The Builder Magazine
March 1928 - Volume XIV - Number 3
The Shadow of the Vatican
DR. LEO CADIUS
(Continued from February)
THIS series of articles is written by a member of the Roman Church.
is still a member of that Church and has no desire to leave it.
The articles do not touch on any matter of faith or doctrine, and while
severely critical of the administration are in no sense an attack upon the
is the author's opinion that the reforms he proposes would not only be to the
advantage of Roman Catholics but would largely remove the suspicions of so
many thoughtful non-Romanist American citizens.
LET me say in advance that Zambolinus is a fictitious character.
Not so many years ago a young, but influential, Italian ecclesiastic came to
our shores. Zambolinus, an impecunious young American priest, borrowed two
thousand dollars from a Polish pastor to entertain the Italian. Zambolinus, by
the way, is not of Polish extraction. He worms his way into the good graces of
the interesting visitor. He has a very attractive financial proposition to
make him. Through this Italian who was destined to have a very brilliant
career, Zambolinus obtains a letter of introduction to Signorina Peppina in
Rome. He is admitted into the sanctum of Zambo. He understands so well how to
humor the little French poodle that he becomes his chief favorite. It is for
that reason that he is surnamed Zambolinus.
Zambo being, as has been stated, the Pope's chief deputy in governing the
Catholic Church in the United States, Zambolinus, as the poodle's foremost
favorite, figures as the power behind the throne. Many a clever American
prelate has attempted to supplant him in the assertion of Zambo. But none has
ever succeeded in eliciting nearly as many friendly wags of the tail from him
as has our tricky Zambolinus.
Having the instincts of a Prussian drill master Zambolinus rules his clergy
with a rod of iron. He walks rough shod over them in utter disregard of the
canon law that guarantees them certain rights. There is no appeal against his
tyranny. The all-powerful Zambo protects him. So there is nothing left for the
priests, the highly educated moral leaders and educators, but to jump through
the hoop as he cracks the whip. Byzantinism has become rampant where it was
formerly unknown. Simony, the sale and purchase of ecclesiastical offices,
such as pastorates, is practiced openly. The pronunciation of the Latin has
also been changed. In the place of the ancient per omnia saecula saeculorum
wherewith the priests formerly ended the orisons of the High Mass, they are
singing now in unison: per omrtia shekels
Zambolinus, as custodian of the credit of a prosperous corporation sole -
built up mostly by the financial sacrifices of the good Catholic working
people - is fond of worldly splendor. The draperies in his episcopal residence
cost over fifty thousand dollars; his bedroom suite fifteen thousand dollars;
his automobiles are insured for thirty- five thousand dollars. At a small
banquet he gave in honor of a distinguished visitor of the Zambo Brotherhood,
the roses alone cost about a thousand dollars. The hotel bills he runs up
while vacationing at the seashore have become a national topic in
ecclesiastical circles. At great occasions, a galaxy of purple prelates and
papal knights with cape and sword surround his throne. It surely pays to court
Zambo - as far as this world is concerned. Compare with his the life of a
lonely mission priest in southwestern Texas who inhabits a hovel, feasts on
peas and stale bread and makes his circuit on an old nag or in second-hand
Zambolinus is not without his commendable qualities. He is an able, vigilant
administrator. He shirks no issue. He is prompt, no procrastinator. But by
reason of his great personal extravagance, his insatiable vain-glory, his
ingratitude, his double-dealing, his lack of veracity - strange traits in a
bishop - and, most of all, by reason of his tyranny, he is detested by his
subjects, the people as well as the clergy. He must have been the recipient of
numerous threatening letters. At any rate, he rarely, if ever, ventures forth
into public without a bodyguard of detectives, over a dozen or more at times,
all furnished by the city of his episcopal see.
account of his unshakable and unbreakable "pull" with Zambo, the domineering,
vindictive Zambolinus is feared by practically the entire American hierarchy.
The Knights of Columbus are, so to speak, the secular arm of the American
Catholic episcopate. They carry out its policies. It is obvious that they
entertain a great respect for the wishes of Zambolinus who, through the grace
and favor of Zambo, is something of a dictator in the American Church. Under
these circumstances, he is a great potential factor in American politics:
city, county, state and national. He may not have the power to nominate
presidential candidates, but he should easily command sufficient influence, by
exerting a little pressure on the hierarchy, to prevent the nomination of any
presidential candidate, on either the Republican or the Democratic ticket,
whom he dislikes.
is not probable that Zambolinus takes much of a hand in secular politics. His
ambition lies in a different direction. But if he wants to, he can hold the
balance of power in a presidential campaign.
is a formidable potentiality in the political life of the nation. This
prestige he owes to Zambo, the symbolical Italian-owned little poodle in Rome;
to Zambo, the deputy of the Holy Father, of the most absolutistic and most
powerful autocrat in the world.
But let me repeat that Zambolinus is-merely a fictitious character.
The Catholic Church has made remarkable progress in this country. Thanks to
her iron-clad unity and her perfect organization, she can achieve great
results with a minimum expenditure of brains, initiative and money. Ample
credit is due to her splendid system of parish schools. Also the improved
facilities of transportation, notably the automobile, have highly benefited
the country districts. Magnificent churches, academies, colleges, elementary
schools, hospitals have grown like mushrooms out of the ground everywhere in
the last thirty years. An efficient publicity service has been organized to
disseminate Catholic literature. The Knights of Columbus have developed into a
powerful body whose influence is felt throughout the nation. Without going
into further details, we may safely state that the resources and equipment of
the Roman Church in this country is vastly, nay infinitely, superior to those
of thirty or forty years ago.
She is also putting up a fairly successful fight against race suicide. And
although our new immigration laws favor the Nordic nations, nevertheless she
seems to gain more by immigration than all other denominations combined.
All in all, if the Roman Church keeps up her present rate of increase - and
there is no reason apparent why she should not - we will have to figure with
the probability that in half a century from now the Catholics will
preponderate numerically over all non-Catholics combined. In other words, the
population of the United States will in a majority be Roman Catholic.
That also means - laugh, kind reader, laugh - that Zambo of Rome will be the
undisputed dictator of the American Republic. By Zambo is understood, of
course, our present hierarchic system. For the literal Zambo, the little
French poodle, will be dead. He will be succeeded by some other Zambo, or Fido,
or Caro, some bulldog, terrier, pug, dachshund, spitz or mongrel owned by some
Italian Cardinal's relative.
may conjure up already in our minds the future pilgrimages our presidential
candidates will make to Rome to secure Zambo's endorsement. How deferentially
they will kiss his paw ! How they will shower presents upon him! What generous
election pledges they will lay at his feet!
The year 1976 will be the second centenary of the United States. By that time
one-half of the population ought to be Catholic, according to present
prospects. My prophetic vision tells me that in that year Zambo himself in
person will visit the United States to grace the Philadelphia exposition. The
Atlantic fleet - navy or air - will accompany him across the ocean as an
escort of honor. At the twelve-mile limit the official delegates will welcome
him. He will enter New York in triumph. The President of the United States
will reverentially kneel before him to kiss his paw. The army will pass before
him in parade. On a specially built train, painted in cardinal red, he will
tour the country amid one continuous ovation. All the governors of our
sovereign states and the mayors of our metropolitan cities will hasten to
render him homage with bended knees.
The crafty King Louis XI of France made his barber his principal adviser. The
mentally brilliant King Frederick the Great of Prussia was largely swayed by
the instinct of his two pet dogs. He distrusted anybody at whom they might
suspiciously sniff. The Czarina Elizabeth of Russia - oh, well, all history
illustrates abundantly that in autocracies the most ridiculous things
imaginable have happened. The Vatican is the most absolutistic of all
autocracies. Nowhere in the world, with the exception of Ireland since 1925,
is the Vatican's control as absolute as it is over the Catholics of the United
States. So we may confidently look forward for many a ludicrous stunt pulled
off under Zambo rule, for many a rare treat for our American sense of humor.
But supposing now that the American sense of humor is not sufficiently
developed to welcome the thought of having Zambo for a national dictator, what
There is but one answer to that question. The American non- Catholics will
have to see to it that their Catholic fellow- citizens become emancipated from
the rule of Zambo.
STATE CONTROL OF THE CHURCH
most of the so-called Christian countries, the pope's power is defined and
limited by the existing concordates between the Holy See and the respective
governments. These agreements guarantee a certain amount of protection to the
Church. But, on the other hand, they also restrict her freedom. She had to
accept them under duress. The state arrogates to itself control over her.
Union of state and church usually means servitude of the Church.
the United States of America the Church is not hampered by these limitations.
The papacy has a free hand. It has made the most of this rare opportunity. The
result is that the American Church with her immense resources, the fruits of
the generous sacrifices of her adherents, is completely controlled by the
masterful Italian Oligarchy. The latter arbitrarily selects the bishops and
appoints them custodians of the diocesan finances. These care-takers are
accountable to the pope only. If the faithful want to obtain a glimpse of
their financial status, they have to petition Rome.
While in many an American diocese the clergy and the people are dissatisfied
with the financial administration of their bishop, I have to learn yet of an
instance of a petition for an investigation being forwarded to Rome. They lack
the courage. The priests are peons, the lay people unaccustomed to have a
voice in ecclesiastical affairs. Neither the Catholic nor the secular press
dare to print a word displeasing to the Roman Catholic hierarchy. The state
and federal legislators fear it, speak only in whispers of its power. Money,
the financial resources of over one hundred American dioceses, the moral
prestige of the sacrosanct bishops, their potential influence in politics and
business - all these factors combined form an unassailable wall of protection
for the existing hierarchic system. This system, with its colossal power, the
Roman Pontiff holds in the hollow of his hand.
The American Catholics are far from being pleased with this state of affairs.
The common clergy and the thinking part of the laity would like to have a
share in the management of their respective dioceses and in the appointment of
bishops. Some of the bishops also feel keenly their humiliating status of
lackies to the Italians. But they are all tongue- tied - bishops, priests and
The pope is safe-guarded against all criticism by the reverence due him, in
the Catholic mind, as Vicar of Christ on earth. Under the protection of this
cloak of reverence, he has stripped the young church of America of every
vestige of self-determination and home-rule. He selects the bishops as he
pleases, the bishops appoint the pastors arbitrarily. Thus we have the
unworthy spectacle of American priests fawning on their bishops, of American
bishops courting Zambo.
Zambolinus considers the Catholic Church the greatest democracy in the world.
In a way it is. A sufficiently bold and unscrupulous youth who knows how to
"work" this Italian Oligarchy, can easily attain the position of right-hand
man of the papal viceroy in Washington and make himself national dictator of
the Church, under Italian supervision.
There are, of course, many American Catholics who differ from him. In their
mind, the present constitution of the Church is a slap in the face of
democracy and an insult to American self-respect. But they are powerless. A
bishop or priest who raises his voice in protest, is promptly crushed. A
layman does not feel qualified to pass an opinion in such a matter. But
bishop, priest, or layman, he cannot make himself heard, if he tried. For the
press, Catholic or secular, is also tongue-tied. And a criticism voiced in a
Protestant publication would be interpreted as an unfriendly act, inspired by
anti-Catholic bias. Thus any protest directed against the high-handed Italian
monopoly would be a pebble cast into the ocean; it would not oven raise as
much as a bubble.
THE ACTUAL SITUATION
To sum it up: The Roman Catholic Church in America is helpless in the grip of
the Italian octopus that chokes any and every aspiration of national
self-respect and democracy. Delivery can only come from the outside, from the
American non-Catholics, if their interest can be aroused and if they master
sufficient courage to meet the issue.
may be mistaken, but it seems to me that even non- Catholics who are kindly
disposed towards the Catholic Church and lavish in their praise of her
remarkable vitality, strength, consistency and other distinguishing features,
feel somewhat uncomfortable at her rapidly increasing prestige and power. They
are under the impression, and justly so, that the present constitution of the
Roman hierarchy will slowly but surely develop into a formidable menace to
American democracy and national self- respect. But in delicate regard for
Catholic sentiment and susceptibilities, and in broad-minded disinclination to
meddle in other people's religion, they dare not suggest a change of the
The only American non-Catholics who speak openly of a Catholic peril are the
patrons of those scurrilous sheets that revile everything Catholic, past,
present and future. They stoop to the lowest misrepresentations and patent
calumnies. They usually sail under Protestant flag, to the deep chagrin and
disgust of all fair-minded intelligent Protestants.
These fanatics, however, are right in one thing: There is a Catholic peril.
Not that the Catholics would ever conspire against the government. Nothing is
further from their mind. The Catholics have always and everywhere been loyal
to the lawfully constituted authority. Even to a government that persecuted
them and deprived them of their just civic rights.
The danger lies somewhere else. The day seems to be in sight when the
Catholics, by their mere numerical preponderance, will have it within their
power to control the government. That in itself would constitute no peril
whatsoever. There is no doubt that a Catholic President, assisted by a
preponderantly Catholic Congress, would continue the government along the
established lines. Catholic mayors and predominantly Catholic city councils in
New York, Chicago and Boston have not differed from non-Catholic
administrations, nor have Catholic governors in Illinois and New York from
With a Catholic majority in the United States, the power of the Roman
hierarchy, now already considerable, would be paramount. The priests, moral
peons, can be intimidated into paying homage, obedience and money to the
bishop, where the latter has no right to demand them. I could name two
important archdioceses in which the priests, with gnashing of teeth, are
paying such tribute. Through these peon- priests a bishop can, if he wants to,
exact successfully not only money and homage, but even political obedience of
the Catholic people. The atmosphere of reverence protects him against public
criticism. Under these conditions, the officials of the city, state and
government can be intimidated into submitting to the dictation of the bishops.
In a preponderantly Catholic America, the entire system of government, city,
county, state and federal, the educational system, our state universities,
could thus be easily controlled by the Roman Catholic hierarchy.
HOW IT MIGHT WORK
Even that need not necessarily cause any alarm. A broad- minded and just
hierarchy will respect the freedom of conscience, will recognize merit, will
encourage the progress in science and culture, will foster social welfare and
But here is the danger: the American Catholics have absolutely no voice in the
appointment of their bishops. That right is invested in the Italian Autocracy.
The American episcopate is completely enslaved, body and soul, by said
Autocracy. Yes, even bodily. The American bishop proclaims it in his official
documents that he is bishop "by the favor of the Apostolic See." Through this
favor he enters into possession of the episcopal residence and of the
episcopal revenues. A withdrawal of this favor means dispossession for him.
Under the present hierarchic system, in a predominantly Catholic America, the
Italian Autocracy would be the long distance but actual supreme government of
the people of the United States. The President and Congress will represent an
eviscerated nominal government with no more than a shadow of power.
Under the present hierarchic system, the American candidates for public office
will scramble for the favor of the Zambolinuses as the American Zambolinuses
are scrambling for the favor of the Italian prelates and of their relatives
Under the present hierarchic system, there will rest with some Italian
cardinal's sister, with some Italian cardinal's secretary, with some Italian
Friar Joseph, the decision whether a Republican or a Democrat shall occupy the
White House. Presidential and other elections will be mere mock performances.
Under the present hierarchic system, a future President will be enabled to
style himself truthfully:
"N. M.......... by favor of the Apostolic See, President of the United States
of North America."
UNCLE SAM AT THE CROSS-ROADS
Personally I am acquainted with only about twenty American bishops. That is
less than one-fifth of the American hierarchy. However, I have met priests
from all parts of the country. From their conversation I have received the
following impression of the American Catholic episcopate:
About one-third of the bishops are men of conspicuous ability and merit. It is
for that reason that they have been chosen by the Vatican. Some of them are
men of outstanding merit. But they are not to be found at the top of the
The second third are mediocre men who owe their dignity to somebody's
unsolicited kind recommendation. They can hardly be blamed for accepting the
"greatness" thrust upon them.
The last and very influential third are men who kissed, figuratively speaking,
the paw of Zambo.
Byzantinism is in the ascendant. From present indications it would appear that
in thirty years from now about four-fifths of the American hierarchy will be
members of the Zambo Brotherhood. Why not all, or nearly all of them ? Because
Zambo finds it to his own interest to award a bishopric occasionally - usually
an unimportant one - to a man of merit, to a man who has not kissed his paw.
The American Catholic bishops as a rule do not dabble in politics, at least
not openly, for fear of arousing Protestant susceptibilities; also for other
reasons. Occasionally, though, they make use of their potential political
power, either in the interest of public morality or to hand a plum to a
favorite of theirs.
Here are two instances:
a certain American metropolis the Democratic party intended to renominate a
certain judge of the juvenile court. Said judge had proven himself utterly
unfit for his office. Among other things, he had in open session put questions
in unprintable language concerning abnormal sexual aberrations to mere
children. The Archbishop of the city sends word to the party leaders that if
they nominated that misfit, he would, contrary to all usage, publicly oppose
him. They dropped him.
The other instance:
spring 1926 a little celebration was held on the outskirts of an American
metropolis in honor of the Archbishop. A Protestant United States Senator was
one of the principal speakers. At the close of the celebration the Archbishop,
shaking hands with him, remarked: "Senator, I want to ask you a favor. Could
you not get for Mr. A. the position of -____ ?"
The position mentioned is an important federal "job" and from the point of
view of Prohibition a very interesting one. Mr. A. is a well-known Catholic
will do my best, Archbishop," replied the Senator.
Three months later Mr. A. received the federal appointment. He is a good and
capable man, well qualified for the position. There is nothing wrong about his
appointment. Many an office-holder may perhaps owe his position to the
recommendation of some Protestant bishop. Why should not a Catholic bishop
recommend somebody for office? But here is the difference: a Protestant bishop
owes his power to American citizens who elected him bishop. A Catholic bishop
owes his power to Zambo, the representative of a foreign autocrat.
Zambo is a factor in American political life. He has been distributing
patronage all along. He has nominated candidates and he has defeated
candidates. His power is growing in leaps and bounds. Slowly but surely the
day is approaching when Uncle Sam will find himself at the mercy of Zambo.
Zambo will in all probability be a broad-minded, easy-going master. He will be
strict in but one thing: He will insist on very strict laws regarding divorce.
He may prohibit divorce altogether. Outside of that, he will not interfere
with personal freedom. On the contrary, he will be too tolerant towards vice
and corruption. All in all, he will be a good-natured, open-minded, congenial
master with plenty of human sympathy. He will give abuse and take abuse. His
rule will in many ways resemble that of the Tammany Hall of the olden days but
with a greater regard for decorum and public respectability.
have heard the opinion expressed that Cardinal O'Connell of Boston was the
political sponsor of President Coolidge. I am fully convinced that this is a
"false alarm." But - and this is important - it might easily have been the
case. To whom does a prelate like Cardinal O'Connell owe his great power and
prestige? His official stationery will tell you: "William Cardinal O'Connell,
by the grace of God and favor of the Apostolic See, Archbishop of Boston." He
is an appointee, an agent, of the Apostolic See, of the most absolutistic of
THE POSSIBLE REMEDY
the American non-Catholics really want to prevent their country from becoming
a papal satrapy, they will have to take action. I can see but one course open
to them: to emancipate the American Catholics from the yoke of the Italian
is all-important that the rescue crew, that volunteers to engineer this
emancipation, proceed in a strictly objective, dispassionate, friendly way.
All antiCatholic bias will have to be suppressed. The American Catholics are,
after all, well-meaning, loyal citizens, sociable and open-minded, who rather
believe in parading their faults than their virtues. They are the victims of
circumstances. They have been slowly and imperceptibly subjugated by the
subtle Italian autocracy.
The first step should be to arouse the Catholics to a realization of their
humiliating situation. Their parish schools offer a convenient handle.
These schools are a valuable asset to the nation and to the church. They teach
sound Christian morality based on the fear of God. They inculcate respect for
lawfully constituted authority. They foster a spirit of loyalty and
There is just one fly in the ointment. These schools are also instrumental,
unconsciously, in creating an atmosphere of servile reverence for the Italian
oligarchy, which despises democracy and ignores national self-respect.
CONFLICT OF IDEALS
The American non-Catholics are aware of this. There exists a widespread
propaganda to safeguard national ideals in the common schools. The State of
Oregon passed a law prohibiting private primary schools. The federal courts
declared this law unconstitutional, because encroaching on the natural right
of the parents to select whatever education they deem best for their children.
