cyclopaedia of Education edited by Paul Monroe. Text Book of the
History of Education Paul Monroe. Our Colonial Curriculum, 1607 - 1776,
Colyer, Meiweather. Catholic School System in the United States, Its
Principles, Origin and Establishment, J. A. Burns. Growth and Development of
the Catholic School System, J. A. Burns. Religious Education and Democracy, B.
S. Winchester. A Social Theory of Religious Education, George A. Coe. Abelard,
and the Origin and Early History of Universities, Gabriel Compayre.
* * *
- FOUR YEARS AN ACTIVE MASON
sending you today a January 1923 number of THE BUILDER. I spent last winter in
southern California and instructed my folks not to forward to me papers or
magazines coming to my address here but to hold them for my return. I do not
need two copies of this number and return one thinking that you may have a
call for it in the future.
years ago when I wished to have a volume of THE BUILDER bound by a bindery
here I could not get a number that I had loaned to a brother and you could not
furnish it, because your supply was exhausted. Thinking that this might happen
again to some brother, I return this. I have eight bound volumes of THE
BUILDER, less one number in one volume, and prize them highly. I am now in my
eightieth year and may not be here to enjoy them much longer but I will leave
what I have to my only son living in Chicago, Ill., who is a 32d man. Have
been a member 54 years in Jay Lodge, No. 87, Portland. Ind.. where I was made
L. Gilpin, Indiana.
above letter is here printed not as offering new information on things Masonic
but as an expression of the beauty of the Masonic spirit, which when it abides
in a man's heart bears fruit in thoughtfulness, appreciation, and courtesy.
Bro. Gilpin was one of the Masonic grandsires who came into this Society in
* * *
HUNDRED SIXTY - SIX TIMES A TREASURER
of the finest records of sustained heartfelt loyalty to Freemasonry is that of
Brother John T. W. Ham, the venerable treasurer of his lodge in Dover, New
Hampshire, where he was born July 1, 1838. He was prevailed upon by Brother
Isaac P. Collins, Olean, New York, to tell his own Masonic history, which he
does after this manner:
1863 I was made a Mason and the night I took my third degree I was elected
treasurer, and am still holding that office. Later I was made a chapter and
council member and was elected treasurer in each body; and yet still later was
made a member of the commandery, and also its treasurer. I still hold that
office in all bodies. In 1902 I was elected and received the 33d of which I am
very proud. If I am not mistaken in my count I have been elected treasurer 266
T. W. Ham.
33d is also proud of Brother Ham, and should be. A brother who remains at his
post for sixty consecutive years in one town deserves that and all the other
honors of the Craft. If all the high honors went to the brethren who actually
do the work of Freemasonry there might be fewer to receive them, but there
would be a great deal more work.
* * *
FREEMASONRY'S GREATEST DANGER
the Ye Editor's Corner of the October BUILDER this appears: "A brother has
submitted this question: 'What is the greatest danger now facing Freemasonry?
What would be your reply ? "'
question as stated leaves the reader in some doubt as to
"Whether the beast that made the track
going out or coming back."
presuming he means what danger does Freemasonry face, I would say, None!
there are those calling themselves Masons who, in the opinion of some more
Masonically diligent, fact the twin dangers of apathy and ignorance. The
place, we have been told, to seek for anything lost is at or near the point
where the loss occurred. A certain symbolic loss occurred in the hall where
the inquiring brother was raised. Let him persistently frequent that spot and
his efforts to recover that which was lost will not go unrewarded, and apathy
and ignorance being vanquished, we may safely hang
sword in the hall
spear on the wall"
devote the eight hours apportioned to the service of God and man in seeing
that our light (life) so shines that all men seeing our good works will be
pleased to give to the great fraternity that commendation it so richly merits.
* * *
FREEMASONRY AS DEFINED BY THE G. L. OF ILLINOIS
Attached to each petition used in the Grand Jurisdiction of Illinois is a
statement concerning the nature and purposes of Freemasonry so adequate in its
scope and so well phrased that permission was secured from Bro. Owen Scott,
Grand Secretary, to reprint it here:
the Subscriber of the Attached Petition for the Degrees in Freemasonry
the exact nature of the institution of Freemasonry is unknown to you, it is
deemed advisable that before signing the attached petition you should be
informed on certain features and phases of that institution which may effect
your decision to apply for membership therein.