This decision of the federal courts might be challenged. In most civilized
countries, America included, there are compulsory school laws forcing parents
to provide a certain minimum of education for their children. According to
above decision, such compulsory school laws would also infringe on parental
rights. Nobody views them in that light, however. On the contrary, these
compulsory school laws are considered beneficial and in keeping with the
spirit of progress.
a sovereign state of the Union has the right to prescribe a minimum of
elementary education, may it not also claim the right to insist that in the
parish schools the American ideals of democracy and national self-respect be
the Soviets conducted in this country private elementary schools - as they are
doing in England - in which two million American children were taught
communistic and anarchistic ideals, would the state or federal authorities
have the right to close these schools? I am not prepared to answer that
question, but I am convinced that the American Catholics would clamor for the
suppression of those schools without concerning themselves much about the
natural rights of the Soviet parents to select for their children whatever
education they consider most suitable.
England, a bill has been introduced recently into the Upper House, demanding
the suppression of the Soviet schools far teaching anarchism and immorality.
There is no such perversion taught in the Catholic schools. On the contrary,
the opposite ideals are being fostered. But there is being instilled also into
the minds of two million pupils of the American Catholic parish schools the
deepest possible reverence, the strongest possible attachment, to a foreign
absolutistic system: the Italian Autocracy.
The spirit, if not the letter, of the Constitution of the United States surely
ought to empower the state legislatures and the federal government to employ
the means necessary to protect the American ideals of democracy and national
self- respect. The State Legislatures and Congress would be acting according
to the spirit of the Constitution, then, if they adopted a legislative measure
to the effect that:
Only such organizations or individuals as conform to our traditional ideals of
democracy and national self-respect can be authorized to conduct private
elementary schools .
THE CHURCH AND AMERICAN IDEALS
The great question then would be: Does the Roman Catholic Church, in its
present hierarchic form of government, conform to the American ideals of
democracy and national self-respect ?
for one, would answer: No !
the Roman Catholic Church adopted a representative form of government, as has,
for instance, the Protestant Episcopal Church;
If the administrative powers be invested, say in an Upper House of the Bishops
and a Lower House of the common clergy and laity;
if the members of both Houses are chosen, indirectly, through popular vote;
if the Pope, the Supreme Executive of the Church, be elected in a truly
representative form that accords equal, pro rata, recognition to the various
nationalities constituting the Church:
Would the Roman Catholic Church then conform to our established standard of
democracy and national self-respect ?
would answer: Yes.
Let us assume now that the Federal Government felt authorized to close the
Catholic parish schools, because the present hierarchic form of government of
the Roman Church does not conform to our traditional standard of democracy and
national self-respect: what would the effect be?
The parish schools being of paramount importance to the Church, more important
even than the very houses of worship, the American Catholic hierarchy would be
compelled to petition the Pope that he accede to the reasonable demands of the
American government and that he reorganize the government of the Church on a
Could not the American bishops of their own accord petition the pope to this
effect, without being forced by the Federal Government?
They could: but they would never muster sufficient courage to do so. Never,
unless they are compelled to. They would never, even in the humblest and most
apologetic language, presume to submit to the Holy Father a petition that
would displease him and his Italian advisers.
would no doubt be an easy matter to convince our Congress that the Italian
Autocracy, with its absolute control over the American Catholic hierarchy, is
developing into a rapidly growing menace to American independence. In fact, it
is already a formidable menace.
But quite a different thing would it be to persuade Congress - or the
legislature of a state with a large Catholic population - to take action
against the menace.
Its attitude would probably be like that of a well-known Chicago judge. When a
certain alderman, a powerful politician who had been caught in the meshes of
the law, was assigned to his court to be sentenced, he threw up his hands:
"Please don't pass the buck to me!" Congress will want to pass the pleasure of
taking the Italian bull by the horns on to some future Congress. However,
under pressure, it would accept the inevitable.
Here is one mode of procedure that might be followed: Let a bill be introduced
into the House requesting the Administration to recommend to His Holiness the
Pope, residing in Rome, Italy, to change certain administrative and doctrinal
tenets of the Roman Church that constitute a source of apprehension and
anxiety to the liberty-loving people of the United States. The changes
That His Holiness the Pope reorganize the government of the Church on a
representative basis that would accord to the Catholic clergy and the people
the power to elect its ecclesiastical superiors and to share in the
administration of the temporalities of the Church, and also would accord to
the various nations constituting the Roman Church, a fair, pro rata,
representation in the Supreme Government of the Church. a government of the
United States is aware of the fact that the Roman Church in its original
constitution is not a republic and that the spiritual powers of the hierarchy
of the Roman Church are not derived from the consent of those governed, but
are derived from the Sacrament of Holy Order. The Government of the United
States, therefore, does not suggest a change that would conflict with the
original constitution of the Roman Church, but on the contrary suggests a
return to said original or primitive constitution and, perhaps, the perfecting
of said original constitution along the lines of modern electoral methods.
That His Holiness the Pope repudiate the claim of the papacy, as voiced by
approved Catholic theologians, that all civil authority is subject to the
That His Holiness the Pope repudiate the claim of the papacy - that the Roman
Pontiff has the divine right to force, under given conditions, the Catholic
religion on people unwilling to embrace said religion.
His Holiness the Pope should reject these demands, what then?
The Federal Government could, through the regular channels, adopt the
Close the Catholic parish schools.
Demand the withdrawal of the Papal Delegate in Washington, as, under those
circumstances, his presence in the United States would be a source of
apprehension and discomfort to the liberty-loving American people. Moreover,
in case of a great religious excitement, his safety could not be guaranteed.
Require of every Catholic citizen who wants to exercise the right of the
ballot, a two-fold oath:
that he, the Catholic voter, repudiates the claim of the papacy that all civil
authority is subject to the Roman Pontiff;
that he repudiates the divine right of the Roman Pontiff to compel, under
given conditions, non-Catholics to embrace the Catholic faith.
Needless to say, this oath should also be demanded of every Catholic candidate
That in every textbook of United States history used in American schools, a
brief chapter be inserted explaining the reasons why the American government
adopted those measures in regard to the Catholic Church. It ought to be made
clear to the rising generation that the government was forced to take these
steps in the interest of the freedom of conscience and of lasting religious
Place an "embargo" on the Peter's Pence.
Exclude Catholic immigrants.
These measures would be merely the opening skirmishes in the gigantic
the American Government demanded of the papacy the repeal of the absolutist
and intolerant laws that disturb the religious peace of the world in general,
and of the American people in particular, it would confer a signal favor on
the vast majority of the American Catholics. Of course, tongue- tied as they
are, they could only give their secret approval. They would, however, come out
in the open, if among the more than one hundred bishops there were found one
man sufficiently courageous to endorse publicly the action of the government.
But this is not to be hoped for.
(To be Continued)
Mexico Resolves to Carry On
not often that THE BUILDER undertakes to publish news. But so many of our
readers have been profoundly disappointed at the prospect of the complete
failure of the campaign for the relief of tuberculous Masons that we have felt
obliged to make space for the good news that has just reached us in the
following telegram from M. W. Bro. H. B. Holt, President of the Association.
BUILDER, St. Louis, Mo.
Lodge adopted report and recommendations. Jurisprudence Committee revised
resolution, which was also adopted, recommending that the Association change
its name to Masonic Tuberculosis Association. Also recommended changing
Article four of charter to make the Association the agent or trustee of the
Grand Lodge of New Mexico. Also recommended changing Article six to provide
for the election of the Board by the Grand Lodge of New Mexico, or the
appointment of Board members by the Grand Master, not limiting membership to
New Mexico brethren. The resolution also reaffirms the recognition of the
obligation upon the Fraternity to relieve the sick, and the conviction that
organized effort is necessary, and that the entire Fraternity should unite in
the work, and function through the Association. The resolution favors
continuance of the effort to arouse the Fraternity, and pledged Grand Lodge
assistance in securing action by other Grand Lodges and Masonic Bodies. It
directed the Grand Master to make the appeal in the name of the Grand Lodge.
It also pledged the continuance of the one dollar assessment on New Mexico
Masons. When the Association Board adopts the suggested amendments the
organization will then be an Association of Master Masons incorporated by the
authority of the Grand Lodge of New Mexico, and controlled by it, to secure
aid for and furnish relief to tuberculous Masons, and members of their
families sojourning in the Southwest, seeking the benefits of the climate; and
also to secure action by Grand Lodges and Masonic Bodies for relief and
hospitalization of tuberculous Masons and members of their families in every
recommendations spoken of in this communication formed part of the report
presented by Bro. Holt, as President of the Association to the Grand Lodge. An
advance copy of this was sent to us, but too late for publication in this
issue. We give, however, the recommendations below, and will print the
remainder of the report in the April number of THE BUILDER.
action taken by this Grand Lodge with reference to this Report will determine
the fate of the National Masonic Tuberculosis Sanatoria Association.
Association was sponsored and its Charter applied for and obtained by
authority and direction of this Grand Body; and there is here presented for
determination the question of whether or not steps shall be taken to dissolve
the corporation, or an effort made to perpetuate its primary objects through
amendments of the Charter, changing the plan of organization; or, whether or
not it is advisable to abandon the existing legal entity, and substitute some
other agency through which to administer tubercular relief; or, whether or not
this Grand Lodge shall entirely abandon tubercular relief work except such as
strictly relates to brethren of this Grand Jurisdiction and their families.
existing legal entity is not perpetuated, it will be necessary to consult the
donors of relief funds as to the disposition to be made of same.
existing corporation is not dissolved, and its Charter is amended as above
suggested, no complication will arise as to administration and disposition of
relief funds with the possible exception of such as may have been specifically
donated for building purposes, and as to those it is our belief that authority
may readily be obtained to expend them for tubercular relief.
movement in which we have been engaged did not involve the lives and homes of
Master Masons, it would be easy to reach the conclusion that we have done our
utmost, and that our responsibility is ended; but consciousness of the fact
that there is involved the welfare and lives of so many indigent brethren and
members of their families, suggests that we should discuss the question from
the standpoint of our obligations as Masons.
defeat is not conceded, and if this Grand Lodge shall determine to "carry on,"
notwithstanding the indifference and apathy toward, and ignorance of, the
great problem, until, like the importunate widow of the Scriptures (Luke
18:2-5), by our constant repetition of appeal and argument, we compel a
hearing and secure action by the great body of American Freemasonry, then, as
stewards of this trust, it would appear to be our duty to point out the way
whereby another, and perhaps successful, effort may be made.
studious review of the whole great effort to date, reveals the outstanding,
significant and regrettable fact that American Freemasons, as individuals,
have not been permitted to consider and act upon our appeal, because Masonic
leaders in the several sister jurisdictions, with few exceptions, have
declined to authorize or permit the circularization of constituent lodges and
their individual members.
plan of organization contemplated an association of Grand Lodges and other
Masonic bodies, for relief on a national scale.
only has our effort to perfect such an organization failed, but the Masonic
Service Association has lost many of its member Grand Lodges; and it is
evident that there is a growing prejudice against national Masonic
associations - no matter how worthy the object.
this Grand Lodge shall approve the suggested amendment of our Charter, and if
same is amended as suggested, the existing corporation would thereby become an
Association of Master Masons, rather than of Masonic bodies; which, however,
would still constitute a legal entity or corporation sponsored by and largely
under the control and direction of this Grand Lodge, by virtue of the fact
that all New Mexico members of the Fraternity are members of the existing
Association, and would continue so to be; and members of the Board of
Governors would be chosen from individual Masons of Grand Jurisdictions, who
might signify their willingness to serve by reason of their interest in the
work, and their membership in the Association.
is possible that the future development of the movement may ultimately result
in the accomplishment of our primary object and purpose.
thus, having a legal entity, so sponsored and directed, this Grand Lodge would
be in position to appeal to sister Grand jurisdictions and other Masonic
bodies, for financial aid, and such appeal should emanate from this Grand
Lodge; and the funds of the Association might ultimately prove sufficient to
provide for the activities of the Fort Bayard Relief and Sojourners Club, and
similar activities - whereby the general fund of this Grand Lodge would be
relieved to that extent.
it be determined to recommend the dissolving of the existing corporation, it
will immediately become incumbent upon this Grand body to determine through
what, if any, agency relief work shall be administered.
event of such decision, it would seem advisable to create a more or less
permanent agency, in the shape of an appropriately named committee of five or
seven members, who shall be appointed or elected - the minority number for a
period of two years and the majority for a period of three years, and
thereafter their respective successors to be chosen for terms of three years.
an agency, if created, should be clothed with full administrative and
discretionary powers, through the medium of appropriate legislation by this
third alternative is that of abandoning organized tubercular relief work,
except such as is strictly required for our own indigent tuberculars and their
families, and the continued maintenance and support of the Fort Bayard Relief
and Sojourners Club.
adoption of this policy would be in line with that advocated and pursued by
many of our sister Grand jurisdictions; but would be contrary to our
conception of the fundamental teachings of Masonry.
taught and understand that all Masons are our brethren, regardless of the
Grand jurisdiction from which they hail, and that it is our duty to respond
whenever we perceive the Grand Hailing Sign of Distress.
regard for our obligations precludes the ignoring of the appeal of any
distressed worthy brother no matter whence he comes.
individual Masons we are taught to practice charity and to be truly
benevolent, but organized charity is absolutely essential in order properly
and adequately to deal with the great problem which confronts American
of the opinion that this Grand Lodge would do well to consider the first
mentioned proposition. Therefore, in order to initiate discussion of the whole
subject and to present the primary proposition in such form that it may be
acted upon, we submit the following proposed resolution, to-wit:
WHEREAS, the President of the National Masonic Tuberculosis Sanatoria
Association has reported to this Grand Lodge inability to complete
organization of the Association along the lines prescribed in the original
Charter, and has suggested that the Charter be so amended as to change the
name, method of government, and plan of organization;
THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED: That this Grand Lodge recommends that steps be
taken to amend the Charter- of said Association, as follows, to wit:
That the name of the Association, wherever same appears in the original
Articles of Incorporation, or Charter, shall be changed so as to read "Masonic
SECOND: That Article VI, with the exception of the Proviso therein, be amended
so as to read as follows, to-wit:
the affairs and business of this corporation shall be under the control of,
and shall be conducted by, a Board of Governors chosen by and from the
membership of the Association at each annual meeting and/or of such other
and/or additional members as from time to time, during intervals between
annual meetings, may be named by the existing Board of Governors or the
it further resolved that this Grand Lodge reaffirms its recognition of the
obligation devolving upon the Masonic Fraternity to make adequate provision
for the relief of worthy brethren and members of their families who are
victims of tuberculosis; and its firm conviction that adequate relief can be
afforded only through the medium of an efficient organization; and that the
burdens incident to providing adequate relief for indigent brethren and
members of their families, victims of tuberculosis, who migrate to the
Southwest in search of climatic advantages in the hope of regaining their
health, should be assumed and borne by the Fraternity at large, through the
medium of an agency such as that which is here involved, through which only
can the problem be efficiently and economically handled.
this Grand Lodge therefore favors a continuance of the effort, heretofore so
earnestly made to arrest the attention and arouse the interest of American
Freemasonry and to enlist the financial aid and assistance of individual
Masons and of Masonic bodies throughout the United States; and pledges a
continuance of its financial support to the further efforts and work of the
Association, and its active cooperation in the renewed and continued effort to
secure requisite financial assistance from other Grand jurisdictions and
proposed amendments, if made, will so change the name of the Association as to
meet objections made to a "National" Association, and also the opposition to
the establishment of a "National Sanatorium."
will also so change the method of government and plan of organization as to
meet and eliminate objections by some Grand Masters to participating in the
management of the Association or assuming any responsibility for its financial
under the proposed change, members of the Board of Governors may be selected
from any Grand jurisdiction, from among interested Masons who are desirous of
aiding and assisting in the work.
effect of the amendments will be to provide a legal entity, sponsored and
controlled by this Grand Lodge, to which other Grand jurisdictions and Masonic
bodies may be induced to render financial aid, as the result of direct appeals
for aid emanating from this Grand Lodge, without becoming committed to
continuous appropriations, but the support once afforded, would doubtless be
continued as long as merited.
addition it will also be possible for the Association to make direct appeal to
individual Masons for support.
adoption of the proposed resolution, this Grand Lodge will reaffirm and
declare its allegiance to the movement, and its sponsorship of the Association
heretofore created by its mandate.
for us to determine whether or not we shall "carry on" as proposed in the
foregoing resolution, or what alternative course of action shall be pursued.
ON TUBERCULAR RELIEF IN ARIZONA
report was presented to the Grand Lodge of Arizona and was adopted at the
annual communication held last month.
M. W. Grand Lodge, F. & A. M., of Arizona:
Committee on Sanatoria reports that progress has been made during the past
year in the effort to secure cooperation of other Grand Bodies in the
operation of the sanatorium at Oracle, Arizona.
appears probable that the cooperation and assistance of the Grand Lodge of New
Mexico and its constituent corporation (the N.M.T.S.A.)
(organized for benevolent and charitable purposes to secure financial
assistance from other jurisdictions and Masonic bodies for the care of Masons
and their families who are suffering from tuberculosis)
secured to assist in carrying on this work which the Grand Lodge of Arizona
has had in hand for several years, as considerable progress has been made
along these lines during the past year in conference with Grand Lodge officers
of New Mexico and other jurisdictions.
committee therefore recommends that the Grand Master be authorized to continue
negotiations with the Grand Lodge of New Mexico and other Grand Jurisdictions
and Masonic organizations, as may be necessary, to the end that all assistance
possible may be secured by the Grand Lodge of Arizona in carrying on this
determination of the brethren both in New Mexico and Arizona to continue their
efforts to meet the need for the relief of tuberculous Masons and members of
their families in spite of the discouragement of the past year is very good
news indeed, and we know that all members of the Research Society will desire
that the new attack upon the problem will be crowne with a successful issue.
Saint Patrick and the Snakes of Ireland
BRO. H. S. DARLINGTON, Oklahoma
WHERE is not much that is truly authentic in the tales about Saint Patrick;
yet we may be certain of some of the events in his life, which were connected
with his mission of driving the "snakes" out of Ireland.
His father probably held some manner of public office under the Roman governor
of Britain. Patrick in his youth was named Sucat, and was apparently born in
Wales about 389 A. D. He was captured by Irish raiders on the coast, when
about sixteen years old. For six years he was held a prisoner, during which
time he seems to have learned the language of his captors, and also he seems
to have heartily learned to hate the Druidical religion.
effected his escape, and reached Europe or Africa in a ship. He mentions
crossing a desert before reaching Gaul. But that "desert" is probably the
symbolical path of asceticism which is barren of spiritual blossoming until
priesthood has been attained. In Royal Arch Masonry, the candidates go
blind-folded over the terrible desert of ignorance and ancient faiths, all the
way from Babylon to Jerusalem. The worst is then over.
Sucat seems to have stayed for fourteen years or thereabouts in France. How
much of that time he put in studying for orders we do not know; but we do know
that he studied under the direction of the Bishop of Gaul, and received the
name of "Patricius." He was commissioned to go to Ireland to convert the poor
benighted heathen to the true faith, and to counteract the spread of an
independent sect of Christians who were working in the southeastern part of
the Emerald Isle. Patrick, however, went into northern Ireland, thus leaving
the sect in question unmolested; and so it remained until fused into the
Church of England at a later date.
Either accidentally, or purposely, Patrick broke the taboos of the Druid
priests on May-eve, when sacred or "new" fire was made throughout the
locality, by diffusion from a single flame. The Druids were really staging a
dramatization of their doctrine of the manner in which the Promethean fire, or
the blaze of forethought was brought into the dark mind- realms of mankind.
Patrick's actions were looked upon as sacrilegious, as they really were; and
thus his conflict with the Druids began. Patrick and Christianity won the
trial, and the Gospel was spread over the island rapidly. His particular
mission and hobby was the persecution of the Druids, and the suppression of
their rites and practices. He broke into their circles and their schools in
the groves. He broke into their temples, such as they were, and smashed their
idols, when they had any. In fact, Patrick and his followers seem effectively
to have banished the Druids from Ireland, if they did not also exterminate
many of them, which is not at all unlikely.
THE LEGEND OF THE SNAKES
was in that work of extirpating the Druidical faith, and in driving out the
priests called "Druids," that Saint Patrick gained that strange zoological
distinction of having driven the "snakes" out of Ireland. The Irish peasant,
however, absurdly imagines that the zealous missionary actually ridded the
swamps and meadows of literal reptiles, in spite of the fact that small
serpents are still found in Ireland. In fact, the ecclesiastics of the Roman
Catholic Church seem to have fostered this view of what Saint Patrick did.
They did not understand that the term "snake" was symbolical.
was the Druids who were the "snakes." They called themselves "snakes." They
were proud to call themselves "serpents" and especially "adders." They had
degrees of initiation into their priestly and philosophical secrets. The
candidates or those of the lowest order seem to have been called "vipers."
They lived as it were, far down from the sunlighted hill-tops. The vipers
lived in the swamps and lakes. The "adders" seem to have been the highest
order, and were the Druids proper. (1) They were supposed to be spotted with
milk-white markings of the light of wisdom and purification. They symbolically
lived upon the hill-tops, and were "Spotted Adders" basking in the sunlight of
Far and wide, the serpent is called the emblem of wisdom and knowledge. The
Druids looked upon themselves as having won the wisdom of the serpents. Even
Jesus said: "Be ye wise as serpents." But the Druids prided themselves on
spiritual and cosmic wisdom, rather than on the carnal wisdom that the serpent
conferred when "Adam knew his wife." The Egyptians tried to show that the brow
of Pharaoh was the seat of wisdom by representing the uraeus twined about his
student of Druidical lore by the name of Davies has translated the poems of a
Gaelic bard named Taliesin. In the "Ox-pen of the Bards," this poet says:
am a singer:
am a tower:
am a Druid:
am an architect:
am a prophet:
am a serpent:
Thus he identifies himself as a Druid with the serpents. In the "Battle of the
Trees," the same bard also says:
have been a spotted adder on the mount . . .
have been a viper in the lake . . .
Drest in my priest's cloke
And furnished with my bowl.
The bard is apparently speaking of the initiations through which he had passed
in being made a Druid of high order. Evidently, he passed through something
analogous to the degrees of primitive secret societies, or of Freemasonry. The
Druids are well known to have had at least three degrees which were conferred
most solemnly at night. The first and lowest was the Eubates, the second, the
Bards; and the third, the Druids. The candidate went through a symbolical
death, being buried in the West, and then was resurrected in the East in the
Third Degree. There were probably other degrees that had to be passed, too.
THE MYSTIC EGG
The Druids in their rituals staged the idea of "world renewal," and they
taught the doctrine of reincarnation of the soul, as a means of spiritual
purification and salvation. They taught the immortality of the soul, and the
final resurrection of the dead. These ideas were beautifully symbolized by
means of a small golden egg, or by a colored glass egg, which, as an emblem
and a silent promise of a new life, was hung about the neck by a chain.
Pliny says he saw one of those eggs, and he tells what he heard concerning it.
He says it was covered with a membrane or integument; but he seems not to have
examined it further than to state that the membrane was studded with small
cavities. They probably represented eyes by which the Druid saw and knew all
things. Pliny does not state whether there was a golden, a glass, or a
vitrified-clay egg within the covering. Perhaps very few of them were really
of gold. Many of the glass ones were of several colors. Pliny describes the
one he saw as an "involved ball"; and by that we assume he means that it was a
sphere or egg enclosing several other eggs concentrically, after the manner of
the Babylonian conception of the universe, world within world.
The egg was supposed to be produced in the froth of a knot of serpents, and
from them it shot forth or was tossed up. At such a moment, the plucky man
would snatch the egg or catch it in his cloak, and ride off at full speed,
with the snakes in pursuit. The thief had only to cross running water to make
himself safe, because the "adders" could not or would not continue. The egg
was also said to send its rays to a distance. It was called a "Token of Life,"
and "the splendid product of the adder." These statements have reference
doubtless to dramatic events in the rites of passage. The egg in the cloak is
no doubt the candidate himself wrapped in his own cloak. It is he who is shot
forth, tossed up, or as he would say "raised" in radiant wisdom by the
concerted teachings of the closely knitted knot of brethren who circle about
him in single file, circumambulating like a snake.
The running water that he crosses has reference to baptism, whereby
symbolically the candidate accomplishes a new birth. Then having come to the
status of the "twice-born men," the adders no longer pursue him, for he is on
a par with them. (2) As a finished mental and spiritual product of the
esoteric teachings of the adders, the tyro becomes a splendid jewel, a radiant
ball, or a golden egg, a perfect Ego. Then he is entitled to wear the golden
egg, as the insignium of his order, even as a Mason wears his emblem. The egg
is his proof offered to others that he has been shown the secrets of Life in
its fullness of immortality, radiance, wisdom, power and influence. All in
all, the ideas were most noble and poetical ones.
The one unquestioned good that Saint Patrick did accomplish was the
suppression of human sacrifices or the remnant of it that the Druids in
Ireland practiced. Their rites of "world renewal" involved the symbolical
representation of the destruction of the wicked souls, by the tossing of a
basket- full of criminals all ablaze into the sea, from off a cliff. After ten
years labours, Saint Patrick went to Rome for the first time. He came back
with several parcels of holy bones, and with them, he introduced the cult of
cadaver worship into Ireland. Even though the Cross superseded the luminous
egg as a symbol of Irish religion, we have nevertheless retained the egg in
its brightly colored form, as the emblem of the resurrection, and which is
conferred especially upon children on Easter Sunday. Easter was a great
fete-day with the Druids, but not with the early Christians. So after all, the
"Splendid Product of the Adders," was not wholly extirpated from the Emerald
Isle, even if Saint Patrick did succeed in driving the "snakes" out of the
This contrast between adders and vipers is not borne out by the zoological
facts. They are both names for the same species of viperinae. [Ed.]
It would probably be well to offer some proof for the bald statement in the
foregoing text, where it was asserted that the candidate fleeing with the
stolen egg, is not pursued farther than the stream, because therein, he is
purified by a baptismal rebirth, lifting him spiritually to the status of the
"Snakes.". The following quotation seems to substantiate the writer's
interpretation. It is taken from Conway's "Demonology and Devillore," N.Y.,
1889, page 3:
"William Craft," an African who resided for some time in the kingdom of
Dahomey, informed me of the following incident which he had witnessed there.
The sacred serpents are kept in a grand house, which they sometimes leave to
crawl in the neighboring grounds. One day a negro from some distant region
encountered one of these animals and killed it. The people learning that one
of their gods had been slain, seized the stranger, and having surrounded him
with brushwood, set it on fire. The poor wretch broke through the circle of
fire and ran, pursued by the crowd, who struck him with heavy sticks. Smarting
from the flames and blows, he rushed into a river; but no sooner had he
entered there, than the pursuit ceased and he was told that, having gone
through fire and water, he was purified, and might emerge with safety."
The candidate for Druidical honors seems to have purified himself by a baptism
in water alone, for no mention appears to be made of any requisite baptism by
fire. In the one case, the offender emerges from the stream, forgiven for
having stolen a "snake's" egg; and in the other case, he is forgiven for
having killed a snake. In either case the snakes are sacred.
The Dionysiac Artificers; A Masonic Myth
BRO. DAVID E. W. WILLIAMSON, Nevada
MANY Masonic writers, especially in recent years, have adopted the assumption
that the ancient Dionysiac Artificers of Ionia were an organized brotherhood
of architects and builders, the forerunners of the Craft if not its actual
founders. It is disconcerting, therefore, to discover in absolutely none of
the Greek and Roman authors of antiquity a single mention of them in
connection with the structural arts. Misled by their own failure to verify the
pretentious footnotes cited in Alexander Lawrie's History of Freemasonry, the
first edition of which appeared in Edinburgh in 1804 and the second edition in
1859, some very eminent brothers here and abroad have been made the victims of
an imposture that in the interest of truth should be exposed.
The first suggestion of the Dionysiac Artificers as a possible fraternity of
Masonic character was made by Professor John Robison, a Scotch mathematician,
secretary to the Royal Society of Edinburgh, who in 1797 published a book
entitled Proofs of a Conspiracy Against All the Religions and Governments of
Europe, Carried on in the Secret Meetings of the Freemasons, Illuminati, etc.
His purpose was probably political in some way, but so far as the book itself
was concerned on its face it was an attack on Freemasonry's interference with
government and included English Freemasonry as well as that on the Continent
in its indictment. In his second edition he recanted his statements about the
Craft in Great Britain. On page 20 of Proofs of a Conspiracy Professor Robison
says among other things:
know that the Dionysiaes of Ionia were a great corporation of architects and
engineers who undertook, and even monopolized, the building of temples and
stadia, precisely as the Fraternity of Freemasons monopolized the building of
cathedrals and conventual churches in the Middle Ages. Indeed, the Dionysiacs
resembled in many respects the mystic fraternity now called Freemasons.
Robison, as a scholar at a time when the classics were essential as part of
the equipment of an educated man, must have been aware that as architects and
engineers the Dionysiac Artificers were unknown to the ancients. At any rate
he limited himself to pointing out pretended points of resemblance and he did
not go so far as to say that the Dionysiac Artists and the modern Freemasons
were the same. It remained for Lawrie's History of Freemasonry eight years
later to take Robison's statement as the basis for a long chapter in which the
unqualified assertion was made that the two were identical. Lawrie was a
bookseller in Edinburgh in 1804 and because of the vogue of his book (as
Robert Freke Gould, Masonic historian, suggests), he later became Grand
Secretary of the Craft in Scotland. But he was not a man of education, and the
very learned air of his production led to the general belief that he had
employed someone else to write it. On May 9, 1863, Notes and Queries (London)
published a statement that at the sale of the library of Dr. Irving, a note in
the doctor's hand-writing was found in a copy of the History in which it was
stated that Lawrie had asked Irving to write it and on his declining had
employed David Brewster. Brewster, who afterwards became famous through his
discovery of the diffraction of light, for which he was knighted, was a young
man at the time, a recent graduate of the University of Edinburgh, who was
supporting himself by furnishing articles to encyclopedias and current
magazines, and, if he was the author of Lawrie's History he must have regarded
it as an occasion for a jeu d'e'sprit, for he certainly knew his Greek and
Roman writers. But a single putative note is hardly sufficient evidence that
Brewster had anything to do with it. Nor is it necessary to assume that the
author of the book was a man of great erudition, for the Dionysiac idea was
ready to his hand in Robison's Proofs of a Conspiracy and the classical
quotations were easily available at Lawrie's own book-shop in Lempriere's
Classical Dictionary, which had been first published in 1788 and of which
there had been many editions.
The chapter of the History in which the Artificers are discussed appears on
its face to be a very learned affair, with copious footnotes. It treats of the
Dionysia, or mysteries of Bacchus, by way of introduction, tells of how they
were interwoven with those of Ceres and gives some particulars of the
Eleusinian mysteries at Athens, with references to Plutarch and Herodotus.
Then it says:
Bacchus was the inventor of theatres, as well as of dramatical
representations, that particular class of Masons, who were employed in the
erection of these extensive buildings, were called the Dionysian Artificers,
who possessed the exclusive privilege of erecting temples, theatres, and other
public buildings in Asia Minor. They supplied Ionia and surrounding countries
with theatrical apparatus by contract; and erected to Bacchus, the founder of
their Order, the magnificent temple at Teos. These artists were initiated into
the mysteries of their founder, and consequently into those of Eleusis.
(History, page 25.)
For the statement that they were employed in the erection of extensive
buildings and were called Dionysian Artificers, Aulus Gellius, lib. xx, c. 4,
is given as the sole authority, while to sustain the rest of it the especial
references that would carry weight in regard to "the magnificent temple at
Teos" are to Strabo, lib. iv. Let us first turn to Aulus Gellius, whose work
is called Noctes Atticae, using the copy of the original as published by
Teubner at Leipzig in 1903, the text edited by Carolus Hosius. Here is book
twenty, chapter four, to which Lawrie refers his readers, translated:
Unseemly and shameful fondness and lust of players; and words written upon it
by the philosopher Aristotle.
wealthy youth, pupil of the philosopher Taurus, had as companions in his
pleasures and pastimes some comedians, tragedians and flute-players. They call
this race in Greece the artificers of Dionysus. To lead the youth away from
fellowships and social intercourse with stage players, Taurus sent him these
words copied from Aristotle's book called General Problems and ordered him to
employ himself daily in reading it: "For what reason are the Dionysiae
Artificers for the most part worthless? Because, with as little as possible of
reading and studies and barely sufficient skill, they form a fellowship to
share in the manner of living and because they are in difficulty most of the
time on account of their incontinence. Each is skilled in providing unskilled
This quotation, it will be noted, is solely about shiftless and dissolute
actors and flute-players, yet it is the only citation made by Lawrie to
sustain his statement that the Dionysiac Artificers were employed in the
erection of extensive theatrical buildings ! The fraud practiced upon the
reader by Lawrie is at once apparent, but the rest of his statement may well
be quoted here in its essentials. On page 27 of his History he resumes his
About a thousand years before Christ, the inhabitants of Attica . . . sailed
to Asia Minor, drove out the inhabitants seized upon the most eligible
situations and united them under the name of Ionia in compliment to the
majority of their number, who were natives of the province. In a short time
the Asiatic colonies surpassed the mother country in prosperity and science.
Sculpture in marbles and the Doric and Ionian orders were the result of their
ingenuity... . For these improvements the world is indebted to the Dionysian
Artificers, an association of scientific men who possessed the exclusive
privilege of erecting temples, theatres and other public buildings in Asia
Minor.. . . These artists were very numerous in Asia and existed under the
same appellation in Syria, Persia and India. About three hundred years before
Christ a considerable body of them were incorporated, by command of the kings
of Pergamus who assigned to them Teos as a settlement, being the city of their
The History goes on to say that they had words and signs of recognition, were
divided into lodges, and each separate association was under a master and
presidents or wardens; that they had a general meeting once a year, used
utensils in ceremonies "some of which were exactly similar to those that are
employed by the Fraternity of Freemasons," and that the richer provided for
the less fortunate brothers. Therefore, says Lawrie:
are authorized to conclude that the fraternity of the Ionian architects and
the Fraternity of Freemasons are exactly the same. . . . In their internal as
well as external procedures the Society of Freemasons resembles the Dionysiacs
of Asia Minor.... We are authorized to infer not only that the Dionysiacs
existed before the reign of Solomon, but that they assisted this monarch in
building that magnificent fabric which he reared to the God of Israel.
The only ancient author to whom Lawrie's History refers for these statements
and who directly mentions the Dionysiac Artificers is Strabo. The first
footnote in the Lawrie work says: Strabo, liber iv, and two other footnotes
repeat it - Strabo, liber iv. Book iv of Strabo never mentions them, but is
principally a description of the western European lands, Britain and the
Alpine regions. All that Strabo has to say about them is found in his
fourteenth book, chapter 50, 29, and it is as follows: [translation in Bohn's
Next to Colophon is the mountain Coracium, and a small island sacred to
Artemis, to which it is believed that the hinds swim across to bring forth
their young. Then follows Lebedos. distant from Colophon 120 stadia. This is
the place of meeting and residence of the Dionysiac artists (who travel about)
Ionia as far as the Hellespont. In Ionia a general assembly is held and games
are celebrated every year in honor of Bacchus. These artists formerly
inhabited Teos, a city of the Ionians next in order after Colophon, but on the
breaking out of a sedition they took refuge at Ephesus- and when Attalus
settled them at Myonnesus, between Teos and Lebedos, the Teians sent a
delegation to request the Romans not to permit Myonnesus to be fortified, as
it would endanger their safety. They migrated to Lebedos and the Lebedians
were glad to receive them on account of their own scanty population.
There is nothing in this about a fraternity of architects and engineers or
builders, nothing about their having the exclusive privilege of erecting
theatres temples and public buildings and nothing to justify the idea that
they were stonemasons or masons of any sort; yet it is the reference made by
Lawrie and out of it Prof. John Robison also must have drawn whatever he knew
about the Dionysiac Artificers. Other footnotes in Lawrie's History name
Herodotus, Anacharsis Plutarch, Livy, Gillies' History of Greece, Chandler's
Travels in Asia Minor, Chishull's Asiatic Antiquities, lonian Antiquities by
the Society of Dilettanti, Josephus' Antiquities and Potter's Antiquities. The
Anacharsis on whom he relies is the hero of Barthelemy's fictitious Anacharsis
en Grece, and the archaeological lore of the French numismatist has been
superseded by modern scholarship. Anacharsis was published in 1789 as
admittedly a work of fiction and was a widely read work in the original
French. Gillies' History of Greece, published in 1786, was really a potical
document for the Whig party in Great Britain and, though once widely read,
never had any value as history. Chandler was a classical scholar and an able
man, but he discusses the settlement of Ionia and not Dionysiac Artificers in
the places mentioned by the footnotes given by Lawrie, except with reference
to their settlement in Teos, in which Chandler, as would be expected of a
scholar, follows Strabo, whom he illuminates by the knowledge gained in his
own wide travels. Chishull is not mentioned in any encyclopaedia and the
writer cannot trace his works. Of Herodotus, Livy and Plutarch, Lawrie quotes
them only in connection with the Dionysia, the Bacchic mysteries, and the
worship of Dionysus, and not as authority for any statement, whatever, about
the Artificers, with which as an obvious matter of fact they have nothing to
But, if the Dionysiac Artificers were not builders, what were they? Precisely
the "comedians, tragedians and flute- players" of whom Aulus Gellius speaks in
his Noctes Atticae, as already quoted in this article, and they continued as
such in classic period without much change, spreading in the early years of
the Christian era to many parts of the Roman Empire outside of the region
where they lived in Strabo's time. Writing in the Journal of Egyptian
Archaeology for July 1924, on "The Castanet Dancers of Arsinoe," Professor W.L.
Westermann of Cornell University says:
Among the members of the Dionysiae guild at Ptolemais we find listed a cithara
player, a singer to cithara accompaniment, a dancer, a flageolet player for
tragic performances, and trumpeter (page 143).
The earliest reference to Dionysiac Artificers that the writer has been able
to find occurs in Aristotle's Rhetoric, iii: 2,10, where, speaking of deducing
a metaphor from a higher class if it is desired to cry it up and from a lower
if it is wished to cry it down, he gives this example:
And someone speaks (of the courtiers of Dionysus) as Dionysian parasites:
they, however, call themselves artificers.
The word translated "parasites" is in the original kolakoi, meaning
"flatterers, fawners," and that rendered by "artificers" is technitai, which
is interpreted in Liddell and Scott's Lexicon: "theatrical artists, musicians
as well as actors." Concerning the passage quoted from Aristotle, Buckley in
his translation of the Rhetoric says:
Dionysokolakas: This term, by which the tribe of flatterers seem to have been
exposed to ridicule on the stage, was ingeniously borrowed from the name of
the patron of the theatre Dionysos; they, however, thought proper to change
one theatrical appellation for another more respectable and dignified
themselves by the name technitai. This, as well as the corresponding Latin
term, artifices, seems to have been commonly applied to actors, musicians,
There is one reference to the Dionysiac flatterers or parasites in Polybius
(History, xvi: 21, 8), where they are found in Egypt, not building temples or
theatres, but enjoying the bounty of the pleasure-loving Egyptian general
Tlepolemus. Says Polybius:
For though he (Tlepolemus) had complete control of the exchequer, he spent the
greater part of the day in playing ball and in matches with the young men in
martial exercises- and directly he left these sports, he collected drinking
parties and spent the greater part of his life in these amusements and with
these associates. But that part of his day which he devoted to business he
employed in distributing, or I might rather say in throwing away, the royal
treasure among the envoys from Greece and the Dionysian actors, and more than
all among the officers and soldiers of the palace guard.
Here the word translated "actors" is the same technitai that Buckley
translated as "artifices" The English is rendered in this quotation from the
Macmillan edition of Polybius, London, 1889, edited by E. S. Shuckburgh, M.
A., from the Hultsch text.
Two ancient writers are cited in Frazer's Pausanias and have been drawn to the
writer's attention by Bro. R. J. Meekren, editor of THE BUILDER. They are
Pausanias and Athenaeum Fraser says (book 1, chapter 2, 5) of Dionysus the
know from Athenaeus that the "artists of Dionysus" had a precinct in which
sacrifices and libations were offered.
From the Corpus Inscriptorum Graecorum he finds that one of the two priests of
Dionysus the Minstrel was chosen from
the guild, partly religious, partly theatrical, called the "artists of
is Athenaeus who quotes Poseidonius (Poseidon. apud Ath. 212 D), and
Poseidonius gives a graphic, if brief, picture of the noisy doings in the
precinct to which Frazer refers. His Greek is crabbed, but he tells to
men, women and children expecting largesse, sallying forth pell mell,
altogether, to the temple; even the poorer men, to support whom at the common
tables fees are collected; youths growing their first beard and the artificers
of Dionysus, and all behaving with arrogance and jeering at the state. ...
Rich and poor they parade in procession which is a sacred affair, many arrayed
in shirts of bright colors that drag along.