Freemasonry has in all ages required that men should come to its door entirely
of their own free will, not as the result of importunity nor from feelings of
curiosity, but from a favorable opinion of the institution, a desire for
knowledge, and a sincere wish to be serviceable to their fellow creatures.
Masonry is a system of morality based on the belief in the existence of God,
the immortality of the soul, and the brotherhood of men; therefore no atheist
can be made a Mason. It strives to teach a man the duty he owes to God, to his
country to his family, to his neighbor, and to himself. It inculcates the
practice of every virtue and makes an extensive use of symbolism in its
teachings. It interferes with neither religion nor polities, but strives only
after light and truth, endeavoring always to bring out the highest and noblest
qualities of men.
should be clearly borne in mind that Freemasonry is not to be entered in the
hope of personal gain or advancement. Admission must not be sought from
mercenary or unworthy motives. Anyone so actuated will be bitterly
disappointed. The aim of the true Freemason is to cultivate a brotherly
feeling among men, and to help the distressed and Deleted extent of his
cannot be too strongly emphasized that Freemasonry is not a benefit society,
although the practice of charity is a fundamental virtue taught in
Freemasonry. We do not pay so much a year to entitle us to draw sick pay, or
other benefits, or to make provision for those we leave behind. There are
other excellent societies founded for this purpose.
Loyalty to one's country is an essential qualification in Freemasonry, and
those only are acceptable who cheerfully conform to every lawful authority.
Disloyalty in any form is abhorrent to the teachings of Freemasonry and is
regarded as a serious Masonic offense. Freemasonry is not contrary to the
beliefs of any man of upright heart and mind and has in it nothing
inconsistent with his civil, moral or religious duties.
* * *
OLDEST MASONIC TWINS ?
sending you herewith a photograph of Amasa and Anson Hungerford, twins
belonging to the Masonic Order. If they live until May 25, 1924, they will
become eighty years of age. Their home is at Belleville, N. Y. Are they not
the oldest twins in the Order?
* * *
Referring back to the subject of Circumambulation already discussed two or
three times in THE BUILDER ( September 1923, January 1924) I have to add an
item that will show how the rite is practiced in Egypt. The paragraph is
quoted from Moslim Saints in Modern Egypt, by Winifred S. Blackman:
"Having removed his or her shoes before entering the building, the visitor
then walks from left to right round the catafalque erected beneath the dome,
three, five, or seven times reciting meanwhile special passages from the
Kuran. These perambulations accomplished, the servant of the sheikh takes a
broom, kept for this special purpose, and carefully brushes out all the
footprints in the interior of the building."
Harvey McNairn, Canada.
* * *
ORIENTAL ORDER OF MASONRY"
Having encountered some references to a new "side degree" called "The Oriental
Order of Masonry" organized by Rev. H. R. Coleman, of Kentucky, Ye Editor
wrote to Bro. W. H. McDonald, editor of the Masonic Home Journal, Louisville,
Ky. official organ of the Grand Lodge of Kentucky, for information on the
subject. Bro. McDonald very graciously replied in a letter that readers of THE
BUILDER will care to see:
Coleman is now about eighty - five years of age. He was Grand Chaplain of the
Grand Lodge of Kentucky for about thirty years. He traveled in the old
country, visited many lodges and added many degrees to his knowledge of
Masonry and received the degrees of Palm and Shell which can only be conferred
by the Sheik in Egypt. He was commissioned by the Sheik under the seal of
Egyptian country as a Master for the Western Hemisphere. The signature and
seal of the Sheik, I presume, are genuine. He also brought back with him many
coins and tokens, a vast supply of shells already engraved, together with the
signet ring made from soft iron with the star and crescent stamped thereon.