There are two inscriptions in the Corpus Inscriptorum Graecorum, as published
by the classical scholar and antiquarian Philipp August Boeckh, which he
restored. The restoration perhaps is the one that forms the basis for Frazer's
deduction about the priest of Dionysus the Minstrel being selected from the
artists of Dionysus, but the inscriptions are very defective and Boeckh does
not pretend to certainty, owing to the extensive lacunae. Transcribing the
uncial Greek into English letters, the first inscription spoken of, one found
on the lower front of an interior gate at Ammoehosti near Salamis (Famagusta),
is as follows:
OLYMPIADAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
THEODOROYTOY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
BASILEOSTOYSTI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
KAIARCHIEREOSTOYSTI . . . . . . . . . . . . .
KYPRONGRAMMAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TECHITON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
dexterous measurements and surmises from other inscriptions, this is restored
by Boeckh so that it could be translated:
(such an) olympiad, a sacred gift (of such a woman) from the king of the same
birth, the commander of the army, the admiral, the chief priest of lower
Cyprus, the chief clerk, the Dionysian Artificers.
The other inscription discussed by Boeckh is equally unsatisfactory. Both
appear to be a statement of the officials and corporate bodies that have
contributed toward the erection of a gate or monument and the Dionysiac
technitai are mentioned in each.
Citations from Pausanias by Frazer, book one, chapter two, 5, and book seven,
chapter three, describe the city of Teos and Lebedos, and one sentence in the
former, translated by Bro. Meekren and forwarded to me by him, is of
importance because it confirms Strabo's statement about the general meeting to
the extent of telling of the building where the preparations are made for the
"processions which are conducted annually and at other intervals."
From the quotations already made, it should be unnecessary to point out the
absurdity of imagining that these strolling players, the Dionysiac Artificers,
were ever employed on the Temple of Solomon as expert stonemasons or in any
other capacity. If they ever had been domiciled in Tyre or anywhere on the
Syrian coast, the fact would certainly have been stated by Strabo, but he is
specific that their headquarters were in Ionia and he enumerates the cities in
which they lived from time to time. There is no record of the Ionians as a
people before the eighth century, B.C., and Homer uses the name but once. As
King Solomon's temple was built in the first half of the tenth century, B.C.,
and as the first mention of the Dionysiac Artificers is found in Aristotle,
who flourished in the fourth century, it is hardly necessary to do more than
call attention to the fact that the temple had been built, razed and built
again before the guild of Ionian actors ever was organized. Of Lawrie's
statement on this point, therefore, it must be said as Robert Freke Gould said
of him in connection with assertions about the Sinclair deed in Scottish
Masonry: "We look in vain for any corroboration of this assertion, for it is
From time to time there have appeared references ts the work of Hypolito Da
Costa in an effort to support the belief that the Dionysiac Artificers were
really ancient Freemasons. Da Costa published in London in 1820 a small book
entiled: Sketch for the History of Dionysian Artificers. What it has to say
about the Artificers exactly follows the statement in Lawrie's History even to
the very words and the only citation germane to the subject is that from
Strabo, which is the same that is made by Lawrie. Obviously Da Costa, who had
some reputation as a Masonic student, was a victim of Lawrie's deception, as
many others have been since his day.
BRO. A. J. B. MILBORNE, Canada
1887 appeared a book, now long out of print, entitled The Real History of the
Rosicrucians. Now, forty years later, comes another work by the same hand,
that of Bro. Arthur Edward Waite, the wellknown student of occultism and
mysticism, whose many laborious and beautifully written books would alone make
a library on these subjects. In the new volume, The Brotherhood of the Rosy
Cross, he takes up the old subject "as one who can speak now, not only with
different and much further knowledge on the internal side, but as one who has
travelled various paths belonging to its sacred world." Bro. Waite is
acknowledged to be an authority, not only on Rosicrucianism, but on those
subjects pertaining to sacramental religion and higher mysticism, all of which
he has studied devotedly throughout his life, and which are the theme of his
many books. There is an interrelationship between Bro. Waite's works, and the
volume under review is not only a history of the Brotherhood of the Rosy
Cross, but another step towards that height to which he has so zealously and
devotedly directed his course - "the Life Which Is Hidden With Christ in God."
the outset the claims of the mythical precursors of the Order are dealt with
in no uncertain manner. Those put forward on behalf of Raymond Lully and Count
von Falkenstein and that made by Karl Kieswetter as a direct descendant of the
last chief of the Brotherhood, inspire no confidence; those asserting the
association with the Order of Paracelsus, Cornelius Agrippa and Dr. John Dee
are set aside, and the contention more recently advanced by Mrs. Henry Potts,
W.F.C. Wigston and Harold Bayley that Francis Bacon was connected with the
Brotherhood is disproved by analytical and pungent criticism.
Bro. R.F. Gould (not C.F. Gould as appears on pages 80 and 435) in his Concise
History of Freemasonry writes that Benedictus Figulus affirms the existence of
an association of physicians and alchemists in the fourteenth century the
object of which was discover the Philosopher's Stone. Bro. Waite says this may
be true, but that Bro. Gould has been misled by the story that this body was
merged in the Rosicrucian Order about 1607.
The Militia Crueifera Evangeliea, formed possibly by Simon Studion in 1586,
and acknowledged to be an occult evangelical fraternity, is found to be
identical with the record of the later body in respect of doctrine and
symbolism, though distinguished from it by its distinct Second Adventist
viewpoint. Three witnesses are produced in support of its claim as a
forerunner of the Brotherhood of the Rosy Cross and critically examined -
Professor J.G. Buhle, who derived his information from Wirtembergisches
Repertorium der Litteratur, which in its turn derived from Simon Studion's
Noametria, an unprinted book described as a brief introduction of all
mysteries in Holy Scripture and the universal world, and containing the first
intimation of the Rose and Cross in symbolism; C.G. von Murr, the author of an
essay on the True Origin of the Rosicrucians and Masonic Orders, published in
1803, and Melchior Fischlin. Bro. Waite adds in an appendix that "The Militia
was no more than a field in which the Order may have sprung up."
Proceeding, the author is persuaded that the philosophical and theosophical
position of the Rosy Cross belonged to Christian Kabalists, who believed the
Zoharic literature bore testimony to the fact that the expected Messiah was
Christ; but he asserts that Heinrich Khunrath, an illuminated Christian
Kabalist of the period, casts no light on the historical origin of the Rosy
Cross, nor is any basis found for the alleged connection with it of Jacob
Bohme, the German theosophist. In discussing a book - La Prophetic du Comte
Bombast - published in 1701, attention is drawn to the fact that Dr. Francois
Allary, to whom the publication is ascribed, describes the nephew of
Paracelsus as being a Chevalier de la Rose Croix, a title "which is so
familiar in High Grade Masonry after 1754," and it is found "not a little
curious in 1701, from a Masonic standpoint, when it is moderately certain that
there were not even three Masonic degrees."
Scrutinizing all the evidence, Bro. Waite discovers no trace of the Society
prior to the seventeenth century and expresses the view, under reserve, that
the Rosy Cross was in embryo in 1604, that the Naometria of Studion was its
first memorial, in the sense of a precursor, and that its doctrine was held in
common by many theosophists at the end of the sixteenth century.
THE OFFICIAL DOCUMENTS
Turning next to a consideration of the official publications of the
fraternity, Bro. Waite says it is certain that prior to 1614 (the probable
date of the first printed publication of the Fama Fraternitatis) the peculiar
set of notions and the prevailing atmosphere which characterized Rosicrucian
documents are to be found in the writings of Valentin Weigel, a Lutheran
mystic, who Gottfried Arnold asserted was the founder of the Order, and also
in those of Egidius Gutmann, mentioned by Arnold as a member. Weigel died in
1588 or many years before the Rosy Cross had been heard of, and Gutmann, Bro.
Waite maintains, was not a member, though he may be considered as a precursor
of the Order in that he represented its attitude and mental feelings.
The Fama Fraternitatis, which contains the legend of the mythical founder of
the Brotherhood - Christian Rosy Cross - relates the circumstances under which
the Order came into being and accounts, after its particular fashion, for the
supposititious transmission of secret knowledge from East to West, was
originally issued accompanied by a reply thereto by Adam Haselmeyer.
Haselmeyer claimed to have seen the original manuscript in 1610 though it was
in existence fifteen years earlier if the evidence of Julius Sperber is
accepted. The fraternity is described as being versed in Higher Magia and pure
Kabalism, and as possessing a hidden art of healing and the secret of the
transmutation of metals, but the author finds "the root of all was in certain
written memorials, which were a heritage from the past." The Universal
Reformation which was bound up in the original issue of the Fama, and as a
result was accepted at the beginning as an official document, was the work of
an Italian satirist - Frajano Boccalini, and in Bro. Waite's estimation has no
title to consideration as a Rosicrucian publication.
The Fama Fraternitatis was followed by the Confessio Fraternitatis R.'.C.'.,
which furnishes the first date in Rosicrucian history - 1378, the year of
birth of Christian Rosy Cross - but it is found to be an unsatisfactory
document, though corresponding more or less to the expose promised in the Fama.
The third Rosicrucian document - The Chemical Nuptials of Christian
Rosencreutz - is an allegorical romance or parable woven about the legendary
founder of the Order, and does not contain any contribution to its history.
Bro. Waite now supports the view that this singular work was the production in
his early youth of Johann Valentin Andreae, and has revised his former opinion
set forth in his earlier book that it was incredible as a boyish effort. It
was published in 1616, and he considers it unquestionably a contribution to
the Rosicrucian philosophy.
The thesis of Professor Buhle that the series of publications was part of an
elaborate hoax planned by Andreae is examined at length and the conclusion is
reached that there is nothing to justify the alleged authorship by Andreae of
the Fama and Confessio, nor to support the claim that he was even a
Rosicrucian, though it is admitted that Andreae was one of a close corporation
from which the tracts emanated.
Summing up the documentary evidence before him, Bro. Waite finds in the Fama
an early vistage of a design which developed subsequently under the protection
of the Rosy Cross, namely the spiritualization of alchemy, and in this design
he traces a reflection of the Lullian philosophic system.
The publication of the Fama created considerable stir in Germany and the
Confessio stimulated the production of much literature, not only in support of
the movement, but also hostile to it. This literature is discussed under four
heads: (1) the letters and pamphlets of those seeking admission to the Order,
in response to the invitation extended in the Fama; (2) independent tracts on
various branches of occult science and philosophy dedicated to the
Brotherhood; (3) critical tracts in examination of Rosicrucian principles, and
(4) dubious and palpably fraudulent documents.
interesting chapter is devoted to the Kentish philosopher - Robert Fludd - and
his association with the Brotherhood of the Rosy Cross, to which he was drawn
by its possession of the basis of philosophy and the supreme secret of
medicine. He wrote in defence of the early Rosicrucian pamphlets in 1616, and
in his later works conceived the Brotherhood to be working under the impulsion
of the Holy Spirit and to be endowed with spiritual virtue and the higher
Divine Grace. He thus spiritualized the Order even as he did Alchemy - in
which the Philosopher's Stone became the Power of God. The writings of Robert
Fludd are found to be of some importance as a presentation of the Secret
Tradition in Christian times, and a development at large of the Rosicrucian
philosophy. A commentary on the debated question as to the actual existence of
the Rosy Cross as a corporate entity is obtained from Fludd's last work -
Claris Philosophiae et Alchymiae Fluddanae - where he "puts on record his
personal conviction that all persons whatsoever may and shall be accounted as
true Brethren of the Rosy Cross if they are rooted firmly in the Christian
faith, confirmed in the knowledge of themselves, and consciously built up on
that cornerstone which is Christ Spiritual." Bro. Waite affirms his belief
that Fludd was acquainted with Studion and was by him brought into the circle
of adeptship, but that the Order was not formed by him, though he may have
belonged to something at work under that name.
The connection of Maier, the great German alchemist, with the Brotherhood is
then taken up. His first publication was issued in the same year as, if not
earlier than, the Fama (1614), and as no mention appears in it of the Rosy
Cross, Bro. Waite concludes he was not then connected with the Order. His
entrance into the debate is sufficiently late to give the quietus to those who
suppose that he visited England commissioned to spread its claims, though
there is no question that he travelled there as an alchemist. Maier comes to
the defense of the Rosy Cross in 1617, when was published his Silentium Post
Clamores, and he espoused its cause until his death in 1622.
After dealing with the history of the Order in Germany, France and Holland, in
the course of which Bro. Waite examines the many pamphlets put out by its
apologists and assailants, the reader is brought back to a renewal of interest
in the Order in England following the publication in 1650 of two tracts by
Thomas Vaughan writing under the pseudonym - of Eugenius Philalethes. The
extravagant and mendacious histories of the Order involving Elias Ashmole,
Vaughan and others, written by contemporary and later writers receive
energetic condemnation - "a considerable number of lying witnesses being
driven out of court, carrying with them the baggage of their mischievous and
idle fictions." The connection of Elias Ashmole with the Brotherhood is
dismissed as a legend, unsupported by any evidence, though it is conceded that
his contributions on the subject of Alchemy are a reflection of Rosicrucian
THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY REVIVAL
Just as in England, Rosicrucianism fell into a state of somnolence, so in
Germany, nothing is heard of the Order during a period of at least seventy
years, or until 1710, when Sigmund Richter published the Laws of the
Brotherhood. A change is now noted in its form and spirit, and the Society
divided into two branches called respectively the Rosy and the Golden Cross
under an Imperator. The first trace of ritualistic observances also appears in
the use of a very simple form of acception "comparable . . . to the method of
conferring the Liveries still prevalent in certain City Companies of London,"
"probably not unlike the mode of making an Enter Apprentice and communicating
the Mason's Word in Scotland," and recalling "exactly the procedure indicated
by some of the Old Charges of English origin."
From the publication of Richter's Laws in 1710 until 1777 there is no evidence
as to the nature of the secret workings of the Holy Houses, but in the latter
year a new epoch in the Golden and Rosy Cross opens with developed ceremonial
forms and under Masonic auspices. Bro. Waite gives an abstract of the Legend
of Foundation and finds it to vary but slightly from that of the Secret
Tradition in Israel. "The Legend is notable otherwise as formulating for the
first time, and on the authority of the Order itself what may be called the
once familiar and even popular thesis which represented Speculative
Freemasonry as emerging from a Rosicrucian center." The Order was also
Christian and maintained the doctrine of the Blessed Trinity, but after a
detailed examination of the rituals and instructions of the grades "it emerges
with considerable clearness that the concerns of the Golden and Rosy Cross in
the year 1777 notwithstanding the spiritual and religious atmosphere by which
it was encompassed, had no other purpose than the physical medicine of men and
THE PARALLELIAM TO FREEMASONRY
discussing the revival of interest in the Rosy Cross, Bro. Waite refers to the
revival of Freemasonry in 1717, which he contends, was due, not so much to the
formation of a Grand Lodge, or to the fact that Freemasonry came into public
favour, but to the developments in its ritual. These developments, he says,
"must, and can be only, in the present state of our knowledge, relegated to
post-1717, and most probably are the work of the period between 1724 and
1726." Just as mere vestiges of ritual are found in the operative documents of
the Masonic Fraternity, so does Bro. Waite find corresponding vestiges in the
Rosicrucian laws of Richter. "There was no borrowing one from another, since
neither had aught to lend." There is also the natural parallel between the
Apprentice Mason who learned the mystery of his trade and the Novice of the
Rosy Cross, who acquired Hermetic secrets, as both were communicated under a
pledge of secrecy. This, then, "is how Masonry stood in relation to the Rosy
Cross, until the former had earned its titles . . . by the high magic of
Rites" and the Rosy Cross passed under its banner.
The Masonic grade entitled Rose Croix is first heard of in France in or about
1754 under the obedience of a Council of Emperors of the East and West, being
numbered eighteen in its sequence of twenty-five grades.
was the only grade that had any Rosicrucian complexion and the author finds
its sudden appearance after a hundred years without trace of the Rosy Cross in
France, one of the most unlikely things that ever occurred in Masonic history.
The belief is affirmed that it came from a Rosicrucian source, and that it
stands at the present day as it stood then "the Christian answer to Masonry,
the Christian intent and meaning impressed upon the Craft grades, their
completion and their crown." "The Rosy Cross is for the eighteenth degree of
the old Rite of Perfection precisely that which it was for Robert Fludd,
namely the Cross of Calvary steeped in the mediatorial blood of Christ" and
Bro. Waite says, "there is no question that the eighteenth degree in its valid
and orthodox form as the Word discovered and communicated, carried on the
Rosicrucian claim to possess the key of Masonry, to be actually its fons et
origo and to deliver its final message.
The chief occult personages in France during the second half of the eighteenth
century - the Comte de Saint Germain, Cagliostro and Martines de Pasqually,
and the contentions put forward by their respective protagonists are
discussed. The survival of the Order in Germany during the same period is
followed up and the connection with it of Frederick William II, and his chief
advisers, Bischoffswerder and Wollner passed in review. The reorganization of
the Brotherhood in 1777 did not, however, eliminate undesirables and
malcontents, and as a result other Rites and Orders became established in the
likeness of the original and advancing corresponding claims. Among these were
the Initiated Brethren of Asia, which was active in Austria and Italy, and the
Fratres Lucis. Both lapsed gradually and passed out of sight at the beginning
of the nineteenth century.
THE ROSICRUCIANS IN RUSSIA
The Rosy Cross is followed to Russia which it entered upon the auspices of
German adepti and, with Masonry, became identified with Martinism. It appeared
to connote a purely spiritual movement, centers about the person of N.
Novikoff, and ends in 1792 with his arrest and imprisonment by the Empress
Catherine II. An interdict was laid on all Masonry in 1797, removed by
Alexander and applied again more rigidly in 1822, but, Bro. Waite adds "we
know that suppressions of this kind do not kill institutions which have
anything vital in them, they disappear from public gaze, and find a place in
catacombs or in the very crypts of palaces" and he believes, from reports
which have reached him, that the Rosy Cross was still subsisting in Petrograd
before the war, though he surmises that it has degenerated into the older
Another phase of the Rosicrucian mystery is entered upon in 1794 when a
certain Comte de Chazal, a resident of Mauritius, received Dr. Sigsmund
Bacstrom into a Societas Roseae Crucis. The document recording the reception
is epitomized and the conclusion is drawn from its analysis that this sodality
is not to be identified with the Golden and Rosy Cross, but is attributable to
the system of which Richter was the spokesman or even to some earlier
The circumstances attending the formation of the existing Rosicrucian Society
- otherwise Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia are examined, and an analysis is
given of the manuscript The Star Rising in the East, the product of a Major F.
G. Irwin, who organized a similar society in the West of England about the
year 1874 and which apparently passed out of existence a few years later. In
the opinion of Bro. Waite neither of these societies reflect anything from the
past of Rosicrucian history.
Summing up the results of his exhaustive enquiry, the author concludes that
"there were several schools within the general circle of the Order. . . (1)
those of the astral workings, activities and fruits of the magical paths in
their distinction from the Higher Magia . . . (2) those which confessed only
to dedications in physical alchemy, like the Reformation of 1777 and (3) those
for which the Kentish philosopher Fludd stood up a most valiant champion more
than a hundred years before." "The various associations and sodalities which
have claimed the generic title exhibited in the early 17th Century, rose up in
their day, advancing their particular claims, and they died also in their
day." "It is above all things probable that their connection one with another
was in the bond of union furnished by an identical name and a certain
consanguinity of intention, whatever the intention was." Traces of spiritual
intent are discovered in the disjointed progression of the Order, and
reflections of the speculative theosophy of the Zoharic and Kabalistic schools
are found in its doctrine. But the links are broken everywhere, "that which
remains, however, is the Rosy Cross, a body of Christian symbolism, variously
interwoven and clothed in various forms."