Coleman is now a paralytic and is at the Old Masons' Home at Shelbyville, Ky.,
unable to get about. Just after the stroke came to him, he came to Louisville
and with the assistance of some others conferred the degree upon the Grand
Master, Grand Senior Warden, Grand Treasurer and some three or four of the
Past Grand Masters and upon myself. To me he delivered all of his
paraphernalia, regalia and placed upon my shoulders the mantle of the Order in
North America or anywhere in the entire Western Hemisphere. I also have a
commission as the Grand Master of North and South America, as well as Central
America, but have not the time to devote to its propaganda. One thing I lack
in the conference of these degrees is the knowledge of the Egyptian language.
Bro. Coleman can, I presume, get it off pretty well. The degree should be
given on a class of not less than five, as it takes that many to confer the
degree. It is a very, very beautiful degree and if one travels in the Orient
or in feet anywhere, it would come in awfully nice in the way of getting
recognition from those of the Eastern Hemisphere.
* * *
FREEMASONRY AND ADVERTISING
is the Masonic law about using the name "Masonry" in advertising? Is it un -
Masonic? Is it illegal? I raise the question because a brother connected with
a certain lodge nearby uses the square and compasses on his business cards;
some of us believe it is forbidden.
will find this subject dealt with in detail in your own Grand Lodge
Proceedings for 1921 by Grand Master H. P. Burke. His statement is worthy of
being printed in full: "By Section 296 of the Book of Constitutions, we have
forbidden the use of Masonic emblems for advertising purposes, and the letter
of the law is generally obeyed. There is, however, a general violation of its
spirit by the indiscriminate use of the word Masonic in the same connection.
Commercial concerns are using it, not only to attract attention to their
business, but in a manner and with the purpose of conveying the impression
that their enterprises are connected with, or approved by, the fraternity.
Insurance and accident companies are the most notorious violators thereof. If
the use of the square and compass, which at most can but imply an association,
be forbidden, then certainly the use of the term Masonic, which asserts that
association, should be banned. This section, by interpretation or amendment,
should be made effective in all these eases, or be repealed.
this connection, I call your attention to an instance in which a so - called
Sanitarium Association, operating in this jurisdiction, was soliciting funds
throughout the United States. I directed the Grand Secretary to advise other
Grand Jurisdictions, through their Grand Secretaries, that this Association
had no connection with organized Masonry in Colorado, and was operating
without our approval....
many quarters there is to be observed an unjustifiable appetite for Masonic
publicity. Newspaper advertisements of Masonic activities are lamentably
frequent. What seems to me a particularly flagrant instance of this evil, in a
locality where solicitation has been charged, is called to your attention by
the submission of numerous newspaper clippings. These things are to be
discountenanced, and ought to be discontinued. They constitute merely an
indirect method of solicitation. All their effects are evil and all their
tendencies destructive. No attempt should be made save 'by the regularity of
our own behavior' to popularize the Craft. We want no members who do not come
of their 'own free will and accord,' 'uninfluenced by mercenary motives or the
improper solicitation of friends.' The greatest danger which today threatens
the fraternity is the danger against which its sages and leaders have warned
it in Colorado and elsewhere from time immemorial - too much popularity. Our
more active lodges should investigate petitions more carefully and select
their material more judiciously. Their growth is too rapid to be always
healthy. We should cease to worry about the enemy without. Now, as always, he
is absolutely impotent to injure us. Freemasonry can only be torn down from
view of what has been hereinbefore stated, and considering the apparent
confusion in the Masonic world, the time seems ripe for the re - statement by
this Grand Lodge of the following fundamental principles:
- The government of the Grand Lodge is neither a monarchy, an oligarchy, nor
a 'pure democracy.' It is a representative, constitutional republic. Every
attempt to graft upon it any of the distinguishing characteristics of the
first three forms named is forbidden by the injunction against 'innovations
upon the body of Masonry.'
- The Grand Lodge, which is but the entire body of the Craft in the
Jurisdiction, acting through its duly chosen representatives, and restricted
only by the landmarks, has the sole power and authority to determine what is
and what is not 'Masonic,' and to fix the conditions under which a petitioner
may enter Freemasonry, or, having entered, remain. Its only guide is its best
judgment as to what is required by the good of the Craft, and from its
decision there is no appeal.