Finally, Bro. Waite takes the position that "Though many associations sprang
up successively and concurrently under the implied and expressed claims
connoted by the same recurring denomination, though their history is chequered
enough, though that which is called originally the House of the Holy Spirit
may have been occasionally a den of thieves, the sacramentalism of the sign
remained, and - again in the natural evolution of things - it was antecedently
and above all things probable that there would come about (1) a reversion to
the one only and valid message of the sign; (2) a desire on the part of some
who knew and were of the elect that the Rosicrucian House of the Holy Spirit
should become or again be consecrated to the Holy Spirit of God. It is this
transformation which has come to pass in fact. The old Rosicrucian Tree of
Life in Kabalism has become the Tree of Life in mystical experience on the
ascent of the soul to God. The light of the Rosy Cross under such new birth in
time is the light of the world in Christ. The path of the progress through the
mystical Grades and Worlds is the path of the soul's return to that center
from which it came forth, or even to God who is its end. After this manner is
adeptship transformed by sanctity, the key and secret of all being the
translation of ritual into life. The term and crown of all is a great mystery
of attainment.... The new spirit has changed not the old name, which is of
catholic and perfect meaning in the world of types, but it has changed the
body of the thing and has given it a robe of glory." "The Rosy Cross is not a
Rite in Masonry, and does not demand now, as it did once, a Masonic
qualification of members, yet the key of Masonry is there, for it is a mystery
of new life, of figurative or mystical death, and after these experiences
there is a Great Mystery of Raising. But it is all in the light of the Sun in
Christ shining at the zenith-altitude in a heaven of soul, no longer in the
substituted and penumbral rays of the Craft Mason, which have been called
Such is the lofty spiritual note upon which Bro. Waite reaches the end of
another path in his quest.
spite of the difficulties engendered by the successive transformations which
the Brotherhood of the Rosy Cross has undergone, the mass of myth and legend
which surrounds its origin, and the hindrances created by the extravagant
claims of earlier commentators, Bro. Waite has given a remarkable and valuable
contribution to our knowledge of its history.
MEEKREN, Editor in Charge
Thiemeyer, Research Editor
I. CLEGG, Illinois
GILBERT W. DAYNES, England
H. DERN, Utah
CHARLES F. IRWIN, Pennsylvania
E. MORCOMBE, California
C. PARKER, New York
HUGO TATSCH, Iowa
M. WHITED, California
E. W WILLIAMSON Nevada
REVIEW OF THE TUBERCULAR CAMPAIGN
was, in July, 1926, that THE BUILDER definitely assigned two pages every month
to the N.M.T.S.A. for the forwarding of their campaign to inform the Masonic
Fraternity of the facts about the tubercular situation and the crying need for
a real solution of the whole problem. The management of this department has
been entirely in the hands of Bro. R. J. Newton of New Mexico, under the
direction of the Executive Committee of the Association. We mention this last
because we gather that had Bro. Newton been permitted he would have answered
directly with facts and figures and names and dates many criticisms levelled
against the Association and its aims. The Executive Committee, in the spirit
of Masonic amity, did not wish to hurt anyone's feelings, not even to the
point of demonstrating that such critics were mistaken or were ignorant of the
facts. The motive was one that we must sympathize with, and even admire, yet
it is more than possible it was mistaken. One cannot make omelettes without
breaking eggs. It is hard to move numbers of men, harder still to move
official groups, without making many uncomfortable at the very least. Many of
us are uncomfortable and ashamed that the problem exists at all, or that it
should have been allowed to grow to such proportions with no real effort to
meet it, and still more so at the gratuitous difficulties that have been put
in the way of amending the situation.
BUILDER had received communications from New Mexico on the subject, as
presumably had the other Masonic periodicals of the country, and while
sympathetic had not felt called upon to take any particular part in the
campaign. We confess this freely. It perhaps will in part account for the fact
that the Masonic press has really on the whole given so little support to the
movement. It was not until Bro. Newton came to St. Louis and told those of us
here personally about the situation, including some things almost incredible,
things that could hardly be published, that it became clear that Masonic
obligation bound us to do whatever we could, and to use THE BUILDER as a means
of communicating the facts to the Craft. The obligation lay upon the Executive
of the Society and the Editors of THE BUILDER in their character as Masons. It
lay equally on the members of the Society. However uninteresting, dull or
monotonous the pages of the Northeast Corner may possibly have seemed to some
of our readers, it was, as we conceive it, our duty to publish these facts and
appeals, and the duty of our readers to consider, and act upon them as
opportunity served. The fact that members of the N.M.R.S. are students, and
THE BUILDER a research journal, not concerned as such in matters of passing
moment, does not absolve it or them from the primary Masonic obligations, and
we do not apologize for having used to this end a channel of communication
designed for other purposes. Nor, so far as we are able to guage the feelings
of members of the Society, is any defense necessary, for with almost no
exceptions our correspondents have expressed the deepest interest and concern
in the movement.
the N.M.T.S.A. was first organized it seemed to be a long step towards solving
the problem. Questioning was expected. The Grand Lodges and the Craft at large
had a right "to be shown," to have the facts laid before them and the need
demonstrated. That the new Association would be actively opposed did not even
occur as a possibility. But it has been; and the opposition has been strong
enough to bring it to a standstill. And this because, it may well be, it was
not forced to come out into the open. We do not now intend to discuss this
opposition, but its strength, or its mass, lay, it would seem, in the very
natural and human dislike of lodges, of lodge officers, perhaps even of Grand
Lodges, to admit that they had failed in meeting their responsibilities
towards their own members stricken with tuberculosis. Those who had failed
those who had sent sick brothers to the Southwest and said they could do no
more, those who had suspended absent brethren for non-payment of dues, who
might have been found to be sick and destitute had inquiries been made, did
not like to have the facts brought home. We can all see that they would not
like it, and that the natural reaction would be to doubt the facts presented,
and to seize upon any side issues which could be criticized, and in doing so
obscure the real object in view.
we say is the natural reaction. No one likes to be told of mistakes or errors,
still less of being remiss in duty. And when any of us are charged with such
dereliction, we instinctively defend ourselves; the lines such defense will
naturally take will be precisely those upon which the N.M.T.S.A. has been
criticized and its efforts opposed.
BUILDER has not criticized hitherto, but it has never undertaken to support
the Association blindly. So long as there seemed some hope that this
particular effort might succeed it did not seem to be conducive to the end in
view to do so, for this was the only thing to be considered. Besides we fully
admit that "hind sight is better than foresight," and that we did not see
things that are now fairly clear. But it may be advisable to discuss the
conduct of this attempt in order that the next effort may avoid the snares and
pitfalls in which the first seems to have got entangled. For we must repeat,
though this attempt may have failed, the problem remains, in every state
growing steadily more acute, and American Masonry must find some remedy or
first thing-it seems only a trifling detail, but such trifles sometimes have
far reaching effects-the name the Association adopted was against it. Not only
was it too long and too clumsy to be used conveniently in either speech or
writing, but it gave an opening to the opposition by seeming to insist upon
what was really a subsidiary question. Had it been called "The Masonic
Tuberculosis Association," or even "The Masonic Tubercular Relief
Association," it would, we believe, have been much better, and might have made
a material difference to the outcome. In conversation, in giving addresses, in
writing letters, the name was altogether too cumbersome. Even when initials
only were used it was awkward. It is possible that the adoption of a short
title with a swing to it, a title that was in itself a "slogan" or rallying
cry, would have helped to turn the balance from failure to success. At least
those who know anything of advertising will not be inclined to minimize this
the more definite defect of the name was that it concentrated attention, not
upon the need of relief, but upon one particular method of affording it. In
other words it would seem that it was a mistake to have included the word
"Sanatoria." The project to provide one or more of these institutions for the
treatment of Tuberculous Masons was open to reasonable objection from several
directions. It was and is a thing about which there could be diverse and
opposing opinions. It has been the chief point of attack on the part of
critics, and in criticizing this means to the end, the end itself has been
forgotten. Again, a perfectly natural and human thing to do, one that might
have been, and perhaps ought to have been, foreseen. Looking back at least, it
would appear to have been almost inevitable that this conception would arise.
Then the vexed question was raised whether there be any special advantages in
the climate of the Southwest for the treatment of the disease. Many physicians
say there is not, others believe there is. Where doctors disagree laymen can
take their choice, and the doubt thus raised offered another excuse for
inaction and delay.
those Jurisdictions which already have public and private sanatoria of their
own, or were planning to have them, naturally felt that they were not called
upon to assist in building or buying other institutions elsewhere. These
Jurisdictions are not many, but they are influential out of all proportion to
their number. Their attitude counted for a great deal to make or mar the
success of the Association. It made no difference that the spokesmen of the
latter disclaimed any intention to force the member Jurisdictions into
adopting this one plan of action; there was the word "Sanatoria" in its title
to outweigh all protest and explanation.
Further it opened the way for another objection. It was said that to start
hospitals for tuberculosis would lead to demands for hospitalization of other
diseases. Cancer was one especially mentioned in this connection. This
argument is very plausible, and we have no doubt helped to lead many to an
adverse conclusion who did not stop to consider that cancer patients, or
people suffering from most other diseases, do not leave their homes to gain
health, or at least do not migrate to one particular locality. It was also
forgotten that tuberculosis is an infectious disease, which the others that
have been mentioned are not. The effectiveness of this objection lay in the
obscuring of the essentials of the problem by confusing it with the means
proposed to solve it. If it were merely a question of curing the tuberculous
why should that disease alone be provided for? The fact that three relatively
weak and poor Jurisdictions are by force of circumstances being made to bear
an undue proportion of the burden of the whole country was lost sight of -
though it is the crucial point, the very heart of the situation, the thing
that makes it a national and not a local concern.
the considerations which led to it are worthy of the greatest respect, it
seems also to have been a grave tactical error not to have replied to
objections as they arose. It is well enough to turn one's face to the smiter
as the Gospel bids us - but not when we are engaged in defending the rights
and claims of others. We believe this absence of adequate open reply under
attack was also misunderstood by many, and was made capital of by others.
Naturally, to those who did not know, silence was taken to mean that there was
no defense. A long letter was sent out by one Grand Master, formally to the
Grand Master of New Mexico, in effect it was a circular letter to the Grand
Masters of the country. It was a very able presentation of all the arguments
against national action, and especially against the N.M.T.S.A. It took, and
made the most of all the confusions of the real issue, such as those we have
touched on. The central need for action was dismissed lightly as much
exaggerated. It was an exceedingly able forensic, ex parte, argument against
the contentions of the T.S.A. This letter had a tremendous effect, it is not
too much to say that it was devastating. Why? Because it was unanswerable? Not
at all; anyone familiar with the facts could have answered it, but the
Executive Committee thought, so we understand, that it might lead to
unfraternal recrimination if its fallacies were exposed. But in the meantime
the influential Masons of the country were allowed to assume that no defense
could be made. We are inclined to think that this was the turning point. Had
the charges been met, for they amounted to that, there was still some hope of
Another mistake we believe, it was again done from a desire not to hurt
anyone's feelings, was the omission of names, dates and places. There have
been published in the Northeast Corner many brief records, each one a
condensed tragedy. They were merely samples from the records of the
Association. The names of lodges and jurisdictions were withheld. Naturally
everyone said, "Well that couldn't happen in my lodge - that wouldn't be
permitted in our jurisdiction." As a matter of fact they came from all over
the country. In a few cases they were challenged, but with one exception every
statement was made good.
Grand Lodges at least, possibly others also, must be credited with making an
attempt to find out how many of their members were among these tubercular
migrants. Unfortunately they sought their information through official
channels. Naturally their inquiries produced negligible results. How many
lodge secretaries know anything about absentee members, their health, wealth
or even, often enough, their whereabouts? Let us be fair, how can they know?
There are very few lodges whose secretaries give their whole time to the work,
and it would take all one man's time to keep in close touch with all the
members of even a moderately large lodge, as lodges go in this country. It
followed that this method of gaining information was foredoomed to futility.
Credit is due to the Jurisdictions that made inquiry, they at least were in
the van, they recognized a duty, but it was most unfortunate they were so
is the answer to the problem! For one thing it shows the enormous difficulty
of getting coordinated official action, whether through some connecting
organization or informally. The answer may be to take a short cut and meet the
need by an organization of individual Masons. We know that thousands of Masons
want to have something done, and if it cannot be done officially the next best
thing is to do it through some organization that is. not official, that is
composed of just Masons, Masons who do desire to put into practice the
principles and precepts of the Fraternity.
* * *
CHANGE OF PLANS
preceding article was written when it seemed as if there was no prospect of
usefully continuing the work of the N.M.T.S.A. or its corporate existence. A
few months ago the Editor of the Masonic Chronicler of Chicago, whose
editorial articles are always worth reading, deplored the prospect of such an
"ignominous failure for Masonic Charity" and expressed the wish that "some
miracle might happen" to save the project. At almost the last moment the
miracle seems to have happened. The brethren who have sacrificed so much for
this work have conquered their profound discouragement, and instead of
recommending the dissolution of the Association, have made plans to continue
the work along somewhat different lines. The same considerations expressed
above seem to have led them to similar conclusions, and the President of the
Association, Bro. H. B. Holt, in his report to the Grand Lodge of New Mexico
suggests the amendment of its constitution in such wise as to make it an
Association of Masons under the supervision of the Grand Lodge of New Mexico,
and also to change its name to the Masonic Tuberculosis Association. These
recommendations will be found on another page. We hope to give the report in
full next month, it has reached us too late for insertion in this issue.
appears, from the report, that the one dollar per capita tax paid by the
brethren of New Mexico, has almost entirely paid for the expenses of the
publicity campaign. This disposes of the rather cruel insinuation that has
been made in some quarters that the Executive of the N.M.T.S.A. appealed for
funds for the relief of sick brethren and spent them in advertising. As Bro.
Holt says, the New Mexico brethren had a perfect right to spend their money as
they thought best, and it is not easy to say that they were not right. At
least it is now-a-days the accepted procedure to advertise any need for relief
in a large way, and in making this decision they were in the best company. In
any case the campaign has been most economically managed, and the running
expenses have been kept down to the lowest possible figure.
first thing that is proposed is that the reorganized Association shall take up
the management of the Tuberculosis Camp at Oracle, Arizona. Hitherto this has
been open only in the summer time. It is hoped to make it more useful by
providing medical attendance, which has hitherto been lacking, and perhaps
increasing its capacity. Other openings will doubtless present themselves, and
we feel confident that this new plan will meet the approval, and receive the
support of the members of the Craft.
* * *
the most recent developments in the field of Masonic Educational activities is
the recent edict of Grand Master Will H. Fischer of California. The plan for
the conduct of Education in that jurisdiction constitutes something of a
radical departure from the practice which has been in vogue for a number of
years past. The whole purpose of the new movement may be summed up in the
following brief paragraph:
time has come to bring into our lodges some up-to-date information concerning
arts and sciences of modern civilization, and to interpret for the benefit of
Masons the bearing of these arts and sciences upon the affairs of modern life.
Degree work alone, although of extreme importance, will not hold attendance up
to the desired level. Masters universally desire a good attendance record.
Careful execution of this program is the one certain way to secure an
increasing attendance and an increasing interest on the part of new members.
appears from this, and from the subject which has been announced, "The
Automobile," that the intention is to bring into the lodge extraneous
material. It will be interesting to watch developments and to learn of the
success of the plan.
this distance it is impossible to judge why such action seems necessary. We
can readily see the value of discussing matters that have some bearing on the
Masonic Fraternity, and still are divorced from the cut and dried research
that is being carried on by Masonic students. There are dozens of such topics
which might be mentioned. Why not a series on Masonry in Business;
Tuberculosis and Masonry, or better, the part of Masonry in Combatting
Contagious Diseases; Masonry and Education; Masonry and Charity (in the sense
of working with established charities)?
crying need of the Fraternity today, as I see it, is something to link it with
everyday affairs - something to make it a vital and integral part of a man's
moral existence. There is a need for encouraging the practice of Masonry
outside the lodge. A program with this aim in view should be successful and
would accomplish the desired result without divorcing Masonry from the
educational activities. It would be a consolidated program rather than two
separate ones as California seems to propose.
Bulletin of the National Masonic Tuberculosis Sanatoria Association
Incorporated by Authority of the Grand Lodge of New Mexico, A.F.&A.M.
MASONIC TEMPLE, ALBUQUERQUE, N. M.
OFFICERS AND BOARD OF GOVERNORS
HERBERT B. HOLT, Past Grand Master, President
RICHARD H. HANNA, Vice-President
FRANCIS E. LESTER, Vice-President
L. ELSER, Executive Secretary
ALPHEUS A. KEEN, Secretary
W. BOWMAN, Treasurer
J. NEWTON, Editor, Manager N.M.T.S.A.. Las Cruces, New Mexico
BRO. ROBERT JESSUP NEWTON, New Mexico
(Concluded from February)
chance has a man or woman who has to work for partial or entire self-support
under such circumstances?
is no nourishment in fresh air and sunshine. The consumptive has that in
abundance, but that simply tends to emphasize the need for plenty of
nourishing food. A sick man might get along for many months of the year in the
Southwest without a permanent shelter. And for the same months his need for
clothing would be small. He may even recover without medical guidance; but he
cannot get along without food and his quest for it, or means to get it for
himself, and for the wife and small children who too often accompany him, is
the supreme tragedy of his hopeless existence. For this reason the average "lunger"
fights a losing fight from the date of his arrival.
cases do not consult a doctor after their arrival or at any time during their
stay in the Southwest. Their home physician told them all they needed was
fresh air. They write to him for advice and he gives them "absent treatment"
which takes no account of the effect of altitude or of their actual condition.
Some patients have spent several years in the Southwest with no appreciable
gain in health or strength.
much for their physical condition and their needs. What kind of reception
awaits them in the land of fresh air and sunshine? With the exception of an
intelligent few who have made arrangements in advance for care and treatment
in a sanatorium, the consumptive must find a place to stay after his arrival
in his chosen city or town. The man without much money may find it easier to
get accommodations than his richer brother if the latter shows any visible
signs of his disease, because hotels and boarding houses which cater to the
well-to-do cannot give shelter to a consumptive whose condition is apparent,
and every new arrival is, in a sense, under suspicion. The demands of healthy
guests make it impossible for a sick man to gain admission, or to remain long
in most hotels and boarding houses. This is even true of the cheaper lodging
places with any number of regular guests.
many resort cities, the advertisements of rooms for rent, specify "no sick."
In one city an ordinance requires segregation of the sick and well, and
boarding houses which propose to care for consumptives must record that fact
and not accept healthy boarders. However, in many boarding houses though every
guest may cough you will never find a case of tuberculosis. They are all
suffering from hay fever, nervousness, rheumatism, heart disease, stomach
trouble and other ills.
Consumptives are compelled to resort to "light housekeeping rooms" and will
live, cook, eat and sleep in one room often with one or more members of their
families. Thorough cleaning and disinfection after removal of such cases is
same hesitancy about accepting consumptives in hotels, boarding houses and
rooming houses extends to hospitals, except those exclusively for the
treatment of such cases. The same reason is given, the objections of other
patients suffering from other illnesses to the presence of consumptives.
Because of his financial condition the average consumptive is compelled to
resort to the cheaper restaurants and live on the coarsest and commonest
foods. The "good nourishing food" prescribed by his physician is beyond his
business world the same condition exists. It is common for an advertisement
for help to specify, "No invalids nor sick need apply." Other employes resent
the presence in their midst of a recognizable case of tuberculosis. The
searcher for "light work" finds strong competition for every possible job and
also finds the pay to be much "lighter" than the work. Willingness to work for
mere expenses is manifested by many more than can be employed. The ambition of
most cases to "rough it" on a ranch cannot be achieved, because such work is
strenuous and is performed by Mexicans to a large extent.
"Homesickness" is another factor in the miseries of the average "lunger." He
is not wanted and is made to feel that in every place frequented by healthy
people. Because of this he is driven to solitude or to the society of others
ill like himself, or to the society which preys upon his kind if they have any
means. It has been truly said that "homesickness has slain its thousands."
popular method of caring for the tuberculous sick in some places in the West
and among a certain kind of public official is to "pass them on" to the
nearest large city. A consumptive can always get a railway ticket to some
other point if he will only use it. This relieves the town of his present
residence, of any further expense of handling him. The injustice done him and
the community to which he is sent is not given consideration. It is also true
that this method is practiced by officials and organizations of cities and
towns in other parts of the country, and the practice of "dumping the sick" on
the Southwest has brought forth loud protests from many places.
report of the National Tuberculosis Association of the 1920 study of Denver,
Colorado Springs, Phoenix, Los Angeles, El Paso and San Antonio, Miss Whitney
said: "None of these cities has anything like adequate provisions - medical,
relief or institutional - for caring for tuberculous persons whether resident
or non-resident." In the 1925 report this statement was repeated, with this
addition: "After four years that statement is still true." If this is true of
these six largest cities, it necessarily follows that it is also true of every
city and town of the "Tuberculosis Triangle."
question was asked at the conclusion of the report: "Are these cities going to
be able to meet this increasing and continuing burden? If so, how? If not,
what is to be done about it?"
is the question that now concerns the Southwest. Burdened with a present large
population of indigent tuberculous men, women and children from other states,
and with every train adding to that burden, "What is to be done about it?"