- The only title to Masonic office is the best judgment of the brethren
voting or the officer appointing, uninfluenced by improper solicitation and
exercised with no consideration in mind but the highest good of the Craft.
- This fraternity, its activities, titles, ceremonies, symbols, and emblems,
are not to be used for political or commercial purposes. It repudiates all
solicitation for its degrees, all advertisement, all unseemly publicity. It
tolerates no foreign meddling in its affairs. It interferes with no man's
religion and will not concern itself with matters of political or legislative
use of Freemasonry for advertising purposes in any way, shape or form is
strictly un - Masonic and everywhere condemned inside the fraternity. Whether
or not it is illegal depends on the laws of the state, and states differ much
among themselves on such matters.
* * *
ANOTHER VERSION OF "THE GREAT JOURNEY"
Always with the greatest interest I read the different articles of THE BUILDER
and even if it may happen that I do not agree with the contents of one, as a
former judge I acknowledge the rightness of the old rule "audio tar et alters
pars"; but once in a while it looks to me that an article is so fundamentally
wrong that almost involuntarily I feel inclined to protest or, if it should so
prove, to learn if it is I who am wrong.
was the ease when in the September issue of THE BUILDER I had read an article
called "The Great Journey."
author calls a certain journey which the candidate has to make: "the most
impressive moment of the initiatory ceremony;" according to my view he could
have taken a step further and called it: "the basis of our Masonic life." But
I agree with him that very few Masons, even Master Masons, have paid much
attention to this ceremony and that generally they are quite ignorant as to
the meaning of it.
author remarks "that the interpretation of this rite is usually given as a
symbolical representation of the great journey of life"; and further, "that
there is nothing in this interpretation in itself, that flies against fact."
But he adds "that we may be sure that there is far more to it than this" and
this "more" later on he explains as "the harmonious adjustment of one to one's
world." To prove the rightness of his theory the author draws attention to the
feet that "circumambulation is very old and well nigh universal." He tells us
that the Egyptians, the Jews and other people used circumambulation at solemn
occasions and he tells of the marching habits of the North and South American
Indians as part of their religious rites and he sums up by the theory that
circumambulation is an imitating of the wandering of the sun over the sky from
East to West.
believe that the author is wrong herein. What the author calls
"circumambulation" was not a mere wandering, a solemn march, it was a dance.
In his book, The Dance of Life, Havelock Ellis asserts: "Dancing and building
are the two primary and essential arts and dancing came first dancing is
the primitive expression of religion from the earliest human times we know
course it is not easy for us, who have in mind the dance of the present time,
to apprehend a walk or a march as a dance, but if we agree with Havelock Ellis
in - what personally I do - that: "the significance of dancing lies in
the feet that it is simply an intimate concrete appeal of a general rhythm,
that general rhythm, which marks not life only but the Universe," then we can
understand that the rhythmic marching around of the Faro Islanders to the
singing of the ancient Northern ballads and that the stepping and jumping of
the quaint German religious sect in the little town of Westphalia - to
mention examples of the present days - are dances, though in a primitive
According to my belief all of the different examples of circumambulation to
which the author refers in the said article of THE BUILDER are religious
dances and there is no connection between them and the circumambulation - or
as I prefer to call it "the travel" - of the Masonic candidate at his
initiation as Mason and for this reason I think that we had better look away
MUST KEEP OUR EYES OPEN
Further, when the author remarks that the circumambulation - the travel -
of the candidate is to be interpreted as "a symbolical representation of the
great journey of life" I believe that the author is again mistaken and I rest
my opinion on the feet that the candidate has to make the circumambulation -
the travel - blindfolded. We do not walk blindfolded through life. On the
contrary, from our boyhood we are taught to keep our eyes open - both
practically and theoretically - in our wandering through life. The Masonic
rites, even if often they are hard to understand and still harder to
interpret, never allow an interpretation that does not agree with reality.
the feet that the candidate is blindfolded during his circumambulation - his
travel - shows that the travel is not a symbol of his travel through the
outside, or profane world, but that it is a symbol of and an appeal to the
candidate to make a travel through another world, almost more unknown to him
than the darkest continent - to make the travel through his own interior
self. Our forefathers who formed the Masonic rites knew that, however strange
it sounds, we know ourselves less than we know our neighbor. We see the mote
in our neighbor's eye but not the beam in our own. In blindfolding the
candidate the lodge tries to force him to look into his own interior, to force
him to learn to know himself. It is a feet that our ability of thinking is
developed when we close our eyes to shut out impression from the outer world.
the entrance to one of the Greek temples was cut "gnoti seauton," as a serious
advice to the worshiper to examine himself to find out what and how he was
before entering the temple to worship; and in the same way the lodge tries to
teach us at the beginning of our Masonic life that the first thing we have to
do is to examine ourselves to find out what in reality we are, as the
knowledge thereof is necessary for and the foundation of our Masonic life.
we study to interpret the Masonic rites it looks to me that we must bear in
mind the feet that the Masonic Order, as at present it is, had for original
foundation real artisan guilds - whether we consider the Roman collegian,
the fratres Comacini, the cathedral builders, or the German bauhiitten as the
basis - which little after little changed character through the admittance
of non - artisans, the accepted Masons, and that consequently in our
interpretations we must first look to and examine the customs and the rites of
several countries in Europe after the candidate has entered the lodge room the
W. M. gives the order: "Let the candidate travel as a Mason." And then the S.
W. takes him three times around the lodge room from W through N and E and S to
W. and after the travel the S. W. gives the candidate a short lecture
explaining the general idea of Masonry. Over here the W.M. does not expressly
give such an order, but even if the candidate is not ordered to travel as
Mason, in fact, does. Quite naturally the question rises, Does this Masonic
ceremony spring from the rites of the operative Masons' guilds? Are the Masons
travelling in a peculiar way?
they do, or rather undoubtedly they did so in the olden time. I admit that I
do not know whether the apprentice had to make any travel at his initiation,
but I do not think so, according to what I have been told of the ceremonies;
but what I have in mind are the travels of the apprentice, as soon as he had
been promoted to fellowcraft - "Svend, Gesell." As soon as they had reached
this rung of the professional ladder they started travelling from town to town
looking for a job. Even if they got one in a town, usually they did not stay
very long on it; almost always they were on the travel. Over here in this
country where outside the larger cities brick buildings are not usual and
where, as far as I know, the artisans' guilds never did exist, of course you
never saw the travelling Mason; but in the old countries - in Scandinavia
and Germany - especially before the times of the railroad in my boyhood very
often I saw the travelling Mason "Gesell" on the road. Usually he had on his
special working suit - the garb of his profession - the white moleskin
pants, the short white cotton blouse covering his coat, and the white cap.
DO MASONS WEAR WHITE DRESS?
the way, it looks strange that the Masons should make use of a white suit for
working dress, a suit that is so little practical for working purposes, as it
gets dirty very fast. But do we not here have one of the old customs that is
upheld, although the source from which it sprang long ago is forgotten ? From
the oldest time known, building was worshiping the highest being and it is a
feet that from time immemorial the worshiper, or at least that the person who
was leading the religious ceremonies, the officiant, was dressed in white. Of
course there is no rule without exception, but the exceptions can be
explained. For instance the Mohammedan imam and Protestant minister do not
make use of a white dress when they are officiating. The Mohammedan dons his
most plain dress when he is going to worship, but this is not due to tradition
but to an expressly pronounced order given by the founder of his faith. The
Protestant. minister's black cassock I consider a protest against the white
surplice of the Catholic Church. It looks to me to be possible that the
Mason's white working dress, which still is in use in the old countries, had
its origin from the primary viewpoint, that building is worshiping.
the travelling Mason always had with him in a bag the different tools
belonging to his profession - the trowel, the level, "waterpass," and so on.