Hospitals have been provided for pay patients and with some exceptions are
profitable investments. In nearly every city you will hear of some doctor who
has become rich by operating a tuberculosis sanatorium. Capital is always
quick to take advantage of opportunities and if the need existed for more pay
institutions, doubtless they would be built. But the great, real and
continuing need is for more sanatoria to care for the sick who cannot pay
their way. "What is to be done about it?"
accuse the Southwest of being uncharitable, callous or indifferent to the
condition of the sick and their needs would be unjust to the best people of
the United States. Many of them have traveled the rough and rugged road, this
Via Dolorosa, and have great sympathy for the sick and they are willing to and
do extend a helping hand. By far the larger portion of the monies expended in
Southwestern cities for relief by private charitable agencies is spent for
relief of non-resident tuberculous cases. In the city of El Paso an average of
$1,000 a month for thirty-four months was expended by the Masonic Relief Board
for the care of non-resident tuberculous Masons alone.
matter what the grand total expended in all cities and towns of the Southwest,
by charitable agencies, institutions, fraternal and other organizations and by
individuals, it is insufficient to meet the demands and the need.
IS TO HE DONE ABOUT IT?
are some who have advocated state quarantine laws against consumptives. Of
course they mean the, indigent cases only. This would not be a quarantine
against sickness but against poverty. Publicity was the panacea offered by
tuberculosis workers. They proposed to and did broadcast the story of the
hardships of the indigent consumptives in the Southwest and warned the sick
person not to go to the Southwest unless he or she had at least $1,000 or the
equivalent of support for one year. Unfortunately this campaign of education
"boomeranged" for the sick man without money construed this as an endorsement
of climate. He figured that it meant that the tuberculosis societies believed
that climate was a good thing for the man with some means. Therefore it was
equally good for him. In spite of all this publicity, the National
Tuberculosis Association, in its latest report, conceded that migration is on
question propounded by Miss Jessamine S. Whitney, statistician of the National
Tuberculosis Association, who made studies of the indigent migratory
consumptive problem for that Association in 1920 and 1925, "Are these cities
going to be able to meet this increasing and continuing burden? If so, how? If
not, what is going to be done about it?" remains unanswered to this day.
is probably no single solution of this problem. It will take the work of many
agencies, both public and private, to meet the need. Hospital care for these
indigent consumptives is the primary requisite, preferably hospital care in
their home states. With the exception of Connecticut, Massachusetts,
Minnesota, New York and Rhode Island, no state has anything like adequate
provision for its consumptive population, according to the standard set by the
National Tuberculosis Association of one hospital bed for every annual death.
will always be migration and nothing can stop it. Hospitals must be provided
in the Southwest for these people, because the lack of such sanatoria, in
years past, has meant the sacrifice of many valuable lives.
impossible for northern and eastern states to build institutions in
southwestern states because of constitutional limitations. On the other hand,
the Federal Government can and should make some provision for these
unfortunates, in existing federal hospitals, in additional federal hospitals
to be built, and in existing public and private hospitals.
Organized groups of people should care for the members of their own groups.
The Modern Woodmen of America have one of the finest sanatoria in the world at
Colorado Springs, and there are many similar and smaller sanatoria established
by churches and other organizations. If every such group in the country would
adopt a plan for hospitalization of its sick, the number of available hospital
beds in the country would speedily be doubled.
Recently the great Masonic Fraternity has taken up the problem of
hospitalizing consumptive Masons. The Grand Lodge of New Mexico organized the
National Masonic Tuberculosis Sanatoria Association and is enlisting the help
of other Grand Jurisdictions in the effort to build one or more Masonic
addition to the hospital care of cases, large sums are needed annually to give
emergency and home relief in the Southwest. This money will have to come from
other states to supplement the contributions of the people of the Southwest.
is need for a great central organization which will act as a clearing house
for all relief agencies in the "Tuberculosis Triangle" and co-ordinate the
efforts of such agencies. Its influence among them would be in proportion to
the financial help it could give in the solution of their problems. There is
little doubt that these social workers would welcome such an addition to their
forces, for they are fighting a hard fight and in addition to the burden of
work for non-resident sick they have a large and increasing problem with the
pleading particularly for the white man, the American citizen, born and raised
in this country, who through no fault of his own is down and out, a stranger
in a strange land, sick, homeless and helpless. He is a victim of our
imperfect civilization, a by-product of our insanitary city, the inevitable
result of the failure to hospitalize some other victim of tuberculosis.
pamphlet on "How to Organize and Maintain a Study Club" will be sent free on
request, in quantities to fifty
Problem of New Members
month in this Department we discussed various methods of sustaining interest
in Study Clubs after they had become functioning bodies. The discussion was
based largely upon the assumption that a given objective varied sufficiently
to avoid the possibility of monotony or routine creeping into the meetings
would accomplish the desired result. If we do secure and maintain a maximum of
interest the problem of new members is not so important. There comes a time in
the history of every organization when new members are essential to its
welfare and progress. No matter how interesting the meetings are made certain
of the original membership is going to drop out. There are numerous causes for
this situation. Among them might be cited the motive which impelled last
month's article. Loss of interest - a dying out of the enthusiasm which first
prompted the members; leaving the city; and a multitude of such excuses that
could be cited. There are two problems which confront every Study Club when
this situation arises. First, how to secure new members to keep the group
alive, and second how to interest the novices once they have joined.
two phases of the question are inseparably linked with the problem of
month's article pointed out the manner in which new members might be brought
to the Club though this was accomplished indirectly. It might be stated that
any activity assumed by the Club would be a successful aid to increasing the
membership. There is something more to the problem than finding this activity
Study Club has certain well defined characteristics. In most cases it is an
extra-lodge activity. As such it does not obtain general recognition among the
members of the lodge or lodges from which its membership is drawn. Before it
can hope to increase in size it must do something to bring it to the attention
of the lodge as a whole. There are several ways in which this might be
accomplished. The meetings of the Study Club should be set sufficiently far in
advance to permit of their being announced in the lodge Bulletin, or included
with the announcement of lodge meetings. The membership of the lodge as a
whole should be invited to attend the meetings and to join the Club. A small
percentage of the membership will take advantage of this situation - frankly,
not enough to accomplish the desired result. Something more than just this is
necessary. Occasional meetings with well qualified speakers will add more to
the occasional attendants. The publication, as suggested last month, of a
Question and Answer column in a local Masonic periodical will help gain the
necessary publicity. The presentation by the Study Club of programs before the
lodge is another method of keeping the Club before the membership as a whole.
If the members of the lodge can be made to realize that the Club is really for
their benefit they will be willing to help in its activities. What will help
more than all of these is for the members of the Study Club to talk about the
work they are doing whenever the opportunity presents itself and don't forget
to add an invitation to attend the next meeting.
not so difficult to get new men into the Club as it is to keep them there once
they are members. A Study Club is a progressive organization. When it is first
formed everyone is on an equal footing as a rule. No one knows very much about
Masonry even though every member does know the ritual from memory. Even those
who think they know something will often find that what they do know is
inaccurate, or even wholly wrong. These men develop along certain lines, most
of them at about the same rate. They have been together for several months,
learned many things they did not know before, and which are unknown to those
who come in as new members. The great danger in this condition lies in the
fact that soon they will be discussing in their meetings things which are
beyond those new to the subject. When this stage is reached it will perhaps be
well to increase the number of meetings though satisfactory results may be
obtained in other ways. In any event, the only way to maintain the interest of
those just on the threshold of Masonic knowledge is for the older members to
act as instructors to the younger ones. Every other meeting might be
conveniently set aside to discuss the more elementary problems for the benefit
of those not so far advanced.
meetings will do good for the older ones as well as the newcomers. It is hard
to realize how much that one hears slips by. New things will develop; new
light will appear on old subjects and the review will help to fix more firmly
the lessons learned earlier. So far as the new member is concerned, he will
know that he is being helped over the rough spots and that the members of the
Club are trying to help him along instead of leaving him to flounder through
the maze as best he can. He will reach the higher level sooner for having the
path made smooth and before very long he will be keeping pace with the rest.
here it is necessary to show again the value of the systematic study of
Masonry. Unless it is studied along some prescribed line, the older members
have a heterogeneous knowledge that does not fit together. They know more than
the younger men, but it is so poorly arranged in their own minds that there is
no chance for them to be of real assistance to the beginner.
some course of study such as the Syllabus of Masonic Study published by this
Society is followed, a certain point in the education has been reached. It is
an easy matter, in the course of a few review meetings, to cover the ground
again and help the newcomer to reach the point at which the older members are
working. The new ones can read the texts and with help cover the ground much
more rapidly than could the original members with no local assistance.
only natural to suppose that the deeper issues will come up for discussion at
times. It would be very unfortunate if the work of Study Clubs was confined
indefinitely to what might be termed the grammar school of Masonic education.
The discussion of such problems will hardly find a place in the average Study
Club; not because they should not appear therein, but because it frequently
requires much work and thought to bring such subjects to a place where they
can be clearly presented.
Study Club finds itself with a number of such advanced students it will find
them very willing to help the younger men along. Occasionally they will have a
paper to present, usually in some special field in which they have found
particular interest. Such essays can be read when occasion arises and it may
even be possible for these advanced scholars to group themselves in a smaller
circle, an adjunct of the original Study Club, for the sole purpose of working
out more difficult problems.
really brings us to problems which will be solved of their own accord. There
is no need for discussing them at this time. The principal purpose of this
article is to suggest some way in which the beginner in Masonic study can find
himself and become acclimated in a Masonic Study Club. That he should be
compelled to do this of his own accord is as absurd as that a child should be
expected to acquire an education without assistance. Just as it is the duty of
parents and teachers to instruct the rising generation is it the duty of those
versed in Masonic lore to assist in the education of his less informed
Good Will Tour of Bro. Lindbergh in Central America
Communicated by Bro. Jose Oller, Panama
member of the Masonic Fraternity and in my capacity of member of the National
Masonic Research Society, I have been making known in this country the good
works and services that every day is rendered by the Society to the Fraternity
in general, and especially the journal which is received by some of the
1923 I was Grand Master of this jurisdiction and I wrote an article on
Freemasonry in Panama, in which I was glad to associate M.W. Bro. A. D. H.
Melhado and the then Grand Secretary Bro. Victor Jesurun. The article was
published in the September number of that year, in THE BUILDER, by the
courtesy of Bro. Haywood. Since that time I have been gathering new data about
Freemasonry in Panama, and have something more that would extend and enrich
that work. I am still compiling more on the subject, for a further article in
the near future.
occasion of the presence in Panama of Bro. Colonel Charles A. Lindbergh, who
is a member of one of the St. Louis lodges, I took part in his entertainment
in Masonic circles here. In connection with this I have written a few words
about his visit to this city, and I am glad to enclose herewith two
photographs showing the presentation gift made especially for him on this
Colonel Charles A. Lindbergh, of world fame and renown as the first man to
cross the Atlantic Ocean alone by air in his famous plane the Spirit of St.
Louis from New York to Paris in May, 1927, was good enough to accept the kind
invitation of Don Rodolfo Chiari, President of the Republic of Panama, to
include Panama in his good will tour to Central America. The. city of Panama
is located at the Pacific entrance of the Panama Canal, and is the capital of
the Republic of Panama. Bro. Lindbergh, who is a Master Mason and a member of
Keystone Lodge, No. 243, of St. Louis, Mo., was fraternally received and
entertained by the Grand Lodge of Panama, at an emergent communication on the
morning of the 10th of January, 1928; he was enthusiastically greeted by his
Panamanian brother Masons, in whose names the Most Worshipful D. Leslie Sasso,
Grand Master, presented him with a most significant gift, which we describe
hereunder and publish a photographic copy of, for the interest of the Craft.
globe, representing the world, is made of twenty-five pieces of Panama native
mahogany, not including the two pieces representing the North and South poles,
which are made of a native cedar called "amarillo." The twenty-seven pieces
forming the entire sphere were put together with a very fine white glue, and
each point at the ends is protected with brass screws, solidifying in this
manner the entire globe. The part that appears in relief over the smooth
surface represents the five portions of the inhabited world, and the smooth
surface represents the oceans and seas. The relief is one-quarter of an inch
thick as an average. The measurement of the globe outside, without taking into
consideration the part in relief, is thirteen inches in diameter, while the
inside diameter is of twelve inches, and three-eighths in the hollow, thus
giving the globe itself a thickness of five-eighths of an inch. Over the lower
part of the globe in the inside rests a hatter's block made of light mahogany
covered with blue velvet. The interior of the upper half of the globe in its
concavity is also covered with blue velvet to which is combined a white silver
color hem that unites in the center point at the top. At the right and over
the Atlantic Ocean there is a carved shield over which there is in basrelief
the following dedication sentence: To Brother Colonel Charles A. Lindbergh,
the Masons of Panama. January, 1928.
book, which represents the Holy Bible, is made of a variety of selected native
woods, while the covers are of mahogany of a special and beautiful
variegation; the part representing the leaves of the Holy Bible is made of "amarillo,"
which, with its light gold color, gives the impression of the real body of a
book; this part is in the form of a drawer of singular construction, covered
in the inside with blue velvet at the bottom. In this drawer is deposited a
sheet of parchment upon which is written in Spanish a few appropriate words of
greeting to Bro. Colonel Charles A. Lindbergh from his brother Masons of
Panama. The souvenir leaf bears the signatures of the Masons of this
jurisdiction that could be located within a short time. The message of
greeting on the parchment reads as follows.
Souvenir from the Masons of the Republic of Panama, to Brother Colonel Charles
A. Lindbergh, on the occasion of his visit to this country, on his renown
aeroplane SPIRIT OF SAINT LOUIS. Panama, January 9th, 1928.
back of the book, which represents the binding, is of a red wood known by the
name of "red cacique." This wood is also of a very fine quality. The Masonic
emblems on the back of the book are made of various pieces of wood, viz.: the
compasses and the letter "G" from "naranjo," and the square and borders are of
walnut wood. These are inlaid over the "red cacique" half-round surface of the
binding, in the upper part of which there is in bas-relief the word S:. Biblia
in Spanish, meaning Holy Bible.
book measures seventeen inches long, is ten inches wide and three inches high.
The sphere is fastened on the book by means of two good sized brass screw
bolts. This magnificent piece of work was executed by Mr. Juan Jose Lugo,
cabinet maker of the city of Panama.
the globe was placed a very fine Panama hat as an additional gift for Bro.
Lindbergh's personal use.
emblematical Masonic scope of the gift is, as conceived by its designer, the
writer of this article, that the world rests on the Bible; covenant between
spirit and matter, in the quality; the material world being in need of the
spiritual realm in order to exist.
Lindbergh, while in Panama, paid a tribute to the Liberator of South America,
Simon Bolivar, by presenting a wreath of flowers to the monument of this
Spanish-American hero. After being entertained by the Panamanian government,
and in our best social circles, he left for Havana, previously to which he
went to Bogota, capital of the Republic of Colombia, and to the city of
Caracas, capital of Venezuela, South America, where he was received with great
enthusiasm. His good will tour has been without doubt a very great success.
Imported Books Cost So Much
GEORGE P. BRETT
following has been published as a pamphlet by the well known Macmillan
Company. It appeared first in the New York World in November, last year, and
its subject matter was commented on editorially under the heading of "A Tax on
of our members have asked, and probably many others have wondered, why
imported books are now sold at prices so high that they are almost
prohibitive. This explanation will doubtless be of considerable interest to
all book buyers, and for this reason we have obtained permission to reproduce
it. By making the facts known it may be possible to create a body of public
opinion on the matter that will lead to the removal of this unnecessary
bureaucratic obstacle to the advance of learning.
NOTWlTHSTANDING the great increase in pleasurable occupations that has come
about in the last dozen years or so, pastimes which were previously unknown or
enjoyed only by the very few, reading still holds its place as the one
resource always to be depended upon for the great majority of our people.
evidence of this truth, it is only necessary to point out the enormous
increase in number and circulation of our popular magazines, notwithstanding
which the best sellers among the books of the moment still hold a foremost
seems rather a pity that the publishers and the booksellers, aided by the
reviewers, should have fostered this craze for the reading of the best seller,
valueless and inappropriate as many of the books of that class are for the
information, interest, or even pleasure of hosts of their readers. To many of
us the rereading of an old and tried favorite would give greater satisfaction.
riot surprising, however, that the public has turned for its "pleasures of
reading" to the best seller of the moment, as, until the last few years, there
has been absolutely no guide to the quality and value of the ten thousand or
more new books each year poured unceasingly before the public from the presses
of the publishers. Latterly, this has been remedied by the laudable work of
the American Library Association in publishing, from time to time, lists of
the most worthwhile published books, appraising their values so that any
discriminating reader may, by consulting these lists, be informed as to
whether a book of any class among the miscellaneous publications of the day is
really worth his while or not.
Unfortunately there is no such guide to the large class of more serious and
semi-professional books which form so large a part of the output of our best
publishing houses, and the extension of the American Library List to include
such professional and special books would be of the greatest use to the
student and the scholar if the list were made complete and authoritative, as
is the case with the list of books of general literary interest.
Imported books of this class, many of them of great importance (I may mention,
as examples, Professor Whitehead's well known works on the "Principles of
Natural Knowledge" and the "Principle of Relativity With Applications to
Physical Science") are as necessary to the student, the professor, and the
directors of our educational institutions as are the tools of his trade to the
carpenter, the mason, or the clerical worker, notwithstanding which the
circulation of such books in recent years has not kept pace, largely owing to
their cost, with the growth of our public interest in the development of
science and education.
of these books which are so necessary as the tools of his trade to the special
student and educational worker are the productions of foreign scholars
attached to the great universities of Great Britain and other countries, and
such books, owing to their small circulation and their appeal only to students
and scholars, are seldom printed in this country and are usually imported in
small quantities for those to whom their use is necessary.
Students and others who need such books in their work are seldom gifted with
this world's goods in abundance and are often in receipt of most moderate
salaries as compared with modern standards. It accordingly follows that the
price at which such books are sold is a most vital matter from the standpoint
of those who use them.
year 1903, an attempt having been made by the Custom House appraisers to
increase greatly the dutiable value of books imported from abroad, which would
have resulted in considerable increases in their prices to students, the
importers of such books in New York appeared before the Board of General
Appraisers in an effort to have such books declared dutiable at the then
prevailing rate of 25 per cent on the cost of the books to the importers
rather than on the advanced and fictitious cost advocated by some of the
appraisers before whom these books were entered for assessment. After a long
controversy, which was carried on partly in the newspapers and partly with the
Custom House officials, the case was referred for final action to the Board of
General Appraisers, who, after hearing fairly all the evidence, decided that
books should be admitted into this country at the cost to the importer for the
purposes of the assessment of duty; and the practice of so admitting these
books at the cost to the importer plus the then existing duty of 25 per cent
prevailed from 1903 for a period of nearly fifteen years, with the result that
books necessary to the student and the scholar were not advanced in price, as
would otherwise have been necessary, and were sold at a much lower price than
is possible today.
year 1913 a new Tariff Bill was enacted in which Congress, evidently with the
laudable intention in mind of reducing the cost of such books to students and
others, lowered the duty on them from 25 per cent to 15 per cent. That it was
the intention of Congress to reduce the duty on these classes of books mostly
or solely is evidenced by the fact that in the new bill many other classes of
books which are competitive from the American publishers' and printers' point
of view were raised from the normal rate in various ways.
Apparently the action of Congress in reducing the duty met with objection on
the part of the Treasury, and in 1918-19, through its Board of Appraisers and
Customs Courts, the question of value of the imported books on which the new
duty of 15 per cent should be assessed was again raised, and, notwithstanding
the arguments of the publishers -arguments which convinced the Board of
General Appraisers in the years 1902-03 - the Customs Court declared that the
duty should be assessed not upon the cost of the books but upon a fictitious
price, which in many or most cases was double and in some cases more than
double the actual cost of the books to the importers, the effect being that
the books in question now paid a greater amount of duty under the reduced rate
as authorized by Congress than was previously paid on such books at the higher
rate of 25 per cent and the prices of these books to students and others were
of necessity greatly increased.
seems no reasonable excuse for this successful attempt on the part of the
Treasury, through its Customs Court, to nullify the deliberate intentions of
Congress, and the students and others who use books to which this new ruling
applies apparently rejoiced too soon at the attempt of Congress to reduce
their burdens. As has been pointed out above, books imported from abroad now
cost these consumers more in relation to their foreign price than was the case
before the duty was nominally reduced by Congress from 25 per cent to 15 per
although under a strictly narrow legal interpretation of the wording of the
Tariff Act, backed by a report from a customs agent which was biased,
incomplete, and inaccurate, there is perhaps warrant for the ruling which was
put into effect, it seems without doubt that common sense should govern the
matter, as was the case in 1903, rather than a merely technical, narrow, legal
ruling on the actual words used, the evident intention of Congress having been
to reduce the duty, whereas the ruling of the Customs Court above referred to
actually increases it, and the benevolent intention of Congress has been
frustrated by the bureaucratic methods of the Treasury.
this somewhat high-handed ruling was made there seemed little doubt that it
was a war measure, and I accordingly, while appearing by attorneys at the
hearing before the Customs Court, made little serious effort to influence or
combat the Customs Court's decision, especially as the increased duty, as is
always the case, could be handed over to our customers by the simple process
of raising the prices.
time, however, that we went back to the saner view of this matter that
prevailed for fifteen years, between the years 1903 and 1918, especially as
the increased duty received by the Treasury was not large, the sums involved
being tens of thousands rather than millions of dollars, and no appreciable
increase of revenue resulted.
fact that these imported books, as I have already said, fail to sell as well
as formerly, largely on account of their increased prices, undoubtedly points
to the fact that students and others are doing without, as best they can,
books which are necessary to them in their daily work, and a relief from this
condition is certainly greatly to be desired.
BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE ORDER OF THE TEMPLE
have received advance notice of what will undoubtedly be a most valuable work
for students interested in the Order of Knights Templar, whether Masons or
otherwise. It is entitled Bibliographie de l'Ordre des Templiers. The author
is M. Dessubre, and there will be a preface by Albert Lantoine. It is being
published by the firm of Nourry, Paris. The edition is a limited one of five
hundred copies. If ordered beforehand the price is 40 francs. It contains
bibliographical details, not only of printed works, but also those in
manuscript that have never been published. It should be in every Masonic
books reviewed in these pages can be procured through the Book Department of
the N.M.R.S. at the prices given, which always include postage. These prices
are subject (as a matter of precaution) to change without notice; though
occasion for this will very seldom arise. Occasionally it may happen, where
books are privately printed, that there is no supply available, but some
indication of this will be given in the review. The Book Department is
equipped to procure any books in print on any subject, and will make inquiries
for second-hand works and books out of print,
BROTHERHOOD OF THE ROSY CROSS, being Records of the House of the Holy Spirit
in its inward and outward history. By Arthur Edward Waite. Published by
William Rider and Son. Illustrated, index, 649 pages. Price $9.20.
account of this work see the article by Bro. Milborne on page 78 of the
SECRET TRADITION IN ALCHEMY; ITS DEVELOPMENT AND RECORDS. By Arthur Edward
Waite. Published by Alfred A. Knopf. Cloth, Analytic Table of Contents,
Appendix, Index, xxii and 415 pages. Price $5.25.
EVERYONE knows that there were such people as alchemists, and that they sought
the philosopher's stone, or a sovereign elixir by which gold and silver might
be made from baser metals and life indefinitely prolonged; and it all seems a
fantastic mixture of gullibility and knavery that would be quite impossible in
our day and with the general diffusion of knowledge that characterizes our
culture. It is probable too that most people, even well read people, have a
hazy idea that alchemy was a product of seventeenth and eighteenth centuries
and was a kind of illegitimate by-product of the intellectual movements begun
in the Renaissance and liberated in the Reformation. It may come as something
of a shock to find out that its literature is almost as old as Christianity,
beginning apparently in the third and fourth centuries and continuing till it
was eclipsed by the rise of the modern science of chemistry.
and much other curious information of the same kind the reader may glean from
Bro. Waite's pages; but this is not what he has set out to tell us. The
present work is one in a series, the last in the series he tells us, and thus
can only be judged as a part of the whole - as another wrought stone added to
the edifice begun, now many years ago. Bro. Waite's preoccupation is with
mysticism, and in many previous books the list is a very long one - he has
investigated secret mystical traditions ranging from the Kabbalah to
Freemasonry. Wherever there was said to be an esoteric school, or any group or
organization composed of those who had known, or who were seeking, those
ineffable experiences that are the basis of mysticism, there has he diligently
labored with the endless patience of the scholar, and with the pen of a poet
he has written what he has found for those who can understand. He has sought
everywhere, even in the most unlikely places; in the fancies of modern magic,
and the mysteries and mystifications of occultism as well as in the works of
the mystics properly so-called.
follows therefore that only incidentally does he tell us of what alchemy was
and whence it came, and how it was transmitted from generation to generation
and from country to country. Yet, though only incidental to his purpose it
happens that it was necessary to treat it in considerable detail for the
purpose in view.
been said, that there was really no difference between chemistry and alchemy,
that the latter was but the chemistry of its day and merged into the modern
science in due time. The founders of our chemistry began as alchemists; men
such as Van Helmont and Boyle, for example, were in the transition stage,
starting from the traditional conceptions and working from them by truly
scientific methods. It may therefore well be asked, what has chemistry and its
forerunner to do with adventures of the spirit in heavenly things and visions
that may not be uttered? And here it may be said at once that, for the
author's main purpose the present work is in the main negative. It is in short
an examination and criticism of a claim that the true purpose of the
alchemists had nothing to do with physical things, but with an inner
transmutation of the soul; and that all the paraphernalia of processes and
vessels and furnaces were but a set of fantastic symbols and allegories. He
takes, first of all, two writers of the last Century as protagonists of this
mystical theory. Mrs. Atwood, who published A Suggestive Inquiry Into the
Hermetic Mystery in 1850, in England, and General E. A. Hitchcock who, seven
years later, gave to an unheeding public in America his Remarks on Alchemy and
the Alchemists, apparently in ignorance of Mrs. Atwood and her work. The
interpretation of alchemical literature suggested by these two writers is
first examined and criticized on its own grounds, and then the whole subject
is discussed, beginning with Egypt and the Byzantines, through Syria, and the
Arabians to Mediaeval and Modern Europe, to see how far the literature bears
out their hypothesis.
been intimated the result is mainly negative. It is demonstrated that from the
first the alchemists, with some exceptions at the last, were not seeking
spiritual regeneration in alchemy, but the secrets of the transmutions of
material substances, and especially of metals. They were, as Bro. Waite puts
educated seekers at the dawn of physical science, they tried all things that
came their way, and bought their experience hardly, without a band to guide.
Among martyrs of science, they may deserve to bear their palm. Unenlightened
and unequipped, they laid the foundation of a providential and life saving
then he adds that we may find also
. . .
. that their furnaces were erected occasionally "on a peak in Darien," and
that through the smoke of their coals and their chemicals they beheld
illimitable vistas, where the groaning totality of Nature advanced by degrees
to perfection. "A depth beyond the depth and a height beyond the height"
opened beneath and above them, and glimpses of glorious possibilities in all
the kingdoms overlighted their barbarous language and transfigured their
strange symbols, The explanation is not that they were spiritual masters . . .
But in those days a world of wonder opened wherever any quest began, because
it was ever pursued in a great unknown, the unmeasured Cosmos of Nature, where
never a plummet could sound the vast abysses and never a shaft of thought
penetrate the starry heights. The occasional greatness of alchemical
literature is accounted for in this manner, while at the same time its
intimations of spiritual realities are reduced within their proper limits.
quotation is a long one, but though from an early chapter in the book, it
gives very clearly a summing up of the result of the investigation in its main
question naturally arises bow it came about that a mystical interpretation of
alchemy could have arisen. That it was popularly supposed to be connected with
sorcery and witchcraft we can understand well enough; or that alchemists may
have dabbled in astrology and the Kabbalah seems quite natural. To the
ordinary intelligent reader these things all seem to be very much in the same
class - but this does not explain how the theory arose that it bad no concern
with metals, except the figurative gold of the heart. The answer seems to lie
in a curious impasse to thought created by the literature of the subject, from
the beginnings of it down to its conclusion. Excepting a mass of spurious
works made to sell in the latest period, and some other doubtful books, there
is, it appears, a prevailing note of sincerity running through it all. In
spite of himself a man's work bears the tokens of his honesty, or his lack of
it, for those who can see, and these tokens of honesty are here apparent. Yet
these books assert not only an unwavering belief in the possibility of
transmutation, but also its attainment. Now how can men go on, generation
after generation, honestly and sincerely asserting that to have happened which
is impossible? Fraud and gullibility are explanations that do not meet the
case at all on a critical examination. Thus the possibility that they were
speaking of something quite different from their ostensible subject of
discourse might seem to be the solution.
this general possibility is made more plausible by the fact, as appears in the
present work, that some of the later alchemists, and those who were
speculatively interested in the subject, did understand it mystically. Not,
however, exclusively so, but, so to speak, additionally so. Boehme and
Vaughan, one not a practiser of the art at all, and the other apparently only
a dilettante, took it in both senses, as being true on different planes
according to the old Hermetic maxim, "As above so below." The Rosicrucians,
and later, certain Masonic rites and degrees, seem to have sought both the
physical and the spiritual Stone at the same time; and (in the latter case at
least) do not seem quite to have known just which it was they wanted most. It
might be said in their defense that they supposed the key, when found, would
unlock all doors.
Another question may arise in the reader's mind, quite apart from the author's
purpose. Here we have presented to us a panorama of a persisting search down
through the ages by men of many nations and of all ranks and degrees. Not
fools, not blind dreamers and nothing more. Many of the most notable minds in
the history of our civilization are numbered among them. They experimented
persistently. At hazard doubtless, but even at hazard and on false principles
how was it they accomplished so little in the way of chemical discovery? These
alchemists were men of equal intelligence and gifts to our chemists and
physicists today, why then did they not do something, attain something in
their age long search? It is a puzzling problem and raises a suspicion, that
is borne out in other matters, that nothing can develop till the time be ripe.
But there may be a more direct cause too. For some reason, and it is one of
the mysteries of the subject, every alchemist who wrote on the subject felt be
was under an unevadable obligation to write in cryptic and symbolic language,
to say nothing plainly, perhaps to make it impossible for anyone to understand
who did not already know. And more than this, it seemed that none would tell
another seeker plainly of what he had himself discovered. Every man,
therefore, had to begin absolutely at the beginning and rediscover everything
for himself. When with Academies and Royal Societies men began to plainly
communicate what they had found to their fellows, progress began and continued
at an ever accelerating rate. Why did it take so long to learn that team work
was the only way to conquer Nature? The answer does not yet appear.
are a few typographical errors, all of an obvious kind, only one calls for
note, on page 286 "of" is put for "or." The others are chiefly the insertion
of letters that do not belong.
those students with a leaning towards the occult, this, and we may add, the
other works of Bro. Waite, should certainly be read. There are so many blind
leaders of the blind in this field. Bro. Waite combines with his other
qualifications an accurate and painstaking scholarship. The reader can be
assured that he will not be led astray by mis-quotations, by guesses in the
guise of facts, or enthusiasm running far in advance of knowledge. M.
* * *
MARYKNOLL MISSION LETTERS. China, Volume II. Published by the Macmillan Co.,
New York. Cloth, 402 pages. Price $3.10.
village of Ossining, New York, is the railroad station for two institutions of
a widely divergent character. The one is the state penitentiary at Sing Sing,
the other is the Roman Catholic mission house of Maryknoll, the headquarters
of an exclusively American society that trains missionaries for China and
Maryknoll society was organized in 1911 by a southern priest, the Rev. Thomas
Price, who, after having labored for over twenty-five years, in North
Carolina, decided at the age of sixty to devote the eve of his life to mission
work in China. He founded the society, went to China, and there succumbed to
the hardships of his calling. He is buried near Hongkong.
society grew and flourishes, spiritually if not temporally, and is sending
band after band of enthusiastic priests, brothers and nuns to the Celestial
empire and the Hermit Kingdom where they have established numerous missionary
centers. These pioneers of Christian civilization send occasional reports to
the headquarters in Maryknoll. From these communications The Maryknoll Mission
Letters have been extracted and arranged, the first volume of which appeared
in 1923, the second in 1927.
letters unveil to us an interesting picture of present day conditions in
China. They are written in a happy vein. Genuine undiluted American optimism
and humor ooze from every page. They are far from being sad reading. When the
missionary Father strikes good pot luck, a well cooked chicken or goose, and
fairly comfortable sleeping quarters, he enjoys these rare treats and says so.
When he has to go without his meal and night rest, or has to sleep on the
crowded deck of a dirty junk amid a jam of not over cleanly peasants with the
tail of a crated pig tickling his nose, he manages nevertheless to see
something funny in the situation. And a holdup by bandits or a forty mile hike
over muddy roads are not without their charm. There is no cloud for him
without its large silver lining.
are plenty of clouds, to be sure. The country is torn by a seemingly endless
civil war and is infested by bandits. The terms soldier and bandit are usually
interchangeable there. The looting and burning of villages and towns are not
uncommon occurrences. And there are the abominations of heathenism. To mention
but one: when the Chinese mother discovers that her new born babe is a girl,
or a crippled boy, she will just as likely as not throw it into the alley to
leave it perish.
missionary rectifies things as best be can, to the full extent of his very
limited resources - probably nowhere in the world will a dollar stop more
misery than in China - and where he cannot help for lack of men and money, he
simply resigns himself to the inevitable with as much equanimity as possible.
He has to keep up, and be evidently succeeds in keeping up, his optimism and
his sense of humor. This mental attitude is as necessary for him as is his
daily bread amid those uncongenial, squalid, depressing surroundings. It
braces him up. The game is young, he says. As our schools and free
dispensaries, our orphanages and other charitable institutions increase and
multiply, our facilities to accomplish good also expand.
Maryknoll Letters are entertaining, cheering, instructive and exceedingly
edifying. In this age of flapperism and of jazz, of selfishness and of crime
waves, of fascism, bolshevism and all sorts of dangerous experimentalisms,
they are refreshing and inspiring. Some of the Letters betray a remarkable
felicity at diction and power of description. The reader feels himself almost
an eye-witness to the scene. We express the hope that the book will have a
very large circulation, that the admirable zeal and enthusiasm of the brave
missionaries will never abate and that the good Lord will bless their work and
make it prosper most abundantly.
* * *
MOB. By Vicente Blasco Ibanez. Published by E. P. Dutton and Company, New
York, 1927. Cloth, 395 pages. Price $2.50.
victory of mind over reverse circumstances is the theme of this book. It deals
with the lives of a peculiar group, we may almost say race of people known as
the "rag-pickers" who live on the outskirts of Madrid, in the Cuarto Caminos.
From these people is derived the name of the book, "The Mob." They were a
poverty stricken, famished horde, gathered at the feet of Spain's capital who
feed upon the city's refuse and filth.
one of the members of this group to develop the main theme of the story, the
author proceeds to make of the book something more than a novel. He makes of
it a kind of sociological discussion of the conditions in Spain showing the
unfairness of class distinction. Isidro Maltrana, the character with whom we
are interested by the varied circumstances of his life, has had the fortune,
or misfortune, whichever way one cares to judge after reading the book, to
have gained an education vastly superior to his companions in the Cuatro
Caminos. He must have inherited his capacity for learning from his father who
was not a rag-picker but followed the honest profession of a brick-layer. But
the shiftless part of his nature he inherited from his mother's side. His
mother dies early in the story but there is Mariposa, his grandmother, who
gladly takes it upon herself to look after "the wise man," as Isidro is
called. This dirty old woman lives like a pig in a hut which she shares with
her two horses. But we are not so much concerned with her as we are with
Isidro. In the beginning his actions seem to be losing efficaciousness, his
life seems to be surrounded with confusion, and he is striving for a clue to
some sound order and authority.
Throughout the book this character holds our pity. There is little for him to
do; his unmethodical and eager studies have annulled his will. He had spent
his life finding out what thousands of beings thought throughout the
centuries, and when the contingencies of life called for action, he was
weaponless, with no strength to keep on going. He contributed spasmodically to
a newspaper in the city. But the members of the staff accused him of
"possessing the poison tree of knowledge." They gave him a free hand to write
whatever came into his head, but when he published three articles on Ruskin
and an article on beauty, Nietzsche and imperialism, and the harmonies and
discordances between socialism and the doctrines of Darwin and Haeckle, they
could not restrain themselves any longer. Months afterwards in the editorial
rooms they still laughed about those columns.
always thus with the unfortunate Isidro, his mind was above his surroundings
but he lacked the necessary means to place himself in the proper environment.
He was from the first an ardent lover of Hellenism; he wanted to see things in
their charm; he wanted to invest human life with a kind of aerial ease,
clearness and radiancy. He wanted to make it full of what Ruskin would call
sweetness and light. With this end in view he persuaded the beautiful Feli,
daughter of the ferocious trapper, or poacher, Mosco, to run away with him to
live as man and wife in El Rastro. For a while the couple live in the shabby
apartment of a religious fanatic, Brother Vicente, and are very happy. Isidro
writes a book for which he receives an amount of money large enough to appease
their wants for a while. But with the knowledge that he is to become a father
there comes a sudden drop in his exuberant love of life. He felt that the
leaded cloak of the years had fallen on his shoulders and he saw the poverty
in which he lived in a blacker and sadder light.
couple found existence harder and more difficult every day. The weariness of
poverty paralyzed their activity and to add to their discomfiture Brother
Vicente learned of their illegal relationship and asked them to leave his
house. Black despair followed. They became just another two of the "mob,"
seeking only a roof and enough food to keep them from starvation. They moved
to Cambroneros, a section of the city inhabited by gypsies. In this
heterogeneous population the gypsies formed a world by themselves, an
independent society within the miserable horde camping around Madrid.
interesting to note here the author's knowledge of gypsy life. It is one of
the most interesting chapters in the book, showing the quaint customs and
traditions that surround this nomad race. Ibanez shows them to be a people of
fiery imagination who live by continual lying and stealing. But these people
are kind-hearted and prove very friendly to the poor couple.
details of the story from here on are depressing and the action moves very
slowly. Isidro proved unable to cope with the reverses of fortune and finally
sent Feli to the community hospital. He then spent his days wandering about
the streets of Madrid seeking work. He was afraid to go to the hospital and
inquire whether or not he had become a father because Feli had asked him to
bring her flowers and he could not aff ord to buy them. "Poor mutilated fly!"
They had pulled off the wings with which he was born and an evil fate amused
itself by pushing him along and shouting: "fly!" He finally went to the
hospital however and found that he was the father of an ugly little boy,
greatly resembling himself. Feli died a few days later.
this event that rejuvenated Isidro's soul and here is where the theme, the
victory of mind over reverse circumstances, manifests itself. From the steps
of his grandmother's dirty little hut, where he had taken his son to be cared
for, be spent long hours in contemplation. Looking down on the capital it
seemed to him "domineering and triumphant, crushing its surroundings with the
aid of its greatness. It could not see the famished mob gathered at its feet.
It was beautiful and ruthless." Isidro mentally examined that avalanche of
misery and from his contemplations he reached the conclusion that what the mob
needed was leaders. He decided that "if the serfs of poverty like himself,
instead of cowardly lowering themselves to the mighty, offered in their
service what they had learned, endeavored to organize the horde," that
conditions would change.
was not only this awakening to facts that changed Isidro's life, it was his
love for his son. This iron love made of him another man. He decided to
succeed so that his son could march on without getting dirty. Thus the mind is
victorious. So ends the book leaving the reader much food for thought and
contemplation. In portraying these sordid conditions Ibanez has focused his
lens so that no detail is left blurred. It is a good story, not quite so
powerful, perhaps, as The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, but certainly fully
* * *
SCHRIFTSTELLER DER EINSTIGE GENERAL DER INFANTERIE ERICH LUDENDORFF ALS
"WAHRHEITSSUCHER" IM LICHTE DER DEUTSCHEN PRESSE VERSCHIEDENSTER RICHTUNG.
EINE KLEINE BLUETENLESE. Compiled by Ernst Paul Kretschmer. Published by Adolf
Forker, Leipsig. Paper, 96 pages. Price one mark.
a somewhat lengthy title for a booklet of 96 pages and it means "The writer,
the former Infantry General Erich Ludendorff as 'Seeker after Truth' in the
light of the German press of the most divergent political creeds. A little
anthology arranged by Ernst Paul Kretschmer of Gera." It is, as the title
indicates, a selection of utterances of the German press concerning General
Ludendorff's booklet of 82 pages against Freemasonry. Said booklet is
entitled, Vernichtung der Freimaurerei durch Enthuellung ihrer Geheimnisse,
that is, "Annihilation of Freemasonry through the revelation of its secrets."
It appeared in Munich in August, 1927. Ludendorff himself is the publisher, a
Munich bookseller acting as distributor. Within three weeks 27,000 copies were
disposed of, by November 50,000 copies; in November an additional edition of
25,000 copies was in print.
long list of absurd charges Ludeneorff raises against Masonry we select a few:
"Masonry brings its members into conscious subjection to the Jews . . . It
trains them to become venal Jews . . . The higher-ups in German Masonry are
forever lost to the Fatherland . . . German Masonry is a branch of organized
international Masonry the headquarters of which are in New York. There also is
the seat of Jewish world power."
According to him, America's entry into the World War was brought about by the
Jesuits, the Jewish society of the Benai Berith and the Masonic Grand Lodge of
New York. These three bodies conspired together to ruin Germany and Austria
Hungary. Yes, yes, the Jesuits entered into an unholy alliance with Jews and
Freemasons to destroy Austria Hungary, the only extant Catholic world power!
It was due to the intrigues of these three accursed organizations that the
Central Empires lost the war. Kaiser Wilhelm and the Czar Nicholas both lost
the throne, Ludendorff avers, because they were not Masons.
Odd Fellows he recognizes an organization made up of Jewish Freemasons.
end of the war a certain Dr. Wichtl, of Vienna, published a book with similar
charges against Freemasonry. Ludendorff refers to Wichtl's book as a Masonic
publication! No wonder the socialistic Volkszeitung of Bremen comments:
"Revelation" betrays an ignorance in matters of history that borders on the
fabulous. And such a mixture of ignorance and credulity comes from Ludendorff,
a man who for several years was all powerful in Germany! A horrible
disclosure, showing what imbecility sometimes rules the world!
former Quartermaster-General of the German armies does not fail to call
attention to the heinous oaths through which Masonry imposes silence and
obedience on its members. If a Mason is caught divulging one of the secrets of
the Order his tongue and his entrails are torn out!
cannot help pitying the German papers that, owing to Ludendorff's prominence,
are forced to comment on these absurdities and to refute them. In reply to his
accusation that the German Masons are hirelings of the Jews they point to the
fact that more than two-thirds of German Masonry belong to the Grand Lodge of
Prussia to which only Christians are admitted. They cite the names of
distinguished Germans who were members of the secret craft: King Frederick the
Great of Prussia, Emperor William I, Emperor Frederick II, Grand Admiral von
Tirpitz; famous writers like Goethe, Lessing, Wieland, Herder, Rueekert,
Kleist; heroes of the wars of liberation (from Napoleon) like Bluecher, Stein,
Gneisenau, Scharnhorst and others. They were all blind, ignorant tools of a
nefarious Jewish sect! As are also, in Ludendorff's opinion, Premier Briand,
Herr Stresemann, President Coolidge and other noted contemporaries.
not probable that of the 80,000 Masons in Germany a single one lost a moment's
sleep over the threatened annihilation of the Order. Ludendorff has given them
a welcome opportunity to vindicate the Craft before the German public and to
remove many an inveterate prejudice. Nor have they omitted to mention that
thousands of them served under him during the war and risked their lives at
the front while he, the Quartermaster-General, directed the movements of the
armies at a safe distance from the front. They feel it keenly that this same
man should now defame and vilify them as disloyalists and traitors to their
thus a proud, tall cedar of the Lebanon has fallen. The former
Quartermaster-General, one of the most brilliant military leaders and
organizers in all history, has stooped to become a defamer of a well-deserved
class of his fellow citizens.
how does Hindenburg, the idol of the German people, stand in regard to
Masonry? On July 14, 1926, he granted an audience to representatives of the
Old Prussian lodges. He expressed his pleasure in receiving the assurances of
their loyalty. He added that there was a Masonic tradition in his own family,
his two grandfathers, both of them veterans of the wars of liberation (from
Napoleon) having been Freemasons.
* * *
EGYPTIAN STUDIES. By Isobel Holbrook. Privately printed.
pamphlet is, according to the author, largely based on two books by W. Marsham
Adams. The House of the Hidden Places, and The Book of the Master, published
nearly thirty years ago and both very difficult to obtain. These works dealt
with the Great Pyramid and the "Book of the Dead."
needless to say that the title "Book of the Dead" is one used by Egyptologists
for their own convenience, to denote a tremendous collection of funerary texts
found carved on the walls of Royal Tombs, painted on coffins and written on
papyrus. In very few cases was the whole used, there were four versions each
with many variants. These consisted of so-called chapters, each of which is
really an incantation, and these might come in any order. The collection as a
whole is very ancient, and some of its parts were ancient when the collection
was first put together. So much for the opinion -of those whose training and
work gives them the best possible right to be heard.
Holbrook's pamphlet treats these texts as a ritual of initiation, and the
Pyramid as a temple for the ceremony. Like so many other works of this class
there is an imaginative and spiritual value aside from anything historical.
The attempt to explain part of the funeral texts by referring them to the
chambers and passages of the Pyramid is very ingenious, and the lessons
inculcated are above reproach. Some Masons, more especially Scottish Rite
Masons, may find this version of the ageless essentials of initiation of
interest, and some things might be used as illustrations of Masonic teaching.
But it is only right to insist that there is no probability at all that the
Pyramid was a temple of initiation. What the component parts of the funerary
texts were is impossible to say. They may in the dim prehistoric past have had
some connection with initiatory rites, perhaps parts of them were used in such
rites at a later period, as passages of Scripture are with us, but that as
they stand, they compose a connected ritual is quite untenable, and there is
no doubt whatever that in historic times their value was purely magical, they
ensured a blessed hereafter to the deceased.
* * *
AND PERSONALITY. By William Brawn. Published by G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York.
Cloth, Table of Contents, Index, 330 pages. Price $3.75.
attempt to obtain a synoptic view of personality, as considered from the
standpoints of the various sciences. It is in the nature of an interim report
on the subject, since the material furnished by psycho-pathology continues to
flow in an abundant stream, and the working out of its philosophic
implications is a task that cannot be hurried. Enough is now known to warrant
the drawing of provisional and tentative generalizations.
* * *
MAKING OF A STATE. By T. G. Masaryk. Published by Frederick A. Stokes Co., New
York. Cloth, Frontispiece, Table of Contents, Index, 453 pages. Price $6.35.
discerning historical interpretation both of the process of Czecho-Slovak
redemption from Hapsburg servitude, and of the war as a whole. Wider in range
than any "war book" yet written, it is a comprehensive examination of the
philosophy of national, international and social life by a
philosopher-statesman whose principles experience has vindicated. It deserves
not only to be read, but to be studied throughout the English speaking world.
* * *
CHRISTIANITY. By Charles Guignebert. Published by the Macmillan Company, New
York. Cloth, Table of Contents, 507 pages. Price $4.75.
main lines of thought in this book may be best understood by remembering that
it is an endeavor to describe and account for the formation, successive
modifications and final destruction not only of dogmatic assertions of
religions in general, but of one particular religion, studied as a concrete
reality. It is above all with facts, their significance, consequences and
connections that it deals. It is history and tries to delineate the main
outline of Christianity so as to show that a religion not only in its dogmas,
but also throughout the ramifications of its whole organism, undergoes the
process of evolution.
* * *
SYMBOLISM, ITS MEANING AND EFFECT. By Alfred North Whitehead. Published by The
Macmillan Company, New York. Cloth, Table of Contents, 88 pages. Price $1.65.
author defines symbolism thus: "the human mind is functioning symbolically
when some components of its experience elicit consciousness, beliefs, emotions
and usages, respecting other components of its experience." His thesis is
"that symbolism is an essential factor in the way we function as a result of
our direct knowledge."
* * *
TRAVAIL OF THE SOUL. By Katherine Tingley. Published by the Woman's
International Theosophical League, Point Loma, California. Cloth,
Frontispiece, Table of Contents, 291 pages. Price $2.15.
theosophical textbook which can be highly recommended to those interested in
* * *
TO MAN. By Conde B. Pullen. Published by the Macmillan Company, New York.
Cloth, Table of Contents, 302 pages. Price $2.65.
book constitutes a series of definitions of the dogmas and principles of the
Roman Catholic Church explained in a discursive manner by the editor of the
May, 1927, issue of THE BUILDER a question was submitted by C. B. R., of
California, relative to the symbolism of the Wardens' Columns.
reply it is held that outside of the position of the columns in "calling off
and on," there is no symbolism attached thereto.
Inasmuch as the lodge is said to be governed by the Master and Wardens acting
together, may it not be said that the columns are symbols of their authority
in the same manner that the "fasces" were the badge of the authority of the
Roman magistrates, or the sceptre, the ceremonial emblem of authority borne by
a sovereign, sometimes referred to as the "royal mace"?
columns are generally alluded to as the Wardens' Columns, but are they not
generally furnished in sets of three, one being for the Master? How does this
third column fit into the scheme? Should it be raised on the Master's pedestal
at the opening of the lodge and remain upright until the lodge is closed, or
should it be lowered during the second section of the Third Degree ?
T., Manila, P. I.
must confess to being uninformed as to the "Warden's Columns" being sometimes
furnished in sets of three, but would feel that if this be the case it could
be quite confidently asserted it was an innovation brought in by manufacturers
of lodge furniture and has neither antiquity nor any authority behind it. If
it has anywhere been introduced (and we suppose it has by implication from
what Bro. A. E. T. says) it is still, fortunately, very far from common.
is no doubt that the two columns represent first the two pillars of the porch
of K. S. T. and second, that they mark the stations of the Wardens, and in a
sense the office of Warden itself, as the gavel may be said to represent that
of the Master. It does not work out perfectly, for the Wardens have gavels or
mallets too. But in processions the Master carries his gavel, while the
Wardens carry their columns only.
only excuse for giving the Master a column (against the consensus of ancient
usage) would be to make the three refer to the principal supports of the
lodge, referred to in the lecture of the First Degree, the pillars of Wisdom,
Strength and Beauty.
* * *
been informed that in the United States the installation of the officers of a
lodge are frequently conducted in a public way, with ladies and others
present, who are not Masons. I should like to know if this is true, for it
seems very extraordinary. How can the Master of a lodge be installed except in
a lodge, and if it is in a lodge, how can those not Masons be present ?
question opens up several points on which it must be confessed we have not at
hand much definite information. In the first place it is an undoubted fact
that, in some jurisdictions at least (we do not know how many), public
installations are permitted. Their permissibility is based on the fact
(alleged) that there is nothing secret in the installation ceremonies. In a
sense this is largely true, practically the whole of these ceremonies are
openly printed in Monitors and Codes, with the exception only of the modes of
salutation, and so on, which are only alluded to. On the other hand, it might
be argued that on the same grounds a candidate might be given the charge in
public, as that too is printed at length in the same manuals.
However, there is a certain respectable precedent. Dedication and installation
are somewhat analogous in character, and when Freemason's hall was dedicated
in London in 1776 ladies were present, and other non-Masons too apparently.
However, in this case the Grand Lodge was opened in another and closely tiled
room, and entered the hall in procession. Later the ladies withdrew and the
hall was tiled while certain ceremonies (which nevertheless were quite fully
described in printed accounts) were performed. These done, the ladies were
re-introduced, and at the end of the proceedings the Grand Lodge retired in
procession and was closed in form in the place where it was opened. It would
seem that only in some such way can the public installation of officers be
carried out. Still, in the United States there has been a distinct tendency to
degradation in these ceremonies, the distinctively Masonic and secret part has
been progressively curtailed and forgotten, in some states at least, until at
last the idea has arisen that there is nothing secret in it at all. The
funeral ceremonies have also suffered from a parallel degradation to an even
greater extent. We hope when occasion serves to be able to obtain more
definite information upon this very interesting subject.
* * *
GRAND LODGE OF SWEDEN
the greatest interest I have read your editorial in the last copy of THE
BUILDER in relation to Recognition and I agree with you that the question
ought to be taken up by the different Grand Lodges and that undoubtedly for
practical reasons it should be advisable that the American Grand Lodges make
the first step to attain a general international understanding in relation to
it. The absurdity of the present condition is evident and undoubtedly not in
accordance with the idea, underlying Masonry, of an universal brotherhood.
illustration of the correctness of your editorial I will relate an incident of
which in the latter days I have got knowledge but although I am not committed
to any secrecy as far as the incident regards I omit the names.
short time ago a young Danish Mason addressed himself to the officers of a
Masonic lodge in California handing them a letter from the Worshipful Master
of a Danish Masonic lodge in which the California lodge was asked to do the
Danish lodge the favor to confer upon the young Danish Mason the Second
Degree, as be had had to leave Denmark before, according to the rules, it had
been allowed to do it.
letter from the Worshipful Master was backed by a letter from the Secretary of
the Danish Grand National Lodge, of which according to the letter King
Christian X is Grand Master, certifying that said Danish lodge was a lodge of
good standing under the Grand Lodge, working according to the Swedish Rite,
and asking the California lodge brotherly to comply with the request of the
course I can not relate what decision the Grand Lodge of California is going
to take-personally I don't think that it can comply with the request on
account of certain differences in the rites, which undoubtedly the Worshipful
Master has overlooked - and in reality this is irrelevant as the point is,
that a Danish Grand Lodge, working according to the Swedish Rite, recognizes
an American lodge while the Swedish Grand Lodge, working according to the same
Rite does not recognize another American lodge of the same good standing. This
needs no commentars.
letter, by a Swedish Mason, now a citizen of the United States, throws some
further light upon this confused question. The following is part of a letter
from a Danish correspondent, who seems to have a different view of the general
state of affairs. We believe a return to true Masonic doctrine in this matter,
that fraternal relations exist till formally broken off, would remove at least
some of the perplexing inconsistencies that surround the subject.
believe I can explain why many American brothers are refused as visitors iii
lodges of Swedish Rite. I have, long before the war, seen an article, I don't
remember where, explaining that in the United States the Old Charges were
considered a landmark, and that many Grand Lodges had taken notice of the fact
that the Swedish Rite declined to acknowledge this landmark. In consequence, a
considerable number of American Grand Lodges had black listed the Swedish
Grand Lodges, thus refusing their members as visitors. I saw a list of the
relations of the American Grand Lodges and, as far as I remember, more than
half of them did not recognize the Swedish Rite. Of course, the Swedish Rite,
in return, does not recognize them. The American Grand Lodges were quite right
in acting so, for the Swedish Rite has nothing in common with the Anglo-Saxon
lodges but the name Freemasonry. Their doctrines and principles are in most
respects quite opposite. They have, therefore, always endeavored to conceal
their deviations, and striven to maintain their connection with the English
Grand Lodge which, to a small Continental Obedience, is the door opening out
to the wide world. By means of interrelationships of Royalties the English
Grand Lodge has hitherto been prevented from examining the question of whether
the Swedish Rite should be placed inside or outside of Freemasonry.
* * *
interested in the question submitted by Bro. J. M. Lowndes, of Wyoming, in the
December number of THE BUILDER for 1926, in regard to the proper way to place
the "lesser lights."
taking up the question of placing, I desire to call attention to the fact that
there seems to be a difference of opinion on the part of the different
jurisdictions as to what the lesser lights really are. In some jurisdictions
the lesser lights are said to be the sun, moon, and the W. M., of which the
lights ("lights" meaning the candles or electric light bulbs attached to the
stands) are the "representatives," while in others attention is directed to
these actual "lights" with the statement that they are the lesser lights and
represent the sun, moon, and W. M. The latter expression may be intended to
mean the same as the former, but it certainly does not convey the same meaning
as it is stated.
first three paragraphs of your answer to Bro. Lowndes' question are clear, at
least I believe that I have interpreted them correctly in the diagrams
submitted herewith, numbered 1 to 5. Diagrams Nos. 1, 2 and 3 depict the three
ways described in the second paragraph of your answer. Diagram No. 4 is the
radical departure to which the third paragraph of your answer is devoted.
last two paragraphs of the answer were no doubt perfectly clear to Bro.
Lowndes, but as neither his question, as stated, nor the answer give the
Wyoming practice, nor am I familiar with either the Wyoming or the Oklahoma
practice, it is not clear to me how the lights were shown on the "old French
Paragraph 4 of your answer states that the lights are placed in the N. E., S.
E. and S. W. corners and that this arrangement applies equally to Wyoming,
Oklahoma and the old French charts. The "corners," however, are not clearly
located. My diagram No. 5 is based on the supposition that the lights are
grouped around the, altar. Is this correct, or do your "corners" refer to the
have described five different groupings. There is yet. another way of grouping
which I have shown in diagram No. 6. The lights are grouped about the altar,
one light in the N. E. corner, another in the N. W., and the third in the S.
W. corner. The corners refer to the altar itself. This manner of placing the
lights is the practice in the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of the
Philippine Islands which follows very closely the ritualistic procedure of the
Grand Lodge of California. This arrangement of the lights, I have been led to
believe, is common to a majority of the Grand Lodges in the United States. Is
that a fact?
many of the groupings depicted are now in use in the United States ?
T., Manila, P. I.
impossible to reproduce the diagrams sent by Bro. A.E.T., but we believe
anyone can reconstruct them from the description referred to. One careless
error crept into the reply to Bro. Lowndes in regard to the usage Bro. A.E.T.
refers to as No. 4. Instead of "northeast" it should have been "southeast
quarter" of the lodge room, i. e., southeast from the Altar. The question was
dealt with very fully by Bro. Atchinson in THE BUILDER for September, 1918,
who gave eleven different arrangements actually in use in the United States, a
fact that had escaped our attention.
should have been made clearer too that the old French Charts and plates do not
show the same arrangement, nor is any one of them really exactly the same as
the Wyoming method. This because in the eighteenth century the altar or
pedestal was in the East in front of the Worshipful Master, while the lodge
proper was held to be the diagram on the floor to the west of this pedestal.
The candles were placed at the corners of the diagram, sometimes two in the
west (S. W. and N. W.) and one in the East (sometimes S. E. and occasionally
N. E.) or again sometimes two in the East and one in the S. W. In
representations published in England during the same period the lights are
arranged in a triangle with its base somewhat north of the median line of the
diagram, and the apex in the South.
this as the original usage it is possible to see how the English and American
customs diverged. As the officer (and brethren) moved back from the diagram
the lights might be taken with them because they had always marked their
stations. Conversely they might be left in the middle of the room because that
was where they had always been. It would depend on which consideration seemed
most important. Then when the diagram got modified into a carpet or board or
chart, and the pedestal was moved away from the Master to the center of the
room and became the altar, the candles would be arrange about this last. The
one thing that was constant throughout was that the arrangement permitted the
interpretation that on light was toward the East, one to the South and one to
the West, without too obvious incongruity. The whole subject need thorough
investigation, and it is hoped that in the not to distant future the "Lights
of the Lodge" will be fully discussed in THE BUILDER.
* * *
EIGHTEENTH CENTURY WORK RECONSTRUCTED
your February issue you run an illustration of an eighteenth century lodge. It
may interest you to know that Science Lodge, No. 50, at Sandusky, Ohio, has
been doing this work in full costume for some ten years past. The work was
dramatized by the writer and has been given in a number of cities in Ohio and
enclosing one of our programs. It might interest your readers to know that we
have been doing this work for so many years. I believe Bro. Morcombe was the
first to do this work but I have never seen his play.
very pleased to publish the above letter. It shows that the possibilities of
reproducing in a dramatic way the usages of our predecessors have occurred
independently in more than one quarter, and should be proof of the
practicability of this way combining a most interesting entertainment with
instruction Bro. Merz sent with his letter a copy of a program, from which it
would appear that his reproduction of an 18th century lodge, When Temples Were
Inns, is very similar to that arranged by Bro. Milborne in Montreal. If any of
our readers know of other reconstructions put on in their lodges we should be
glad to have the particulars.
* * *
be permitted to point out an uncorrected misprint in my review of Albert
Lantoine's recent book in the February BUILDER, as it completely reverses what
I wished to say. I the next to the last paragraph on page 60 I wrote "The
Presbyterians have not been distinguished for a wide tolerance in the past; at
that period it would be more accurate to describe them as most intolerant." I
am made to say however that they were most tolerant."
Needless to say I do not wish to reflect in any way upon the Presbyterian
churches. Toleration at that time was regarded by all religions as a vice, not
as a virtue. It was a pandering to evil. The Calvinist standpoint is logically
as ex elusive as that of the Roman Church. Granted that either on is right it
follows that everyone else is wrong.
* * *
ORDER OF DE MOLAY
of our members are keenly interested in the Order of De Molay for boys. We
have been asked on behalf of the Grand Council to give publicity to its new
address. Order of De Molay, Frank S. Land, Grand Scribe, 201 East Armour
boulevard, Kansas City, Mo. Whereto all concerned give good heed.