Contrary to most of the other artisans the Masons themselves owned their
tools. The young Masons got them as soon as they were made fellowcrafts,
boyhood I associated very much with the young Masons, who told me about the
customs of their profession and I was told that the custom of travelling in
the aforesaid way had been in use for centuries in the Scandinavian and German
countries and especially in Germany, where the Mason gilds were blossoming to
a far greater extent than in Scandinavia. And yet many of the expressions of
the Masons' profession in Scandinavia are pure German. I have had no
opportunity to examine the travelling customs of the English Masons, but I
suppose that they were just the same as above told, as it looks that the
customs as previously mentioned were international.
to sum up. My viewpoint is that the Masonic rites are built up from and
founded on the practices and customs of the actual working Masons, as these
offered the opportunity of a deeper understanding and interpretation it was
possible to underlay the different tools and the use of them a moral content
and a moral teaching could be applied to the special travelling custom of the
this reason I believe that the travel. which the candidate has to make, is to
be interpreted in this way, that thereby the lodge will teach him to travel
through his own interior being, that he may know himself; and to do this
travel he is dressed in white as a worshiper of the highest being; and to have
with him during the travel his tools - the trowel and so on - that he may
be able to repair and to correct the faults and wants that he may find in
Although it is an old saying, "qui s excuse s'accuse," I can not help asking
your pardon, that I have bothered you with this long letter which meanwhile is
due to my interest in your paper. I need not draw. your attention to the feet
that I am a foreigner, as my mistakes in the use of the English language show
this, but I hope that you will make to yours the saying: "at desint hires
tamen est laudanda voluntas."
have a word from Judge Olivarius is a pleasure always, he is so deeply learned
in Freemasonry and in the world and a man who, in spite of contact with crime
and shame so many years on the bench, has retained a human outlook on life. A
Dane by birth, he graduated from the University of Copenhagen and then took up
law, which he practiced continuously until 1918. He was made a Mason in St.
John's Lodge, Dagmar, under the Swedish Rite. He received his Apprentice
Degree in 1891, and his Master's in about two years thereafter, which is in
keeping with the policy of the Swedish Rite in setting long periods of time
between the degrees; and in 1905 received his eighth, or Templar Degree.
Freemasonry has interested him so much that at every opportunity he has
visited lodges in all parts of Scandinavia, in France, Belgium, Germany, etc.
Knowing how it would interest readers of THE BUILDER we are now trying to
persuade him to lay aside his modesty long enough to give us his observations
and reminiscences of the Craft as it works in those foreign parts.
cannot find fault with his interpretation of the "Great Journey" except
possibly on this one point, that in England where Speculative Freemasonry
arose, and where our Ritual took shape, it was never the custom for a Mason
out of his apprentice indentures to spend one or two years as a journeyman,
travelling about in search of work, as was the ease in Continental lands; the
custom was discouraged from a very early date, and in the fourteenth century
was expressly prohibited.
queer things turn up in the mail. One brother asked us to help him buy a Greek
restaurant, why Greek he did not say; another importuned our assistance in
raising a mortgage from his farm, which request we deemed the most
complimentary ever received; one swain asked our assistance in meeting some
attractive damsel; but the most richly treasured of all is a contribution from
a budding poet. The verses have the w. k. King Solomon allusion and otherwise
show earmarks of having come from an initiated:
ladies dress like everything
make their charms so coyly peep
Solomon, when he was king
dressed, I'm sure, about twice as cheap."
* * *
old - time reader, who has long sat at our fireside, has asked, "Who is your
favorite novelist of the present day?" Joseph Conrad for this scribe! Who is
yours? If ever there was a greater yarn than "Heart of Darkness" (in the
volume called Youth) one would like to see it.
* * *
Hynes has supplied us with a few more copies of the little booklet Story of
the Monad. First come, first served.
* * *
North Dakota Society for the Advancement of Learning, sponsored by the
Scottish Rite of that state, have published a well printed and illustrated
book called The School Bell for use by Masonic lodges, edited and compiled by
Bro. Alfred G. Arvold. It is filled with solid information about public
education in the United States. A package of copies was sent to us for
distribution gratis to such brethren as have need for them. Send name and
address. One copy at a time.